IT 的 用法及练习
Uses of “It”
I、 用作人称代词的 it II.用作非人称代词的 it
IV.用在强调句型中的 it V. 用在固定结构中的 it
he train has arrived. It arrived half an hour ago. （2）用以代替提示代词this, that。 —What’s this? —It’s a knife. —Whose watch is that? —It’s mine. （3）起指示代词的作用，指一个人或事物。 —Who is knocking at the door? —It’s me.
“Where is the cat?”
“It’s under the bed.”
How about the baby?
---- I’ll take care of it.
Her mother kept telling her not to go out at night, but it didn’t help. 她母亲老叫她晚上不要出去，但是没用。
（2）指环境情况等。 It was very noisy (quiet) at the very moment. （3）指时间。 —What time is it? —It’s eight o’clock. （4）指季节。 It often rains in summer here. （5）指距离。 It is a long way to the school.
3. 用作先行词的 it
It 的 用 法
词或名词性从句时，常把以上真正 的主语放在句末，而用 it 放在主语 或宾语的位置上，使句子结构更清 楚。这时，it 叫先行词作形式主语/ 形式宾语。
时，常把以上真正的主语放在句末，而用 it 放在主语的位置上，使句子结构更清楚。这 用 时，it 叫形式主语。 法 ? e.g. It’s very useful to master English. ? It’s no use learning without thinking. ? It worried me that she didn’t phone.
It is not easy to finish the work in two days. It is no use crying over spilt milk. It is a pity that you didn’t read the book.
当宾语是动词不定式、动名词或名词性从 句时，常把以上真正的主语放在句末，而 用 it 放在宾语的位置上，使句子结构更 清楚。这时，it 叫形式宾语。 e.g. I feel it no use crying. ? I think it strange that no one would take the money. ? 注： it作形式宾语时，宾语之后一定要有 宾语补足语。否则，就不能用it了。因为 宾语已经在句末。
I think it no use arguing with him. I found it very interesting to study English. He made it clear （ ） that he was not interested in that subject.
4. 用在强调句型中的it (1)
宾语, 表语或状语时，常用： ? “It is/was + 被强调的部分 + that连剩余部 分”. 这种句型不能强调谓语动词。如果强调的 部分是人，可用who/whom代替that。 ? e.g. He is on duty today in the factory. ? ① ② ③ ④ ? ① It is he that/who is on duty today… ? ② It’s on duty that he is today… ? ③ It’s today that he is on duty in… ? ④ It’s in the factory that he is…
? 注1：②-④句中的that不能用where/when代替。 ? 注2：强调句型中的谓语只能有两种：was/is. ? 注3 ：强调主语时，谓语应与主语的人称和数保持
4. 用在强调句型中的it (2)
一致。 ? e.g. It is I that am a student. ? (不能用is/was/are/were) ? It was Tom and his sister that were praised. ? 注4：not until 句型用在强调句型中，主句不再倒 装了。 ? e.g. It was not until 9 o’clock that I went to bed.
4. 用在强调句型中的it (3)
? 注5： 要检查强调句型与其它句型的区别就是去掉 “it’s/was…that…” , 在将句子还原，不多一个词不少 一个词，句子结构完整，就是强调句，否则是其它句型。 ? e.g. It was last night that I saw the film. (强)
It was reported that these books sell well. (主从)
It is in the place that I was born. （强） ? e.g. It is the place where I was born. （定从） = It is the place that I was born in.
4. 用在强调句型中的it (4)
其结构为：“疑问词+强调句型的一般疑问句？” ? 即：“wh- + is/was it that连剩余部分？” ? e.g. Where were you born? ? Where was it that you were born? ? Where is it that we’ll leave?
Take it easy. Take it for granted. 的 Believe it or not. 用 ? e.g. “hello! Who is that (speaking)?” 法 “This is john/I (speaking). 不能用it代this
ones, that, those, it, this, that
1) one, ones, that, those
That替换单数可数名词或不可数名词；one只替换单数的可数名词。 The vase on the left is more beautiful than the one on the right. The coffee produced in Brazil is more famous than that in Mexico. That只用于替换表示事物的名词， 而one/ones替换表示人和表示 事物的名词皆可。
His younger sister is taller than the elder one. I need the plastic bags, not the paper ones.
That/ those一般用于替换有定冠词的名词；one/ones用于替换有 不定冠词的名词。
The style of the building is similar to that of a temple.
A CD player made in Japan costs more than one made in Hong Kong. The computers in our school are connected to the
Internet while those in their school aren’t.
The football players on our team seem to be more
energetic than those on your team.
That/ those一般不带前置定语，但必须有后置定语。One/ones 都可。当替换词的后置定语用所有格的of短语或当替换词被 所有格修饰时，不用one/ones而用that of/those of.
I like the vase better than the one / that in another shop.
The windows of your flat are cleaner than those of mine.
A grandparent’s job is easier than that of a parent.
2) it, this 和 that
So she decided to paint the door pink. It upset the neighbours a bit.
So she decided to paint the house pink. That really upset the neighbours, as you can imagine.
当前面提到的事物不止一件时， it通常指最先提到的事物，而 This/that是指最后提到的事物。
We keep the ice cream machine in the spare room. It is
mainly used by the children. (指 the machine) We keep the ice cream machine in the spare room. This/ That is mainly used by the children. (指the spare room)
Listen to this! We will have three days off. “A penny saved is a penny earned.” Who said that?
It用以指特定的前面提到过的事物，即：it和它替换的是同一个 事物，it前无修饰语；而one用于替换与前提事物有共同之处 但并不完全一样的事物，因此，one之前或之后一定有修饰语 来加以区别。
I bought a dictionary three years ago and I am still using it now.
I bought a dictionary three years ago but I am going to
buy a new one soon.
I. Discuss the following sentences and tell the function of “ it ”: 1. It’s difficult to remember all their names. 2. It’s very quiet in the café. 3. It rained for three days . 4. He made it clear that he didn’t want to speak to me . 5. It was nice to meeting you. 6. It was on Tuesday that Smith came. 7. It’s three miles from here to the nearest garage. 8. A tall man stood up and shook hands. It was captain Lawrie. 9. I hear you bought a new bike .Can you show it to me ? 10. It was five a clock when we got back home yesterday. 11. It was dirty and wet below the ship where the slaves were kept. 12. It was on this coast that lots of his people disappeared. 13. It was most likely that one third of them had lost their lives.
精典名题导解 选择填空 1. _________ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.(NMET 1995) A.There B.This C.That D.It 解析：答案为D。本题考查作形式主语的 用法。that引导的从句是真正的主语。为 避免头重脚轻而平衡句子结构，将it置于句 首作形式主语。
2. I hope there are enough glasse for each guest to have ________.(NMET 1995) A.it B.those C.them D.one 解析：答案为D。本题考查替代词it和 one的区别。it用于替代同类的、特定的、 同一的事物；one替代同类的、泛指的人 或物。根据题意“我希望有足够的杯子使 每个客人有一个。”可知应用one泛指 enough glasses中的一个。
3. Was __________ that I saw last night at the concert? A.it you B.not you C.you D.that yourself 解析：答案为A。本题考查强调句型的疑 问式。只须将句序变为陈述句便不难得出答 案。
4.（2005安徽29)It was 5 o’clock ____he went back. A. when B. that C. before D. since
5.I have always been honest and straightforward, And it doesn’t matter_____I’m talking to. A.who is it C. it is who B. who it is D. it is whom
6.It won’t be long ____ he comes to our help.
A. before C. after B.since D. when
7.( 05上海38）____in the regulation that you should not tell other people the password of your e-mail account.
A. What is required C. It is required B. what requires D. It requires
1. Do you see those three girls? I know ________ in the middle.
A.one B.a one C.this one D.the one
【解析】根据“three girls”这一语境的限定，中间的那个女孩 当然为特指，故用the one（相当于the girl）。选项C中的this与前句
2. As a student, we do need a lot of exercises to make the text
A.to be ours B.our own C.of our own D.ours own
为……”。如：Marx made London the base for his revolutionary work.
试题中的“our own”即“our own knowledge”，是动词make后的宾 补，该部分意思为“使课本知识成为自己的知识”。
3. In the time ________ takes to drink a cup of coffee, customers can get a pair of special-made shoes in this store. A.it B.one C.that D.when
【解析】本句为“It takes time to do sth.”句型，it takes to drink a cup of coffee为定语从句，修饰the time,定语从句中
customers在人称上不一致。 【答案】 A
4. —Come as quickly as you can, Jack. —Sure,________ won’t be long. A.I B. you C. that
【解析】“I won‘t be long.”为一固定说法，表示“我 很快就来（完）了” 。以人作主语，形容词long作表语的这 种用法又如： Will you be long? 你要花很久的时间吗？ Don't be long about it.别慢吞吞的。关于选项D，it虽然可 表时间，但不合本句的语境。 【答案】 A
5. Some students like to be told about American culture but are less
interested in spending the time and the effort to actually experience ________. A.one B.it C.those D.them
【解析】 it 在句中作动词experience的宾语，代替上文提
词。it所代替的是前面提到的特指的事物；而one所代替的是 前面提到的同类事物,但不是同一个事物。 【答案】
daughter. That is why we all respect and love him.? A.that B.it C.which
6. Mr.Smith’s love for us students is like ________ for a son or a D.those ?
【解析】 that可以作为替代词，代替前面的某个名词以避免措词重复，这 种替代词that代替的是“the+单数名词”，句中的that即“the love”。相应 地，替代词those代替“the+复数名词”。另有一对替代词：one和 ones,one代替的是“a+单数名词”；ones代替“泛指的复数名词”。如： The engine of your car is better than that of mine.(that=the engine) The book is different from those we have read before.(those=the books) I’m looking for a house.I'd really like one with a garden.(one=a house) There were a few young people with some older ones in the house.(ones=people)
7. Among ________ are some foreigners who attend Chinese classes at our college.
C.students of us
D.us of students
如：We students should learn how to learn.
A.neither B.either C.none
8. There are a few shops at the end of the street but ________ of them
【解析】 none表示“三者以上的人或事物中没有一个”，这 与前面的a few相呼应。no one表人，且一般不接of短语。
9. —Can you phone John for me? —Why can’t you phone ________?
【解析】 him为动词phone的宾语；yourself为反身代词作 主语同位语，表示“主语本人自己做某事”。反身代词常见的
在句子后面。如：He did it himself.（=He himself did it.） 【答案】 D
10. I had no idea which was better, so I took ________ of them.
A.all B.any C.every D.both