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2012山东英语高考阅读理解词汇版


第三部分:阅读理解(共 20 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 40 分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项( A、 B、 C 和 D)中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 A The Pacific island nation of Nauru used to be a beautiful place. Now it is an ecological disaster are

a. Nauru’s heartbreaking story could have one good consequence — other countries might learn from its mistakes. For thousands of years, Polynesian people lived the remote island of Nauru, far from western civilization. The first European to arrive was John Fearn in 1798. He was the British captain of the Hunter, a whaling ship. He called the island Pleasant Island. However, because it was very remote, Nauru had little communication with Europeans at first. The whaling ships and other traders began to visit, bringing guns and alcohol. These elements destroyed the social balance of the twelve family groups on the island. A ten-year civil war started, which reduced the population from 1,400 to 900.
然而,正是因为地处偏远,在一 开始瑙鲁岛几乎和欧洲人不接 触。捕鲸船和其他的商人开始登 陆瑙鲁岛,也给瑙鲁岛带去了枪 支和酒。这两样东西打破了瑙鲁 岛上 12 个家族间的社会平衡, 由此引发了 10 年内战,岛上的 居民从 1400 人降低到了 900 人。 太平洋岛国瑙鲁岛曾经是一个 美丽的岛屿。而今,正面临着 一场生态灾难。瑙鲁岛的悲剧 带来的一个正面的后果就是其 他的国家也许可以从他们的错 误中吸取教训。

几千年以来,波利尼西亚人曾 经世代生活在这个遥远的、远 离西方文明的岛国---瑙鲁国。 第一个踏上这片土地的欧洲人 是约翰费恩,这个英国人是捕 鲸船“狩猎者”的船长,于 1978 年登陆瑙鲁岛,他曾经称 瑙鲁岛是“欢乐岛”。

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Nauru’s real troubles began in 1899 when a British mining company discovered phosphate ( 磷 酸 盐 )on the island. In fact, it found that the island of Nauru was nearly all phosphate, which a very important fertilizer for farming. The company began mining the phosphate. A phosphate mine is not a hole in the ground; it is a strip mine. When a company strip-mines, it removes the top layer of soil. Then it takes away the material it wants. Strip mining totally destroys the land. Gradually, the lovely island of Nauru started to look like the moon. In 1968, Nauru became one of the richest countries in the world. Every year the government received millions and millions of dollars for its phosphate. Unfortunately, the leaders invested the money unwisely and lost millions of dollars. In addition, they used millions more dollars for personal expenses. Soon people realized that they had a terrible problem — their phosphate was running out. Ninety percent of their island was destroyed and they had nothing. By 2000, Nauru was financially ruined. Experts say that it would take approximately $433,600,000 and more than 20 years to repair the island. This will probably never happen.
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瑙鲁岛真正的灾难始于 1899 年。 那一年一个英国矿业开采公司 在瑙鲁岛上发现了磷酸盐。 事实 上, 这家公司还发现整座岛屿几 乎就是一个磷酸盐之岛, 而磷酸 盐是非常重要的农业肥料, 这家 公司开始在岛上开采磷酸盐。

磷酸盐矿并非深埋于地下, 而是 一个露天矿。 一个公司开采露天 矿是需要挖掉土壤的表层, 然后 开采所需的磷酸盐。 开采露天矿 彻底摧毁了当地的土地。 美丽富 饶的瑙鲁岛开始变得像月球表 面那样满目疮痍。

1968 年瑙鲁岛成为了世界上 最富有的国家之一。政府每年 都会因为磷酸盐而发财。

然而不幸的是,政府领导投资失 误, 损失了成千上万美元。 另外, 他们将大量的钱财更多的用于 个人支出。人们很快认识到一个 可怕的问题 ---- 磷酸盐矿正在 开采殆尽。瑙鲁岛百分之九十的 面积被摧毁,岛民从此一无所 有。直至 2000 年,瑙鲁岛经济 也崩溃了。专家说,要想回复岛 屿的升级需要大约 4336 千万美 元,时间需要 20 年以上。这可 能永远都不会发生。

56. What might be the author’s purpose in writing the text? A. To seek help for Nauru’s problems. B. To give a warning to other countries C. To show the importance of money D. To tell a heartbreaking story of a war. 57. What was Nauru like before the Europeans came? A. Rich and powerful open C. Peaceful and attractive aggressive 58. The ecological disaster in Nauru resulted from _______. A. soil pollution overmining C. farming activity D. whale hunting B. phosphate D. Greedy and B. Modern and

59. Which of the following was a cause of Nauru’s financial problem? A. Its leaders misused the money B. It spent too much repairing the island C. Its phosphate mining cost much money D. It lost millions of dollars in the civil war. 60. What can we learn about Nauru from the last paragraph? A. The ecological damage is difficult to repair.
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B. The leaders will take the experts’ words seriously. C. The island was abandoned by the Nauruans D. The phosphate mines were destroyed B One of the greatest contributions to the first Oxford English Dictionary was also one of its most unusual. In 1879, Oxford University in England asked Prof. James Murray to serve as editor for what was to be the most ambitious dictionary in the history of the English language. It would include every English word possible and would give not only the definition but also the history of the word and quotations (引文)showing how it was used. This was a huge task. So Murrary had to find volunteers from Britain, the United States, and the British colonies to search every newspaper, magazine, and book ever written in English. Hundreds of volunteers responded, including William Chester Minor. Dr. Minor was an American Surgeon who had served in the Civil War and was now living in England. He gave his address as “Broadmoor, Crowthorne, Berkshire,” 50 miles from Oxford.
这是一项艰巨的任务。为此,默 里教授必须从英国,美国,以及 英属殖民地寻找志愿者来查阅 每一份英文报纸, 每一本英文杂 志,每一部英文书籍。许多志愿 者应声而至, 包括威廉.切斯特. 迈纳。 迈纳博士是一位美国外科 医生,曾经参与了美国内战,目 前生活在英国, 信件的署名地址 地址是距离牛津 50 英里的伯克 郡,克罗索恩,布罗德莫。 第一版《牛津英语字典》最伟大 的贡献之一也是这本字典最不寻 常之处。1897 年位于英格兰的牛 津大学邀请詹姆斯默里教授担任 一部字典的编辑,这部字典将会 是是英语语言史上最宏大的字 典。这部字典将囊括英语语言中 可能出现的每一个单词,不但会 定义每个单词,而且会给出这个 单词的历史,同时也会引用一些 能够展示这个单词用法的句子。

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Minor joined the army of volunteers sending words and quotations to Murray. Over the next years, he became one of the staff’s most valued contributors. But he was also a mystery. In spite of many invitations, he would always decline to visit Oxford. So in 1897 , Murray finally decided to travel to Crowthorne himself. When he arrived, he found Minor locked in a book-lined cell at the Broadmoor Asylum for the Criminally insane. Murray and Minor became friends, sharing their love of words. Minor continued contributing to the dictionary, sending in more than 10,000 submissions in 20 years. Murray continued to visit Minor regularly, sometimes taking walks with him around the asylum grounds. In 1910, Minor left Broadmoor for an asylum in his native America. Murray was at the port to wave goodbye to his remarkable friend. Minor died in 1920, seven years before the first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary was completed. The 12 volumes defined 414,825 words, and thousands of them were contributions from a very scholarly and devoted asylum patient. 61. According to the text, the first Oxford English Dictionary
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迈纳博士参与了字典志愿者的 大军, 给默里教授发送单词和引 语。在以后的 17 年里,他成为 了字典编纂大军中最有价值的 贡献者之一。 然而,迈纳博士也是一个迷。尽 管邀请过他很多次,但是他总是 拒绝拜访牛津大学。最后, 1897 年,默里教授决亲自去一趟克罗 索恩。当他到达目的地以后,他 在布罗德莫精神病院负责关押精 神病犯人的牢房里发现了迈纳博 士,他被锁在一间周围整齐地放 满了书籍的牢房里。

默里教授和迈纳博士成了好朋 友,分享自己对于英文单词的热 爱。迈纳博士继续为字典贡献, 在 20 年的时间里提交单词和引语 超过 1 万多次。默里教授继续经 常拜访迈纳博士,有时候两人会 在精神病院散步。

1910 年,迈纳离开了布罗德莫, 到了自己的祖国—美国的一家精 神病院。默里教授在港口向自己 的这位杰出的朋友挥手告别。

迈纳于 1920 年去世。7 年以后, 《牛津英文字典》第一版完成编 纂 。 这 部 12 卷 的 字 典 解 释 了 414825 个英文单词,成千上万个 单词就是由这位即富有学者风范 又有奉献精神的精神病患者提供 的。

_________. A. came out before minor died B. was edited by an American volunteer C. included the English words invented by Murray D. was intended to be the most ambitious English dictionary 62. How did Dr. Minor contributed to the dictionary? A. He helped Murray to find hundreds of volunteers. B. He sent newspapers, magazines and books to Murray. C. He provided a great number of words and quotations D. he went to England to work with Murray. 63. Why did Dr. Minor refuse to visit Oxford? A. He was shut in an asylum Oxford C. He was busy writing a book traveling 64. Prof. Murray and Dr. Minor became friends mainly because __________. A. they both served in the Civil War. B. They had a common interest in words C. Minor recovered with the help of Murray D. Murray went to America regularly to visit Minor
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B. He lived far from

D.

He

disliked

65. Which of the following best describe Dr. Minor? A. Brave and determined friendly C. Considerate and optimistic scholarly 66. What does the text mainly talk about? A. The history of the English language. B. The friendship between Murray and Minor C. Minor and the first Oxford English Dictionary D. Broadmoor Asylum and is patients C San Francisco has its cable cars. Seattle has its Space Needle. And, Longview has its squirrel bridge. The bridge, which has attracted international attention, is now a local landmark. The Nutty Narrows Bridge was built in 1963 by a local builder, Amos Peters, to give squirrels a way to cross the busy road without getting flattened by passing cars.
松树桥是由当地一位建筑师阿 莫斯彼得斯于 1963 年建造,目 的是为松鼠在车水马龙的繁忙 街道上开辟一条通道,让松鼠 免于车轮的碾压。 旧金山的缆车,西雅图的太空针 塔, 当然, 还有朗维尤的松鼠桥。 这座松鼠桥吸引了世界的关注, 现在已经成为朗维尤的地标。

B.

Cautious

and

D.

Unusual

and

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The original bridge was built over Olympia Way on the west edge of the library grounds. Before the bridge was built, squirrels had to avoid traffic to and from the Park Plaza office building where office staff put out a nutty feast for the squirrels. Many times, Peters and others who worked in and near Park Plaza witnessed squirrels being run over. One day Peters found a dead squirrel with a nut still in its mouth, and that day’s coffee break discussion turned into squirrel safety. The group of businessmen cooked up the squirrel bridge idea and formed a committee to ask the blessing of the City Council(市政会).The Council approved, and Councilwoman Bess LaRiviere named the bridge “Nutty Narrows.” After architects designed the bridge, Amos Peters and Bill Hutch started Construction, They built the 60-foot bridge from aluminum and lengths of fire hose(消防水带). It cost 1,000. It didn’t take long before reports of squirrels using the bridge started. Squirrels were even seen guiding their young and teaching them the ropes. The story was picked up by the media, and Nutty Narrows became know in newspapers all over the world.
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这座桥一开始建在图书馆西边 的奥林匹亚路上, 在公园广场, 很多公司职员会喂松鼠坚果 吃,松鼠必须躲避交通在马路 上来回穿梭。彼得斯和其他在 公园广场或者公园广场附近工 作的人很多次都亲眼目睹松鼠 被车轮碾压的场景。

有一天,彼得斯发现了一只死松 鼠,嘴里还衔着一枚坚果。那天, 他们喝咖啡休息期间关注了松鼠 安全问题,这几个商人产生了一 个想法,为松鼠建一座桥,并且 成立了委员会专门向市政会请 愿。市政会通过了他们的提议, 女议员贝丝 . 拉利维亚戏称这座 桥是“坚果通道”。

建筑师设计好松鼠桥后,阿莫 斯彼得斯和比尔哈切开始建 造。这座铝制的桥离地面 60 英 尺,有消防水带那么长,造价 1000 美金。

不久后,有报道说松鼠开始使用 这座桥。甚至有人看到松鼠指挥 自己的孩子过桥,并且给小松鼠 们展示如何使用这座桥。这个故 事经媒体报道后,松鼠桥开始闻 名于世,见诸于各国报端。

In 1983, after 20 years of use, Peters took down the worn-out bridge. Repairs were made and crosspieces were replaced. The faded sign was repainted and in July 1983, hundreds of animal lovers attended the completion ceremony of the new bridge. Peters died in 1984, and a ten-foot wooden squirrel sculpture was placed near the bridge in memory of its builder and his devotion to the project. 67. The Nutty Narrows Bridge was built in order to ________. A. offer squirrels a place to eat nuts B. set up a local landmark C. help improve traffic D. protect squirrels 68. What happened over the coffee break discussion? A. The committee got the Council’s blessing. B. The squirrel bridge idea was born C. A councilwoman named the bridge D. A squirrel was found dead. 69. What does the underlined phrase “teaching them the ropes” probably means in the text? A. passing them a rope B. Directing them to store
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经过 20 年的使用,松鼠桥已经破 旧, 彼得斯于 1983 年拆除松鼠桥, 并且展开修缮工作,拆除了横木, 重新粉刷, 一度消失的松鼠桥又重 新回到了公众视野。1983 年 7 月 份, 几百名动物爱好者参加了新的 松鼠桥的落成仪式。

彼得斯于 1984 年去世,在松鼠 桥的附近,放置了一座 10 英尺 的木质松鼠雕塑来纪念这座桥 的建立者以及他为这项工作所 做出的贡献。

food for winter C. Teaching them a lesson use the bridge. 70. Which of the following is true of the squirrel bridge? A. It was replaced by a longer one. B. It was built from wood and metal C. it was rebuilt after years of use D. It was designed by Bill Hutch. 71. What can we learn about Amos Peters? A. He is remembered for his love of animals. B. He donated $1,000 to build the bridge C. He was a member of the City Council D.He was awarded a medal for building the bridge. D For those who are tired doing the laundry, Samsung has found an answer: a washing machine that can tell you when your laundry is done via a smartphone app(application).
对于那些厌倦洗衣服的那些人 来讲,三星找出了解决方法:有 一款洗衣机可以通过智能手机 告诉你衣服何时洗完。

D. Showing them how to

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Strange though it may seem — “my wife already does that” was a common response among attendees viewing the device when it was introduced at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) this week — Samsung is just one of many appliance makers racing to install (安装) a large number of internet-connected features in machines in an effort to make them “smart”. Last year, it was a refrigerator that tweeted. This year, it’s Wi-Fi-enabled laundry machines and fridges that can tell you when your groceries are going bad. The washers and dryers, available starting in the spring, connect to any smartphone through a downloadable application. The phone can then be used as a remote control, so the machines can be turned on and off while their owners is at work or on the bus. Samsung says it’s not just something new — the app connection actually has some practical uses. “If you started to dry clothes in the morning and forgot to take them out, you can go to your phone and restart your dryer for the time when come home, so your clothes are refreshed and ready to go,” said spokesperson Amy Schmidt.
三星方面宣称这不仅仅是一款 新型家用电器,实际上,这款应 用程序还有一些实际的用途。 去年,电冰箱这样宣传自己, 今年轮到了无线保真技术的洗 衣机,电冰箱还可以告诉你食 品什么时候变坏! 这也许看上去挺奇怪的, 但是在 本周参加消费电子产品展览会 的人看到这款产品后普遍反应 自己的妻子早就能做到这一点 了。 许多家电制造商为了使自己 的产品更加“智能”, 纷纷争相 给自己的产品添加大量的与电 脑相关的元素, 三星只不过是其 中之一。

今春发布的洗衣机和烘干机都 可以下载一款应用程序,然后连 接到智能手机。智能手机还可以 作为遥控器,不论主人是在工作 还是在公交车上,都可以用智能 手机打开或者关闭机器。

“如果你开始在早晨干衣服 ,忘 了带出来,你可以去你的电话并 重启你的烘干机的时候回家 ,因 此将刷新你的衣服和准备好 了,”发言人艾米·施密特说。

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The company also says that with electricity rate( 电 价)varying depending on the time of day, more control over when the machines are used can help save money. Perhaps, but what they will probably really accomplish is what all good technologies do —enable laziness. Rather than getting up to check on whether the laundry is done, users will instead monitor it on their phones while watching TV. 72. What can be inferred from the common response of the attendees at the CES? A. The machine will be a big success. B. their wives like doing the laundry. C. The machine is unrelated to their life. D. This kind of technology is familiar to them. 73. What can we learn about the new laundry machines? A. They can tell you when your clothes need washing B. They can be controlled with a smartphone C. They are difficult to operate D. They are sold at a low price 74. We can conclude form Samsung’s statements that ___________. A. the app connection makes life easier
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同时,三星公司还说,随着电价 根据每天时间段的不同而变化, 选择合适的时间远程遥控洗衣机 还有助于省钱。

这一切都有可能是真的。但是他 们真正完成的正是所有新技术 所做到的,就是成全了懒惰。使 用这款洗衣机的用户会边看电 视边通过手机监控洗衣过程,而 不是检查一下衣服是否洗完了。

B. it is better to dry clothes in the morning C. smartphone can shorten the drying time D. we should refresh clothes back at home 75. What is the main idea of the last paragraph? A. The laundry should be frequently checked B. Lazy people like using such machines C. Good technologies also cause problems D. Television may help do the laundry.

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