一．名词 I. 名词的种类： 专有名词 国名地名人名，团体机 构名称 个体名词 可数名词 集体名词 普通名词 不可数名词 抽象名词 物质名词
II. 名词的数： 1. 规则名词的复数形式：名词的复数形式，一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es。现将构成方法与读音规 则列表如下： 规则 1 2 一般情况在词尾加-s 以 s, x,
ch, sh 结尾的名词后加-es 以-f 或-fe 结 尾的词 变-f 和-fe 为 v 再加-es wife-wives, half-halves 加-s 4 5 chief-chiefs, proof-proofs, roof-roofs family-families, ray-rays, 例词 map-maps, sea-seas, girl-girls, day-days class-classes, box-boxes, watch-watches, dish-dishes leaf-leaves, thief-thieves, knife-knives,
以辅音字母加 y 结尾的名词，变 y 为 i 加 party-parties, story-stories, city-cities -es 以元音字母加 y 结尾的名词，或专有名词 toy-toys, boy-boys, Henry-Henrys 以 y 结尾的，加-s 一般加-es
Negro-Negroes, hero-heroes, potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes piano-pianos, photo-photos, auto-autos, kilo-kilos, solo-solos zero-zeros/zeroes,
以辅音字母加 -o 结尾的名词 不少外来词加-s 两者皆可
volcano-volcanoes/ volcanos 7 8 以元音字母加-o 结尾的名词加-s 以-th 结尾的名词加-s radio-radios, bamboo-bamboos, zoo-zoos truth-truths, mouth-mouths, month-months, path-paths,
2. 不规则名词复数：英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的，现归纳如下： 规则 1 2 3 4 一些集体名词总是用作复数 5 family, crowd, couple, group, government, 部分集体名词既可以作单数 （整体） 也可 class, population, team, public, party 以作复数（成员） customs(海关), times(时代), spirits(情绪), 复数形式表示特别含义 drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜) Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, 7 Europeans 表 示 “ 某 Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese 国人” 单复数同形 以-man 或-woman 结尾的改为 Englishmen, Frenchwomen -men,-women sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, 将主体名词变为复数 story-tellers, boy friends 合 成 无主体名词时将最后一部分变 grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches 名词 为复数 将两部分变为复数 women singers, men servants 加-s 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 mouse-mice 单复数相同 只有复数形式 sheep, deer, means, works, fish, yuan, jin, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, people, police 例词 man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese,
III. 名词的所有格： 名词在句中表示所有关系的语法形式叫做名词所有格。所有格分两种：一是名词词尾加’s 构成，二 是由介词 of 加名词构成。前者多表示有生命的东西，后者多表示无生命的东西。 1. ’s 所有格的构成： 单数名词在末尾加’s 复数名词 一般在末尾加’ 不规则复数名词后加’s 以 s 结尾的人名所有格加’s 或者’ the boy’ s father, Jack’ s book, her son-in-law’ s photo, the teachers’ room, the twins’ mother, the children’s toys, women’s rights, Dickens’ novels, Charles’s job, the Smiths’ house
表示各自的所有关系时,各名词末尾均 Japan’s and America’s problems, Jane’s and Mary’ 须加’s s bikes 表示共有的所有关系时在最后一词末 Japan and America’s problems, Jane and Mary’s father 加’s 表示＂某人家＂＂店铺＂，所有格后名 词省略 2. ’s 所有格的用法： １ 2 3 4 5 6 7 表示时间 表示自然现象 today’s newspaper, five weeks’ holiday the earth’s atmosphere, the tree’s branches the doctor’s, the barber’s, the tailor’s, my uncle’ s
表示国家城市等地方的名 the country’ s plan, the world’ s population, China’ s industry 词 表示工作群体 表示度量衡及价值 the ship’s crew, majority’s view, the team’s victory a mile’s journey, five dollars’ worth of apples
与人类活动有特殊关系的 the life’s time, the play’s plot 名词 a bird’s eye view, a stone’s throw, at one’s wit’s end(不 某些固定词组 知所措)
3.of 所有格的用法： 用于无生命的东西：the legs of the chair, the cover of the book 用于有生命的东西，尤其是有较长定语时：the classrooms of the first-year students 用于名词化的词：the struggle of the oppressed 二．冠词 冠词分为不定冠词（a, an） ，定冠词（the） ，和零冠词。 I. 不定冠词的用法： 1 指一类人或事，相当于 a kind of 2 第一次提及某人某物，非特指 3 表示“每一”相当于 every，one 4 表示“相同”相当于 the same 5 6 7 8 A plane is a machine that can fly. A boy is waiting for you. We study eight hours a day. We are nearly of an age.
A Mr. Smith came to visit you when you were out 用于人名前，表示不认识此人或与某 That boy is rather a Lei Feng. 名人有类似性质的人或事 A couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have 用于固定词组中 a walk, many a time 用于 quite, rather, many, half, This room is rather a big one. what, such 之后 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之后 She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet.
II. 定冠词的用法： 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 表示某一类人或物 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 The horse is a useful animal. the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean
表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人或 Would you mind opening the door? 事 用于乐器前面 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人 表示“一家人”或“夫妇” play the violin, play the guitar the reach, the living, the wounded the Greens, the Wangs
He is the taller of the two children. 用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前 用于国家党派等以及江河湖海， 山川群岛的名 the United States, the Communist Party of China, the French 词前 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 在逢十的复数数词之前，指世纪的某个年代 The compass was invented in China. in the 1990’s
I hired the car by the hour. 用于表示单位的名词前 用于方位名词， 身体部位名词， 及表示时间的 He patted me on the shoulder. 词组前
III. 零冠词的用法： 1 专有名词，物质名词，抽象名词，人名地名等 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air 名词前 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 want this book, not that one. / Whose purse 名词前有 this, my, whose, some, no, each, I is this? every 等限制 季节，月份，星期，节假日，一日三餐前 表示职位，身份，头衔的名词前 学科，语言，球类，棋类名词前 与 by 连用表示交通工具的名词前 以 and 连接的两个相对的名词并用时 表示泛指的复数名词前 March, Sunday, National Day, spring Lincoln was made President of America. He likes playing football/chess. by train, by air, by land husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night Horses are useful animals.
三．代词： I. 代词可以分为以下七大类： 人 主格 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they 称 1 代 宾格 me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them 词 主 形容词性 my, your, his, her, its, our, their 2 物 代词 名词性 mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, 3 反身代词 themselves 4 指示代词 this, that, these, those, such, some 5 疑问代词 who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever 6 关系代词 that, which, who, whom, whose, as one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ little/ a few/ a little, 7 不定代词 other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either II. 不定代词用法注意点： 1. one, some 与 any: 1) one 可以泛指任何人，也可特指，复数为 ones。some 多用于肯定句，any 多用于疑问句和否定句。 One should learn to think of others. Have you any bookmarks? No, I don’t have any bookmarks. I have some questions to ask. 2) some 可用于疑问句中，表示盼望得到肯定的答复，或者表示建议，请求等。 Would you like some bananas? Could you give me some money? 3) some 和 any 修饰可数名词单数时，some 表示某个，any 表示任何一个。 I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the mistakes, if any. 4) some 和数词连用表示“大约” ，any 可与比较级连用表示程度。 There are some 3,000 students in this school. Do you feel any better today? 2. each 和 every: each 强调个别，代表的数可以是两个或两个以上，而 every 强调整体，所指的数必须是三个或三个 以上。 Each student has a pocket dictionary. / Each (of us) has a dictionary. / We each have a dictionary. Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak points.
3. none 和 no： no 等于 not any，作定语。none 作主语或宾语，代替不可数名词，谓语用单数，代替可数名词，谓 语单复数皆可以。 There is no water in the bottle. How much water is there in the bottle? None. None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties. 4. other 和 another: 1) other 泛指 “另外的， 别的” 常与其他词连用， 如： the other day, every other week, some other reason, no other way, the other 特指两者中的另外一个，复数为 the others。如： He held a book in one hand and his notes in the other. Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam. 2) another 指“又一个，另一个”无所指，复数形式是 others，泛指“别的人或事”如： I don’t like this shirt, please show me another (one). The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others. Some like football, while others like basketball. 5. all 和 both, neither 和 either all 表示不可数名词时， 其谓语动词用单数。 both 和 all 加否定词表示部分否定， 全部否定用 neither 和 none. All of the books are not written in English. / Not all of the books are written in English. Both of us are not teachers. / Not both of us are teachers. / Either of us is a teacher. 四．形容词和副词 I. 形容词： 1. 形容词的位置： 1) 形容词作定语通常前置，但在下列情况后置： some, any, every, no 和 body, thing, one 等构成 nobody absent, everything possible 1 修饰 的复合不定代词时 -able, -ible 结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或 only 修 the best book available, the only 2 以 饰的名词之后 solution possible 3 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等可以后置 4 和空间、时间、单位连用时 5 成对的形容词可以后置 6 形容词短语一般后置 2) 多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序： 代词 数词 冠词 冠词 前的 指示代词 序数 基数词 性质 形容 不定代词 词 状态 词 代词所有格 the beauti all a seco one ful both this nd four good such another next poor your 3) 复合形容词的构成： 1 形容词+名词+ed 2 形容词+形容词 3 形容词+现在分词 4 副词+现在分词 5 副词+过去分词 kind-hearted dark-blue ordinary-looking hard-working newly-built the only person awake a bridge 50 meters long a huge room simple and beautiful a man difficult to get on with
性状形容词 大小 长短 形状 large short square 新旧 温度 颜色 国籍 产地 Chines e London 材料 质地 silk ston e 名 词
black yello w
6 7 8 9 1 0
名词+形容词 名词+现在分词 名词+过去分词 数词+名词+ed 数词+名词
world-famous peace-loving snow-covered three-egged twenty-year
II. 副词 副词的分类： now, early, finally, 1 时间副词 soon, once, recently nearby, outside, 2 地点副词 here, upwards, above well, fast, slowly, 3 方式副词 hard, excitedly, really nearly, very, 4 程度副词 almost, fairly, quite, rather 5 6 7 8 often, 频度副词 always, seldom, never frequently,
疑问副词 how, where, when, why when, where, why, whether, 连接副词 how, however, meanwhile 关系副词 when, where, why
III. 形容词和副词比较等级： 形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级，比较级和最高级。比较级和最高级的构成一般是在形容词和副词 后加-er 和-est，多音节和一些双音节词前加 more 和 most。 1. 同级比较时常常用 as?as?以及 not so(as)?as?如：I am not so good a player as you are. 2. 可以修饰比较级的词有：much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal。 3. 表示一方随另一方变化时用“the more?the more?”句型。如：The harder you work, the more progress you will make. 4. 用比较级来表达最高级的意思。如：I have never spent a more worrying day. 5. 表示倍数的比较级有如下几种句型： Our school is three times larger than yours./Our school is four times as large as yours./Our school is four times the size of yours. 6. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如：favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect。 五．介词 I. 介词分类： 1 简单介词
about, across, after, against, among, around, at, below, beyond, during, in, on 2 合成介词 inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon, within, without 3 短语介词 according to, because of, instead of, up to, due to, owing to, thanks to 4 双重介词 from among, from behind, from under, till after, in between 5 分词转化成的介词 considering(就而论), including 6 形容词转化成的介 like, unlike, near, next, opposite 词 II. 常用介词区别： 1 表示时间的 in, on, at at 表示片刻的时间，in 表示一段的时间，on 总是与日子有关 指从过去到现在的一段时间，和完成时连用，from 指从时间的 2 表示时间的 since, from since 某一点开始 in 指在一段时间之后，after 表示某一具体时间点之后或用在过去时 3 表示时间的 in, after 的一段时间中 表示地理位置的 in, on, 4 to in 表示在某范围内，on 指与什么毗邻，to 指在某环境范围之外 5 表示“在?上”的 on, in on 只表示在某物的表面上，in 表示占去某物一部分 “穿过” 的 through, through 表示从内部通过，与 in 有关，across 表示在表面上通过，与 6 表示 across on 有关 7 表示 “关于” 的 about, on about 指涉及到，on 指专门论述 8 between 与 among 的区别 between 表示在两者之间，among 用于三者或三者以上的中间 指“除了?还有再加上” ，except 指“除了，减去什么” ，不 9 besides 与 except 的区别 besides 放在句首 1 表示“用”的 in, with with 表示具体的工具，in 表示材料，方式，方法，度量，单位，语言， 0 声音 1 as 与 like 的区别 as 意为“作为，以?地位或身份” ，like 为“象?一样” ，指情形相似 1 1 in 与 into 区别 in 通常表示位置（静态） ，into 表示动向，不表示目的地或位置 2
六．动词 I. 动词的时态： 1. 动词的时态一共有 16 种，以 ask 为例，将其各种时态的构成形式列表如下： 现在时 过去时 将来时 过去将来时 一般 ask / asks asked shall/will ask should/would 进行 am/is/are was/were asking shall/will be should/would asking asking 完成 have/has asked had asked shall/will have should/would asked 完 成 进 have/has been had been asking shall/will have should/would 行 asking been asking asking
ask be asking have asked have been
2. 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别： 1) 现在完成时表示过去发生的动作或存在的状况， 但和现在有联系， 强调的是对现在造成的影响或结 果，它不能同表示过去的时间状语连用，汉译英时可加“已经”等词。简言之，利用过去，说明现 在。如： I have already read the novel written by the world-famous writer. (已经看过，且了解这本 书的内容) 2) 一般过去时只表示过去发生的动作或状态， 和现在无关， 它可和表示过去的时间状语连用， 汉译英 时可加“过” ， “了”等词。简言之，仅谈过去，不关现在。如： I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了，不涉及现在是否记住) I lived in Beijing for ten years.（只说明在北京住过十年，与现在无关） 3. 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的区别： 两者都可以表示 “从过去开始一直持续到现在” ， 在含义上如着重表示动作的结果时， 多用现在完成时， 如着重表示动作一直在进行，即动作的延续性时，则多用现在完成进行时。一般不能用于进行时的动 词也不能用于现在完成进行时。 I have read that book.我读过那本书了。 I have been reading that book all the morning. 我早上一直在读那本书。 4. 一般将来时的表达方式： 将来时 用法 例句 will/shall+ 动 词 My sister will be ten next 1 原形 表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态 year. ’s going to clear up. going to+ 动词 含有“打算，计划，即将”做某事，或表 It 2 be We ’re going to have a party 原形 示很有可能要发生某事 tonight. go, come, start, move, leave, arrive + doing 进行时 等词可用进行时表示按计划即将发生的动 He is moving to the south. 3 be 表示将来 Are they leaving for Europe? 作 was about to leave when the about to + 动 表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生的动 I 4 be bell rang. 词原形 作，后面一般不跟时间状语 The meeting is about to close. We’re to meet at the school gate at noon. The meeting starts at five o’ 一般现在时表示将 时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的事情， clock. 6 来 可用一般现在时表示将来 The plane leaves at ten this evening. 5 be to + 动词原形 表示按计划进行或征求对方意见
常用被动语 态 1 一般现在时 2 一般过去时 3 一般将来时 4 过去将来时 5 现在进行时
构成 am/is/are asked was/were asked shall/will be asked should/would be asked am/is/are being asked 6 7 8 9 1 0
常用被动语态 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时
构成 was/were being asked have/has been asked had been asked will/would have been asked
含有情态动词 can/must/may be asked 的
被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not，短语动词的被动态不可漏掉其中介副 词。固定结构 be going to, used to, have to, had better 变为被动态时，只需将其后的动词变为被动态。 如： Trees should not be planted in summer. / The boy was made fun of by his classmates. Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl. 汉语有一类句子不出现主语，在英语中一般可用被动结构表示。如： It is believed that? It is generally considered that? 注 that? It is well known that? It must be pointed out that? 意 that? It is reported that? It must be admitted that? 事 that? It is said It is supposed It is hoped
项 下面主动形式常表示被动意义：如： The window wants/needs/requires repairing. The book is worth reading twice. The door won’t shut. / The play won’t act. The clothes washes well. / The book sells well. The dish tastes delicious. / Water feels very cold. 下面词或短语没有被动态： leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart 等等
七．情态动词 I. 情态动词基本用法： 情态动词 can could may might must have to ought to 用法 否定式 疑问式与简答 can not / cannot 能力（体力，智力，技能） /can’t do Can?do?? 允许或许可（口语中常用） Yes,?can. 可能性（表猜测，用于否定句或疑问 couldn’t do No,?can’t. 句中） May?do?? Yes,?may. may not do No,?mustn’t/can’t. 可以（问句中表示请求） 可能，或许（表推测） Might ? do ? ? Yes, ? 祝愿（用于倒装句中） might not do might No,?might not. ?do?? Yes,?must. 必须，应该（表主观要求） must not/mustn ’ t Must No, ? needn’ t/don’ t have 肯定，想必（肯定句中表推测） do to. 只好，不得不（客观的必须，有时态 don’t have to do 人称变化） Do?have to do?? Yes,?do. No,?don’t.
?to do?? 应当（表示义务责任，口语中多用 ought not Ought Yes, ? ought. No, ? should to/oughtn’t to do oughtn ’t. 将要，会 ?do?? shall not/shan ’ t Shall 用于一三人称征求对方意见 Yes, ? shall. 用于二三人称表示许诺、 命令、 警告、 do shan’t. 威胁等 应当，应该（表义务责任） 本该（含有责备意味） 意愿，决心 should not/shouldn’t do Should?do?? No, ?
should will would dare need
will not/won’t do Will?do?? ?will. No,?won’ 请求，建议，用在问句中 would 比较 would not/wouldn’ Yes, t. t do 委婉 敢（常用于否定句和疑问句中） 需要 必须（常用于否定句和疑问句中） ?do?? dare not/daren ’ t Dare Yes, ?dare. No,?daren’ do t. ?do?? need not/needn ’ t Need Yes, ?must. No,?needn’ do t. Used?to do?? ? used. No, ? used not/usedn ’ Yes, use(d)n ’ t. t/usen’t to do ?use to do?? didn’t use to do Did Yes,?did. No,?didn’ t.
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II. 情态动词 must, may, might, could, can 表示推测： 以 must 为例。must + do(be)是推测现在存在的一般状态进行；must + be doing 推测可能正在进行 的事情；must +have done 是推测可能已经发生过的事情。 1. must“肯定，一定”语气强，只用于肯定句中。 He must be a man from America. / He must be talking with his friend. / He must have already arrived there. 2. may 和 might“也许” ，后者语气弱，更没有把握。可用于肯定句和否定句。 He may not be at home. / They might have finished their task. 3. can 和 could“可能” ，could 表示可疑的可能性，不及 can’t 语气强，用于肯定、否定、疑问句 中。 The weather in that city could be cold now. We could have walked there; it was so near.（推测某事本来可能发生，但实际上没有发生） Can he be in the office now? No, he can’t be there, for I saw him in the library just now.(语 气很强，常用于疑问句和否定句中) III. 情态动词注意点： 1. can 和 be able to: 都可以表示能力。但 be able to 可以表达“某事终于成功” ，而 can 无法表达 此意。Be able to 有更多的时态。另外，两者不能重叠使用。 2. used to 和 would: used to 表示过去常常做现在已经不再有的习惯，而 would 只表示过去的习惯 或喜好，不涉及现在。 3. need 和 dare 作情态动词和实义动词的区别： 两者作情态动词时常用于否定句和疑问句。其形式为：needn’t/daren’t do；Need/dare?do?? 做实义动词时可用于肯定句， 否定句和疑问句。 其形式为： need(needs/needed)/dare(dares/dared) to do, don’t(doesn’t/didn’t) need/dare to do 八．非谓语动词 I. 非谓语动词的分类、意义及构成： 构成 非谓语形式 时态和语态 to do to be done to be doing to have been 不定式 to have done done being done 现在 doing having having been 分 分词 done done 词 过去 done 分词 动名词 doing having done being done having been done
特征和作用 复合结构 for sb. to do 具有名词，副词和形容词的作用 sth. 在句中做主、宾、定、表和状语
在非谓 语前加 not
具有副词和形容词的作用 在句中做定、表、宾补和状语 sb ’ s 具有名词的作用 doing 在句中做主、宾、定和表语
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II. 做宾语的非谓语动词比较： 情况 常用动词 hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, decide, pretend, 只接不定式做宾语 manage, agree, afford, determine, promise, happen 的动词 mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, appreciate, admit, prevent, keep, dislike, avoid, risk, resist, consider 只接动名词做宾语 can’t help, feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, get down to, 的动词或短语 be engaged in, insist on, think of, be proud of, take pride in, set about, be afraid of, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth, be busy, pay attention to, stick to begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, continue（接不定式多指具体的 意义基本相 动作，接动名词多指一般或习惯行为） 同 need, want, require（接动名词主动形式表示被动意义，若接不定式则应用被 动形式） stop to do 停止手中事，去做另一件事 两 意义相反 stop doing 停止正在做的事 者 remember/forget/regret to do（指动作 go on to do（接着做另外一件事） 都 尚未发生） go on doing（接着做同一件事） 可 remember/forget/regret doing （指动作 以 已经发生） 意义不同 try to do（设法，努力去做，尽力） mean to do（打算做，企图做） try doing（试试去做，看有何结果） mean doing （意识是，意味着） can’t help to do（不能帮忙做） can’t help doing（忍不住要做） III.非谓语动词做宾语补足语的区别： 与宾语的逻辑关系及时间概 例句 念 ask, beg, expect, get, 主谓关系。 强调动作将发生或 I heard him call me order, tell, want, wish, 已经完成 several times. 不定式 encourage have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make I found her listening to 现在分词 notice, see, watch, hear, 主谓关系。强调动作正在进 行，尚未完成 the radio. find, keep, have, feel 动宾关系。动作已经完成，多强调 We found the village greatly 常见动词
过去分词 状态 区别 changed. IV. 非谓语动词做定语的区别： 不定式 动名词 现在分词 过去分词 举例 I have a lot of papers to type. 与被修饰词往往有动宾关系，一般式表示将来，进行式表示 I have a lot of papers to be typed. 与谓语动作同时发生，完成式表示在谓语动词之前发生 Shall we go to the swimming pool? 通常指被修饰词的用途，无逻辑上的任何关系 the boiling water / the boiled water 与被修饰词之间是主谓关系， 表示动作与谓语动作同时发生 the developing country/the developed country 与被修饰词之间是被动关系，表示动作发生在谓语动作之 the falling leaves / the fallen leaves 前，现已经完成
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V. 非谓语动词做主语和表语的区别： 区别 不 定 多表示一个特定的具体的将来的动作， 做主语时可以借助于 it 把不定 式 式移到句子后面。做表语有时可和主语交换位置，而且意义不变，并 且还能用 what 来提问主语或表语。 动 名 与不定式的功能区别不大，然而它更接近于名词，表示的动作比较抽 词 象， 或者泛指习惯性的动作， 有时也可以用 it 做形式主语， 做表语时 可以和主语互换位置。 无名词的性质，不能做主语。但是有形容词的性质，可以做表语，多 表明主语的特征性质或者状态等，可被 very, quite, rather 等副词 修饰。 现在分词多含有 “令人?” 之意， 说明主语的性质特征， 多表示主动， 主语多为物。 过去分词一般表示被动或主语所处的状态， 含有 “感到?” 之意，主语多是人。
举例 My dream is to become a teacher. To obey the law is important. (dream, business, wish, idea, plan, duty, task 做主语时常用) It is no use saying that again and again. Teaching is my job. The situation is encouraging. The book is well written. (常见分词有 astonishing, moving, tiring, disappointing, puzzling, shocking, boring, amusing 及其-ed 形式)
九．定语从句 I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用， 在句中修饰一个名词或代词。 被修饰的词叫做先行词， 引导定语从句的词叫关系词， 他的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用，二是在从句中担当一个成分，并与先行词保持数的一致。 关系词 who whom whose 关系 代词 先行词 人 人 人，物 从句成分 主语 宾语 定语 例句 Do you know the man who is talking with your mother? Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am working The boy (whom) she loved died in the war.. I like those books whose topics are about history. The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate. A plane is a machine that can fly. She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much. The book (which) I gave you was worth $10. The picture which was about the accident was terrible. He is such a person as is respected by all of us. This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. I will never forget the day when we met there. This is the house where I was born. I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer. 备注
that which as
人，物 物 人，物 时间 地点 原因
主语，宾语 主语，宾语 主语，宾语 时间状语 地点状语 原因状语
whom, which 和 that 在从句中做 宾语时，常可以 省略，但介词提 前时后面关系代 词不能省略，也 不可以用 that
as 做宾语一般不 省略 可用 on which 可用 in which 可用 for which
when 关 系 where 副词 why
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II. that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别： 情况 用法说明 1． 先行词为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时。 2． 先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few 等修饰时 3． 先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰时 4． 先行词既指人又指物时 只用 that 的情况 5． 先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时 6． 句中已经有 who 或 which 时，为了避免重复时
例句 1.He told me everything that he knows. 2.All the books that you offered has been given out. 3.This is the best film that I have ever read. 4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. 5.He is the only man that I want to see. 6.Who is the man that is making a speech? 1． 在非限制性定语从句中，只能用 which 指代物，用 He has a son, who has gone abroad for who/whom 指人 further study. 只用 which, who, 2． 在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中，只能 I like the person to whom the teacher whom 的情况 用 which 指物，whom 指人。 is talking. 3． 先行词本身是 that 时， 关系词用 which, 先行词为 Those who respect others are usually those, one, he 时多用 who。 respected by others. III. as 与 which 的区别： 定语从句
限制性定 He is not such a fool as he looks. 名词前有 such 和 the same 修饰时，关系代词用 as, 语从句中 Don’ t read such books as you can’ t understand. 不能用 which as 和 which 都可以指代前面整个主句。 如果有 “正如， They won the game, as we had expected. 非限制性 象”的含义，并可以放在主句前，也可以放在后面， They won the game, which we hadn’t expected. 定语从句 那么用 as； 而 which 引导的从句只能放主句后， 并无 As is well known, he is a famous film star in 中 “正如”的意思。 the 1980s. IV. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别： 类别 语法意义及特征 例句
对先行词起修饰限制作用，如果去掉，主句意思就不完整明 限制性定语从 The accident happened at the time 确，这种从句与主句的关系十分密切，写时不用逗号分开。 句 when I left. 对先行词作附加的说明， 与主句的关系不十分密切， 较松散。 非限制性定语 从句和主句之间用逗号分开，相当于一个插入语，不能用 His mother, whom he loved deeply, 从句 that 引导，关系代词做宾语时也不能省略。 died ten years ago. 十．名词性从句 种类 作用 常用关联词 例句 Whether he will come or not doesn’t matter much. Whoever comes here will be welcome. It looks as if it is going to snow. He asked me which team could win the game. You have no idea how worried we are. The fact that he lied again greatly surprised us.
表语从句 宾语从句 同位语从 句
在复合句中做主语，相当于名词，一般 置谓语之前，也可用 it 作形式主语， that, whether, 主语从句放主句之后 if, as if, as though, who, whose, which, 在复合句中做表语，相当于名词，位于 how, when, 系动词之后 where, why, what, whatever, 在复合句中做宾语，相当于名词 whoever, 放在名词之后(news, problem, idea, wherever suggestion, advice, thought, hope, fact 等) 表明其具体内容
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十一。状语从句 种类 连接词 when, whenever, while, as, before, after, until, till, by the time, as soon as, hardly?when, no 时间状语 sooner ? than, the moment, the minute, immediately, directly, instantly 地点状语 原因状语 条件状语 目的状语 结果状语 比较状语 方式状语 where, wherever because, as, since, now that
注意点 主句表示将来意义时，从句须用一般现在时； while 引导的从句中动词一般是延续性的；until 用在肯定句中主句动词是延续性的，而否定句中 主句动词为短暂性的。
because 语气最强，since 较弱，表示大家都明了 的原因，as 又次之。
if, unless, once, in case, as long as, on 从句中动词时态不可用将来时，常用一般时代替 condition that so that 和 in order that 后常接 may, should, so that, in order that, for fear that could, would 等情态动词 so?that, such?that than, as?as, not so/as?as, the more?the more as if, as though, as as if 和 as though 引导的从句一般用虚拟语气。
though, although, even if, even though, as, no as 在让步状语从句中常用倒装形式；although 和 matter what, whatever, no matter who, whoever, though 用正常语序， 可和 yet 连用， 但不可和 but no matter which, whichever, no matter how, 连用 however, no matter when, whenever
十二。倒装句 种类 倒装条件 例句 here, there, up, down, in, out, off, away 等副词 开头的句子表示强调 Out rushed the children. 完全 倒装 表示地点的介词短语作状语位于句首 强调表语，置于句首，或为保持句子平衡 Under the tree stood two tables and four chairs. Present at the meeting were 1,000 students.
never, hardly, scarcely, seldom, little, not until, not 等表示否定意义的副词放于句首 Hardly did I know what had happened. only 和修饰的状语放于句首 not only?but also 连接并列的句子，前倒后不倒 neither?nor?连接并列的句子，前后都倒装 部分 倒装 Only then did he realized the importance of English. Not only does he know French, but also he is expert at it. Neither do I know it, nor do I care about it.
so?that, such?that 中的 so 或 such 及修饰的成分放 于句首时前倒后不倒 So busy is he that he can not go on a holiday. as 引导的让步状语 Child as he is, he has learned a lot.
so, neither 或 nor 表示前句内容也适用于另外的人或 He can play the piano. So can i. 事。 用于表示祝愿的祈使句中 May you be in good health! 省略 if 的虚拟条件 Were I you, I would not do it in this way.
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十三。虚拟语气 类别 与现在事实相反 If 引导的条 与过去事实相反 件从句 与将来事实相反
If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping. They are talking as if as if 引导的状语从句中动词用过去式或过去完成式 they had been friends for 其它状语从 years. 句 in order that / so that 引导的状语从句中动词用 can / could / may Turn on the light so that / might / would 等+动词原形 we can see it clearly. demand, suggest, order, insist 后接的从句中动词为 should+动词原 He suggested that we not 形 change our mind. 宾语从句 I wish I could be a pop wish 后的从句中分别用过去式，过去完成式和 should/would+动词原形 singer. 表示与现在，过去和将来情况相反 主语从句 在 It is necessary / important / strange that?, It is suggested It is strange that such a / demanded / ordered / requested that? 等从句中，谓语动词用 person should be our should+动词原形 friends. It’s high time that we It is time that?句型中动词用过去式或 should+动词原形 left. I would rather you stayed would rather 所接的从句中动词用过去式或者过去完成式 at home now. If only our dream had come If only 句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成式，表示强烈的愿望 true!
用法 从句动词：过去式（be 用 were） 主句动词：should/would/could/might+动词原形 从句动词：had+过去分词 主句动词：should/would/could/might+have+过去 分词 从句动词：过去式 / should+动词原形 / were+不 定式 主句动词：should/would/could/might+动词原形
例句 If he were here, he would help us. If I had been free, I would have visited you.
十四。重要句型 1. It was not until midnight that he finished his task. 2. Not until he came back from abroad was I able to see him again. 3. The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. 4. He walked around the house, gun in hand. 5. May you be in good health! 6. Wish you a pleasant journey back home! 7. The professor was a humorous man with big nose and deep-set eyes. 8. What surprised me most was his imagination and patience. 9. He lay on the grass, with his eyes looking at the sky and his hands under his head. 10. Sitting under the tree are Mr. Green and his first teacher. 11. On the wall hang two pictures of famous scientists. 12. Looking back upon those past years, he couldn’t help feeling very proud. 13. No sooner(Hardly) had he arrived at the theatre than(when) the play started. 14. Young as he is, he has learned advanced mathematics. 15. How I regret the hours wasted in the woods and fields! 16. There stands a beautiful vase in the corner of the room. 17. Ten miles north of the town lies a paper factory. 18. There goes the bell. 19. Nowhere has the world ever seen such a bird as here. 20. It is no use crying for help. 21. If only I had been your student in the middle school! 22. It is believed that such a thing will not happen again.
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23. 24. 25. 26.
Only when he explained did I realize the reason for this. “He works particularly hard.” “So he does, and so do you.” Not only Alice but also Jane and Mary are tired of having one examination after another. Such was Albert Einstein, a simple person of great achievements.
十五。动词搭配 1. add to 增加，增进 add ? to 把?加进? add up 相加 add up to 总计，所有这一切说明 1) I don't think these facts will ________ anything. 2) Fifty new books have been ________ the library. 3) The music _________ our enjoyment of the film. 4) You must have made a mistake when you _______ the bill ________. ( add up to, added to, add to, added?up ) 2. break away from 打破，脱离，挣脱，改掉 break down 出毛病，身体(精神)衰弱，分解，拆开 break off 暂停，中断 break in 强行进入，插话 break into 闯入 break into pieces 成为碎片 break out 爆发 break up 捣碎，驱散，瓦解，学期结束，拆散 break through 突破 1) The criminal managed to break _______ ______ the police and ran into the woods. 2) When he heard the news, he broke _______ and cried. 3) Don't break ________ while others are speaking. 4) Why don't you break ________ for a few minutes and have some coffee? 5) When does school break ________? 6) After harvest we break _________ the soil with a tool pulled by two oxen. ( away from, down, in, off, up, up ) 3. bring up 抚养，呕吐，提出 bring about 造成 bring out 拿出，出版 bring in 引入，引进，挣钱 bring back 使回想起 bring down 使下降，使倒下 1) The shopkeeper brought his price _________ to only five dollars. 2) The school has brought _________ new foreign teachers to teach oral English. 3) The song brought ___________ happy memories of our schooldays. 4) Do you know what brought ___________ this misunderstanding? 5) The kind old man agreed to bring __________ the young orphan. 6) We decided to bring the matter ___ at the next meeting. 7) The wind brought _______ a lot of trees last
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night. 8) Next month they will bring ________ a new edition of the book. ( down, in, back, about, up, up, down, out ) 4. call on 号召，拜访（某人） call at 拜访、参观（某地） call for 去叫某人, 要求, 需要 call up 使回忆起, 征召入伍 call in 召集，请某人来 call out 大喊，高叫 call off 取消，不举行 1) Doctors are often called _____ in the middle of the war. 2) Please wait for me at home. I'll call _______ you at your house at seven tonight. 3) The trains calls _______ several big cities between Beijing and Guangzhou. 4) He called her name __________, but she didn't answer. 5) The sports meet was called ____ on account of the rain. ( in, for, at, out, off) 5. come about 发生，出现 come down 下跌，落，降，传下来 come in 进来 come into (sight/being/existence/use/notice/effect) come on 来临/ 快点 come out 出版，结果是 come along 一道来，赶快 come to 达到 (an end/an agreement/a stop)苏醒， 合计，总共是 come over 走过来 come up 发芽，走近 come across 偶然碰到 come back 回想起 come from 来自，源自 1) I come _________ the book I lent you last month. 2) How did it come _________ that you both got lost? I thought you had a map. 3) It suddenly came _________ to me where I had seen the boy before. 4) Come __________ now, or else we shall be late. 5) He came __________ me like a tiger. 6) The price of petrol has come _________ since the beginning of this year. 7) The word came __________ use many years ago. 8) When the examination result came _________, he had already got a job. 9)The bill came __________ over a thousand dollars.
10) I sowed the seeds over a month ago, but they haven't come __________ yet. ( for, about, back, on, at, down, into, out, to, up ) 6. cut across 抄近路 cut down 砍倒，削减 cut off 切断，割掉，断绝关系 cut up 连根拔除，切碎 through 剪断，凿穿 cut out 删（省）掉，戒掉 cut in 插嘴 1) Don't cut ___ this tree. It will be very shady in summer. 2) You must cut ________ the number of cigarettes you smoke, or it will cause illness. 3) We decided to cut _________ the moor（旷野） to the village. 4) Cutting the tree ____ means cutting the tree into pieces. 5) The electricity was cut ___________ when the lady refused to pay the bill. 6) We were having a pleasant conversation when Tom cut __________. （down, down, across, up, off, in ） 7. die of (disease/hunger/grief/old age)死于（疾 病，饥饿，寒冷，情感原因） die from 死于（意外事故、情形） die away 渐渐消逝 die out 绝种 die down(炉火)渐熄 die off 逐一死去 8. fall behind 落后 fall over one's feet 跌跤 fall down 掉下，跌倒 fall back 撤退，后退 1) Babies often fall _____ when they are learning to walk. 2) Our team seems to have fallen __________ the others. 3) As soon as the enemies fell __________, the people returned to their village. 4) She fell__________ the bench and had her leg broken. （down, behind, back, over ） 9. go in for 从事，喜爱，参加 go through 通过，经受 go over 复习，检查 go up（价格）上涨，建造起来 go after 追捕，追赶 go against 违反 go ahead 先行，开始吧，问吧，说吧 go away 离开 go by 时间过去 go down 下沉，降低， （日、月）西沉 go on(with)继续进行 go with 相配，陪同 go without 没有，缺少 go out 外出，熄灭 go all out 全力以赴 go off 爆炸，进行，变坏，断电，停止供应
go back on 背约，食言 go beyond 超出 1) Many new factories have gone __ in the past few years. 2) Rents have gone __________ greatly recently. 3) Many years have gone ___________ since we first met. 4) Let's continue our journey until the sun goes _______. 5) His actions went ___________ the will of the people, 6) I can't do it, for it goes ___________ my duty. 7) Over 100 students went ____________ this entrance examination. 8) The bomb went ____________ and killed ten people. 9) The buyer went ___________ the car carefully before reaching a decision. 10) This tie doesn't go ___________ my blue shirt. 11) If you think you can solve the problem, go ______. 12) Many students went __________ playing basketball. (up, up, by, down, against, beyond, through, off, over, with, ahead, in for ) 10. get down 下来，记下，使沮丧 get down to 致力于，专心于 get on 进展，进步，穿上，上车 get off 脱下,下车 get in 收集，插（话） get away 逃跑，逃脱，去休假 get over 忘记，越过，克服，从疾病中恢复 get along with 进展，相处 get up 起床 get through 打通电话，完成，通过 get round 消息传开 get close to sth. 接近，几乎 get into (trouble) get to (know) get back 取回，收回 get out 1) She spoke so fast that I couldn't get ____ what he said. 2) We will find ways to get _________ difficulties. 3) The story has got __________, and everyone knows about it. 4) When I get _________ with the report, I'll go to the cinema. 5) After a delicious meal the two men got __________ to business. 6) Don't always get __________ a word when others are speaking. 7) It took me a long time to get ___________ such an unpleasant experience. (down, over, round, through, down, in, over) 11. give away 赠送，泄露，出卖 give out 发出，疲劳，分发，公布 give off 发出（光、热、气体） give in (to sb.) 屈服
give up 放弃，让（座位） 1) His accent at last gave him __________. 2) The liquid gave ________ a strong smell. 3) The headmaster gave ___________ the names of the prize-winners. 4) The soldiers gave _________ the town to the enemies. 5) Who will help me to give the books ___________? 6) Don't believe in those who give his friends ________. 7) After a long walk, my strength gave ____________. (away, off, out, up, out, away, out) 12. hand in 交上，提交 hand out 分发 hand down 流传，遗传 13. hang about 闲逛 hang up 挂电话 14. hold back 阻止，隐瞒 hold up 举起，使停顿 hold on 别挂电话，等，坚持 hold out 持续，坚持，伸出 hold down 控制，镇压 1) I'm sure he is holding something _________. 2) She managed to hold ______ her emotion until her guests had left. Then she cried. 3) Tell him to hold ________ a moment. I'll come soon. 4) Our food supply won't hold _________ for more than a few days. 5) The train was held ________ as a result of the floods. 6) These measures helped to hold ___________ the city's population. 7) Hold ___________ your left arm, please. (back, back, on, out, up, down, up) 15. keep up (courage, English, spirits)保持， keep up with 跟上 keep off (grass)不接近，离开 keep away from 避开，不接近，离?远远的 keep out of keep to (rules, promise)坚持，遵守 keep on 继续，坚持下来 keep back 阻止，留下，隐瞒，扣下 keep from 克制，阻止 1) The angry lady told the strangers to keep ________ from her. 2) I can hardly keep ________ my tears after hearing his words. 3) Only pride kept her __________ bursting into tears. 4) I can scarcely keep __________ asking him what he has done. 5) "Don't touch me," screamed the woman, "Keep __________!" 6) Keep _________ until you succeed. 7) Keep _________ your courage, and you'll succeed in the end. 8) The thick coat can keep the cold ___________.
9) Always try to keep ___________ the rules when you play a game. 10) I can't keep ________ with everything you're doing. (away, back, from, from, off, on, up, out, to, up) 16. knock at/on 敲 knock into 撞到某人身上 knock down 撞倒 knock out of 把?敲出 knock over 撞倒 knock off 停止工作，休息 1) The boxer soon knocked his opponent _________. 2) The office stuff knocks _________ at six every day. 3) Try knocking __________ the window and see if there is anyone indoors. 4) He was so absorbed in his book that he knocked __________ the car parked there. (down, off, on, into) 17. leave for 离开前往 leave out 删去，遗漏 leave behind 遗留,忘记拿走 leave to 留给，遗嘱赠于 leave over 遗留，剩下，延期 1) "Whose name has been left __________?" demanded the teacher. 2) When he died, he left all his property _____ his niece. 3) He suddenly realized that he had left his umbrella ___________. 4) Don't leave this matter _________ until tomorrow. 5) Leave some meat ___________ for tomorrow. 6) Those are questions left _________ by history. (out, to, behind, over, over, over) 18. look up 查找，向上看 look through 翻阅，浏览 look on 旁观 look on?as 看作 look into 调查 look after/ at / for 照顾/看/寻找 look out(for)当心 look about / around/round 四下查看 look down upon 瞧不起 look back upon 回忆，回顾 look ab. up and down 仔细打量某人 look ab in the face/eyes 直视某人 1) I spent two hours looking ______ the students' papers. 2)Look _______! There is a big hole in front. 3) He took part in the game, and the rest of us just looked ______ and cheered for him. 4) The old man looked _____ upon the days of his youth. 5) She was so snobbish（势利）that she looked __________ upon all his neighbours. 6) The police promised to look __________ the
case as soon as possible. 7) He looked __________ but saw nobody, and he listened but hear nothing. (through, out, on, back, down, into, about/around/round) 19. make up 编造，配制，打扮，组成 make up for 弥补 make into / of / from 制成 make out 弄懂，发现，看出,填写，开列（清单） make for 走向，驶往，促使 1) Can you make this length of cloth __________ a suit? 2) I asked the driver if he was making ___________ London? 3) My father made __________ a check for me to buy the camera. 4) We must make the loss _________ next week./ He tried hard to make ________ for the damage he had done. 5) He made __________ a story, which I found hard to believe. 6) Someone is coming, but I can't make ___________ who it is. (into, for, out, up/up, up, out) 20. pass away 去世 pass by 经过 pass down(on)?to 传给 pass through 经历 pass over 漠视，忽视 1) The old clock has been passed ________ to me from my grandfather's grandfather. 2) The man passed ___________ last week in peace. 3) We are passing ____________ difficult times. 4) The secretary passed ___________ the details in the first part of his report. (down, away, through, over) 21. pay back 还钱，报复 pay for 付钱，为?受到惩罚，因?得到报应 pay off 还清 1) How much did you pay __________ the dictionary? 2) You should pay _________ the money you borrowed from me. 3) I'll pay him ____________ for all his crimes(罪行) against me. 4) Some day, you'll pay __________ what you have done today. 5) Has she pay ____________ the debt yet? （for, back, back, for, off） 22. pick up 拾起，获得(information)，接人，站起， 收听，自然习得(language /knowledge)，恢复重获(pick up health) pick out 挑选，辨认，看出 1) I picked the information __________ while waiting in the queue. 2) My friend has arranged to pick me _________ at 6:00. 3) The patient has picked _________ health during the last two weeks. 4) She picked _______ the most expensive pair of
shoes. 5) I can't pick John ___________ in the crowd. 6) Can I pick __________ VOA with this short-wave radio? 7) He fell down suddenly, but picked himself ___________ quickly. (up, up, up, out, out, up, up) pick cotton/flower/leaves/words 选词 23. put up 搭起，张贴，举起，安装，投宿，安排住下 put up with 忍受 put out 伸出，扑灭 put off 推迟 put into 放进，翻译 put away 放好，存钱 put down 记下，平息 put on 穿戴，上映，增加(put on weight/speed) put forward 提出，提前 put through 接通电话 put aside 放到一边 put back 放回 1) He put _________ half his wage every week. 2) The government soon put __________ the revolt （暴乱）. 3) Put your watch __________. It's slow. 4) He put __________ his hand for me to shake. 5). Please put me __________ to Extension（分 机）2. 6) We put ___________ for night at the village inn. 7) He is very proud, and he often put _________ airs.（摆架子） 8) We had a telephone put _____________ in our office. 9) I can't put __________ with your laziness. (away, down, forward, out, through, up, on, up, up) 24. pull down 拆掉， 推翻 pull on 匆匆穿上 / off 脱 pull in 进站 pull out 取出,(火车) 离站 pull down 往下拉,拆毁 pull over 驶到一 边 pull through 恢复健康 , 渡过难关 , 脱离险境 pull up（使）停住 1) The train slowly pulled __________ and disappeared in the distance. 2) All the old houses here have now been pulled ______, and new ones are to be built. 3) The car pulled _________ when I blew the horn. 4) The doctor thinks the man will pull __________. 5) The driver pulled ________ at the traffic lights. (out, down, over, through, up) 25. push over 推倒，刮倒 push ahead(on, forward)继续前进，坚持下去 push through 排除困难办好谋事，努力设法通过， 挤过 1) We've decided to push __________ with our plan to build a new road
2) Many trees were pushed __________ in the hurricane. 3) They were determined to push the new rules ________ at any cost.. 4) Take care not to push the baby _________. 5) They pushed ___________ the crowd and at last reached us. (on, over, through, over, through ) 26. run across 偶然碰到 run after 追逐，追捕 run away 逃跑 run for 竞选 run into 偶然碰到（困难）遇见（人） ，相撞 run out of 用完 1) If you drive so fast, you'll run _________ someone some day. 2) I ran __________ a friend of mine in the exhibition. 3) Our water has run __________. Can you fill up some more bottles? 4) Why do you always run __________ adventure? 5) He didn't want to run ___________ president that year. 6) In that way you will only run __________ difficulties. ( into, across/into, out, after, for, into) 27. see off 送行 see through 看透，识破 see to 照料，照管 28. send for 派人去请 send off 送行 send out 发出（光亮）等 send up 发射 29. set up 建立 set off 出发，触发，引起 set out 动身，着手(to do)，陈述 set about 开始着手(doing) set to work(n.)开始做 set back 拨回，使推迟 1) I shall set my watch ___________ by five minutes. 2) We set __________ reading the text aloud immediately the bell rang. 3) We set _________ at daybreak yesterday and we've been travelling ever since then. 4) I set __________ to advise him not to drink. 5) What were the reasons he set ___________ in his report? 6) The president set __________ a special group of soldiers to guard him. 7) The unpopular law set _________ a series of protests.（抗议） (back, about, off/out, out, out, up, off) 30. take off 脱掉，起飞 take on 呈现 雇佣 take away 拿走 take in 吸收，领会 take up 从事，占用（时间空间） take down 记录，取下 take back 收回 take for 误认为 take along 随身带 take over 接管 take out 1) I take _________ all I said about his dishonesty. 2) He went to the shelf and took __________ a book
of poems. 3) At first I took him _________ a doctor. 4) I can see that most of you have taken ________ everything that the teacher taught. 5) Bill has now taken __________ his father's business. 6) My job takes __________ most of my time. 7) The boss took ____________ twenty people for his new company. (back, down, for, in, over, up, on) take charge of 负责, take sth. for granted 想当 然, take hold of 抓住, take pride in 以? ??为自 豪, take the place of, 代替 take turns to do 轮流 做, take office 就职 31. think of 想起 think of?as 把? 看作 think out 想出 think up 想出 think about 考虑 think over 仔细考 虑 think well of sb. 对某人看法好 32. turn off / on 打开 turn over 翻身，反复考虑，翻（书页） ，翻转 turn out 证明为，结果，制造成品 turn to 转向，求助 turn down 调低，拒绝 turn against 变得敌视，反对 turn away 打发走，驱逐，转过脸去 turn back 返回，转回去 turn round 转过身来 turn up 向上翻，露面，出现，音量调大 turn in 上缴 turn upside down 把倒置，弄得乱七八糟 1) The child turned __________ its mother for comfort. 2) Turn ___________ and let me see your face. 3) However much he turned the problem ________ in mind, he could find no satisfactory solution. 4) The English evening party turned _________ a great success. 5) The sight of the accident was too much for her to bear, and she turned _______. 6) The football stadium was full, and many people had to be turned __________. 7) The army turned him ___________ on account of (因为) his poor health. 8) She turned the whole house ___________ in her search for her missing purse. 9) Where did your purse turn ____________? I found it in the snow. 10) The villagers suddenly turned __________ the foreigners who lived nearby. 11) The factory turns ____________ 2000 new cars last year. (to, round, over, out, away, away, down, upside down, up, against, out)