任务型阅读考前训练 1 The modern Olympic Games were founded with the intention of improving health and education, promoting world peace and encouraging fair and equal competition. But over the years, t
he Olympic saying, “Faster, higher, stronger”, has pushed scientists as well as athletes to do everything possible to reach new levels. Doctors, engineers and coaches all use everything science can offer to achieve that little bit extra in competition. The reason modern technology has become part of sport is very simple: Winning is just as important as it was 2,500 years ago at the Olympics of ancient Greece. Development in technology has often been reflected in the methods of training and performance used at the Olympics through history. This technology falls into two main fields: improving an athlete?s performance in competition, and allowing results to be measured more accurately. One of the creations that have drawn the most attention is the new high-tech swimsuit from Speedo, which was used by most US swimmers in Athens. Until Sydney 2000, it was thought that the smaller the swimsuit, the faster the swimmer would travel. “However, the fact that at the Sydney Olympics, 28 of the 33 gold medalists were wearing the body covering Fastskin suit proved the theory was out of date,” said Andy Thomas, vice-president of Speedo. The company?s full body suit is supposed to make swimmers 3 to 4 percent faster, particularly when turning or diving into the water. It is believed that the suit creates less water resistance as it moves, behaving more like a shark skin than a human skin. The introduction of high-tech equipment means that athletes in all sports, from the 100-metre sprint（短 跑）to the pole vault（撑杆跳高）, can now train more effectively and nourish（给…以营养）their bodies better. Meanwhile, scientific development also means performances can be measured and studied far more accurately. Not only are winning times more accurately recorded, but cheating athletes are also easier to catch out. According to International Olympic Committee（IOC）requirements, two independent measuring systems should be used at all venues（比赛地点）. Athens 2004 organizers used only the very latest equipment to measure distance and speed.
Modern technology used in the Olympics Winning is the most (77) ________thing. High—tech swimsuit from Speedocan make swimmers faster and was（80）________ by 28 of the 33 gold medal（81）________at the Sydney Olympics
The （ 78 ） ________ in which the technology is used
Science can （ 79 ） ______ athletes? performance. Athletes in all sports can train in a more effective （82）________ Winning times can be（84）________more accurately.
Science can get results (83)_______more accurately.
Cheating athletes can be（85）________ caught out.
任务型阅读考前训练 2 Almost every career requires such skills as listening, speaking, reading, writing, decision making, researching, reasoning, creativity, persuasion, leadership, interpersonal communication, and organization. In addition, a number of characteristics that may be important for specific jobs: achievement, aggressiveness, ambition, dependability, discipline, honesty, initiative, motivation, people orientation, persistence, responsibility, self-confidence, self-starting , sensitivity, sincerity, tenacity , and tough-mindedness. The way you acquire these skills and behaviors is , to a great extent, up to you. Without them , no matter how bright and knowledgeable you may be, landing a top job is of extreme difficulty, if not impossible. The most likely way to obtain these skills and behaviors is through courses, reading, internships, parttime or full time employment, extracurricular activities, and participation in community functions. Knowing what an employer is looking for in a potential employed can help an applicant to prepare for an interview. An interview for a major corporation was asked these questions: What specific skills are you looking for in applicants? And how do you identify these skills? He responded: Most important for us in eh way of skills is the ability to communicate--- can people speak clearly? Can they articulate the kind of person they believe themselves to be? In what kind of work situations do they perform well? What are their strengths and weaknesses? We want to know about the personal qualities of the individual, so I try to ask questions to draw them out and attempt to find out if they have a sense of themselves. What I?m looking for is an ability to verbalize an idea in clear, simple , understandable language. I?m also looking for the ability to listen attentively and then to be able to respond to an idea or thought that has been presented to them. If they do have good communication skills, they will be able to do this logically and succinctly. I am looking for creativity --- can they be spontaneous? I will ask some “off-the-wall” questions just to see if this throws them. How do they respond in these tough situations---can they be creative with their answers? This is very important when they are out in business situations with customers. They will have to respond to very sudden changes and problem-solving situations that they are not necessarily familiar with, and I want to know if they can handle them. What we look for the most are personal qualities---assertiveness, self-motivation, drive, ambition, and a competitive instinct. They should be high achievers and want work hard. I can usually tell about these qualities from the way the person presents himself or herself and some of the activities they have engaged in. I pick up things from the applications and resume---how they have written them and the kinds of things they say. How they present their experiences is often very informative. For example, an assertive person will say, “I can do these things” and “ I decided on this course of action,” whereas a more passive person might say, “These are the experiences I have had .” All of these things describe the person in some way. Qualities Employers Seek 71. ________skills Knowing what an employee can help an applicant to make good 74. ________ for an interview. Listening, speaking , Without them, 72. The ability to 75. ________ reading, writing, ________ bright and communicate decision making, knowledgeable you Speak clearly Be spontaneous researching… may be, landing a top 76. ________ the knid Be 78. ________ with job is extremely 73. of person they believe their answers ________. themselves to be 79. ________ to very 77. ________ kind of sudden changes and situations problem-solving situations What we look for the most are 80. ________ qualities-assertiveness, self-motivation, drive, ambition…
任务型阅读考前训练 3 At the beginning of the twentieth century, many people thought that the American family was falling apart. A century later, we know that this was not the case. However, although the family is still alive in the United States, its size and shape were very different 100 years ago. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, there were mainly two types of families in the United States: the extended and the nuclear. The extended family usually includes grandparents, parents, and children living under the same roof. The nuclear family consists of only parents and children. Today there are many different kinds of families. Some people live in “traditional” families, that is, a stay-home mother, a working father, and their own biological children. Others live in two-paycheck families, single-parent families, adoptive or foster, families, blended families (where men and women who were married before marry again and combine the children from previous marriages into the new families), child less families, and so on. What caused the structure of the family to change? In the 1930s and 1940s, many families faced serious financial, or money problems during the Great Depression and women were choosing to go to college and take jobs outside the home. As a result, the birthrate began to fall and the divorce rate began to rise. During World War II (1939-1945)，5 million women were left alone to take care of their homes and their children. Because many men were at war, thousands of these "war widows" had to go to work outside their home. During the next ten years, the situation changed. There were fewer divorces, and people married at a younger age and had more children than the previous generation. It was unusual for a mother to work outside the home during the years when her children were growing up. Families began leaving cities and moving into single-family homes in the suburbs. The traditional family seemed to be returning. In the years between 1960s and 1990s, there were many important changes in the structure of the family. From the 1960s to the early 1970s, the divorce rate doubled and the birthrate fell by half. The number of single-parent families tripled, and the number of couples living together without being married doubled again. In fact, the single-parent household, once unusual, has replaced the "traditional" family as the typical family in the States. If we can judge from history, however, this will probably change again in the twenty-first century. Main comparisons Different 71 In the 1930s and 1940s Changes different 75 . in In the 1950s In the years between 1960s and 1990s The Changes of the American Family Contexts There were two 72 types of families in the past, 73 , the extended and the nuclear. Nowadays 74 types of families can be seen than before. Many of the women had to work outside due to the 76 of money, thus causing the fall of 77 and the rise of divorce rate. Divorce rate slid and there were more children. The families tended to be 78 again. Different types of families typical ones in America. A trend worth noting Author?s opinion The present structure is 80 ---it will experience changes again in the near future. 79 . Traditional families are no longer the
任务型阅读考前训练 4 The word science is heard so often in modern times that almost everybody has an idea of its meaning. However, its definition is difficult for many people. The meaning of the term is confusing, but everyone should understand its meaning and objectives (目标). Just to make the explanation as simple as possible, suppose science is defined as classified knowledge or facts. Even in the true science, distinguishing fact from fiction is not always easy. For this reason great care should be taken to distinguish between beliefs and truths. There is no danger as long as a clear difference is made between temporary and proved explanations. For example, hypotheses(假设) and theories are attempts to explain natural phenomena. From these positions the scientist continues to experiment and observe until they are proved or discredited. The exact status of any explanation should be clearly labeled to avoid confusion. The objectives of science are primarily the discovery and later the understanding of the unknown. Man cannot be satisfied with recognizing that secrets exist in nature of that questions are unanswerable; he must solve them. Toward that end, specialists in the field of biology and related fields of interest are directing much of their time and energy. Actually, two basic approaches lead to the discovery of new information. One, aimed at satisfying curiosity, is referred to as pure science. Sometimes practical-minded people miss the point of pure science in thinking only of its immediate application for economic rewards. However, one should remember that the construction of the microscope had to come before the discovery of the cell. The host of scientists devoting their lives to pure science are not apologetic about ignoring the practical side of their discoveries; they know from experience that most knowledge is eventually applied. The other is aimed at using knowledge for specific purposes--for instance, improving health, raising standards of living, or creating new consumer products. In this case knowledge is put to economic use. Such an approach is referred to as applied science. The (71) of science call it classified knowledge or ● To define science, we may (73) facts. (72) ___________ of science ● It is essential, though not (74) , for us to distinguish fact from fiction. Science is (75) ______ at discovering and understanding the unknown. Objectives of science Scientists, who may be blamed for (77) ______ the practical side of their work, make discoveries out of (78)_______ . Knowledge is put to economic (80) , for example, improving health, raising living standards and creating new products.
Two basic (76) ___________to new discovery
Pure science (79) _________ science
任务型阅读考前训练 5 I remember little of the journey which started so early in the morning. I only know that the day seemed extremely long, and that we appeared to travel over hundreds of miles. Calmed by the sound of the coach wheels, I fell asleep. But I had not slept long when the coach stopped, the door was opened, and I saw a servant standing there. “Is there a little girl called Jane Eyre here?” she asked. I answered “Yes,” and was then lifted out. My trunk handed down, the coach instantly drove away. I looked about me. I could see a house with many windows. There were lights burning in some of them. We went up a wide pebbly path, splashing wet, and were admitted at a door. Then the servant led me through a passage into a room where she left me. I stood and warmed my frozen fingers at the fire and looked around. There was no candle, but the light for the fire showed papered walls, a carpet, curtains and gleaming furniture. Then the door opened, and a tall lady with dark hair, dark eyes entered followed by another who looked younger. “The child is very young to be sent alone,” said she, putting her candle down on the table. She looked at me for a minute or two and then added, “She had better go to bed soon; she looks tired.” Led by the younger lady, Miss Miller, through passage after passage, we came, at last to a long, wide room filled with the hum of many voices. There were many tables, and seated all round on benches were a large number of girls aged from nine to twenty. Seen in the dim light of the candles, their number appeared above eighty. Each was dressed in a brown old fashioned dress of cheap material. It was their hour of study. Miss Miller signed to me to sit on a bench near the door, then walking up to the top of the long room she cried out “Monitors, collect the lesson-books and put them away!” Four tall girls arose and went round, gathered the books and removed them. Miss Miller again ordered, “Monitors, fetch the supper-trays!” Then tall girls went out and returned presently, each bearing a tray. Some food and water was in the middle of each tray. The food was handed round and everyone drank from the same mug. When it came to my turn, I drank too, for I was thirsty, but I did not touch the food. From there I was taken to my hard bed where I thankfully fell asleep immediately. Jane Ewe?s First Day at Lowood School Details about them ●Jane remembered little about the journey except the tiredness of it. ●The sound uttered by the coach wheels (72) __________ Jane and made her fall asleep. ●(74) _________ Jane was lifted out, the coach drove away. ●The servant led her into a room after a wide pebbly path walk and went away. ●Two ladies entered and one obviously found the (75) _______of Jane. ●The classroom was very long and wide with many tables. ●The class was large in size, and it seemed only girls were (76) _____. ●The conditions for students there were very (77)__________, judging from the dim light and old-fashioned dress of cheap material. ● Books were (79)____________from the tables to make room as students studied and ate at the same place. ● Food was handed round by four monitors, who seemed appointed as monitors because they were tall and strong. ● Students took (80)___________ to drink water from the same mug. ● Jane did not eat anything but she drank some water as she was thirsty. ● Hard as the bed was, Jane fell asleep immediately.
(71)_______ that happened Coach journey
Eventual (73) __________ at the school
First sight of the study place
First (78) ____________ at the school
First sleep at the school
任务型阅读考前训练 6 Throw the bottles and boxes of drugs out of your house. A new theory suggests that medicine could be bad for your health, which should at least come as good news to people who cannot afford to buy expensive medicine. This new theory argues that healing is at our fingertips: we can be healthy by doing Yoga on a regular basis. Supporters of medical treatment argue that medicine should be trusted since it is effective and scientifically proven. They say that there is no need for spiritual methods such as Yoga. These waste our time, something which is quite precious in our material world. There is medicine that can kill our pain, x-rays that show us our bones or MRI that scans our brain for tumors (肿瘤). We must admit that these methods are very effective in the examples that they provide. However, there are some “everyday complaints” such as back pains, headaches, insomnia, which are treated currently with medicine. When you have a headache, you take an Aspirin; when you cannot sleep, you take Xanax without thinking of the side effects of these. When you use these pills for a long period, you become addicted to them; you cannot sleep without them. We pay huge amounts of money and become addicted instead of getting better. How about a safer and more economical way of healing? When doing Yoga, you do not need anything except your energy so it is very economical. Its popularity has spread particularly throughout America and Western Europe. In quantum (量子) physics, energy is recognized as the fundamental substance (物质) which the universe consists of. Yoga depends on the energy within our bodies. It is a simple and effective way of restoring the energy flow. There are no side effects and it is scientifically explained. Opponents of alternative healing methods also claim that serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without drugs. They think so because these patients spend the rest of their lives in the hospital taking medicine. How can Yoga make these people healthy again? It is very unfortunate that these patients have to live in the hospital losing their hair because of chemotherapy (化疗), losing weight because of the side effects of the medicine they take. Actually, it is common knowledge that except for when the cancer is recognized at an early stage, drugs also cannot treat AIDS or cancer. Most of the medicines these patients use are to ease their pain and their sufferings. Instead of drugs which are expensive and have many side effects, you can use your energy to overcome the hardships of life, find an emotional balance, leave the stress of everyday life and let go of the everyday worries. We should definitely start learning Yoga and avoid illnesses before it is too late. Title: Health and Healing at Your Fingertips A new theory argues that doing Yoga (72) ▲ can keep people healthy while medicine might do (73) ▲ to people?s health. (71) ▲ to a new theory ● People should (74) ▲ medicine as it is very useful for killing pain. ● Medicine is effective and scientifically proven while Yuga is a kind of spiritual method and doing Yoga is only a (75) ▲ of time. ● Illnesses (76) ▲ HIV/AIDS and cancer can only be treated with drugs. ● Doing Yoga is safer and not as (77) ▲ as taking medicine. ● Most of the medicines that patients with some (78) ▲ diseases use are to ease their pain and their sufferings but can not cure them. ● Yoga has no side effects and also there is a (79) ▲ explanation. It can restore the energy flow in people?s bodies, which can (80) ▲ our emotions, control thoughts, overcome the hardships of life, leave the stress of everyday life and let go of the everyday worries.
Support of medical treatment
Support of Yoga
任务型阅读考前训练 7 We are not born with courage, but neither are we born with fear. Maybe some of our fears are brought on by your own experiences, by what someone has told you, by what you?ve read in the papers. Some fears are reasonable, like walking alone in a bad part of town at two o?clock in the morning. But once you learn to avoid that situation, you won?t need to live in fear of it. Fears, even the most basic ones, can totally destroy our ambitions. Fear can destroy fortunes. Fear can destroy relationships. Fear, if left uncontrolled, can destroy our lives. Fear is one of the many enemies hidden inside us. Let me tell you about five of the other enemies we face from within. The first enemy that you?ve got to destroy before it destroys you is indifference. What a tragic disease this is! “Ho-hum, let it slide. I?ll just drift along.” Here?s one problem with drifting: you can?t drift your way to the top of the mountain. The second enemy we face is indecision. Indecision is the thief of opportunity and enterprise. It will steal your chances for a better future. Take a sword to this enemy. The third enemy inside is doubt. Sure, there?s room for healthy skepticism. You can?t believe everything. But you also can?t let doubt take over. Many people doubt the past, doubt the future, doubt each other, doubt the government, doubt the possibilities and doubt the opportunities. Worst of all, they doubt themselves. I?m telling you, doubt will destroy your life and your chances of success. It will empty both your bank account and your heart. Doubt is an enemy. Go after it. Get rid of it. The fourth enemy within is worry. We?ve all got to worry some. Just don?t let it defeat you. Instead, let it alarm you. Worry can be useful. If you step off the sidewalk in New York City and a taxi is coming, you?ve got to worry. But you can?t let worry loose like a mad dog that drives you into a small corner. Here?s what you?ve got to do with your worries: drive them into a small corner. Whatever is out to get you, you?ve got to get it. Whatever is pushing on you, you?ve got to push back. The fifth enemy inside is overcaution. It is the timid （胆怯的） approach to life. Timidity is not a virtue; it?s an illness. If you let it go, it?ll defeat you. Timid people don?t get promoted. They don?t advance and grow. You?ve got to avoid overcaution. Do battle with the enemies. Do battle with your fears. Build your courage to fight what?s holding you back, what?s keeping you from your goals and dreams. Be courageous in your life and in your pursuit of the things you want and the person you want to become. Title: Facing the （71） within What they are Fear Indifference Indecision Doubt Worry Over caution （72） they affect you （73） you your ambitions, fortunes, relationships and even lives. Just get you to drift along, in which case, you can never （75） it to the top of the mountain. （76） you of opportunity, enterprise and your chances for a better future. ● Destroy your life and your chances of success. ● Empty your heart as （77） as your bank account. Drive you into a small corner like a mad dog. ● Stop you from （79） promoted. ● （80） in your not advancing and growing.
How you can deal with them Bring it under （74） . Destroy it before it destroys you. Take a sword to it. Go after it and remove it. Let it alarm you （78） of allowing it to defeat you. ● Don?t let it go, or it will defeat you. ● Try to avoid it.
任务型阅读考前训练 8 D. R. Gaul Middle School is in Union, Maine, a blueberry-farming town where the summer fair finds kids competing in pig scrambles and pie-eating contests. Gaul, with about 170 seventh- and eighth-graders, has its own history of lower level academic achievement. One likely reason: Education beyond the basic requirements hasn?t always been a top priority for families who?ve worked the same land for generations. Here, few adults have college degrees, and outsiders (teachers included) are often kept at a respectful distance. Since 2002, Gaul?s students have been divided into four classes, each of them taught almost every subject by two teachers. The goal: To find common threads across disciplines to help students create a big picture that gives fresh meaning and context to their classwork -- and sparks motivation for learning. Working within state guidelines, each team makes its individual schedules and lesson plans, incorporating nontextbook literature, hands-on lab work and field trips. If students are covering the Civil War in social studies, they?re reading The Red Badge of Courage or some other period literature in English class. In science, they study the viruses and bacteria that caused many deaths in the war. Team teaching isn?t unusual. About 77 percent of middle schools now employ some form of it, says John Lounsbury, consulting editor for the National Middle School Association. But most schools use four- or five-person teams, which Gaul tried before considering two-person teams more effective. Gaul supports the team concept by “looping” classes(跟班) so that the same two teachers stick with the same teens through seventh and eighth grades. Combining teams and looping creates an extremely strong bond between teacher and student. It also, says teacher Beth Ahlholm, “allows us to build an excellent relationship with parents.” Ahlholm and teammate Madelon Kelly are fully aware how many glazed looks they see in the classroom, but they know 72 percent of their eighth-graders met Maine?s reading standard last year -- double the statewide average. Only 31 percent met the math standard, still better than the state average (21 percent). Their students also beat the state average in writing and science. And in 2006, Gaul was one of 47 schools in the state to see testing gains of at least 20 percent in four of the previous five years, coinciding roughly with team teaching?s arrival. A Classroom With Context Problems school of the Being a farming town, it (1)_______ little in education before. (2)_______ education is considered less important. The community is relatively (3)_______ rather than open to the outsiders. Ways of solving the problems The division of classes is made and students are well (4)_______. Individual schedules and lesson plans are (5)_______ by each team. A strong (6)_______ between teacher and student is established through combining teams and looping. Signs of (7)_______ 72 percent of the eighth-graders (8)_______ Maine?s reading standard (9)_______ percent higher than the state average in maths the school beating the state average in writing and science four of the previous five years (10)_______ at least 20 percent test gains
任务型阅读考前训练 9 Teamwork is just as important in science as it is on the playing field or in the gym. Scientific investigations (调查) are almost always carried out by teams of people working together. Ideas are shared, experiences are designed, data are analyzed, and results are evaluated and shared with other investigators. Group work is necessary, and is usually more productive than working alone. Several times throughout the year you may be asked to work with one or more of your classmates. Whatever teh task your group is assigned, a few rules need to be followed to ensure a productive and successful experience. What comes first is to keep an open mind, becasue everyone?s ideas deserve consideration and each group member can make his or her own contribution. Secondly, it makes a job easier to divide the group task among all group members. Choose a role on the team that is best suited to your particular strengths. Thirdly, always work together, take turns, and encourage each other by listening, clarifying, and trusting one another. Mutual support and trust often make a great difference. Activities like investigations are most effective when done by small groups. Here are some more suggestions for effective team performance during these activities: Make sure each group member understands and agrees to the task given to him or her, and everyone knows exactly when, why and what to do; take turns doing various tasks during similar and repeated activities; be aware of where other group members are and what they are doing so as to ensure safety; be responsible for your own learning, though it is by no means unwise to compare your observations with those of other group members. When there is research to be done, divide the topic into several areas, and this can explore the issue in a very detailed way. You are encouraged to keep records of the sources used each person, which helps you trace back to the origin of the problems that may happen unexpectedly. A format for exchanging information (e.g. photocopies of notes, oral discussion, etc.) is also important, for a well-chosen method not only strengthens what you present but also makes yourself easily understood. When the time comes to make a decision and take a position on an issue, allow for the contributions of each member of the group. Most important of all, it is always wise to make decisions by compromise and agreement. After you?ve completed a task with your team, make an evaluation of the team?s effectiveness — the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and challenges. Title Theme General rules Working Together Effective performance needs highly cooperated (71) ________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Keep an open mind to everyone?s (72) ________. Divide the group task among group members. (73) ________ and trust each other. Understand and agree to the (75) ________ task of one?s own. Take turns doing various tasks. Show concern for others to ensure safety. Take (76) _________ for one?s own learning. Compare your own observations with those of others. Break the (77) ________ into several areas. Keep records of the sources just in (78) ________. (79) ________ your information with others via proper format. Make all decisions by compromise and agreement. Analyze the strengths and weaknesses. Find out the opportunities and challenges.
Explore an issue (80) ________ effectiveness
How you see yourself can make a great difference in how you communicate.“Every individual exists in a continually changing world of experience of which he(or she)is the center”. Many communication scholars and social scientists believe that people are products of how others treat them and of the messages others send them. But every day we experience the centrality of ourselves in communication. A student, for instance，may describe a conflict with a teacher as unfair treatment：“I know my teacher doesn?t like the fact that I don?t agree with his opinions. and that?s why he gave me such a poor grade in that class.”The teacher might say the opposite. Each person may believe that he is correct and that the other person?s view is wrong. The concept of self originates in communication. Through verbal and nonverbal symbols, a child learns to accept roles in response to the expectations of others. You establish self-image. The sort of person you believe you are，by how others think of you .Positive，negative，and neutral messages that you receive from others all play a role in determining who you are. Communication itself is probably best understood as a dialogue process. Our understanding of communication comes from our interactions with other people. In a more obvious way, communication involves others in the sense that a competent communicator considers what the other person needs and expects when selecting messages to share. So，the communication begins with the self，as defined largely by others，and involves others，as defined largely by the self. Communication occurs almost every minute of your life. If you are not communicating with yourself(thinking， planning，reacting to the world around you)，you are observing others and drawing inferences from their behavior. Even if the other person did not intend a message for you. you gather observations and draw specific conclusions. A person yawns and you believe that person is bored with your message. A second person looks away from you and you conclude that person is not listening to you. A third person smiles(perhaps because of a memory of a joke he heard recently) and you believe that he is attracted to you. We are continually picking up meanings from others? behaviors and we are constantly providing behaviors that have communicative value for them. More often than not，you may have hurt someone accidentally and you may have tried to explain that you did not mean that. You may have told the other person that you were sorry for your statement. You may have made a joke out of your rude statement. Nonetheless，your comment remains both in the mind of the other person and in your own mind. You cannot go back in time and erase your messages to others. Communication cannot be reversed(倒退)，nor can it be repeated. When you tried to re-create the atmosphere，the conversation，and the setting，nothing seemed right. Your second experience with a similar setting and person made far different results. Paragraph outline Supporting Details Communication ●People are somewhat products of others? treatment and messages. begins with ●We are always(71) ▲ in communication with others. the self Communication ●Experiences of others help children learn to accept roles. (72) ▲ ●Messages from others help you(73) ▲ who you are. others ●Needs and(74) ▲ of others should be considered. ●We are communicating with ourselves by thinking，planning and reacting to the outside Communication world. (75) ▲ ●We are always(76) ▲ other people by observing even if they do not intend any message for everywhere you. ●We are constantly collecting meanings from others?(77) ▲ . ●We are constantly(78) ▲ meanings by what we do. Communication ●You may explain what you have done，but you cannot(79) ▲ what remains in the other cannot be person?s mind. reversed nor ●Yon may redo the conversation，but you(80) ▲ achieve the same results. repeated
任务型阅读考前训练 11 For more than twenty years scientists have been seeking to understand the mystery of the ??sixth sense" of direction. By trying out ideas and solving problems one by one，they are now getting closer to one answer. One funny idea is that animals might have a built-in compass(指南针). Our earth itself is a big magnet(磁体).So a little magnetic needle that swings freely lines itself with the big earth magnet to point north and south. When people discovered that idea about a thousand years ago and invented the compass， it allowed sailors to navigate (航海)on ocean voyages, even under cloudy skies. Actually the idea of the living compass came just from observing animals in nature. Many birds migrate twice a year between their summer homes and winter homes. Some of them fly for thousands of kilometers and mostly at night. Experiments have shown that some birds can recognize star patterns. But they can keep on course even under cloudy skies. How can they do that? A common bird that does not migrate but is great at finding its way home is the homing pigeon. Not all pigeons can find their way home. Those that can are very good at it，and they have been widely studied. One interesting experiment was to attach little magnets to the birds? heads to block their magnetic sense—just as a loud radio can keep you from hearing a call to dinner. On sunny days, that did not fool the pigeons. Evidently they can use the sun to tell which way they are going. But on cloudy days，the pigeons with magnets could not find their way. It was as if the magnets had blocked their magnetic sense. Similar experiments with the same kind of results were done with honeybees. These insects also seem to have a special sense of direction. In spite of the experiments，the idea of an animal compass seemed pretty extraordinary. How would an animal get the magnetic stuff for a compass. An answer came from an unexpected source. A scientist was studying bacteria that live in the mud of ponds and marshes. He found accidentally little rod-like bacteria that all swam together in one direction—north. Further study showed that each little bacterium had a chain of dense particles inside，which proved magnetic. The bacteria had made themselves into little magnets that could line up with the earth?s magnet. The big news was that a living thing，even a simple bacterium，can make magnetite. That led to a search to see whether animals might have it.. By using a special instrument called magnetometer，scientists were able to find magnetite in bees and birds，and even in fish. In each animal，except for the bee. the magnetic stuff was always in or closer to the brain. Thus, the idea of a built—in animal compass began to seem reasonable. The Magnetic Sense — The Living Compass Passage outline Supporting details The existence of the earth ◇Our earth is a big magnet and a little freely (71) ▲ magnet and the invention of magnetic needle lines itself with the earth magnet to point north and south. the navigating compass ◇(72) ▲ on the idea above, the navigating compass was invented. The possibility of birds? built- ◇ One piece of evidence is the (73) ▲ of many birds between their summer in compasses homes and winter homes. ◇ Birds can recognize star patterns on clear nights and keep on course (74) ▲ under cloudy skies The (75) ▲ on pigeons? ◇Little magnets were tied to the pigeons? heads to (76) ▲ their magnetic and bees? built-in compasses sense. ◇The pigeons? magnetic sense seemed to be affected on (77) ▲ days. ◇Similar things with the same results were done with bees. The (78) ▲ of the ◇Little rod-like bacteria were found by chance to swim together in the direction magnetic stuff for the animal of (79) ▲ . compass ◇Some animals had a chain of dense magnetic particles in or close to the (80) ▲ inside their bodies.
2010 年高考英语任务型读写题·安徽卷 When difficult people express themselves orally, they generally want at least two things: they?ve been heard and they?ve been understood should be a good listener, five steps are advocated toward good listening. The first step is cooperating (合作). How does a difficult person know that you? re listening and understanding? In fact, it?s through the way you look and sound while he is talking. You may help him to fully express his thought and feelings. You do this by nodding your head in agreement, making certain sounds of understanding. When the person begins to repeat what?s been said, it?s signal of step two: turning back. It means that you repeat back some words he is using, sending a clear signal that you?re listening carefully and that you think what he is saying is important. Having heard what he has to say, the next step is clarifying. At this point, you start to gather information about what is being communicated. Ask some open-ended questions, which will allow you to figure out what intention he is hoping to satisfy. The fourth step is to summarize (概括) what you?ve heard. This allows you to make sure that both you and the difficult person are on the same page. When you do this, two things happen. First, if you?re missed something, he can fill in the details (细节). Second, you?ve shown that you?re making an effort to understand completely. This increases the possibility of gaining cooperation from him. Having listened carefully, you?ve now arrived at the point of confirming with the person that he feels satisfied that his thoughts have been fully voiced. Ask if he feels understood. Then enough sincere listening, questioning, and remembering are brought together, understanding is usually achieved and a difficult person becomes less difficult and more cooperative. Topic Reason (76) ________ to understand Difficult people hope they have been heard and (77) ________ when they express themselves (79) ________ in agreement and make some sounds of understanding while a difficult person is speaking Repeat some (80) ________ that you have heard Collect information about the person?s expressions and find his (81)________ Give a (82) ________ of what the person has said Confirm that the person gains (83) ________ from Speaking his thoughts A difficult person will be (84) ________ to cooperate with if understanding is achieved You may unlock the doors to difficult people?s (85)________ after you listen and understand
(78) ________ on listening
2010 年高考英语任务型阅读题·江苏卷 For more than twenty years scientists have been seeking to understand the mystery of the “sixth sense” of direction. By trying out ideas and solving problems one by one, they are now getting closer to one answer. One funny idea is that animals might have a built-in compass(指南针). Our earth itself is a big magnet(磁体). So a little magnetic needle that swings freely lines itself with the big earth magnet to point north and south. When people discovered that idea about a thousand years ago and invented the compass, it allowed sailors to navigate (航海) on ocean voyages, even under cloudy skies. Actually the idea of the living compass came just from observing animals in nature. Many birds migrate twice a year between their summer homes and winter homes. Some of them fly for thousands of kilometers and mostly at night. Experiments have shown that some birds can recognize star patterns. But they can keep on course even under cloudy skies. How can they do that? A common bird that does not migrate but is great at finding its way home is the homing pigeon. Not all pigeons can find their way home. Those that can are very good at it, and they have been widely studied. One interesting experiment was to attach little magnets to the birds? heads to block their magnetic sense—just as a loud radio can keep you from hearing a call to dinner. On sunny days, that did not fool the pigeons. Evidently they can use the sun to tell which way they are going. But on cloudy days, the pigeons with magnets could not find their way. It was as if the magnets had blocked their magnetic sense. Similar experiments with the same kind of results were done with honeybees. These insects also seem to have a special sense of direction. In spite of the experiments, the idea of an animal compass seemed pretty extraordinary. How would an animal get the magnetic stuff for a compass. An answer came from an unexpected source. A scientist was studying bacteria that live in the mud of ponds and marshes. He found accidentally little rod-like bacteria that all swam together in one direction—north. Further study showed that each little bacterium had a chain of dense particles inside, which proved magnetic. The bacteria had made themselves into little magnets that could line up with the earth?s magnet. The big news was that a living thing, even a simple bacterium, can make magnetite. That led to a search to see whether animals might have it.. By using a special instrument called magnetometer, scientists were able to find magnetite in bees and birds, and even in fish. In each animal, except for the bee, the magnetic stuff was always in or closer to the brain. Thus, the idea of a built—in animal compass began to seem reasonable. The Magnetic Sense—The Living Compass Passage outline Supporting details ◇Our earth is a big magnet and a little freely (71)________ magnetic The existence of the earth magnet and needle lines itself with the earth magnet to point north and south. the invention of the navigating compass ◇(72)________ on the idea above, the navigating compass was invented. ◇ One piece of evidence is the (73)________ of many birds between their The possibility of birds? built-in summer homes and winter homes. compasses ◇ Birds can recognize star patterns on clear nights and keep on course (74) ________ under cloudy skies. ◇Little magnets were tied to the pigeons? heads to (76) ________ their magnetic sense. The (75)________ on pigeons? and ◇The pigeons? magnetic sense seemed to be affected on (77) ________ bees? built-in compasses days. ◇Similar things with the same results were done with bees. ◇Little rod-like bacteria were found by chance to swim together in the The (78) ________ of the magnetic direction of (79) ________. stuff for the animal compass ◇Some animals had a chain of dense magnetic particles in or close to the (80) ________ inside their bodies.
任务型阅读参考答案 【1】76. Reason 77. important 78. fields 81. winners 82. way 79. improve 80. worn
83. measured 84. recorded 85. easily
【2】71. Required 72. however 73. difficult 74. preparations 75. Creativity 76. articulate 77. certain 78. creative 79. respond 80. personal 【3】71. kinds/ types 72. main 73. namely 74. more 【4】71.nature 76.approaches 75.periods/times
76. lack 77. birthrate 78. traditional 79. appeared/occurred 80. temporary 72.Definition 77.ignoring 73.simply 78.curiosity 74.easy 79.Applied 75.aimed 80.use
【5】71. Events 72. calmed 73. arrival 74. Immediately/directly/instantly/after 75. tiredness 76. admitted 77. poor 78. meal/supper 79. removed 80. turns 【6】71. Introduction 72. regularly 76. like 77. expensive 73. harm 74. trust / take 75. waste
78. serious 79. scientific 80. balance
【7】71. enemies 72. How 73. Cost 74. control 75. make 76. Rob 77. well 78. instead 79. being/getting 80. Result 【8】71. achieved 72. Further 73. closed 74. motivated 75. adopted / conducted 76. tie / connection 77. success 78. reaching 79. 10 / ten 80. Witnessing 【9】71. teamwork 72. ideas / opinions / views / thoughts 73. Support / Encourage / Back 74. Suggestions 75. given / assigned 76. Responsibility 77. topic / subject / issue 78. case 79. Exchange / Share 80. Evaluate 【10】71.self-centred／subjective 72.involves 73.determine／define／know／understand 74.expectations／hopes／desires／wishes 75.occurs／happens／exists／arises 76.reading／understanding/knowing 77.behaviors／acts／action(s)／activities 78.conveying／expressing 79.erase／remove／delete/change 80.can?t／cannot 【11】71. swinging 72 .Based 73. migration 74 .even 75. experiments／tests／study／research 76. block 77. cloudy 78. discovery 79. north 80 .brain(s) 【安徽卷参考答案】 76. Listen / Listening 81. intention 85. hearts / minds 【江苏卷参考答案】 71. swinging 72. Based 73. migration 74. even 75. experiments／tests／study／research 76. block 77. cloudy 78. discovery 79. north 80. brain(s) 77. understood 78. Suggestions / Tips / Advice 82. summary 83. satisfaction 80. words