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Sentence Correction

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All New Sentence Correction Problems

1, 3, 6, 8, 11, 13, 16, 18, 21, 23, 26, 28, 31, 33, 36, 38, 41, 43, 46, 48, 51, 53, 56, 58, 61, 63, 66, 68, 71, 73, 76, 78, 81, 83, 86, 88, 91, 93, 96, 98, 101, 103, 106, 108, 111, 113, 116, 118, 121, 123, 126, 128, 131, 133, 136, 138, 140

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New Sentence Correction Problems by Category

Again, most Sentence Correction problems test your knowledge of more than one topic or issue. The following classifications are based on the primary topic tested in the problem. Meaning/Concision: 8, 16, 21, 31, 93, 98 Subject-Verb Agreement: 13, 66, 68, 78, 133, 140 Parallelism: 6, 11, 26, 28, 36, 46, 53, 56, 81, 83, 88 Pronouns: 1, 23, 91, 101, 113 Modifiers: 18, 38, 48, 58, 61, 63, 71, 103, 111, 121, 126 Verb Tense/Voice/Mood: 3, 41, 86, 128 Comparisons: 43, 76, 108, 123, 131, 136, 138 Idioms: 33, 51, 73, 96, 106, 118 Odds & Ends: 116

The correct answer is A. 1. Meaning/Concision: 8, 16, 21, 31, 93, 98 8. The widely accepted big bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding ever since. (A) that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding (B) that the universe had begun in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and had been expanding (C) that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that has expanded (D) the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that is expanding (E) the universe to have begun in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding Logical predication; Verb form The sentence describes the central tenet of a theory about how the universe began. The focus of the second clause should be consistently on the subject the universe, and all verbs in the clause beginning with that must describe what the universe did at the initial explosive moment. A B Correct. Both verbs in the second clause Had begun is the wrong tense because it Verb form; Logical predication The e sentence explains the expectations that resulted from a past retail sales trend. Since expectations look to the future but are not yet realized, the relative clause explaining these expectations should be conditional, employing the auxiliary verb would. A The simple past-tense verb form does not express the forward-looking sense of expectations. B Correct. By using the verb would double, this concise sentence indicates that the expectation has not yet been realized. C This construction is awkward, announcing the topic (personal spending) and then elaborating in a relative clause that restates this topic as it. D Although this option is not technically wrong, it is less clear and graceful than B. E Like option C, this sentence is awkward and unnecessarily wordy, announcing the topic and then using an additional clause to elaborate on it. The correct answer is B. correctly take universe as their subject. describes action that occurred farther in the past than some other, specified past action. C D The relative clause that has expanded The beginning of the universe to have been … is describes instant, which makes no sense. unnecessarily indirect and wordy; illogically suggests that beginning is expanding, not the universe. E The verb phrases to have begun and has been expanding both reference the same subject of the clause, universe, and therefore need to be parallel. (A) that personal spending in the July–September quarter more than doubled that of (B) that personal spending in the July–September quarter would more than double (C) of personal spending in the July–September quarter, that it more than doubled (D) of personal spending in the July–September quarter more than doubling that of (E) of personal spending in the July–September quarter, that it would more than double that of 16. Retail sales rose 0.8 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July–September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.

21. Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language. (A) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are (B) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are (C) Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are (D) Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, (E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, Grammatical construction; Logical predication This sentence introduces the subject (Neuroscientists), pauses to explain what neuroscientists have accomplished in the past twenty years, and then concludes by explaining what neuroscientists are presently doing as a result of their past accomplishments. The e second part of the sentence—the explanation—interrupts the flow of the sentence from the subject (Neuroscientists) to the predicate (are now drawing solid conclusions …); it should therefore be bracketed by commas. The sentence construction should provide a main verb for the subject neuroscientists. A Correct. Th e explanatory phrase between the subject and predicate is set off by commas, and the main clause contains both a subject (Neuroscientists) and a

corresponding verb (are now drawing). B And are indicates that are follows a previous verb, but in fact the sentence has not yet provided a fi rst main verb for the subject Neuroscientists; the sentence is therefore incomplete; over the … years appears to be modifying adulthood. C Amassing, like having amassed, functions as an adjective, not a verb; the sentence therefore lacks the fi rst main verb implied by the compound verb construction and are now drawing. … D Th e fi nal descriptor in present tense, now drawing conclusions … does not fi t the opening clause, which is in present-perfect tense (have amassed a wealth …) and seems to modify adulthood. E Like D, this sentence attempts to attach a present-tense descriptor to a present-perfect clause. The correct answer is A.

31.Unlike the conviction held by many of her colleagues that genes were relatively simple and static, Barbara McClintock adhered to her own more complicated ideas about how genes might operate, and in 1983, at the age of 81, was awarded a Nobel Prize for her discovery that the genes in corn are capable of moving from one chromosomal site to another. (A) Unlike the conviction held by many of her colleagues that genes were (B) Although many of her colleagues were of the conviction of genes being (C) Contrary to many of her colleagues being convinced that genes were (D) Even though many of her colleagues were convinced that genes were (E) Even with many of her colleagues convinced of genes being

93. Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refi ners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were last year. (A) Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refi ners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were (B) Heating-oil prices are expected to rise higher this year over last because refi ners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did (C) Expectations are for heating-oil prices to be higher this year than last year’s because refi ners are paying about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did (D) It is the expectation that heating-oil prices will be

Rhetorical construction; Idiom; Logical predication Th e sentence compares a widely held conviction about genes with McClintock’s adherence to her own ideas, then goes on to describe McClintock’s accomplishments. Th e sentence must not compare widespread convictions with McClintock herself. Th e clearest and most effi cient way to make the comparison is to introduce McClintock’s colleagues’ convictions in a dependent clause, followed by a main clause that introduces McClintock’s diff erent way of doing things and goes on to explain how successful she was. A Incorrect comparison between conviction and Barbara McClintock. B Were of the conviction of genes being relatively simple is wordy and awkward. C Contrary to many of her colleagues being convinced is wordy and awkward. D Correct. A dependent clause describing the beliefs of McClintock’s colleagues is followed by the main clause presenting the contrasting beliefs of McClintock. E Even with many of her colleagues … is wordy and indirect. Th e correct answer is D.

higher for this year over last because refi ners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil now than what they were (E) It is expected that heating-oil prices will rise higher this year than last year’s because refi ners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did Rhetorical construction; Idiom Th e sentence connects a comparison between this year’s and last year’s heating-oil prices with a comparison between this year’s and last year’s crude-oil prices. Th e most effi cient, parallel expression of those comparisons is to use two comparative expressions, higher than and more than. A Correct. Th is sentence expresses the comparison in succinct, parallel phrases. B Th e comparative form, higher, anticipates the comparative term than, not over; in the second clause, the comparative terms more than should immediately follow $5 a barrel. C Expectations are for … is an unnecessarily wordy and indirect expression; the possessive year’s is not parallel with the

adverbial phrase this year. D It is the expectation that … is wordy and awkward; for and what are unnecessary. E It is expected that … is wordy and awkward; the possessive last year’s does not parallel the adverbial phrase this year. Th e correct answer is A.

predication Even though, although, and while introduce clauses that appear to be logically incompatible but in fact are not. In this sentence, the apparent incompatibility that must be clearly expressed is that although the spear points are named for a particular place in New Mexico, they are in fact found throughout North America. Because their discovery took place in 1932 and is not ongoing, the correct verb tense is simple past, not present perfect.

98. Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were fi rst discovered in 1932. (A) Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were fi rst discovered in 1932. (B) Although named for the New Mexico site where fi rst discovered in 1932, Clovis points are spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces and have been found all over North America. (C) Named for the New Mexico site where they have been fi rst discovered in 1932, Clovis points, spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto the faces, have been found all over North America. (D) Spear points with longitudinal grooves that are chipped onto the faces, Clovis points, even though named for the New Mexico site where fi rst discovered in 1932, but were found all over North America. (E) While Clovis points are spear points whose faces have longitudinal grooves chipped into them, they have been found all over North America, and named for the New Mexico site where they have been fi rst discovered in 1932. A Correct. Th e even though clause expresses clearly that the seeming incompatibility is between where the spear points have been found (all over North America) and the naming of the spear points for a single site in New Mexico. B Th e sentence structure indicates that the expected incompatibility is between the geographically based name of the points and their physical properties, which makes no sense; where discovered is missing a subject— the correct form is where they were fi rst discovered. C Have been fi rst discovered is the wrong tense, since the discovery is a discrete event completed in the past. D Th e sequence of information in this sentence is confusing; even though and but both introduce information that is contrary to expectation, so to use them both to describe a single apparent contradiction is redundant and nonsensical. E While introduces a description of Clovis points and suggests that this appears incompatible with their appearance all over North America, which makes no sense; have been fi rst discovered is the wrong tense. Th e correct answer is A.

Verb form; Rhetorical construction; Logical

66. The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are Subject-Verb Agreement: 13, 66, 68, 78, 133, 140 13. A surge in new home sales and a drop in weekly unemployment claims suggest that the economy might not be as weak as some analysts previously thought. (A) claims suggest that the economy might not be as weak as some analysts previously thought (B) claims suggests that the economy might not be so weak as some analysts have previously thought (C) claims suggest that the economy might not be as weak as have been previously thought by some analysts (D) claims, suggesting about the economy that it might not be so weak as previously thought by some analysts (E) claims, suggesting the economy might not be as weak as previously thought to be by some analysts Agreement; Grammatical construction Th e plural subject of this sentence (surge and drop) requires a plural verb, suggest. Th e object of this verb, the clause beginning with that, should be presented in as clear and direct a manner as possible. A Correct. Th e plural subject is matched with a plural verb. B The singular verb suggests does not match the plural subject of the sentence. C The sentence off ers no plural subject to fi t the passive verb have been thought. D This construction is awkward, wordy, and imprecise; it also lacks a main verb; there is no reason to use passive voice, and suggesting about the economy that it might … introduces extra words that contribute nothing to the meaning of this sentence fragment. E The passive construction makes this unnecessarily wordy; the lack of a main verb makes this a sentence fragment. Th e correct answer is A. closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is famous for its aggressive hunting pods. (A) include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is (B) include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and (C) include the animal known as the killer whale, growing up to 30 feet long and being (D) includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow as big as 30 feet long and is (E) includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is Rhetorical construction; Agreement Th e subject of the sentence is the 32 species that make up the dolphin family, and the sentence makes two claims about them: Th ey are closely related, and they include the killer whale. Th e relative pronoun which restates the object of the second verb, reintroducing the animal known as the killer whale as the subject of a relative clause followed by two parallel verbs: can grow and is famous. A Correct. In this concise sentence, verbs agree in number with their subjects and the relative pronoun which indicates clearly that the animal known as the killer whale is the subject of the verbs in the dependent clause. B Changing the verb to the participial growing introduces ambiguity, because it could refer back to the subject of the sentence (32 species). C Th e participial growing might refer to the 32 species; the introduction of being is unnecessarily wordy and adds nothing in terms of meaning. D as big as is an idiomatically incorrect expression of the comparison; the plural verb form include is needed to match the plural subject the 32 species. E It simply restates the subject of the previous phrase, introducing more words but no additional meaning; the singular verb form includes should be the plural form include. Th e correct answer is A.

understandable. To this end, unnecessary words 68. The fi rst trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq. (A) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but (B) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also (C) having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but 78. Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in (D) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also (E) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but (C) sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, making this the Rhetorical construction; Agreement; Grammatical construction Th is sentence, explaining interconnections among a number of events, needs to be streamlined as much as possible in order to become earliest known mammal of (D) sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, making the sloth the earliest known mammal on (A) sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of (B) sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years old, thus making it the earliest mammal known on 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles Islands. and structures should be eliminated. Prominent among these are the relative clauses beginning with that. Additionally, the subject of this sentence is the plural trenches, which requires a plural verb. A Th at were cut … and that were arising … are unnecessarily wordy and create an unnecessarily complicated and confusing sentence structure. B In addition to the unnecessarily wordy relative clauses, the singular verb yields does not agree with the plural subject trenches. C Having been cut … is unnecessarily wordy; arising simultaneously must be followed by the preposition with in order to make sense. D Th e singular verb yields does not agree with the plural subject trenches; also adds no meaning to the sentence. E Correct. Unnecessary clauses and phrases are avoided, and the subject and verb of the main clause agree in number. Th e correct answer is E.

(E) sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, made the sloth the earliest known mammal of Agreement; Logical predication Th e subject of the sentence is the plural fossils, not sloth, and therefore requires a plural verb. It therefore does not have a singular antecedent. To clarify the identifi cation of the oldest known mammal, the noun the sloth must be explicitly identifi ed. A Because sloth is the object of a preposition and not the subject of the sentence, there is no reasonable antecedent for the pronoun it; in this construction, the subject of made is fossils, but it makes no sense to say that the fossils made it the earliest known mammal. B Th e introduction of the mysterious they, a pronoun without a reference, adds confusion to this sentence; the singular verb does not agree with the plural subject. C Th e relative clause that was … is wordy and awkward; the singular verb does not agree with the plural subject. D Correct. Th e plural verb agrees with its plural subject, and the sloth is explicitly identifi ed as the earliest known mammal. E Th e singular verb does not agree with the plural subject. Th e correct answer is D.

133. Last week local shrimpers held a news conference to take some credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp’s ridley turtle, saying that their compliance with laws requiring that turtle-excluder devices be on shrimp nets protect adult sea turtles. (A) requiring that turtle-excluder devices be on shrimp nets protect (B) requiring turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting (C) that require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets protect (D) to require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets are protecting (E) to require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting Rhetorical construction; Agreement Th e subject of the clause introduced by saying that is the singular noun compliance. Th is subject requires the singular form of the verb protect. Th e clearest, most economical way to describe the laws in question is to follow the word laws with a present participle requiring. To use an infi nitive, to require, seems to indicate that requiring these devices is the objective of the laws, when in fact the objective is to protect the sea turtles. A Th e plural verb protect does not agree with the singular subject compliance. B Correct. Th e singular verb is protecting agrees with the singular subject compliance, and the participial phrase beginning with requiring concisely and accurately describes the laws. C Th e relative clause that require introduces unnecessary wordiness; the plural verb protect does not agree with the singular subject compliance. D To require obscures the purpose of the laws; the plural verb phrase are protecting does not agree with the singular subject compliance. E To require obscures the purpose of the laws. The correct answer is B.

140. Rock samples taken from the remains of an asteroid about twice the size of the 6-mile-wide asteroid that eradicated the dinosaurs has been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus is evidence of the earliest known asteroid impact on Earth. (A) has been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus is (B) has been dated at 3.47 billion years old and thus (C) have been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus are (D) have been dated as being 3.47 billion years old and thus (E) have been dated at 3.47 billion years old and thus are

(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize (C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize (D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize (E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing Agreement; Parallelism

Agreement; Idiom Th e plural subject of this sentence, Rock samples, requires plural verb phrases—have been dated and are rather than has been dated and is. Th e idiomatic way of expressing estimation of age is with the phrase dated at. A Th e subject and verbs do not agree; dated to be … is not idiomatic. B Th e subject and verb do not agree; the conjunction and thus should be followed by a verb. C Dated to be is not idiomatic. D As being is not idiomatic; the conjunction and thus should be followed by a verb. E Correct. Th e plural verbs match the plural subject, and the wording of the sentence is idiomatic. Th e correct answer is E.

Th e plural subject chambers requires plural pronouns. Th e sentence explains a causal sequence: visitors’ breath introduced moisture that caused salt to crystallize, which caused the chambers to be closed for cleaning and repair. Th e phrase due to makes this causal sequence somewhat ambiguous, seeming to suggest that the repairs were due to humidity from visitors’ breath. A Due to is an imprecise expression of the causal connection between the tourists’ breath and the closing of the museum for cleaning; the singular pronoun its does not agree with the plural antecedent chambers. B It is not at all clear what the reference is for the pronoun its; fungus was growing should be parallel to salt … was crystallizing (not would crystallize) because it is another eff ect of the humidity. C Th e pronoun them seems to refer to tourists, which is nonsensical; the entire construction

Parallelism: 6, 11, 26, 28, 36, 46, 53, 56, 81, 83, 88 6. In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls. (A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing

is awkward and wordy; would crystallize is not parallel to was growing. D Once again, them seems to refer to tourists; the entire construction is awkward, wordy, and ambiguous; crystallize is not parallel to was growing. E Correct. Th e causal sequence is clear, and them clearly refers to chambers. Th e correct answer is E.

11. There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar. (A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid (B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them (C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid (D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them (E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid Parallelism; Verb form Th e purpose of the sentence is to describe the historically most popular method of building walls. Th e fi rst clause announces this topic and the second clause describes the particular method. Th e clearest, most effi cient way to accomplish these two pieces of business is to use a parallel structure. Th e ways to build in the fi rst clause is narrowed to the single way to form and to lay in the second clause. Th ere is no need to alternate the verb phrases between active and passive voice or to shift tenses. A Th e active gerund phrase the forming of bricks does not fi t with the passive verb phrase that follows (they are laid). B Th e verb phrases forming the mud … and to lay them are not parallel. C In addition to faulty parallelism between having bricks formed and they were laid, the tense in the second half of the sentence unaccountably shifts from present to past. D Correct. Th e phrases to form and to lay in the second clause are parallel to to build in the fi rst clause.

E Th e relative clause beginning with which apparently (but nonsensically) describes the closest nouns, mud or clay, rather than bricks. Th e correct answer is D.

26. Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else. (A) Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering (B) Dickinson were written over a period that begins a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ended shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber (C) Dickinson, written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and that ends shortly before Emily’s death in 1886 and outnumbering (D) Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother, ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, and outnumbering (E) Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber Parallelism; Grammatical construction Th e main point of the sentence is that Dickinson’s letters to her sister-in-law outnumber her letters to anyone else. To emphasize this point, outnumber should be the main verb, and the description introduced by the passive verb were written needs to be changed from a main clause to an adjectival phrase. A Th e long, wordy opening clause gives too much emphasis to the period when Dickinson’s letters were written; it is unclear what outnumbering refers to.

B Th e verbs describing the letter-writing period (begins and ended) are not parallel. C Th e verbs describing the letter-writing period need to be in parallel form and agree in tense—e.g., beginning and ending or that began and that ended; this is a fragment because it lacks a main verb for letters. D Th e lack of a main verb for the subject of the sentence, letters, makes this a fragment. E Correct. Th e information about the period when Dickinson’s letters were written is contained in an adjectival phrase set off by commas, and the main verb outnumber refers clearly to letters. Th e correct answer is E.

such to introduce the examples of crops requires that the comparison be completed with as instead of like. A Th e second item in the series violates the parallelism required for the series; like is the incorrect word to complete the introduction of examples. B Correct. Th e three items in the series are in parallel form, and such crops is correctly followed by as. C And basing it on … must come before the main verb in order to make this version a complete sentence. D Th e items in the description of the society are not in parallel form. E Like is the wrong word to introduce the

28. Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fi sh and shellfi sh, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources. (A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fi sh and shellfi sh, and exploiting (B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fi sh and seafood, and the exploitation of (C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fi sh and seafood, and the exploiting of (D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fi sh and seafood, and exploiting (E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fi sh and shellfi sh, and they exploited Diction; Parallelism Th e sentence describes the elaborate society of the Mochica with a series of three features, the fi rst of which contains an example. Th e three features must be presented in parallel structures—e.g., cultivating, harvesting, and exploiting. Th e use of

examples; based it on their cultivating such crops … is awkward and wordy; they based is parallel to they exploited, but for this sentence to work, and would have to be inserted before their harvest of fi sh. Th e correct answer is B. 36. Dressed as a man and using the name Robert Shurtleff, Deborah Sampson, the fi rst woman to draw a soldier’s pension, joined the Continental Army in 1782 at the age of 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become too ill to serve. (A) 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become (B) 22, was injured three times, while being discharged in 1783 because she had become (C) 22 and was injured three times, and discharged in 1783, being (D) 22, injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she was (E) 22, having been injured three times and discharged in 1783, being

Parallelism; Logical predication Th is sentence introduces Deborah Sampson

with a description of Sampson when she fi rst enlisted, and goes on to describe her career in the Continental Army. Th e information about her historical signifi cance interrupts the chronological fl ow of the sentence and must therefore be set off with commas. Th e sequence of events that marks her career must be presented as a parallel series of items. A Correct. Th e phrase that describes Deborah Sampson as the fi rst woman to draw a soldier’s pension intervenes between the subject and predicate of the main verb and thus is appropriately set off with commas; the three verbs in the main clause are in parallel form. B While being … indicates that Sampson was injured at the same time she was discharged from the Army. C Discharged should be in passive voice—was discharged—because Sampson did not do this herself. D Injured needs to be in passive voice. E having been injured … indicates that all Sampson’s injuries as well as her discharge occurred in 1783. Th e correct answer is A.

of the local artisans’ creative energy, and also constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them (E) the creation of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy as well as construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them

Idiom; Parallelism; Rhetorical construction Th e main point of the sentence is that artisans in ancient Th ailand spent most of their creative energy on three tasks: creating Buddha images, and constructing and decorating temples to enshrine the Buddhas. Th ese three tasks must be described in parallel forms. Th e verb expended should be followed by the preposition on, not for. A For is the wrong preposition; the and when … clause introduces faulty parallelism; it is unclear what they refers to. B Correct. Th e three activities are presented in parallel form: creation of Buddha images and construction and decoration of the temples. C Constructing violates the parallelism otherwise maintained by creation and decoration. D Th e and also phrase is awkwardly set apart

46. In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them. (A) much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them (B) much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined (C) much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined (D) creating images of Buddha accounted for much

from the main claim of the sentence— which is that all three tasks consumed much of the artisans’ energy. E Th is construction is awkward and unnecessarily wordy and says something diff erent—that the images accounted for the construction and decoration of temples. Th e correct answer is B. 53. The nineteenth-century chemist Humphry Davy presented the results of his early experiments in his “Essay on Heat and Light,” a critique of all chemistry since Robert Boyle as well as a vision of a new chemistry that Davy hoped to found. (A) a critique of all chemistry since Robert Boyle as well as a vision of a (B) a critique of all chemistry following Robert Boyle

and also his envisioning of a (C) a critique of all chemistry after Robert Boyle and envisioning as well (D) critiquing all chemistry from Robert Boyle forward and also a vision of (E) critiquing all the chemistry done since Robert Boyle as well as his own envisioning of

sandstone of Mathura or from (E) Empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

Logical predication; Parallelism Th e sentence makes two claims about the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India: Th ey date from the Kushan Empire, and they are made

Parallelism; Rhetorical construction Th e main objective of the sentence is to describe “Essay on Heat and Light” as Davy’s presentation of his own experiments and to further explain that the essay served as both a critique of previous chemistry and a vision of a new kind of chemistry. Th e clearest, most eff ective form for providing this explanation of the essay’s function is to make critique and vision both appositives of “Essay on Heat and Light,” and to present them in a parallel structure. A Correct. Th e phrases describing the essay’s function are presented in parallel form. B Critique and his envisioning are not parallel; the phrase and also his envisioning is unnecessarily wordy; it is also unclear to whom his refers. C Th e two descriptors are not parallel. D Th e two descriptors are not parallel. E Th e meaning is confused in the assertion that Davy critiqued his own vision of chemistry. Th e correct answer is A.

from sandstone or schist. Th e clearest, most eff ective way to incorporate these two claims into a single sentence is to provide two parallel predicates for the single subject, the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India. Th e two options of media, presented as either/or choices, must also be given in parallel structure: either from … or from … or from either … or. … A Placement of the modifi er fashioned … suggests that the Empire (the closest noun), not the images of the deities, was fashioned out of these materials; to parallel either from, the preposition from should also follow or. B Parallelism requires that either precede the fi rst appearance of from or that the second appearance of from be eliminated. C As in A and B, the placement of the modifi er after Empire is misleading; parallelism requires that the phrase fashioned from, or another comparable verb and preposition, follow or. D Parallelism requires that a verb follow or, since a verb follows either. E Correct. Two verbs, date and were fashioned, introduce parallel predicates for the subject,

56. Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan Empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist. (A) Empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or (B) Empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from (C) Empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or (D) Empire and either fashioned from the spotted

earliest known images; the choices of media are correctly presented with the structure either from … or from. Th e correct answer is E.

81. Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach. (A) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but (B) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by (C) caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by (D) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but (E) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

83. In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs, a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs. (A) a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing (B) a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing (C) a phenomenon occurring not just because of drugs that are becoming more expensive but because of doctors having also written

Parallelism; Diction Th e formula used in this sentence not this but that requires parallel elements following not and but. Th is means that not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods must be balanced by but by a bacterium … Th ere is no need to repeat the verb are caused, or even the auxiliary verb are, because the verb precedes the not by … but by … formula. Th e substitution of the conjunction and for the conjunction or changes the meaning of the sentence: Stress, alcohol and rich foods identifi es the combination of these three factors as a suggested cause of stomach ulcers, whereas stress, alcohol, or rich foods off ers three individual possibilities. Th ere is no way to tell which one of these is the intended meaning of the sentence. A To preserve parallelism, but should be followed by by. B Th ere is no reason to repeat the auxiliary verb are. C Correct. Th is sentence correctly uses the not by … but by … formula. D To preserve parallelism, but should be followed by by. E To preserve parallelism, but should be followed by by. Th e correct answer is C.

(D) which occurred not just because drugs are becoming more expensive but doctors are also writing (E) which occurred not just because of more expensive drugs but because doctors have also written Rhetorical construction; Idiom Th is sentence explains that a few high-cost products account for increased spending for two reasons—rising drug prices and more prescriptions for high-priced drugs. To present these two causes, the sentence employs a formula that requires parallel elements: not just because of x, but because of y, with x and y assuming the same grammatical form. One way to create this parallelism is to phrase both contributing causes as noun clauses beginning with the fact that. To streamline the sentence, unnecessary words and redundancies should be eliminated. One such redundancy is the repetition of meaning in explained and because of. A It is redundant and confusing to say that the phenomenon in question is explained … because of; the sentence structure is not parallel. B Correct. Th is sentence correctly uses parallel structure. C Th e phrasing drugs that are becoming and doctors having also written are awkward and

confusing; the placement of also is incorrect. D Th e structure of this sentence is not parallel. E Th e placement of also is incorrect; the structure of the sentence is not parallel. Th e correct answer is B.

subject, Th elonious Monk, has no verb. D Correct. Th e sentence concisely identifi es Th elonious Monk and expresses the single point about his work without unnecessary or misleading words. E Th e appearance of both is misleading, since only one point is being made about where

88. Thelonious Monk, who was a jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work both rooted in the stride-piano tradition of Willie (The Lion) Smith and Duke Ellington, yet in many ways he stood apart from the mainstream jazz repertory. (A) Thelonious Monk, who was a jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work both rooted (B) Thelonious Monk, the jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work that was rooted both (C) Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk, who produced a body of work rooted (D) Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk produced a body of work that was rooted (E) Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk produced a body of work rooted both

Monk’s musical roots are located. Th e correct answer is D.

Pronouns: 1, 23, 91, 101, 113 1. The Glass House Mountains in Queensland, Australia, were sighted in 1770 by the English navigator Captain James Cook, by whom they were named supposedly because its sheer wet rocks glistened like glass. (A) by whom they were named supposedly because its (B) by whom they were named supposedly and their (C) naming them supposedly since their (D) who so named them supposedly because their (E) who so named it since supposedly their

Grammatical construction; Rhetorical construction Th e subject of the sentence is Th elonious Monk, and the sentence tells about two things that he did: produced and stood apart. Th e work he produced was rooted in the mainstream (stride piano) jazz tradition, yet at the same time, he deviated from this tradition. Th e use of a relative clause (who was a jazz pianist …) or an appositive (the jazz pianist …) introduces unnecessary wordiness and grammatical complexity. Since only one point is being made about Monk’s body of work, the appearance of the word both in the clause presenting the claim about Monk’s work is deceptive as well as grammatically incorrect. A Th e relative clause introduces wordiness and confusion. B Th e appositive introduces wordiness and unnecessary grammatical complexity. C Th e sentence is a fragment because the main

Agreement; Rhetorical construction To avoid a wordy and confusing series of passive clauses, the relative clause explaining what James Cook did should be an active-voice construction (who so named rather than by whom they were named). Th e possessive pronoun referring to the Glass House Mountains should be plural (their rather than its), to agree with the plural antecedent. A By whom they were supposedly named is a passive construction that is unnecessarily indirect and wordy, especially immediately following another passive construction; the singular its does not agree with the plural antecedent the Glass House Mountains. B Th is version of the sentence loses the causal connection, failing to explain why James Cook gave the mountains their particular name. C As the object of a preposition and not the subject of the clause, James Cook does not

work as the noun that the verbal phrase beginning with naming can describe; the preposition since loses the important causal logic of the sentence. D Correct. Th is concise sentence uses activevoice construction in the relative clause and maintains agreement between the pronoun their and its antecedent. E Th e pronoun it does not agree with the plural Mountains and the following pronoun their. Th e correct answer is D.

should be past, not present; the pronoun it refers to the subject of the fi rst clause, weight, and it does not make sense to say that the weight of the discus is lined with lead. B Although the tense of the verb in the fi rst clause is appropriately past, the pronoun in the second clause is still referring to weight instead of discus. C Correct. Th e introductory phrase describes the past design of the discus with a past participle (designed) that modifi es the subject of the main clause (the discus); the main verb

23. In a previous design, the weight of the discus used in track competition is concentrated in a metal center, but now it is lined with lead around the perimeter, thereby improving stability in fl ight and resulting in longer throws. (A) In a previous design, the weight of the discus used in track competition is concentrated in a metal center, but now it is (B) According to a previous design, the weight of the discus used in track competition was concentrated in a metal center, but now it is (C) Once designed with its weight concentrated in a metal center, the discus used in track competition is now (D) The discus used in track competition, once designed with its weight concentrated in a metal center, but now (E) The discus used in track competition was once designed having its weight concentrated in a metal center and now

is lined is in present tense. D Th is version of the sentence is a fragment because it has no main verb. it has no main verb. E Th e sentence is missing a main verb in the fi nal phrase; was once designed must be followed by is now lined. Th e correct answer is C. 91. Nobody knows exactly how many languages there are in the world, partly because of the diffi culty of distinguishing between a language and the sublanguages or dialects within it, but those who have tried to count typically have found about five thousand. (A) and the sublanguages or dialects within it, but those who have tried to count typically have found (B) and the sublanguages or dialects within them, with those who have tried counting typically finding (C) and the sublanguages or dialects within it, but

Verb Form; Grammatical construction; Logical predication Th e sentence requires two tenses—past tense to describe the previous design and present tense to describe the current design of the discus. In the sentence presented here, the grammatical subject is weight, not discus, so the pronoun it grammatically refers to weight, which makes no sense. A Th e verb tense describing the previous design

those who have tried counting it typically fi nd (D) or the sublanguages or dialects within them, but those who tried to count them typically found (E) or the sublanguages or dialects within them, with those who have tried to count typically finding

Agreement; Idiom Th is sentence fi rst introduces a condition that

makes it diffi cult to count languages and then, with the conjunction but, introduces the topic of those who defy these diffi culties and try to count the world’s languages anyway. Connecting these two parts of the sentence with but indicates that the second clause of the sentence is counter to expectation. Th e challenges of the task are explained using the example of a single language and its many sublanguages or dialects. When this example is referred to with a pronoun, the pronoun should be singular; when the languages being counted are referred to with a pronoun, this pronoun must be plural. A Correct. Th e pronoun it agrees in number to its singular antecedent, and but indicates that the idea expressed in the fi nal clause defi es expectations. B Th e plural pronoun them incorrectly refers to the singular antecedent language; connecting the two clauses with the preposition with loses the sense that counting languages despite the diffi culties defi es expectations. C Th e second appearance of it, referring to world languages, is incorrect because it does not agree in number with languages. D Th e conjunction or is incorrect—the idiomatic expression is distinguishing between x and y; the plural pronoun them does not agree with the singular antecedent language. E Th e plural pronoun them incorrectly refers to the singular antecedent, language; with is an imprecise connector for the two clauses, losing the counter-to-expectation relationship between them. Th e correct answer is A.

past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. (B) An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear. (C) An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past. (D) Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear. (E) Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

Rhetorical construction; Logical predication Th is sentence explains that an executive who is blindly committed to a proven course of action is likely to overlook or misinterpret indicators that the plan may no longer be working. Th e sentence needs to make clear who may misinterpret these indicators. A Th e passive construction causes the sentence to be wordy and confusing; the reference for it is ambiguous, leaving the reader with questions about who or what is likely to miss these signs. B Th e sentence structure indicates that the executive, not his or her strategy, causes signs

101. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. (A) Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the

to be overlooked; the modifi er when they do appear is misplaced. C Th e reference for the pronoun it is unclear because many nouns have intervened between the appearance of the logical referent (course of action) and it.

D Misinterpreting should be an infi nitive verb form to parallel miss; the phrasing throughout the sentence is wordy and awkward. E Correct. Th e grammatical structure of this sentence and the appropriate placement of modifi ers expresses the meaning clearly and concisely. Th e correct answer is E. 113. Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fi sheries and oil fi elds of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands. (A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fi sheries and oil fi elds of large sea areas, they have already stimulated (B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fi sheries and oil fi elds of large sea areas, it has already stimulated (C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fi sheries and oil fi elds of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating (D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fi sheries and oil fi elds of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated (E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fi sheries and oil fi elds of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

A Th e there are … that … construction is unnecessarily wordy; in the predicate nominative instead of the subject position, provisions is not an obvious referent for the pronoun they. B Correct. In this sentence, the new maritime code is clearly the antecedent of it in the main clause and thus the subject of has already stimulated. C Under provisions of the new maritime code is a misplaced modifi er, seeming to describe sea areas; the sentence does not make clear what is stimulating … disputes. D Th e referent of this is unclear. E Th e sentence is a fragment, opening with a dependent clause (Because … code) and concluding with a relative clause, but lacking a main, independent clause. Th e correct answer is B.

Modifiers: 18, 38, 48, 58, 61, 63, 71, 103, 111, 121, 126 18. Plants are more effi cient at acquiring carbon than are fungi, in the form of carbon dioxide, and converting it to energy-rich sugars. (A) Plants are more effi cient at acquiring carbon than are fungi, (B) Plants are more effi cient at acquiring carbon than fungi, (C) Plants are more effi cient than fungi at acquiring carbon, (D) Plants, more effi cient than fungi at acquiring carbon, (E) Plants acquire carbon more effi ciently than fungi,

Logical predication; Grammatical construction Logical predication; Grammatical construction In this sentence, the there are … that … construction contributes nothing more than unnecessary words. Th e sentence needs to make clear whether provisions or code is the subject of the main verb stimulated. Th is sentence compares how effi ciently plants and fungi acquire carbon and convert it into sugars. Th e sentence construction needs to make clear that plants and fungi are the two topics being compared, and it must also clarify that in the form of carbon dioxide refers to carbon rather than to

either plants or fungi. A According to the sentence grammar, in the form of carbon dioxide describes fungi, which is nonsensical. B Th is sentence claims that plants acquire carbon more effi ciently than they acquire fungi, which is also nonsensical; the form of carbon dioxide still modifi es fungi. C Correct. Th e sentence clearly compares plants to fungi, and in the form of carbon dioxide correctly modifi es carbon. D Th is sentence is grammatically incomplete; there is no verb for the subject plants. E As in B, this sentence claims that plants acquire carbon more effi ciently than they acquire fungi; it is also grammatically incomplete because and converting does not clearly refer to anything. Th e correct answer is C.

takes a direct object. A After published her Discourse … arguing in a treatise is wordy and imprecise. B Arguing in a treatise is redundant and awkward. C Th e verb advocates does not work idiomatically with the prepositional phrase for changes. … D Th e verbal advocating does not work idiomatically with the prepositional phrase for changes. … E Correct. Th e title of Mott’s publication is followed by a phrase describing the treatise, and argued is followed by for. Th e correct answer is E. 48. In 1713, Alexander Pope began his translation of the Iliad, a work that, taking him seven years until completion, and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced the greatest translation in any language.

38. In 1850, Lucretia Mott published her Discourse on Women, arguing in a treatise for women to have equal political and legal rights and for changes in the married women’s property laws. (A) arguing in a treatise for women to have equal political and legal rights (B) arguing in a treatise for equal political and legal rights for women (C) a treatise that advocates women’s equal political and legal rights (D) a treatise advocating women’s equal political and legal rights (E) a treatise that argued for equal political and legal rights for women (A) his translation of the Iliad, a work that, taking him seven years until completion, and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced (B) his translation of the Iliad, a work that took him seven years to complete and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced (C) his translation of the Iliad, a work that had taken seven years to complete and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced it as (D) translating the Iliad, a work that took seven years until completion and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced it as Parallelism; Rhetorical construction Mott’s Discourse was a treatise, and it is redundant and confusing to present her as both publishing her Discourse and arguing in a treatise, as though they were two separate things. Th e verb arguing must be followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with for, but the verb advocating simply Logical predication; Grammatical construction Pope’s translation of the Iliad, not the Iliad itself, (E) translating the Iliad, a work that had taken seven years to complete and literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced it

took seven years to complete. Th e main point of the sentence is that Pope began this translation in 1713, and every other comment about it must be subordinated to that opening claim, in parallel relative clauses. A A work that … requires a verb; without it, the sentence is a fragment. B Correct. Pope’s translation is described as a work, which is then described concisely in two dependent clauses. C Th e pronoun it after pronounced is redundant, an ungrammatical reference to a work, which has already been referenced by the relative pronoun that. D Th e appositive phrase a work … incorrectly refers to the Iliad, not Pope’s translation. E Th e appositive phrase a work … incorrectly refers to the Iliad; the coordinating conjunction introduces inappropriate emphasis on Johnson’s description, and the expression is awkward and unclear. Th e correct answer is B.

ratio, so the correct idiomatic expression is x is to y what a is to b. A Th e opening phrase is a dangling modifi er because it describes Smith, not his books. B Th e opening phrase is a dangling modifi er; like is an incorrect word for making the comparison. C Th e opening phrase is a dangling modifi er; just as is an incorrect term for the comparison. D Similar to is an incorrect conclusion to the comparison introduced by are to. E Correct. Th e opening phrase is followed by the subject that it modifi es, Adam Smith, and the comparison of the two men’s work is presented idiomatically. Th e correct answer is E. 61. Rivaling the pyramids of Egypt or even the ancient cities of the Maya as an achievement, the army of terra-cotta warriors created to protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s fi rst emperor, in his afterlife is more than 2,000 years old and took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete. (A) the army of terra-cotta warriors created to protect

58. A leading fi gure in the Scottish Enlightenment, Adam Smith’s two major books are to democratic capitalism what Marx’s Das Kapital is to socialism. (A) Adam Smith’s two major books are to democratic capitalism what (B) Adam Smith’s two major books are to democratic capitalism like (C) Adam Smith’s two major books are to democratic capitalism just as (D) Adam Smith wrote two major books that are to democratic capitalism similar to (E) Adam Smith wrote two major books that are to democratic capitalism what Idiom; Logical predication A leading fi gure in the Scottish Enlightenment describes Adam Smith, not his two books, so the name of Adam Smith must immediately follow the opening phrase. Th e comparison between Smith’s books and Marx’s book is expressed as a

Qin Shi Huang, China’s fi rst emperor, in his afterlife is more than 2,000 years old and took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete (B) Qin Shi Huang, China’s fi rst emperor, was protected in his afterlife by an army of terracotta warriors that was created more than 2,000 years ago by 700,000 artisans who took more than 36 years to complete it (C) it took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to create an army of terra-cotta warriors more than 2,000 years ago that would protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s fi rst emperor, in his afterlife (D) more than 2,000 years ago, 700,000 artisans worked more than 36 years to create an army of terra-cotta warriors to protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s fi rst emperor, in his afterlife (E) more than 36 years were needed to complete the army of terra-cotta warriors that 700,000 artisans created 2,000 years ago to protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s fi rst emperor, in his afterlife

least Logical predication; Rhetorical construction Th e opening modifi er, Rivaling the pyramids … describes the army of terra-cotta warriors, which must immediately follow the modifi er. Th e placement of the predicates that follow is important; they must clarify two things about the army of terra-cotta warriors: how old it is and how long it took to complete. Th e clearest and most eff ective way to express these two assertions is as parallel verb phrases, is more than 2,000 years old and took … more than 36 years to complete. A Correct. Th e opening phrase correctly modifi es the subject, the army of terra-cotta warriors; the placement of modifi ers and predicates in the main clause makes the meaning of the sentence clear. B Opening phrase is a dangling modifi er because it does not describe the subject Qin Shi Huang; in addition, the sentence is awkward and unclear. C Opening phrase is a dangling modifi er because it does not describe the subject it; the sequence of information presented is confusing and unclear. D Opening phrase is a dangling modifi er because it does not describe the subject 700,000 artisans. E Opening phrase is a dangling modifi er because it does not describe the subject more than 36 years. Th e correct answer is A. Rhetorical construction; Verb form; Logical predication Th e sentence is about predictions that Troll gas fi eld’s yield would increase until it stabilized at a particular extraction rate in 2005. Th e term extraction rate refers to six billion cubic feet a day, so it is redundant and confusingly circular to rename six billion cubic feet with the relative pronoun which in the subject position and then reintroduce extraction rate as the object. A Th e relative phrase beginning with which is nonsensical, since the pronoun reference is inaccurate, and the phrase essentially says that the extraction rate enables the extraction rate. B Correct. Th e infi nitive to stabilize parallels to increase; information about the six billion cubic feet a day is expressed clearly and concisely in an appositive phrase containing a relative clause (an extraction rate that will allow …). C Th e phrasing is awkward and unclear; stabilizing is an incorrect verb form; it should be an infi nitive to parallel to increase. 63. The yield of natural gas from Norway’s Troll gas fi eld is expected to increase annually until the year 2005 and then to stabilize at six billion cubic feet a day, which will allow such an extraction rate at least for 50 years’ production. (A) 2005 and then to stabilize at six billion cubic feet a day, which will allow such an extraction rate at least for (B) 2005 and then to stabilize at six billion cubic feet a day, an extraction rate that will allow at D Stabilizing is an incorrect verb form; it should be an infi nitive to parallel to increase; the subsequent phrase is awkward and confusing because it is not clear what noun allowing is supposed to modify. E Stabilizing violates the requirement of parallelism, and which introduces a nonsensical redundancy, eff ectively making the claim that the extraction rate (six billion cubic feet) enables the extraction rate. Th e correct answer is B. (C) 2005 and then stabilizing at six billion cubic feet a day, with such an extraction rate at the least allowing (D) 2005, then stabilizing at six billion cubic feet a day, allowing such an extraction rate for at least (E) 2005, then stabilizing at six billion cubic feet a day, which will allow such an extraction rate for at least

71. Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy, where the models are encased in glass or operated only by staff members, the Virtual Leonardo Project, an online version of the museum, encourages visitors to “touch” each exhibit, which thereby activates the animated functions of the piece. (A) exhibit, which thereby activates (B) exhibit, in turn an activation of (C) exhibit, and it will activate (D) exhibit and thereby activate (E) exhibit which, as a result, activates

(B) wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of (C) which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all (D) which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely (E) living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all Idiom; Logical predication; Rhetorical construction Th is sentence identifi es yellow jackets as one of 900 types of social wasps and provides an explanation

Grammatical construction; Logical predication Th e relative pronoun which requires an antecedent, and there is none provided in this sentence. It makes more sense to make the visitors the agents responsible for the action of both the verbs—touch and activate. Because to “touch” is an infi nitive, the second verb form must be, as well, though the to may be implied. A Which has no antecedent in the sentence, so it is unclear what activated the display. B In turn an activation … seems to be the subject of a new clause, but it has no verb, so the sentence is incomplete. C Th ere is no antecedent for it because touch is a verb. D Correct. Th e agent of the action is clearly indicated by the grammatical structure of the sentence; visitors are encouraged to “touch” … and thereby (to) activate. E Which has no antecedent in this sentence. Th e correct answer is D.

of the term social wasps. In this explanation, the society or population—not the individual wasps themselves—consists almost entirely of females. Th e three descriptors of social wasps (cooperative, organized, and consisting almost entirely of females) are most eff ectively expressed in parallel structures. A Th ey, referring to wasps, is an incorrect subject for consist. B Correct. Th e three descriptors of the wasp society are in parallel form, and consisting properly modifi es society. C Th e sentence structure makes it unclear what almost all females describes. D And it is … violates the parallelism of the three descriptors of social wasps. E And it consists … violates the parallelism of the three descriptors. Th e correct answer is B.

111. Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was offi cially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in 103. Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world’s social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers. (A) wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles. (A) which was offi cially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,

(B) offi cially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and (C) which was offi cially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and (D) offi cially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it (E) offi cially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again (C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again (D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again (E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to

Grammatical construction; Verb form Th e main subject of the sentence is Construction, and it has two main verbs: began and was completed. Th ese two verbs should be connected by the conjunction and to preserve their equal grammatical status. Both verbs should be in simple past tense. A Th e conjunction is missing before the second main verb, was completed. B Begun is the wrong verb form. C Correct. Th e two verbs of the main clause are in simple past tense and are joined with and. D Th ere is no need to use the pronoun it as the subject of was completed, because Roman Colosseum (modifi ed by phrases describing its name and the time it was begun) already serves as the subject of the fi nal verb. E Th e appearance of the relative pronoun as the subject of the main verbs deprives the term construction of a verb and makes this sentence a fragment. Th e correct answer is C.

moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

Logical predication; Rhetorical construction Th is sentence explains why a trend of declining wine sales reversed after the publication of a 1991 report suggesting that moderate consumption of red wine correlated with reduced risk of heart disease. Th e phrase particularly of red wine modifi es consumption of alcohol, and the sentence must make clear that it is moderate consumption, not red wine that the report links to reduced risk. A Correct. In the second clause, they refers correctly to sales of wines; the relative clause beginning with that clearly indicates that the report linked moderate consumption … with a reduced risk. B Particularly red wine cannot describe consumption—the preposition of is needed; the placement of they so far from the position of the antecedent Sales makes the sentence awkward and diffi cult to decode.

121. Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. (A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease

C Th e clause beginning with which refers to red wine in this construction, erroneously suggesting that wine rather than moderate consumption of alcohol correlates with reduced risk of heart disease; particularly of red wine is not parallel to moderate alcohol consumption; it needs to follow moderate consumption of alcohol to make sense.

D Without the preposition of, the sentence indicates that red wine is a kind of consumption—which makes no sense. E Th e incorrect placement of the modifi er in a 1991 report suggests that wine is being consumed (albeit in moderation) in the report itself. Th e correct answer is A.

pronoun that (reactions). C Th is construction is less successful at clarifying the chain of events because creating seems to refer back to lying; if used as a participial, creating would have to be preceded by a comma. D Th is construction does not make clear the causal chain of events, because it is unclear which noun to create should attach to; the infi nitive construction implies intent, which

126. The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses. (A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses (B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn (C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses (D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious (E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

does not really make sense. E Because reactions is not a person, who is the wrong relative pronoun to use. Th e correct answer is A.

Verb Tense/Voice/Mood: 3, 41, 86, 128 3. Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American poets had professed an interest in Native American poetry and had pretended to imitate Native American forms in their own works, until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study traditional Native American poetry in native languages. (A) until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study

Agreement; Rhetorical construction; Logical predication Th is sentence describes a cause-and-eff ect sequence; in the underlined portion of the sentence, the relative pronoun that refers to the plural noun reactions. Th e verb in the relative clause must therefore be a plural verb. Th e causal sequence is most clearly expressed by a relative clause that turns the object emotional reactions (from the clause lying causes emotional reactions in an individual) into the subject (that) of a new clause (that in turn create unconscious physiological responses). In turn is best placed before the verb of the second relative clause, create, to clarify that a chain of events is being described. A Correct. Th is construction clearly indicates the causal sequence. B Th e singular verb creates does not agree with the subject referenced by the relative

(B) until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not begun seriously studying (C) not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics to begin seriously to study (D) it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and critics began to seriously study (E) it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying

Verb form; Rhetorical construction Th e past-perfect verbs had professed and had pretended designate a time (eighteenth and nineteenth century) earlier than simple past tense, so the second clause, explaining what happened around 1900, must use the past tense. Th e placement of the phrase until almost 1900 at the beginning of the second clause is confusing. Does it refer back to the fi rst verb or forward to the

next verb? A Th e tenses are fi ne in this version, but the placement of until almost 1900 is problematic. B Th e tense of the second clause needs to be simple past, not past perfect. C Th e sequence of infi nitives (to begin seriously to study) is awkward and wordy. D Not almost until is a nonsensical sequence of modifi ers. E Correct. Th e phrase not until almost 1900 is properly placed, and the verb in the main clause is in the simple past tense. Th e correct answer is E. 41. To develop more accurate population forecasts, demographers have to know a great deal more than now about the social and economic determinants of fertility. (A) have to know a great deal more than now about the social and economic (B) have to know a great deal more than they do now about the social and economical (C) would have to know a great deal more than they do now about the social and economical (D) would have to know a great deal more than they do now about the social and economic (E) would have to know a great deal more than now about the social and economic

wrong adjective. C Economical is the wrong adjective. D Correct. Conditional knowledge, indicated by would have to know, is correctly compared to current knowledge. E Wrong comparison—between what demographers need to know and now. Th e correct answer is D. 86. The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profi ts, which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years. (A) which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell (B) which had increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it had fallen (C) which have increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling (D) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling (E) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after having fallen

Verb form; Agreement; Idiom Th is sentence describes two sequentially ordered indicators by which the results of a company’s costcutting measures can be seen. Th e fi rst indicator to be identifi ed, a 5 percent increase in profi ts,

Verb form; Logical predication Th is sentence explains a hypothetical situation and therefore calls for a conditional—or contrarytofact—construction, because in order to more accurately predict population, demographers would have to know more than they presently know. A present-tense verb is required to describe the current state of demographers’ knowledge, and the comparison made by the sentence must be between current and conditional knowledge, not between knowledge and time of knowing (now). A Wrong comparison—between knowledge and time (now); conditional verb is needed. B Conditional verb is needed; economical is the

occurred after the indicator mentioned next. Th e sentence therefore needs to clarify the sequence by presenting the fi rst-identifi ed indicator in a clause with a verb tense that indicates a later time period than the verb tense in the clause presenting the second-identifi ed indicator. Th e subject of the relative clause, which, refers to the plural noun profi ts, so subsequent pronouns referring to these profi ts must also be plural. A Th e verb tenses do not distinguish between the times at which these indicators occurred; the singular it does not agree with the plural profi ts. B Th e verb tenses do not distinguish between

the times when the indicators occurred; the singular it does not agree with the plural profi ts. C Correct. Th e verb tenses clearly indicate the sequence of events. D It is not clear what connection is being described by with; the prepositional phrase makes the sentence wordy and unclear. E It is not clear what connection is being described by with; the prepositional phrase makes the sentence wordy and unclear. Th e correct answer is C.

prices; moreover, since the past-perfect tense indicates that one event in the past occurred prior to another event in the past, the pasttense did would be required rather than the present-tense have. Th e correct answer is C. 88. Thelonious Monk, who was a jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work both rooted in the stride-piano tradition of Willie (The Lion) Smith and Duke Ellington, yet in many ways he stood apart from the mainstream jazz repertory

128. Australian embryologists have found evidence that 87. In an effort to reduce their inventories, Italian vintners have cut prices; their wines have been priced to sell, and they are. (A) have been priced to sell, and they are (B) are priced to sell, and they have (C) are priced to sell, and they do (D) are being priced to sell, and have (E) had been priced to sell, and they have suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving as a kind of snorkel. (A) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving (B) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving (C) suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally Verb form In the underlined segment, the second verb does not need to repeat the word sell because it is understood from the previous verb phrase priced to sell. However, the second verb must be correctly conjugated with the understood sell. Th ey are sell is not a correct verb form; they do sell is correct. A Th ey are would require selling to complete it, not sell. B Th ey have would require sold to complete it, not sell. C Correct. Th is sentence properly uses they do in place of they do sell, a grammatically correct verb. D Have would require sold to complete it, not sell; omitting the subject they requires that the comma be omitted as well. E Th ey have would require sold to complete it, not sell; the past-perfect had been priced suggests illogically that the wines were already priced to sell before the vintners cut Parallelism; Verb form Th e clearest, most economical way of expressing the two things suggested by Australian embryologists’ evidence is to format them as relative clauses serving as parallel direct objects of the verb suggest. It is awkward and confusing to string together relative clauses: evidence that suggests that the elephant. … A clearer way of making this connection is to turn the verb suggests into a participle modifying evidence. Th e word descended is a predicate adjective following the present-tense verb is and describing the present-day elephant. evolved (D) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved (E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

Th e verb evolved should be past tense because it describes how the trunk of the elephant originally evolved, not how it is evolving today. A Th e string of relative phrases is awkward and confusing; the phrase following the conjunction and is not parallel with the relative clause that the elephant is descended. … B Th e evidence still suggests these things about the evolution of the elephant and its trunk, so the present-perfect verb tense is inaccurate. C Had descended is the wrong verb tense; with cannot be followed by an independent clause. D Had descended is the wrong tense; the phrase following the conjunction and does not parallel the relative clause that precedes the conjunction. E Correct. Th e two dependent clauses beginning with that are in parallel form and contain verbs in the correct tenses. Th e correct answer is E.

Th e comparison in this sentence is between the land area of Laos and the land area of Great Britain, not between the land area of Laos and Great Britain. Th e phrase about the population of Laos is most clearly and effi ciently expressed in an appositive using a relative pronoun to refer back to people rather than the more abstract population. Using this construction keeps the appropriate emphasis on the two main claims being made about Laos, one describing its land area and the other its sparse population. A Th e comparison between land area and Great Britain is incorrect; where is an inappropriate referent to population, which does not designate a place. B Inappropriate comparison between land area and Great Britain; the there is … construction is wordy and imprecise. C Th e reference of them is unclear and the expression is generally awkward. D Th e coordinating conjunction and gives undue emphasis to the claim that many of the people in Laos live in inaccessible places. E Correct. Th e land area of Laos is correctly

Comparisons: 43, 76, 108, 123, 131, 136, 138 43. Laos has a land area about the same as Great Britain but only four million in population, where many are members of hill tribes ensconced in the virtually inaccessible mountain valleys of the north. (A) about the same as Great Britain but only four million in population, where many (B) of about the same size as Great Britain is, but in Laos there is a population of only four million, and many (C) that is about the same size as Great Britain’s land area, but in Laos with a population of only four million people, many of them (D) comparable to the size of Great Britain, but only four million in population, and many (E) comparable to that of Great Britain but a population of only four million people, many of whom

compared to that of Great Britain; whom refers appropriately to people. Th e correct answer is E. 76. Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that shoppers were getting a head start on buying their holiday gifts. (A) of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that (B) of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because (C) of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because (D) their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because (E) their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that

Rhetorical construction; Parallelism Logical predication; Grammatical construction Th is sentence gives two equally plausible reasons

for the moderate gains retailers reported in November sales. Th ese two reasons are introduced with a formula that requires parallel structure: As much because x as because y. Th e clearest, most effi cient way to fi ll this formula is to follow because with clauses with active verbs, thereby eliminating the wordiness that accompanies prepositional phrases (because of …) followed by participial phrases (e.g., being so bad or having been as bad). A Th e participial phrase being so bad … is wordy and awkward; the elements following because are not parallel. B Participial phrases make this version of the sentence wordy and awkward. C Th is version makes an incorrect comparison between previous sales and shoppers’ strategies in November; the participial phrase is wordy and awkward. D Correct. Th e comparison is clearly expressed with concise, parallel clauses. E Th is makes an incorrect comparison between previous sales and shoppers’ strategies in November. Th e correct answer is D.

self-confi dence, a high self-esteem, and be responsibly independent when they are an adolescent. (E) Rather than permissive parents, the children of authoritative parents are the more likely to have self-confi dence, a high self-esteem, and to be responsibly independent as an adolescent.

Grammatical construction; Logical predication Th e sentence compares authoritative parents to permissive parents in terms of the kinds of adolescent children they are likely to have. Versions of the sentence that compare parents to children are nonsensical. Th e three characteristics most likely exemplifi ed by children of authoritative parents should be presented in parallel structure. A Correct. Th e sentence eff ectively compares authoritative parents to permissive parents and expresses the characteristics of the children in parallel form. B Th e sentence is a fragment, since the main subject, authoritative parents, has no verb C To preserve parallelism, the infi nitive marker to should appear only before the fi rst verb in the series OR it should appear before

108. Authoritative parents are more likely than permissive parents to have children who as adolescents are selfconfident, high in self-esteem, and responsibly independent. (A) Authoritative parents are more likely than permissive parents to have children who as adolescents are self-confi dent, high in selfesteem, and responsibly independent. (B) Authoritative parents who are more likely than permissive parents to have adolescent children that are self-confi dent, high in self-esteem, and responsibly independent. (C) Children of authoritative parents, rather than permissive parents, are the more likely to be self-confi dent, have a high self-esteem, and to be responsibly independent as adolescents. (D) Children whose parents are authoritative rather than being permissive, are more likely to have

all three verbs; the sentence seems to be comparing children and parents. D Th e word being destroys the parallelism between authoritative and permissive; the single predicate noun adolescent does not agree with the plural subject they. E Th is sentence unintentionally compares children and parents. Th e correct answer is A.

123. She was less successful after she had emigrated to New York compared to her native Germany, photographer Lotte Jacobi nevertheless earned a small group of discerning admirers, and her photographs were eventually exhibited in prestigious galleries across the United States. (A) She was less successful after she had emigrated to New York compared to (B) Being less successful after she had emigrated to New York as compared to (C) Less successful after she emigrated to New York than she had been in (D) Although she was less successful after emigrating to New York when compared to (E) She had been less successful after emigrating to New York than in Idiom; Grammatical construction; Logical predication Th is sentence compares the success Jacobi experienced after moving to New York to the success she had previously experienced in Germany. Th e phrase less successful anticipates the conclusion of the comparison with the phrase than. … Th e main subject of the sentence is photographer Lotte Jacobi, and the main verb is earned. Th e opening clause She was less successful … therefore creates a comma splice if the comma is not followed by a conjunction. Th e most effi cient way to incorporate the information about Jacobi’s comparative successes in Germany and in New York is to turn this clause into an adjectival phrase describing Jacobi. A Less successful … anticipates than rather than compared to …; a comma is insuffi cient to join two independent clauses into a single sentence. B As compared to is an incorrect way to complete the comparison introduced by less; Being … is unnecessarily wordy and awkward. C Correct. Th e idiomatic construction less successful … than is incorporated into an introductory adjectival phrase modifying Lotte Jacobi.

D When compared to is an incorrect phrase to complete the comparison introduced by less. E A comma is insuffi cient to join two independent clauses into a single sentence; past-perfect tense is misleading, since it refers to Jacobi’s experience in New York, which in fact followed her experience in Germany. Th e correct answer is C.

131. Over 75 percent of the energy produced in France derives from nuclear power, while in Germany it is just over 33 percent. (A) while in Germany it is just over 33 percent (B) compared to Germany, which uses just over 33 percent (C) whereas nuclear power accounts for just over 33 percent of the energy produced in Germany (D) whereas just over 33 percent of the energy comes from nuclear power in Germany (E) compared with the energy from nuclear power in Germany, where it is just over 33 percent

Rhetorical construction; Logical predication Th is sentence compares percentages and uses the prepositional phrases in France and in Germany to distinguish the percentage of energy in each country coming from nuclear power. Th is information is most effi ciently and clearly presented in two clauses joined by the conjunction whereas, which signifi es a diff erence between the situations in the two countries. Each clause must identify what the percentage refers to—that is, the portion of the respective country’s energy that comes from nuclear power. A While is somewhat ambiguous, since it might indicate simultaneity rather than contrast; the referent of it is ambiguous, raising questions about just what two things are being compared. B Th is sentence compares 75 percent to Germany; it is not clear what 33 percent refers to. C Correct. Th e two clauses joined by whereas

indicate clearly that the comparison is between the diff erent percentages of energy coming from nuclear power. D Th e use of the defi nite article the makes it seem as though the energy being referred to in this part of the sentence is that of France. E Th is construction is wordy and unclear; the referent of it is ambiguous. Th e correct answer is C.

A Correct. Parallel structures make clear that the tubes in mammals are being contrasted with the tubes in birds. B Th e faulty parallelism results in a sentence that is confusing and unnecessarily wordy. C Th e sentence compares mammals and birds’ tubes. D Because of faulty parallelism, this sentence also compares mammals and tubes in birds. E Th is structure is wordy and confusing because of faulty parallelism.

136. Whereas in mammals the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes form a random pattern. (A) Whereas in mammals the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes (B) Whereas the tiny tubes for the conveying of nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in mammals in parallel lines, birds have tubes that (C) Unlike mammals, where the tiny tubes for conveying nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, birds’ tubes (D) Unlike mammals, in whom the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, the tubes in birds (E) Unlike the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells, which in mammals are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes

Th e correct answer is A. 138. In no other historical sighting did Halley’s Comet cause such a worldwide sensation as did its return in 1910–1911. (A) did its return in 1910–1911 (B) had its 1910–1911 return (C) in its return of 1910–1911 (D) its return of 1910–1911 did (E) its return in 1910–1911 Parallelism; Verb form; Logical predication Th e single subject of this sentence is Halley’s Comet, and its single verb phrase is did cause. Th e comparison presented by the sentence is between adverbial phrases describing times when the comet was seen. Grammatically, the items being compared are parallel prepositional phrases beginning with the preposition in: in no other sighting and in its return in 1910–1911. Th is is the

Idiom; Rhetorical construction; Parallelism Whereas introduces two contrasting situations or events and should be followed by parallel structures. In this sentence, whereas is immediately followed by a clause beginning with the prepositional phrase in mammals; this means that the second part of the sentence must also be a clause that opens with a preposition that functions in the same way—in this case, in birds. Th is structure clarifi es that the things being contrasted are the tubes in mammals and the tubes in birds. Incorrect versions of the sentence grammatically contrast tubes and birds, mammals and tubes, or birds and mammals.

clearest, most economical way of presenting the information. Th e options that introduce a second verb (did or had) violate the parallelism and introduce a comparison between the comet itself (subject of the verb did cause) and the comet’s return (subject of the verb did or had). A Th is sentence implies a comparison between the comet and its return. B Th is sentence implies a comparison between the comet and its return; had is the wrong auxiliary verb form because it must be followed by caused instead of cause. C Correct. Th e parallel prepositional phrases in this sentence correctly compare times

when the comet was sighted. D Th is sentence implies a comparison between the comet and its return. E Th is sentence violates parallelism, implying a comparison between a prepositional phrase and a noun phrase. Th e correct answer is C. 51. A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may be so brisk it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make sense of speech. (A) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make (B) that it hampers the ability of some children to Idioms: 33, 51, 73, 96, 106, 118 33. Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month. (A) Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, (B) Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply, (C) Because computer chip prices have been sent plunging, which resulted from an oversupply, (D) Due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply, (E) Due to an oversupply, with the result that computer chip prices have been sent plunging, Agreement; Rhetorical construction Th is sentence describes a causal sequence of events: Th e oversupply of chips caused prices to plunge, which in turn caused the manufacturer to announce factory closings to cut production. Th e clearest, most effi cient way to express this sequence is to present the events in chronological order, as they occurred. A Correct. Events are presented concisely, in chronological order. B Because which refers to plural prices, it should be followed by are, not is. C Th e violation of chronological order is confusing; reference of which is ambiguous. D Th is backward description of the events behind the announcement of factory closings is confusing and awkward. E Due to followed by with the result is redundant and unnecessarily wordy. Th e correct answer is A. Rhetorical construction; Parallelism; Diction Th e sentence describes a hypothesized causal series: Th e fast conversational pace impairs children’s ability to distinguish individual sounds and words, and this, in turn, impairs their ability to make sense of speech. Th ese two consequences, both impaired abilities, are most clearly and effi ciently expressed in parallel infi nitive phrases (to distinguish and to make). Th e explanatory phrase as a result before the second infi nitive clarifi es the sequence. Th e term ability should be followed by the preposition to, not for. A For is the wrong preposition to follow ability; the phrase and, the result, is introduces a new clause which indicates that children’s inability to distinguish sounds enables them to make sense of speech. B Correct. Th e two abilities hampered by the fast pace of conversation are described with the parallel infi nitive phrases to distinguish and to make. C Th e result of this is a new subject that grammatically requires a new verb; the phrase is wordy and unclear. distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make (C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make (D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making (E) as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make

D Th is version of the sentence nonsensically suggests that the pace of speech results in not making sense of speech, removing the children from the picture as the ones who are aff ected. E Th e phrase is awkward, wordy, and unclear; for is the incorrect preposition to follow ability. Th e correct answer is B.

is about the single evolutionary path taken by Neanderthals as a species. D Present-tense appear is needed to parallel present-tense indicates and to reinforce that this is current evidence about Neanderthals in the past; as in C, paths should be singular. E For facing is an incorrect substitution of a prepositional phrase for an infi nitive. Th e correct answer is B. 96. One of the primary distinctions between our

73. Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction. (A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, (B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path, (C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths, (D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths, (E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, Verb form; Diction Because Neanderthals “disappeared,” the verb describing their apparent abilities cannot be present tense, so as equipped must be changed to to have been equipped. Th e expression equipped to face is clearer and more direct than equipped for facing. A As equipped indicates that Neanderthals still appear this way; equipped should be followed by an infi nitive form instead of a prepositional phrase. B Correct. Th e verb tense clearly indicates that the current evidence is about Neanderthals in the past. C As equipped does not indicate that Neanderthals appeared this way in the past; while individual Neanderthals may well have followed diff erent paths, this sentence

intelligence with that of other primates may lay not so much in any specifi c skill but in our ability to extend knowledge gained in one context to new and different ones. (A) between our intelligence with that of other primates may lay not so much in any specifi c skill but (B) between our intelligence with that of other primates may lie not so much in any specifi c skill but instead (C) between our intelligence and that of other primates may lie not so much in any specifi c skill as (D) our intelligence has from that of other primates may lie not in any specifi c skill as (E) of our intelligence to that of other primates may lay not in any specifi c skill but

Diction; Idiom When using the term distinction to indicate diff erence, the correct preposition to use is between. In this sentence, the distinction may lie in a certain ability that humans do not share with other primates. Th e verb may lay is transitive, requiring a direct object. A With is the incorrect comparative term to follow distinctions between; lay is the incorrect verb. B With is the incorrect comparative term to follow distinctions between. C Correct. Th e preposition between and the intransitive verb may lie are correct in this sentence.

D From is the incorrect preposition to use with distinction; without so much, which is used in C, as seems to introduce a comparison for specifi c skill rather than a distinction. E Of is the incorrect preposition to use with distinction, and to is an incorrect comparative term; lay is the incorrect verb. Th e correct answer is C. 106. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience. (A) Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is (B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is (C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become (D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become (E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

a wordy and awkward sentence. B Th e reference for the relative pronoun which is ambiguous; the sentence as a whole is awkward. C Correct. An active verb makes the fi rst clause more concise; it in the second clause clearly refers to the radio. D Conceived of … should be followed by as rather than to be. E Conceived of … should be followed by as rather than to be; other than what it is is awkward, wordy, and redundant, overlapping the meaning of precisely the opposite. … Th e correct answer is C. 118. The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats. (A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, (B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings, (C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings’ burning of fossil fuels, (D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels, (E) which most scientists agree to be a

Rhetorical construction; Logical predication Th e main point of this sentence is to explain that while Marconi felt the radio would substitute for the phone as an instrument of private communication, in fact it has become an instrument of mass communication. It is less wordy to use Marconi as the subject of the active verb conceived than to use the subject conception with the static verb was. Th e pronoun it positioned as the subject of the fi nal verb has become refers back to radio. Versions of the sentence that use the relative pronoun which indicate that the telephone has become a mass medium. A Th e nominalized subject, conception, leads to

phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

Logical predication; Rhetorical construction Th e underlined portion of the sentence is an appositive defi ning global warming as a phenomenon caused by the burning of fossil fuels by humans. Because this appositive intervenes between the subject (global warming) and verb (will create) of a clause, it should be expressed as clearly and economically as possible so as not to confuse the meaning of the sentence as a whole. A To be caused and in burning are wordy, awkward, and indirect.

B Th at is should immediately follow phenomenon, not agree. C Correct. Th e phrase human beings’ burning is more economical than constructions with prepositional phrases or relative clauses. D Th e phrasing is wordy and indirect. E Th e phrasing is wordy and the meaning is imprecise; it is not fossil fuels that cause global warming—it is the burning of fossil fuels by humans. Th e correct answer is C. Odds & Ends: 116 116. Mauritius was a British colony for almost 200 years, excepting for the domains of administration and teaching, the English language was never really spoken on the island. (A) excepting for (B) except in (C) but except in (D) but excepting for (E) with the exception of

Idiom; Grammatical construction Th is two-clause sentence describes an apparent incompatibility: as a British colony, Mauritius might be expected to be English-speaking, but in fact it was not. To describe this apparent contradiction and to avoid a comma splice, the clauses should be joined by the conjunction but. Domains describes places in which English is spoken; for is the incorrect preposition. Excepting is not idiomatic English in this case. A Th e lack of a conjunction causes a comma splice; excepting for is non-idiomatic. B Th e lack of a conjunction causes a comma splice. C Correct. Th e two independent clauses are separated by but, and except in is an appropriate idiom. D Excepting for is non-idiomatic. E Th e lack of a conjunction causes a comma splice. Th e correct answer is C.



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