专题一 冠词 考点一 冠词的基本用法 1．[2015· 课标全国卷Ⅱ]The adobe dwellings (土坯房) built by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even ________ most modern of architects and engineers. 答案 the
[考查定冠词的用法。形容词最高级前用定冠词 the。] 2． [2015· 四川高考 ]Brian is gifted in writing music; he is very likely to be ________ Beethoven. 答案 a [句意：布莱恩在创作乐曲方面有天赋，他有望成为另一个贝多芬。根据句意 可知，空格处用不定冠词表示一类人。] 3．[2015· 重庆高考]I just heard ________ bank where Dora works was robbed by ________ gunman wearing a mask. 答案 the; a [句意：我刚听说 Dora 工作的银行被一个戴着面罩的持枪歹徒抢了。第一 空，句中 where 引导的定语从句修饰 bank，由此可知这里特指 Dora 工作的银行，故用定冠 词；第二空，泛指“一个持枪歹徒”，因此用不定冠词。] 4．[2015· 广东高考]He owned ________ farm, which looked almost abandoned. 答案 a [句意：他拥有一家看起来几乎荒芜的农场。farm 在文中是第一次出现，而且 表示泛指，所以用不定冠词。] 考点二 冠词的习惯搭配 1．[2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ]Now I am living in a city, but I miss my home in ________ countryside. 答案 the [句意：现在我生活在一座城市，但是我想念农村的家乡。in the countryside 为固定短语，意为在乡下，在农村。故填定冠词 the。 2．[2015· 陕西高考]________more learned a man is, ________ more modest he usually becomes. 答案 The; the [句意：一个人越博学，他通常会变得越谦逊。根据句子结构来判断， 此句使用了 “The ＋形容词 / 副词比较级?， the ＋形容词 / 副词比较级?”结构，意思是 “越??，越??”。 3．[2015· 浙江高考]Jane's grandmother had wanted to write ________ children's book for many years, but one thing or another always got in ________ way. 答案 a; the [句意：多年来，简的祖母一直想写一本儿童读物，但由于种种原因耽搁 下来了。第一空，book 是可数名词，此处表泛指，用不定冠词 a；第二空，in the way 是固定 词组，意为“挡路，妨碍”。故填 a; the。] 专题二 名词 考点一 名词辨析 1．[2015· 福建高考]The failure was a big ________ (blow) to him, but he wasn't discouraged and soon got as enthusiastic as ever. 答案 blow [句意：这次失败对他来说是一次很大的打击，但他并没有泄气，很快就变 得和以往一样有热情了。blow“打击”；blow 既可做动词，也可做名词。] 2．[2015· 湖北高考]When he was running after his brother, the boy lost his ________ and had a bad fall. 答案 balance [句意：男孩在追赶他哥哥的时候失去了平衡，狠狠地摔了一跤。根据句 意可知，这里应用 balance 表示“平衡”，此处用作名词。lose one's balance 为失去平衡。] 3．[2015· 湖北高考]He gave himself a new name to hide his ________ (identify) when he
went to carry out the secret task. 答案 identity [句意：当他去执行这项秘密任务时，他给自己取了个新名字以掩盖他的 身份。根据句意可知，这里应用名词 identity 表示“身份”。] 4．[2015· 安徽高考]There is no need to tell me your answer now. Give it some ________ (think) and then let me know. 答案 thought [句意：现在没有必要把你的答案告诉我。考虑一下，然后告诉我。give sth. some thought 意为“考虑”。thought 为 think 的名词形式。] 5．[2015· 江苏高考]—Go and say sorry to your Mom, Dave. —I'd like to, but I'm afraid she won't be happy with my ________(apologize)． 答案 apology [句意：——Dave，去向你妈妈道歉。——我想去，但我害怕她对我的 道歉不会满意。空处应用 apologize 的名词 apology。] 考点二 名词搭配 1．[2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ]My 10－year－old noticed him and made a ________ on how bad it must be to have to stand outside in the cold wind. 答案 comment [考查名词短语 make a comment on... 对……做出评论。句意：我 10 岁 的孩子注意到了他并对不得不站在外面的寒风中乞讨做出了评论。] 2．[2015· 江苏高考]Some schools will have to make________ (adjust) in agreement with the national soccer reform. 答案 adjustments [句意： 为了与国家的足球改革保持一致， 一些学校将必须作出调整。 adjustment“调整，适应”，符合句意。make adjustments 意为做出调整。] 3．[2015· 江苏高考]—Why didn't you invite John to your birthday party? —Well, you know he's a wet________. 答案 blanket [句意：——你为什么没邀请 John 参加你的生日派对？——嗯，要知道 他总让人扫兴。a wet blanket“扫兴的人，泼冷水的人”，符合句意。] 4．[2015· 福建高考]Human life is regarded as part of nature and, as such, the only way for us to survive is to live in________ (harmonious) with nature. 答案 harmony [句意：人类生活被认为是自然的一部分，因此我们生存的唯一方式是 和自然和谐相处。in harmony with“与……协调”。] 5．[2015· 浙江高考]These comments came in________ (respond) to specific questions often asked by local newsmen. 答案 response [考查 in response to...的用法。 句意： 这些解释是回答当地新闻记者经常 提出的特定的问题的。in response to 意为“回答，答复”。] 专题三 代词 考点一 不定代词 1．[2015· 四川高考]Niki is always full of ideas, but________is useful to my knowledge. 答案 none [句意：妮基总有很多主意，但据我所知没有哪一个是有用的。句中的“full of ideas”表明主意是三个或三个以上，所以用 none 表示完全否定。] 2 ． [2015· 福 建 高 考 ]The research group produced two reports based on the survey, but________ contained any useful suggestions. 答案 neither [根据题干中的“two reports”和“but”可知，此处表示“两个中的任何一个都 不”，所以用 neither。] 3．[2015· 陕西高考]To warm himself, the sailor sat in front of the fire rubbing one bare foot against________. 答案 the other [句意：为了让自己暖和，那位水手坐在火堆前面，用一只脚摩擦另外
一只脚。表示两者之间的“一个……另一个……”要用 one...the other...。] 4．[2015· 陕西高考]I wanted to do________ special for him at his retirement party. 答案 something [考查不定代词。句意：我想在他的退休聚会上为他做些特别的事。用 something 表示一些事。] 5．[2015· 重庆高考]The meeting will be held in September, but________ knows the date for sure. 答案 nobody [句意：会议要在九月召开，但是没有人知道确切日期。该句由 but 连接 的两个并列分句构成。第一个分句说会议将要在九月召开，而转折词 but 意味着两个分句意 思相反，故用否定词 nobody。] 考点二 替代词 1．[2015· 天津高考]The quality of education in this small school is better than________ in some larger schools. 答案 that [句意：这所小学校的教学质量比一些较大学校的教学质量更好。that 指代 可数名词单数或不可数名词。空处指代的 quality 为抽象不可数名词，故用 that。] 2 ． [2015· 浙 江高 考 ]Close to the school there was a beautiful park with many trees around________. 答案 it [句意：在这所学校附近有一个由很多树环绕的漂亮公园。用 it 指代上面提到 的公园。] 考点三 其他代词 1．[2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ]We must find ways to protect________(us) environment. 答案 our [句意：我们必须找到方法去保护我们的环境。our 合乎题意。] 2． [2015· 广东高考]Now it occurred to________(he) that his farm had much potential and that the death of the cow was a bit of luck. 答案 him [it occurred to sb. that...意为，某人突然想起……。to 为介词，后应用人称代 词的宾格，故填 him。] 3．[2015· 福建高考]Imagine you are a student and you share a flat with another student who you think isn't doing her share of the housework. If you say, “Look, you never do your share of the housework. ________ are you going to do about it？”， the discussion will very soon turn into an argument. 答案 What [分析句子结构可知， 空处在句中表示疑问， 而且做 do 的宾语， 故用 what。 语境为，想像一下你是一位学生，与另一位不做家务的同学同住一所公寓。然后提出质问。] 4．[2015· 四川高考]________do you think I should do? If you were me, would you talk to them? 答案 What [分析句子结构，空处应填疑问词且做 do 的宾语。句意：你认为我该做什 么？如果你是我的话，你会和他们谈话吗？] 考点四 it 的用法 1．[2015· 湖北高考]________was in this lake that they found the long lost sword of the Ming Dynasty. 答案 It [分析句子结构，该句为强调句型。空处应用 It。句意：就是在这个湖里发现 了失踪已久的明代宝剑。] 2．[2015· 四川高考]________has been a month since I came to this new school and I really want to share with you some of the problems I have been experiencing. 答案 It [句子结构为 It has been＋时间段＋since...。自从……已经多久了。句意：自从 我来到这所新学校已经一个月了，我真想和你分享一下我经历的一些问题。]
3．[2015· 福建高考]________was considerate of Michael to inform us of his delay in case we got worried. 答案 It [句子结构为 It is/was＋adj.＋for(of) sb. to do sth.句意：Michael 通知我们他要 迟一会儿以防我们担心，想得真周到。本句使用了 It is/was considerate of sb. to do sth.这一结 构。considerate“考虑周到的”。] 4．[2015· 浙江高考]How would you like________if you were watching your favorite TV program and someone came into the room and just shut it off without asking you? 答案 it [句意：当你在看你最喜欢的电视节目时，如果有人进来，并且未经允许就把 电视关掉，你会怎么想？it 在此作形式宾语，指代后面 if 从句的内容。“动词＋it＋when/if＋ 从句”结构中，it 作形式宾语，常见的动词有 enjoy, hate, love, like, dislike, appreciate 等。] 专题四 形容词与副词 考点一 形容词 1．[2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ]Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very ________ (seriously) problem. 答案 serious [考查形容词做定语修饰名词 problem。句意：很多研究表明全球变暖已 经成为一个非常严峻的问题。] 2．[2015· 安徽高考]I'm so________ (gratefully) to all those volunteers because they helped my terrible day end happily. 答案 grateful [考查形容词短语 be grateful to sb. “感激某人”。 根据 because 引导的原 因状语从句的内容可知句意：我感激所有的那些志愿者，因为他们的帮助让我糟糕的一天有 了个快乐的结局。空处表示“感激的”而且是形容词，应填 grateful。 3．[2015· 湖北高考]I don't think what he said is________ (relevantly) to the topic we are discussing. He has missed the point. 答案 relevant [考查形容词短语 be relevant to...“与……有关”。句意：我觉得他所说的 话与我们正在讨论的话题不相关。他已经错过要点了。根据句意可知，这里应用 relevant 表 示“有关的，切题的”。] 4．[2015· 陕西高考]Hans Zhang was ________(pride) of himself for not giving up. 答案 proud [考查形容词短语 be proud of“以……为骄傲，为……感到自豪”。句意： Hans Zhang 为自己没有放弃而感到自豪。] 5．[2015· 湖北高考]Even though the conference hall is near his apartment, he has to hurry a little if he wants to be ________(punctually)． 答案 punctual [句意：即使他的公寓在会议大厅的附近，但是如果他想准时(赶到)，他 必须得赶紧点。be 动词后用形容词形式，punctual 表示“准时的”。] 考点二 副词 1．[2015· 湖北高考]The girl used to be shy, but is ________(gradual) getting active in group work and is more willing to express herself. 答案 gradually [句意：这个女孩以前很害羞，但是现在正渐渐地在群组工作中变得积 极，也更愿意表达她自己(的想法)。这里应用副词 gradually 表示“逐渐地”。] 2．[2015· 浙江高考]Most of us, if we know even a little about where our food comes from, understand that every bite put into our mouths was________(former) alive. 答案 formerly [句意：要是我们对食物的来源稍有了解，我们多数人就会明白，我们 吃到嘴巴里的每一口食物都曾经是活生生的生命。空处应用副词修饰 alive。] 3．[2015· 安徽高考]They gave money to the old people's home either________ (personal) or through their companies.
答案 personally [personally“亲自”。句意：他们或者亲自或者通过公司把钱捐给了敬 老院。空处应填副词做状语表示捐钱的方式。] 4．[2015· 广东高考]________(lucky), he also had a cow which produced milk every day. 答案 Luckily [考查副词做状语。修饰整个句子应用副词。“幸运地是”应用 luckily。句 意：幸运地是，他还有一头奶牛每天产奶。] 5．[2015· 陕西高考]After knocking________(polite) at the door, the applicant entered the office of the general manager. 答案 politely [修饰动作应用副词。 句意： 礼貌地敲门后， 审请人走进总经理的办公室。 ] 考点三 比较级 1．[2015· 四川高考]Andy is content with the toy. It is________ (good) he has ever got. 答案 the best [句意：安迪很满意这个玩具。这是他至今得到的最好的玩具。根据句意 可知，空格处用形容词的最高级，形容词的最高级前须加定冠词 the。故应填 the best。] 2．[2015· 安徽高考]Advertisements persuade us that________ (new) is better and that we will be happier with the latest products. 答案 newer [根据句意空处应为比较级。句意：广告让我们相信越新越好而且我们对 最新产品会更加满意。] 3．[2015· 广东高考]Even though we can't live forever, we are living a________ (long) life than ever before. 答案 longer [根据后面的 than...可知空处应填比较级。句意：即使我们不能永远活着， 但我们可以比以前活得时间长。] 4．[2015· 陕西高考]My mom makes the________ (good) biscuits in the world, so I decide to ask her for help. 答案 best [根据 in the world 可知空处应填最高级。 句意： 我妈妈会做世上最好的饼干， 因此我决定求她帮忙。] 专题五 介词和介词短语 考点一 介词 1．[2015· 广东高考]She patiently explained all the rules________ the students and require everyone to follow them. 答案 to [句意：她耐心地向学生们解释所有的规定并要求每一个人都要遵守。根据分 析可知，此处考查的结构为“explain sth. to sb.”，意为“向某人解释某事”，故用 to。] 2．[2015· 山东高考]Here they are learning to get________touch with their true feelings. 答案 in [句意：在这他们正学着和他们的真实情感取得联系。根据分析可知，此处考 查“get in touch with”，意为“与……取得联系”，故用 in。] 3．[2015· 福建高考]A common memory they all have________their school days is the school uniform. 答案 of [句意：他们对校园岁月的共同记忆就是校服。本句使用了 have a memory of 这一搭配，含义为“对……有记忆”，故用介词 of。] 4．[2015· 陕西高考]The little pupil took his grandma________ the arm and walked her across the street. 答案 by [句意：这位小学生抓着他奶奶的胳膊，然后护送她穿过街道。take sb. by the arm 是一个固定短语，意思是“抓住某人的胳膊”，故用介词 by。] 5．[2015· 重庆高考]Last year was the warmest year on record, with global temperature 0.68 ℃________the average. 答案 above [句意：去年是有记录以来最暖和的一年，全球气温比平均温度高 0.68 摄
氏度。依据句意可知，去年天气非常暖和，因此与往年平均温度相比要高，故用 above，表 示“高于”。] 考点二 介词短语 1．[2015· 福建高考]Human life is regarded as part of nature and, as such, the only way for us to survive is to live________ (harmony) nature. 答案 in harmony with [句意：人类生活被认为是自然的一部分，因此我们生存的唯一 方式是和自然和谐相处。根据分析可知，此处表示“与……和谐”，故用 in harmony with。] 2． [2015· 安徽高考]They believe that there are transport developments ________ (corner) that will bring a lot of changes for the better. 答案 around the corner [句意：他们相信交通发展即将来临，将会带来很多好的变化。 根据句意可知，此处表示“即将来临”，故用 around the corner。] 3 ． [2015· 湖北高考 ]This meeting room is a non － smoking area. I would like to warn you________(advance) that if you smoked here you would be fined. 答案 in advance [句意：这个会议室是不准吸烟的区域。我想提前提醒你，如果你在 这里吸烟，你就会被罚款。根据句意可知，此处表示“提前”，故用 in advance。] 专题六 动词和动词短语 考点一 动词 1． [2015· 湖北高考]The team are working hard to________ (analysis) the problem so that they can find the best solution. 答案 analyze [句意：全队(成员)正在努力工作，分析这个问题，以便他们能找到最好 的解决办法。 根据句中的“find the best solution”可判断， 此处表示“分析”， 故用动词 analyze。 2．[2015· 安徽高考]If you come to visit China, you will________ (experienced) a culture of amazing depth and variety. 答案 experience [句意：如果你到中国来游览，你将会体验一种有惊人深度和多样性 的文化。根据句意可知，此处表示“体验，经历”，故用动词 experience。] 考点二 动词短语 1．[2015· 湖北高考]There is no doubt that this candidate's advantage lies________ his ability to communicate with foreigners in English. 答案 in [句意：毫无疑问，这位候选人的优势在于他用英语与外国人交流的能力。根 据句意可知，此处 lie in 表示“在于”故用介词 in。] 2．[2015· 安徽高考]Don't worry. I'm sure your missing glasses will________ sooner or later. 答案 turn up [句意：别着急。我相信你丢失的眼镜迟早会被找到的。根据句意可知此 处表示“(被)发现，(被)找到”，故用动词短语 turn up。] 3．[2015· 陕西高考]Peter will________ his post as the head of the travel agency at the end of next month. 答案 take up [句意：在下一个月月末 Peter 将开始担任旅行社领导的职位。根据句意 可知，此处表示“开始担任(新的责任)”，故用动词短语 take up。] 4．[2015· 福建高考]It is said that body language account________ 55 per cent of a first impression while what you say just 7 per cent. 答案 for [句意：据说肢体语言占第一印象的 55%，而你说的话只占 7%。根据句意可 知，account for 表示“(数量上、比例上)占”，故用 for。] 专题七 动词的时态和语态 考点一 动词的时态 1．[2015· 福建高考]—Where is Peter? I can't find him anywhere.
—He went to the library after breakfast and________ (write) his essay there ever since. 答案 has been writing [句意：——彼特在哪？我哪也找不到他。 ——早饭后他去了图书馆，从那以后他一直在那写论文。根据句中的时间状语 ever since 可知， write 这一动作从过去某一时刻一直持续到现在，故用现在完成进行时 has been writing。] 2． [2015· 安徽高考]Just as I got to the school gate, I realized I________(leave) my book in the cafe. 答案 had left [句意：就在我到达学校门口时，我意识到我把书忘在咖啡馆里了。句中 realized 为一般过去时，“我”把书忘在咖啡馆的动作发生在 realized 之前，即为过去的过去， 故用过去完成时 had left。] 3．[2015· 陕西高考]Marty________ (work) really hard on his book and he thinks he'll have finished it by Friday. 答案 has been working [句意： 玛蒂一直在努力地写着他的书，他想他在周五前会完成 它。根据句中的“by Friday”可判断出，work 这个动作从过去一直持续到现在，并将继续下去， 故用现在完成进行时 has been working。] 4．[2015· 陕西高考]At college, Barack Obama didn't know that he________(become) the first black president of the United States of America. 答案 was to become [句意：在上大学时，巴拉克· 奥巴马不知道他将成为美国第一位 黑人总统。根据句意可知，“上大学”发生在过去，从过去的时间看将来，要用过去将来时， 故用 was to become。] 5．[2015· 重庆高考]—Is Peter coming? —No, he________(change) his mind after a phone call at the last minute. 答案 changed [句意：——彼特要来吗？——不，他在打电话的最后一分钟改变了主 意。 依据答语中的“No”可知， 他在最后一刻改变了主意。 语境表明 change 这一动作已经发生， 故用 changed。] 考点二 动词的语态 1．[2015· 北京高考]—Did you enjoy the party? —Yes. We________(treat) well by our hosts. 答案 were treated [句意：——你们在晚会上玩得开心吗？——很开心。主人把我们招 待得很好。根据问句可知，此处应用一般过去时；treat 和 We 之间为动宾关系，应用被动语 态，故用 were treated。] 2．[2015· 福建高考]To my delight, I________(choose) from hundreds of applicants to attend the opening ceremony. 答案 was chosen [句意：令我高兴的是，在几百个申请者中我被选中参加开幕式了。 首先，句子主语 I 和 choose 是被动关系，所以要用被动语态；其次，本句是对过去所发生事 情的客观描述，所以用一般过去时，故用 was chosen。] 3．[2015· 安徽高考]It is reported that a space station________(build) on the moon in years to come. 答案 will be built [句意：据报道在未来的几年里(人们)将在月球上建立空间站。根据 分析可知，a space station 与 build 之间是被动关系，又由 in years to come“在未来的几年里” 可知，用一般将来时，故用 will be built。] 4．[2015· 四川高考]More expressways________ (build) in Sichuan soon to promote the local economy. 答案 will be built [句意：四川将很快修建更多的高速公路以促进地方经济(的发展)。
题干中的“soon”表明空格处用一般将来时，且句子的主语 expressways 是谓语动词 build 的承 受者，故用一般将来时的被动语态 will be built。] 5 ． [2015· 湖 北 高 考 ]The professor was delighted to find that two thirds of the project________(finish) by the students independently. 答案 had been finished [句意： 教授高兴地发现学生们已独立完成了该项目三分之二的 项目。 根据分析可知， finish 这个动作发生在 was delighted to find 的之前， 应该用过去完成时， 又因 project 和 finish 之间是被动关系，故用 had been finished。] 专题八 非谓语动词 考点一 非谓语动词作定语 1． [2015· 北京高考]The park was full of people， ________(enjoy) themselves in the sunshine. 答案 enjoying [句意：公园里有很多人，他们在阳光下玩得很开心。分析句子结构可 知，________(enjoy) themselves in the sunshine 作 people 的定语，people 和 enjoy 为逻辑上的 主谓关系，需要用主动形式，故用 enjoying，相当于 who enjoyed。] 2．[2015· 福建高考]Teams of four，________(dress) in a variety of strange and funny clothes, roll a complete cheese along a 50－metre course. 答案 dressed [句意：四人一组的几个队，穿着各种各样奇怪、滑稽的衣服，沿着一条 50 米的路线滚一个完整的奶酪。根据分析可知，此处考查 be dressed in, teams of four 与 dress 为被动关系，且作定语，故用 dressed。] 考点二 非谓语动词作状语 1．[2015· 天津高考]________(work) for two days, Steve managed to finish his report on schedule. 答案 Having worked [句意：工作了两天之后，Steve 设法按时完成了他的报告。句子 主语为 Steve，与 work 为逻辑上的主谓关系，又因 work 表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前， 故用现在分词的完成式 Having worked。] 2．[2015· 福建高考]________(learn) more about Chinese culture, Jack has decided to take Chinese folk music as an elective course. 答案 To learn [句意：为了更多地了解中国文化，Jack 已决定选修中国民间音乐。根 据句意可知，此处充当目的状语，故用 To learn。] 3．[2015· 重庆高考]________(raise) in the poorest area of Glasgow, he had a long, hard road to becoming a football star. 答案 Raised [句意：生长在格拉斯哥最贫困的地区，他成为一名足球明星的道路漫长 而艰难。raise 与句子的主语 he 是逻辑上的动宾关系，在句中作状语，故用 Raised。] 4．[2015· 湖南高考]When the clerk saw a kind face wrinkled in an apologetic smile, she stood rooted to the ground, ________(wonder) whether to stay or leave. 答案 wondering [句意：当那位职员看到了一张善良、满是皱纹又带着歉意的微笑的 脸时，她呆呆地站在那里，考虑着是走还是留。主语 she 与 wonder 存在逻辑上的主谓关系， 且 wonder 与 stood 的动作是同时发生的，作伴随状语，故用 wondering。] 考点三 非谓语动词作补语 1．[2015· 陕西高考] Back from his two－year medical service in Africa, Dr. Lee was very happy to see his mother________ (take) good care of at home. 答案 taken [句意： 在非洲医疗机构待了两年回来之后， 李博士很高兴地看到他的母亲 在家被照顾得很好。根据句子结构来判断，此空要用非谓语动词作宾语补足语，构成 see sb. done 结构，意思是“看到某人被……”，故用 taken。] 2． [2015· 浙江高考]Listening to music at home is one thing, going to hear it________(perform)
live is quite another. 答案 being performed [句意： 在家听音乐是一回事， 去听现场演奏是另外一回事。 hear 后的 it 是宾语， 指代 music， 后面接宾语补足语， it 与 perform 是逻辑上的动宾关系， 故用 being performed。] 考点四 非谓语动词作主语、宾语和表语 1．[2015· 福建高考]________(see) the positive side of things doesn't mean you're ignoring what happened. 答案 Seeing [句意：看到事情积极的一面并不意味着你在忽视所发生的事情。根据分 析可知 doesn't mean 在句中作谓语， 所以________the positive side of things 在句中作主语， 故 用 Seeing。] 2． [2015· 安徽高考]________(ignore) the difference between the two research findings will be one of the worst mistakes you make. 答案 Ignoring [句意： 忽视这两项研究发现之间的差异将是你犯的最严重的错误之一。 根据分析可知， will be 在句中作谓语， 因此谓语动词之前的应为句子的主语， 故用 Ignoring。 ] 3 ． [2015·天 津 高 考 ]At age 68, he retired from the post office, but he never stopped________(serve) the community. 答案 serving [句意：68 岁时，他从邮局退休，但他从未停止为社区服务。根据分析 可知，此处表示“停止做某事”，用 stop doing 的结构，故用 serving。] 专题九 情态动词和虚拟语气 考点一 情态动词的用法 1．[2015· 北京高考]—Can't you stay a little longer? —It's getting late. I really________ go now. My daughter is home alone. 答案 must [——你就不能多待一会儿吗？——天越来越晚了。我现在真的必须走了。 我女儿一个人在家里呢。根据答语中的“It's getting late”以及“My daughter is home alone”可知， 这里表示必须离开，故用 must。] 2．[2015· 四川高考]You________ be careful with the camera. It costs! 答案 must [句意：你一定要小心这个相机。它很贵的！根据语境可知，此处表示“一 定”，故用 must。] 3．[2015· 陕西高考]You________ feel all the training a waste of time, but I'm a hundred percent sure later you'll be grateful you did it. 答案 may [句意：你可能感觉到所有的培训都是浪费时间，但是我百分之百的确信最 后你将感谢你所做的这一切。根据句子中的 “but I'm a hundred percent sure later you'll be grateful you did it”可判断出，表示对前面情况的一种推测，表示“也许，可能”，故用 may。] 4．[2015· 福建高考]—Sorry, Mum! I failed the job interview again. —Oh, it's too bad. You________ have made full preparations. 答案 should [句意：——对不起，妈妈，我工作面试又失败了。——哦，太糟糕了， 你本应该做充分准备。根据句意可知，此处表示“本应该做某事而实际上没做”暗含对对方的 责备，故用 should。] 5．[2015· 重庆高考]You________ be Carol. You haven't changed a bit after all these years. 答案 must [句意：你一定是 Carol。这么多年来你一点儿没变。依据第二句可知，此 处表示很有把握的推测，意为“一定，肯定”，且用于肯定句，故用 must。] 考点二 虚拟语气 1．[2015· 北京高考]If I ________(see) it with my own eyes, I wouldn't have believed it. 答案 hadn't seen [句意：如果不是亲眼所见，我是不会相信的。根据主句谓语 wouldn't
have believed 可知，这里考查的是 if 条件句中对过去情况的虚拟，if 条件句中应用过去完成 时，故用 hadn't seen。] 2． [2015· 安徽高考]It is lucky we booked a room, or we________(have) nowhere to stay now. 答案 would have [句意：幸运的是我们预订了一间房。否则，我们现在就没有待的地 方了。根据语境可知 or 之前的句子是陈述语气，是事实；or 之后的句子是虚拟语气，是与现 在事实相反的假设，故用 would have。] 3．[2015· 陕西高考]Ellen is a fantastic dancer. I wish I ________(dance) as well as her. 答案 danced [句意：Ellen 是一个极出色的舞者。我希望我能够跳得和她一样好。动 词 wish 后的宾语从句中常用虚拟语气。再根据句意，此处表示对现在情况的一种假设，所以 从句中的谓语动词要用一般过去式，故用 danced。] 4． [2015· 重庆高考]Without his wartime experiences, Hemingway________(write) his famous novel A Farewell to Arms. 答案 wouldn't have written [句意：没有战争时的经历，海明威不会完成他的著名小说 《永别了，武器》 。该句使用了含有 without 的含蓄虚拟语气，依据语境可知，这里是对过去 情况的假设，因此主句用 would＋have done 结构，此处表示否定故用 wouldn't have written。] 5 ． [2015· 湖 北 高 考 ]If she had been aware that the mushroom were poisonous, she________(pick) them for dinner. 答案 wouldn't have picked [句意：要是知道这些蘑菇有毒，她不会采来做晚餐了。根 据分析可知，if 条件句是对过去情况的虚拟，因此主句用 would＋have done，再依据语境可 知，此处表示否定，故用 wouldn't have picked。] 专题十 数词和主谓一致 考点一 数词 1．[2015· 福建高考]The ______ (one) thing I would say is that the way you begin the conversation is very important. 答案 first [考查序数词。根据空前的定冠词知空处应填序数词。] 考点二 主谓一致 1．[2015· 湖南高考]It is important to remember that success________(be) a sum of small efforts made each day and often________ (take) years to achieve. 答案 is; takes [句意：成功是每一天作出的小小的努力的总和，而且常常需要很多年 才能获得成功，记住这一点是重要的。that 引导的宾语从句的主语是单数名词 success，两个 空是并列的谓语，谓语动词都需用单数形式，又因句子的主体时态是一般现在时故填 is 和 takes。] 专题十一 定语从句 考点一 关系代词的用法 1．[2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ]I'd skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River________ are pictured by artists in so many Chinese paintings. 答案 that/which [考查定语从句。 空处引导定语从句修饰先行词“the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River”，且在从句中作主语，因此本空填关系代词 that/which。] 2．[2015· 四川高考]The books on the desk, ________covers are shiny, are prizes for us. 答案 whose [句意：桌上的书是给我们的奖品，这些书的封面是光亮的。定语从句的 先行词为 books，它与定语从句的主语是所属关系，所以用关系代词 whose 引导定语从句。] 3．[2015· 安徽高考]Some experts think reading is the fundamental skill upon________ school education depends.
答案 which [在名词 skill 之后则是一个由“介词 upon＋关系代词”引导的定语从句，此 处应填入关系代词 which。句意：一些专家认为阅读是学校教育所依赖的基本技能。] 4．[2015· 福建高考]China Today attracts a worldwide readership, ________shows that more and more people all over the world want to learn about China. 答案 which [本句使用关系代词 which 引导非限制性定语从句，其中 which 指代前面 整个句子的内容。] 5．[2015· 重庆高考]He wrote many children's books, nearly half of ________ were published in the 1990s. 答案 which [句意：他写了许多儿童读物，几乎有一半的书是在二十世纪九十年代出 版的。逗号之后是一个修饰 children's books 的非限制性定语从句， which 指代 children's books。] 考点二 关系副词的用法 1．[2015· 陕西高考]As the smallest child of his family, Alex is always longing for the time________he should be able to be independent. 答案 when [句意：作为家里孩子中最小的一个，Alex 一直渴望着他能够有独立的时 间。根据句子结构来判断，此句中 the time 后面是一个定语从句，且空处在从句中作状语， 表示时间，所以要用关系副词 when。] 2．[2015· 北京高考]Opposite is St. Paul's Church, ________ you can hear some lovely music. 答案 where [句意：对面是圣保罗教堂，在那里你能听到一些美妙的音乐。分析句子 结构可知，________you can hear some lovely music 是非限制性定语从句，where 替代先行词 St. Paul's Church 在定语从句中作地点状语。] 3 ． [2015·天 津 高 考 ]The boss of the company is trying to create an easy atmosphere________his employees enjoy their work. 答案 where [句意：公司老板正在尽力营造一个员工们可以在其中快乐工作的轻松的 氛围。空处替代先行词 atmosphere，且在定语从句中作地点状语，故用关系副词 where。在 定语从句中，如果先行词为 case, point, situation, stage, activity, occasion 等表示抽象意义的名 词作先行词，定语从句多用关系副词 where 引导。] 4．[2015· 广东高考]When harvest came around, he was already selling herbs, vegetables and cotton in the market________ people from the towns met regularly. 答案 where [考查定语从句。先行词为 market，关系词在从句中充当地点状语，故用 where。] 专题十二 名词性从句 考点一 主语从句 1．[2015· 北京高考]________we understand things has a lot to do with what we feel. 答案 How [句意：我们如何理解事物与我们的感受有很大关系。分析句子结构可知， ________we understand things 在句中作主语，是主语从句，根据句意可知，此处应用连接副 词 how。] 2．[2015· 江苏高考]________Li Bai, a great Chinese poet, was born is known to the public, but some won't accept it. 答案 Where [依据语境可知，此处指有些人对大诗人李白的出生地存在质疑，分析句 子结构可知，________Li Bai, ...was born 在句中作主语且其中只缺状语，因此填 Where，引 导主语从句。] 考点二 宾语从句 1．[2015· 北京高考]I truly believe ________beauty comes from within.
答案 that [句意：我真的相信美是发自内心的。分析句子结构可知， ________beauty comes from within 在句中作 believe 的宾语，是宾语从句，不缺少句子成分，故填 that。] 2．[2015· 四川高考]The exhibition tells us ________we should do something to stop air pollution. 答案 why [句意：该展览告诉我们为什么我们要采取措施阻止空气污染。根据句意以 及句子结构可知，空格处用 why 引导宾语从句。] 3．[2015· 福建高考]—I wonder ________Mary has kept her figure after all these years. —By working out every day. 答案 how [根据答语“By working out every day”可知， 空格处用 how 来引导宾语从句， 表示方式。] 4．[2015· 陕西高考]Reading her biography, I was lost in admiration for________ Doris Lessing had achieved in literature. 答案 what [句意：读着她的自传，我对 Doris Lessing 在文学上已经取得的成就赞叹 不已。根据句子结构来判断，for 后接一个宾语从句，而从句中缺少宾语，所以要用 what。] 5．[2015· 重庆高考]We must find out________Karl is coming, so we can book a room for him. 答案 when [句意：我们一定要搞清楚 Karl 什么时候来，以便我们给他订房间。由句 意可知，要给 Karl 订房间，那么就要清楚他来这里的时间，故填 when。] 考点三 表语从句 1．[2015· 安徽高考]A ship in harbor is safe, but that's not________ ships are built for. 答案 what [句意：港口里的船是安全的，但那不是建造船的目的。空处引导的是表语 从句，且从句中的介词 for 缺宾语，故填 what。] 专题十三 并列连词和 状语从句 考点一 并列连词 1．[2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ]There the air is clean________the mountains are green. 答案 and [句意：那里空气清新且山脉一片绿。前后句为并列关系，故填 and。] 2．[2015· 北京高考]He is a shy man，________ he is not afraid of anything or anyone. 答案 but [句意：他是一个害羞的人，但他不惧怕任何人和事。空处前后两个分句之 间为转折关系，故用连词 but。] 3． [2015· 重庆高考]In that case, eat before the flight， ________an empty stomach will prevent you from sleeping. 答案 or [句意：在乘飞机之前要用餐，否则空腹会让你睡不着觉。这是一个 “祈使句 ＋and/or＋陈述句”的句式， 祈使句“eat before the flight”和“an empty stomach”是相反的， 故用 or。] 4．[2015· 四川高考]In fact, I don't like to go anymore, ________ I'm afraid I'll lose their friendship. 答案 but [考查连词，上下句为转折关系，故用 but。] 考点二 状语从句 1．[2015· 北京高考]You won't find paper cutting difficult as________ as you keep practicing it. 答案 long [句意： 只要你一直练习， 你不会觉得剪纸很难的。 as long as 意思是“只要”。 ] 2．[2015· 北京高考]________the damage is done, it will take many years for the farmland to recover.
答案 Once [句意： 一旦损害造成， 农田恢复将需要很多年的时间。 once 意思是“一旦”。 ] 3．[2015· 四川高考]There is only one more day to go________your favorite music group play live. 答案 before [句意：在你最喜欢的乐队现场演出之前仅有一天的时间了。根据句意可 知，空格处用 before 引导时间状语从句。] 4． [2015· 安徽高考]________he once felt like giving up, he now has the determination to push further and keep on going. 答案 Where [根据前后句的语境可知，此处应用 where 引导地点状语从句。句意：在 他曾经想要放弃的地方，他现在有着更进一步、不断向前的决心。] 5．[2015· 重庆高考]If you miss this chance, it may be years________you get another one. 答案 before [句意：如果你错过这次机会，可能过很多年才能再有一次机会。该句考 查“it will/may be＋一段时间＋before...”句式，表示“过多久才??”。] 专题十四 特殊句式 考点一 倒装句 1．[2015· 天津高考]Only when Lily walked into the office________she realise that she had left the contract at home. 答案 did [句意：直到 Lily 走进办公室，她才意识到她把合同忘在家里了。“Only＋状 语从句/介词短语/副词”作状语放在句首时，主句多用部分倒装；由宾语从句中的过去完成时 可知，主句应用一般过去时，故填 did。] 2．[2015· 江苏高考]It might have saved me some trouble________I known the schedule. 答案 had [根据主句中的“might have saved”可知，从句谓语动词应该用过去完成时， 表示对过去事实的虚拟。完整的从句是 if I had known the schedule，其中的 if 可以省略，同时 将 had 提前，构成倒装，故填 had。] 3．[2015· 湖南高考]Only after talking to two students________ I discover that having strong motivation is one of the biggest factors in reaching goals. 答案 did [句意：在与两位学生谈过之后我才发现有强烈的动机是实现目标的最大的 因素之一。“Only＋状语”位于句首，句子要部分倒装。由句意可知动作发生在过去，故用助 动词 did。only 修饰主语位于句首时，句子不用倒装。如：Only he can answer the question.只 有他能回答这个问题。] 4 ． [2015· 湖北高考 ]Into the complete silence of the waiting class________ (come) the teacher's sweet voice, “Good morning, children.” 答案 came [句意：在全班同学静静的等待中传来了老师甜甜的嗓音：“孩子们，早上 好”。表示地点、时间或方位的副词 here, there, now, then, in, out 等置于句首，且主语是名词， 谓语动词是 be, come, go 等表示动作趋向或状态的动词时，句子需用完全倒装。] 5．[2015· 福建高考]Here________my tips for you. 答案 are [考查倒装句。本句使用了倒装结构，句子主语是 my tips, 故用 are。] 考点二 省略句 1．[2015· 北京高考]If ________ (accept) for the job, you'll be informed soon. 答案 accepted [句意：如果你被录用干这份工作的话，你会很快被通知到的。条件状 语从句的主语为 you, accept 和 you 为动宾关系，需要用被动语态，当状语从句的主语和主句 的主语一致且从句谓语部分有 be 动词时，状语从句的主语和 be 动词可以省略，补充完整为 If you are accepted for the job，故答案为 accepted。] 2．[2015· 湖南高考]Video games can be a poor influence if ________ (leave) in the wrong hands.
答案 left [考查状语从句的省略。句意：电子游戏如果使用不当就会产生不良影响。 leave 与其逻辑主语 Video games 之间是被动关系，故用过去分词。if left...是状语从句的省略 形式。故填 left。] 考点三 强调句 1．[2015· 重庆高考]Bach died in 1750, but it was not until the early 19th century________his musical gift was fully recognized. 答案 that [句意：Bach 死于 1750 年，但是直到 19 世纪早期他的音乐天赋才被完全认 可。but 之后是一个强调 not until 引导的时间状语从句的强调句式，故用 that。] 2．[2015· 湖南高考]It was when we were returning home________I realized what a good feeling it was to have helped someone in trouble. 答案 that [句意：当我们回家的时候，我意识到帮助了有困难的人感觉真好。when we were returning home 是一个 when 引导的时间状语从句， 对应的主句是后面整个句子， 去掉“It was”和空处，句子成立，说明该句是个强调句型，故填 that。] 3．[2015· 湖北高考]It was in this lake________ (be) they found the long lost sword of the Ming Dynasty. 答案 that [根据句意可知，此句强调的是地点状语，考查强调句型：It is/was＋被强调 部分＋that＋其它。故填 that。] 专题十五 语篇型语法填空 Passage 1 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ] Yangshuo, China It was raining lightly when I__1__ (arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn. But I didn't care. A few hours __2__， I'd been at home in Hong Kong, with__3__ (it) choking smog. Here, the air was clean and fresh, even with the rain. I'd skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River __4__are pictured by artists in so many Chinese __5__(painting). Instead, I'd headed straight for Yangshuo. For those who fly to Guilin, it's only an hour away__6__ car and offers all the scenery of the better－known city. Yangshuo__7__(be) really beautiful. A study of travelers __8__(conduct) by the website TripAdvisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world. And the town is fast becoming a popular weekend destination for people in Asia. Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it __9__ (regular) arranges quick getaways here for people__10__ (live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong. 1．________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5．________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9．________ 10.________ 本文介绍了桂林的著名旅游景点阳朔。 1．arrived [考查动词。主句为过去进行时，因此 when 连接的时间状语从句应用一般过 去时，故本空填 arrived。] 2．before/earlier [考查副词。本句为过去完成时，描述的是作者来阳朔之前的情况，因 此填副词 before/earlier。] 3．its [考查代词。这里指香港的污浊空气，因此填物主代词 its“它的”，指香港的。] 4． that/which [考查定语从句。 空处引导定语从句修饰先行词“the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River”，且在从句中作主语，因此本空填关系代词 that/which。]
5．paintings [考查名词。由前面的短语“so many”可知，本空应填名词复数 paintings。] 6．by [考查固定搭配。从桂林乘车到这里仅用一个小时。by car“乘汽车”。] 7．is [考查动词。本句描述阳朔景色之美，应用一般现在时。] 8． conducted [ 考查非谓语动词。空处为过去分词短语作后臵定语，修饰 “A study of travelers”。] 9．regularly [考查副词。本空修饰动词，应填 regularly。] 10．living [考查非谓语动词。空处与“people”之间为逻辑上的主谓关系，故用现在分词 短语作后臵定语。] Passage 2 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅱ]The adobe dwellings (土坯房)__1__(build) by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even__2__ most modern of architects and engineers. In addition to their simple beauty, what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their__3__ (able) to “air condition” a house without__4__ (use) electric equipment. Walls made of adobe take in the heat from the sun on hot days and give out that heat__5__(slow) during cool nights, thus warming the house. When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough__6__(cool) the house during the hot day; __7__ the same time, they warm up again for the night. This cycle __8__(go) day after day: The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night and are thus always a timely offset (抵消) for the outside temperatures. As __9__ (nature) architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly __10__ thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days. 1．________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5．________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9．________ 10.________ 这是一篇说明文，重点介绍了美国 Pueblo 印第安人所建土坯房独特的调节室温的特点。 1． built [考查过去分词短语作定语。 本句主语是 The adobe dwellings， 谓语是 are admired， 因此空白处不需要谓语动词，应用过去分词短语作定语表示一个被动的、已完成的动作。] 2．the [考查形容词最高级的用法。形容词最高级前用定冠词 the。] 3．ability [考查词类转换。分析句子结构可知，空处在句中作表语，且前有 their 修饰， 故填名词 ability。] 4．using [考查动名词作宾语的用法。介词 without 之后接动名词作宾语。] 5．slowly [考查形容词转化为副词的用法。修饰动词应用副词。] 6． to cool [考查不定式短语作结果状语的用法。 这是 enough to do 句型， 表示“足以……”， 不定式短语作结果状语。] 7．at [考查介词。at the same time 表示“同时”，是固定搭配。] 8．goes [考查动词时态。结合语境可知，这里应用一般现在时表示现状。主语为 This cycle，故谓语动词应用第三人称单数形式。] 9．natural [考查词类转换。修饰名词应用形容词。] 10．how [考查感叹句。这里是感叹句，修饰形容词 thick 应用副词 how。] Passage 3 [2015· 广东高考]Mr.Johnson lived in the woods with his wife and children. He owned __1__ farm, which looked almost abandoned. __2__ (lucky), he also had a cow which produced milk every day. He sold or exchanged some of the milk in the towns nearby __3__ other food and made cheese and butter for the family with what __4__(leave). The cow was their only means of support, in fact. One day, the cow was eating grass __5__ it began to rain heavily. While making great
efforts to run away, she __6__ (fall) over the hill and died. Then the Johnsons had to make a living __7__ the cow. In order to support his family, Mr.Johnson began to plant herbs and vegetables. Since the plants took a while to grow, he started cutting down trees __8__ (sell) the wood. Thinking about his children's clothes, he started growing cotton too. When harvest came around, he was already selling herbs, vegetables and cotton in the market __9__ people from the towns met regularly. Now it occurred to__10__ that his farm had much potential and that the death of the cow was a bit of luck. 1．________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5．________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9．________ 10.________ 本文是一个小故事。Johnson 先生和家人住在树林中，他有一个看着几乎荒芜的农场， 幸好他有一头奶牛。可是有一天牛死了，奶牛的死会给 Johnson 一家带来什么变化呢？ 1．a [考查冠词。farm 在文中是第一次出现，而且表示泛指，所以用不定冠词 a。] 2．Luckily [考查副词。修饰整个句子应用副词形式，故填 Luckily。] 3．for [考查介词。exchange A for B 是固定搭配，意为“交易”，故填介词 for。] 4．was left [考查时态和语态。主语与 leave 是被动关系，故用被动语态。根据语境可 知，此处用一般过去时。] 5．when [考查连词。有一天，牛正在吃草，突然天开始下大雨。根据语境可知，此处 应用 when“正在这时(突然)”。] 6．fell [考查动词时态。分析句子结构可知，此处填 fell 与后面的 died 作并列谓语。] 7．without [考查介词。根据文意可知这里是指“没有了那头牛”，故填 without。] 8．to sell [考查非谓语动词。根据语境可知，此处应用动词不定式作目的状语。] 9． where [ 考查定语从句。先行词为 market，关系词在从句中充当地点状语，故用 where。] 10． him [考查代词。 根据空后的“his farm”可知应填 him， 指代 Mr.Johnson。 It occurs to sb. that...“某人突然想起……”。] 专题十六 细节理解题 Passage 1 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ，A]体裁：应用文 词数：240 Monthly Talks at London Canal Museum Our monthly talks start at 19：30 on the first Thursday of each month except August. Admission is at normal charges and you don't need to book. They end around 21：00. November 7th The Canal Pioneers, by Chris Lewis. James Brindley is recognized as one of the leading early canal engineers. He was also a major player in training others in the art of canal planning and building. Chris Lewis will explain how Brindley made such a positive contribution to the education of at group of early “civil engineers”． December 5th Ice for the Metropolis, by Malcolm Tucker. Well before the arrival of freezers, there was a demand for ice for food preservation and catering. Malcolm will explain the history of importing natural ice and the technology of building ice wells, and how London's ice trade grew. February 6th An Update on the Cotswold Canals, by Liz Payne. The Stroudwater Canal is moving towards reopening. The Thames and Severn Canal will take a little longer. We will have a report
on the present state of play. March 6th Eyots and Aits—Thames Islands, by Miranda Vickers. The Thames has many islands. Miranda has undertaken a review of all of them. She will tell us about those of greatest interest. Online bookings: www.canalmuseum.org.uk/book More info: www.canalmuseum.org.uk/whatson London Canal Museum 12－13 New Wharf Road, London NI 9RT www. canalmuseum. org. uk www. canalmuseum. mobi Tel：020 7713 0836 本文介绍了伦敦运河博物馆在 11 月、 12 月、 2 月和 3 月推出的四场专题讲座的具体日期、 主要内容、演讲者的情况等。 1．When is the talk on James Brindley? A．February 6th. B．March 6th. C．November 7th. D．December 5th. 答案 C [细节理解题。根据第一场讲座的介绍中的“James Brindley”可知，讲座的时间 是：November 7th。] 2．What is the topic of the talk in February? A．The Canal Pioneers. B．Ice for the Metropolis. C．Eyots and Aits－Thames Islands. D．An Update on the Cotswold Canals. 答案 D [ 细节理解题。根据第三场讲座的介绍的第一句话 “ An Update on the Cotswold Canals, by Liz Payne”可知，2 月 6 日的讲座的主题是“An Update on the Cotswold Canals”，主讲人是 Liz Payne。 3．Who will give the talk on the islands in the Thames? A．Miranda Vickers. B．Malcolm Tucker. C．Chris Lewis. D．Liz Payne. 答案 A [细节理解题。根据第四场讲座的介绍的第一句可知，由 Miranda Vickers 主讲 的这场讲座的内容是关于“Thames Islands”的。] Passage 2 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅱ，D]体裁：应用文 词数：263 Choose Your One?Day Tours! Tour A—Bath & Stonehenge including entrance fees to the ancient Roman bathrooms and Stonehenge—￡ 37 until 26 March and ￡ 39 thereafter. Visit the city with over 2,000 years of history and Bath Abbey, the Royal Crescent and the Costume Museum. Stonehenge is one of the world's most famous prehistoric monuments dating back over 5,000 years. Tour B—Oxford & Stratford including entrance fees to the University St Mary's Church Tower and Anne Hathaway's house—￡ 32 until 12 March and ￡ 36 thereafter. Oxford: Includes a guided tour of England's oldest university city and colleges. Look over the “city of dreaming spires ( 尖顶)” from St Mary's Church Tower. Stratford: Includes a guided
tour exploring much of the Shakespeare wonder. Tour C—Windsor Castle & Hampton Court including entrance fees to Hampton Court Palace—￡ 34 until 11 March and ￡ 37 thereafter. Includes a guided tour of Windsor and Hampton Court, Henry VIII's favourite palace. Free time to visit Windsor Castle (entrance fees not included). With 500 years of history, Hampton Court was once the home of four Kings and one Queen. Now this former royal palace is open to the public as a major tourist attraction. Visit the palace and its various historic gardens, which include the famous maze (迷宫) where it is easy to get lost ! Tour D—Cambridge including entrance fees to the Tower of Saint Mary the Great—￡ 33 until 18 March and ￡ 37 thereafter. Includes a guided tour of Cambridge, the famous university town, and the gardens of the 18th century. 这是一篇应用文，介绍了英国几处风景名胜一日游的相关情况。 1．Which tour will you choose if you want to see England's oldest university city? A．Tour A. B．Tour B. C．Tour C. D．Tour D. 答案 B [细节理解题。在 Tour B 中提到“Oxford: Includes a guided tour of England's oldest university city and colleges”， 因此答案是 B 项。] 2．Which of the following tours charges the lowest fee on 17 March? A．Windsor Castle & Hampton Court. B．Oxford & Stratford. C．Bath & Stonehenge. D．Cambridge. 答案 D [细节理解题。结合本文信息可知，在 3 月 17 日这一天四个景点的票价分别 为：￡ 37，￡ 36，￡ 37，￡ 33，因此最低票价在 Cambridge。] 3．Why is Hampton Court a major tourist attraction? A．It used to be the home of royal families. B．It used to be a well－known maze. C．It is the oldest palace in Britain. D．It is a world－famous castle. 答案 A [细节理解题。根据 Tour C 中的“With 500 years of history, Hampton Court was once the home of four Kings and one Queen”可知，这里曾经是国王和皇后的住所，因此现在成 为了主要的旅游胜地。] Passage 3 [2015· 北京高考，A]体裁：记叙文 词数：396 The Boy Made It! One Sunday, Nicholas, a teenager, went skiing at Sugarloaf Mountain in Maine. In the early afternoon, when he was planning to go home, a fierce snowstorm swept into the area. Unable to see far, he accidentally turned off the path. Before he knew it, Nicholas was lost, all alone! He didn't have food, water, a phone, or other supplies. He was getting colder by the minute. Nicholas had no idea where he was. He tried not to panic. He thought about all of the survival shows he had watched on TV. It was time to put the tips he had learned to use. He decided to stop skiing. There was a better chance of someone finding him if he stayed put. The first thing he did was to find shelter from the freezing wind and snow. If he didn't,
his body temperature would get very low, which could quickly kill him. Using his skis, Nicholas built a snow cave. He gathered a huge mass of snow and dug out a hole in the middle. Then he piled branches on top of himself, like a blanket, to stay as warm as he could. By that evening, Nicholas was really hungry. He ate snow and drank water from a nearby stream so that his body wouldn't lose too much water. Not knowing how much longer he could last, Nicholas did the only thing he could—he huddled (蜷缩) in his cave and slept. The next day, Nicholas went out to look for help, but he couldn't find anyone. He followed his tracks and returned to the snow cave, because without shelter, he could die that night. On Tuesday, Nicholas went out again to find help. He had walked for about a mile when a volunteer searcher found him. After two days stuck in the snow, Nicholas was saved. Nicholas might not have survived this snowstorm had it not been for TV. He had often watched Grylls' survival show Man vs.Wild. That's where he learned the tips that saved his life. In each episode (一期节目) of Man vs.Wild, Grylls is abandoned in a wild area and has to find his way out. When Grylls heard about Nicholas' amazing deeds, he was super impressed that Nicholas had made it since he knew better than anyone how hard Nicholas had to work to stay alive. 本文是一篇记叙文，讲述了 Nicholas 在一次滑雪时迷路，利用自己在电视里学到的求生 技能成功求生的故事。 1．What happened to Nicholas one Sunday afternoon? A．He got lost. B．He broke his skis. C．He hurt his eyes. D．He caught a cold. 答案 A [细节理解题。根据文章第一段第四句话“Before he knew it, Nicholas was lost, all alone”可知，一个周日的下午 Nicholas 迷路了，故答案为 A 项。] 2．How did Nicholas keep himself warm? A．He found a shelter. B．He lighted some branches. C．He kept on skiing. D．He built a snow cave. 答案 D [细节理解题。根据第四段内容可知，Nicholas 挖了一个雪洞来保暖，故答案 为 D 项。] 3．On Tuesday, Nicholas________. A．returned to his shelter safely B．was saved by a searcher C．got stuck in the snow D．stayed where he was 答案 B [细节理解题。根据第六段第四句话“He had walked for about a mile when a volunteer searcher found him” 可知，是一个搜寻者救了 Nicholas，故答案为 B 项。] 4．Nicholas left Grylls a very deep impression because he________. A．did the right things in the dangerous situation B．watched Grylls' TV program regularly C．created some tips for survival D．was very hard－working 答案 A [推理判断题。 根据文章最后一段， 尤其是“how hard Nicholas had to work to stay
alive”可知，为了生存 Nicholas 付出了很大的努力。] Passage 4 [2015· 四川高考，D]体裁：说明文 词数：336 Their cheery song brightens many a winter's day. But robins are in danger of wearing themselves out by singing too much. Robins are singing all night－as well as during the day, British－based researchers say. David Dominoni, of Glasgow University, said that light from street lamps, takeaway signs and homes is affecting the birds' biological clocks, leading to them being wide awake when they should be asleep. Dr. Dominoni, who is putting cameras inside nesting boxes to track sleeping patterns, said lack of sleep could put the birds' health at risk. His study shows that when robins are exposed to light at night in the lab, it leads to some genes being active at the wrong time of day. And the more birds are exposed to light, the more active they are at night. He told people at a conference, “There have been a couple of studies suggesting they are increasing their song output at night and during the day they are still singing. Singing is a costly behaviour and it takes energy. So by increasing their song output, there might be some costs of energy.” And it is not just robins that are being kept awake by artificial light. Blackbirds and seagulls are also being more nocturnal. Dr. Dominoni said, “In Glasgow where I live, gulls are a serious problem. I have people coming to me saying ‘You are the bird expert. Can you help us kill these gulls？’. During the breeding (繁殖) season, between April and June, they are very active at night and very noisy and people can't sleep.” Although Dr. Dominoni has only studied light pollution, other research concluded that robins living in noisy cities have started to sing at night to make themselves heard over loud noise. However, some birds thrive (兴旺) in noisy environments. A study from California Polytechnic State University found more hummingbirds in areas with heavy industrial machinery. It is thought that they are capitalising on their predators (天敌) fleeing to quieter areas. 本文是一篇研究类文章。夜间灯光及嘈杂的城市环境导致知更鸟整夜长鸣，这不仅会消 耗它们的能量，而且对它们的健康有害。 1．According to Dr. Dominoni's study, what causes robins to sing so much? A．The breeding season. B．The light in modern life. C．The dangerous environment. D．The noise from heavy machinery. 答案 B [细节理解题。根据第二段中的“light from street lamps, takeaway signs and homes is affecting the birds' biological clocks, leading to them being wide awake when they should be asleep”可知答案为 B。] 2．What is the researchers' concern over the increase of birds' song output? A．The environment might be polluted. B．The birds' health might be damaged. C．The industry cost might be increased. D．The people's hearing might be affected. 答案 B [细节理解题。根据第一段中的“But robins are in danger of wearing themselves out by singing too much”及第四段中的最后一句可知答案为 B。]
3．What does the underlined word “nocturnal” in Paragraph 5 mean? A．Active at night. B．Inactive at night. C．Active during the day. D．Inactive during the day. 答案 A [ 词义猜测题。根据画线词所在段中的 “being kept awake” 及 “During the breeding(繁殖) season, between April and June, they are very active at night”可知，nocturnal 的意 思应是“夜间活动的”，故选 A。] 4．Why do some birds thrive in noisy environments? A．Because there are fewer dangers. B．Because there is more food to eat. C．Because there is less light pollution. D．Because there are more places to take shelter. 答案 A [推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“It is thought that they are capitalising on their predators (天敌) fleeing to quieter areas”可推知 A 项正确。] Passage 5 [2015· 安徽高考，D]体裁：说明文 词数：283 There are an extremely large number of ants worldwide. Each individual(个体的) ant hardly weighs anything, but put together they weigh roughly the same as all of mankind. They also live nearly everywhere, except on frozen mountain tops and around the poles. For animals their size, ants have been astonishingly successful, largely due to their wonderful social behavior. In colonies (群体) that range in size from a few hundred to tens of millions, they organize their lives with a clear division of labor. Even more amazing is how they achieve this level of organization. Where we use sound and sight to communicate, ants depend primarily on pheromones (外激素), chemicals sent out by individuals and smelled or tasted by fellow members of their colony. When an ant finds food, it produces a pheromone that will lead others straight to where the food is. When an individual ant comes under attack or is dying, it sends out an alarm pheromone to warn the colony to prepare for a conflict as a defense unit. In fact, when it comes to the art of war, ants have no equal. They are completely fearless and will readily take_on a creature much larger than themselves, attacking in large groups and overcoming their target. Such is their devotion to the common good of the colony that not only soldier ants but also worker ants will sacrifice their lives to help defeat an enemy. Behaving in this selfless and devoted manner, these little creatures have survived on Earth for more than 140 million years, far longer than dinosaurs. Because they think as one, they have a collective (集体的) intelligence greater than you would expect from its individual parts. 这是一篇科普说明文。文章对个体渺小，实则有着庞大团队和巨大力量的蚂蚁进行了分 析。作者从蚂蚁有着明确的分工合作、对集体任务无私奉献中找到了它们在地球上存活时间 比恐龙还长的原因。 1．We can learn from the passage that ants are________. A．not willing to share food B．not found around the poles C．more successful than all other animals D．too many to achieve any level of organization 答案 B [细节理解题。根据第一段中的“They also live nearly everywhere, except on
frozen mountain tops and around the poles”可知，答案为 B 项。] 2．Ants can use pheromones for________. A．escape B．communication C．warning enemies D．arranging labor 答案 B [细节理解题。根据第二段中的“Where we use sound and sight to communicate, ants depend primarily on pheromones(外激素)”可知，答案为 B 项。] 3．What does the underlined expression “take on” in Paragraph 3 mean? A．Accept. B．Employ. C．Play with. D．Fight against. 答案 D [短语猜测题。 根据第三段中的“They are completely fearless and will readily take on a creature much larger than themselves, attacking in large groups and overcoming their target” 可知，答案应为 attack 之类的动词。因而，答案为 D 项 fight against“对抗”。] 4．Which of the following contributes most to the survival of ants? A．Their behavior. B．Their size. C．Their number. D．Their weight. 答案 A [推理判断题。根据文中最后一段中的 “Behaving in this selfless and devoted manner, these little creatures have survived on Earth...”可知答案。] 专题十七 推理判断题 Passage 1 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ，B]体裁：记叙文 词数：352 The freezing Northeast hasn't been a terribly fun place to spend time this winter, so when the chance came for a weekend to Sarasota, Florida, my bags were packed before you could say “sunshine”. I left for the land of warmth and vitamin C (维生素 C), thinking of beaches and orange trees. When we touched down to blue skies and warm air, I sent up a small prayer of gratefulness. Swimming pools, wine tasting, and pink sunsets (at normal evening hours, not 4 in the afternoon) filled the weekend, but the best part—particularly to my taste, dulled by months of cold?weather root vegetables—was a 7 a．m. adventure to the Sarasota farmers' market that proved to be more than worth the early wake?up call. The market, which was founded in 1979, sets up its tents every Saturday from 7 a．m. to 1 p．m., rain or shine, along North Lemon and State streets. Baskets of perfect red strawberries; the red?painted sides of the Java Dawg coffee truck; and most of all, the tomatoes: amazing, large, soft and round red tomatoes. Disappointed by many a broken, vine?ripened (蔓上成熟的) promise, I've refused to buy winter tomatoes for years. No matter how attractive they look in the store, once I get them home they're unfailingly dry, hard, and tasteless. But I homed in, with uncertainty, on one particular table at the Brown's Grove Farm's stand, full of fresh and soft tomatoes the size of my fist. These were the real deal—and at that moment, I realized that the best part of Sarasota in winter was going to be eating things that back home in New York I wouldn't be experiencing again for months. Delighted as I was by the tomatoes in sight, my happiness deepened when I learned that Brown's Grove Farm is one of the suppliers for Jack Dusty, a newly opened restaurant at the Sarasota Ritz Carlton, where—luckily for me—I was planning to have dinner that very night. Without even seeing the menu, I knew I'd be ordering every tomato on it. 本文描述了作者在严冬季节去佛罗里达州的萨拉索塔市(Sarasota)过周末的感受。在温暖 如春的萨拉索塔市，各种蔬菜水果生机勃勃，而在寒冷的美国东北部，表面诱人的西红柿却
食之无味。 1．What did the author think of her winter life in New York? A．Exciting. B．Boring. C．Relaxing. D．Annoying. 答案 B [推理判断题。根据文章第一句话中的 “The freezing Northeast hasn't been a terribly fun place to spend time this winter”可判断， 作者不喜欢在纽约过冬， 因此毫不犹豫决定 去南方过周末。] 2．What made the author's getting up early worthwhile? A．Having a swim. B．Breathing in fresh air. C．Walking in the morning sun. D．Visiting a local farmers' market. 答案 D [细节理解题。根据第一段最后一句中的“the best part... was a 7 a．m. adventure to the Sarasota farmers' market that proved to be more than worth the early wake－up call”可知， 作 者早上七点起床去集贸市场，看到各种新鲜的蔬菜水果，所以她认为早起很值得。] 3．What can we learn about tomatoes sold in New York in winter? A．They are soft. B．They look nice. C．They taste great. D．They are juicy. 答案 B [推理判断题。根据第三段可知，多年来，作者在冬季都不买西红柿。由第二 句话“No matter how attractive they look in the store, once I get them home they're unfailingly dry, hard, and tasteless”可判断，在纽约市的冬季，西红柿在商店看起来挺好的，但是拿到家里吃 起来却没有味道。因此答案为 B。] 4．What was the author going to do that evening? A．Go to a farm. B．Check into a hotel. C．Eat in a restaurant. D．Buy fresh vegetables. 答案 C [推理判断题。根据文章的最后一段可知，看到集贸市场上新鲜的西红柿，作 者的幸福感大增，计划当晚就去萨拉索塔市一个新开业的餐馆吃饭。] Passage 2 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅱ，C]体裁：说明文 词数：264 More students than ever before are taking a gap year (间隔年) before going to university. It used to be called the “year off” between school and university. The gap－year phenomenon originated (起源) with the months left over to Oxbridge applicants between entrance exams in November and the start of the next academic year. This year, 25, 310 students who have accepted places in higher education institutions have put off their entry until next year, according to statistics on university entrance provided by the University and College Admissions Service (UCAS)． That is a record 14.7% increase in the number of students taking a gap year. Tony Higgins from UCAS said that the statistics are good news for everyone in higher education. “Students who take a well－planned year out are more likely to be satisfied with, and complete, their chosen course. Students who take a gap year are often more mature and responsible，” he said.
But not everyone is happy. Owain James, the president of the National Union of Students (NUS), argued that the increase is evidence of student hardship—young people are being forced into earning money before finishing their education. “New students are now aware that they are likely to leave university up to ￡ 15,000 in debt. It is not surprising that more and more students are taking a gap year to earn money to support their study for the degree. NUS statistics show that over 40% of students are forced to work during term－time and the figure increases to 90% during vacation periods，” he said. 这是一篇社会生活类的新闻报道。越来越多的高中毕业生没有直接去上大学而是选择了 间隔年，这样他们可以打工攒够费用上大学，将来能更好地适应大学生活。 1．What do we learn about the gap year from the text? A．It is flexible in length. B．It is a time for relaxation. C．It is increasingly popular. D．It is required by universities. 答案 C [推理判断题。根据第一段中的“More students than ever before are taking a gap year(间隔年) before going to university”和第三段中的“That is a record 14.7% increase in the number of students taking a gap year”可推断，间隔年这种现象越来越普遍。] 2．According to Tony Higgins, students taking a gap year________. A．are better prepared for college studies B．know a lot more about their future jobs C．are more likely to leave university in debt D．have a better chance to enter top universities 答案 A [推理判断题。根据第三段中的“Students who take a well－planned year out are more likely to be satisfied with, and complete, their chosen course. Students who take a gap year are often more mature and responsible”可推知，选择间隔年的学生将来能够更好地适应大学生 活。] 3．How does Owain James feel about the gap－year phenomenon? A．He's puzzled. B．He's worried. C．He's surprised. D．He's annoyed. 答案 B [推理判断题。根据第四段的首句“But not everyone is happy”和下文内容可推 断，Owain James 认为间隔年现象从一个侧面反映了目前大学生上学压力大、费用高的现状， 因此他感到担忧。] 4．What would most students do on their vacation according to NUS statistics? A．Attend additional courses. B．Make plans for the new term. C．Earn money for their education. D．Prepare for their graduate studies. 答案 C [细节理解题。根据第四段中的“It is not surprising that more and more students are taking a gap year to earn money to support their study for the degree”和最后一句可知， 大多数 学生会充分利用间隔年打工挣钱攒学费。] Passage 3 [2015· 福建高考，B]体裁：记叙文 词数：410
Papa, as a son of a dirt－poor farmer, left school early and went to work in a factory, for education was for the rich then. So, the world became his school. With great interest, he read everything he could lay his hands on, listened to the town elders and learned about the world beyond his tiny hometown. “There's so much to learn，” he'd say. “Though we're born stupid, only the stupid remain that way.” He was determined that none of his children would be denied (拒 绝) an education. Thus, Papa insisted that we learn at least one new thing each day. Though, as children, we thought this was crazy, it would never have occurred to us to deny Papa a request. And dinner time seemed perfect for sharing what we had learned. We would talk about the news of the day; no matter how insignificant, it was never taken lightly. Papa would listen carefully and was ready with some comment, always to the point. Then came the moment—the time to share the day's new learning. Papa, at the head of the table, would push back his chair and pour a glass of red wine, ready to listen. “Felice，” he'd say, “tell me what you learned today.” “I learned that the population of Nepal is...” Silence. Papa was thinking about what was said, as if the salvation (拯救) of the world would depend upon it. “The population of Nepal. Hmm. Well...” he'd say. “Get the map; let's see where Nepal is.” And the whole family went on a search for Nepal. This same experience was repeated until each family member had a turn. Dinner ended only after we had a clear understanding of at least half a dozen such facts. As children, we thought very little about these educational wonders. Our family, however, was growing together, sharing experiences and participating in one another's education. And by looking at us, listening to us, respecting our input, affirming (肯定) our value, giving us a sense of dignity, Papa was unquestionably our most influential teacher. Later during my training as a future teacher, I studied with some of the most famous educators. They were imparting (传授)what Papa had known all along—the value of continual learning. His technique has served me well all my life. Not a single day has been wasted, though I can never tell when knowing the population of Nepal might prove useful. 父亲出身贫寒，没有接受学校教育，因此父亲很重视让孩子们接受教育，并很好地利用 家庭这一平台让孩子们学到很多东西，让他们受益终生。 1．What do we know from the first paragraph? A．The author's father was born in a worker's family. B．Those born stupid could not change their life. C．The town elders wanted to learn about the world. D．The poor could hardly afford school education. 答案 D [推理判断题。根据第一段中的“for education was for the rich”可知穷人负担不 起学校教育。] 2．The underlined word “it” in the second paragraph refers to “________”． A．one new thing B．a request C．the news D．some comment 答案 C [推理判断题。根据语境此处代词 it 指代上文中的“the news of the day”。] 3．It can be learned from the passage that the author ________.
A．enjoyed talking about news B．knew very well about Nepal C．felt regret about those wasted days D．appreciated his father's educational technique 答案 D [推理判断题。结合文章最后两段可知，父亲对他们的教育对作者产生了很大 影响，让他受益终生，因此作者对此很感激。] 4．What is the greatest value of “dinner time” to the author? A．Continual learning. B．Showing talents. C．Family get－together. D．Winning Papa's approval. 答案 A [细节理解题。根据文章最后一段中的“the value of continual learning”可知答 案。] 5．The author's father can be best described as ________. A．an educator expert at training future teachers B．a parent insistent on his children's education C．a participant willing to share his knowledge D．a teacher strict about everything his students did 答案 B [推理判断题。纵观全文，尽管父亲出身贫寒，没有接受学校教育，但父亲坚 持让孩子接受教育，所以选择 B。] Passage 4 [2015· 湖北高考，E]体裁：议论文 词数：340 Science has a lot of uses. It can uncover laws of nature, cure diseases, make bombs, and help bridges to stand up. Indeed science is so good at what it does that there's always a temptation (诱惑) to drag it into problems where it may not be helpful. David Brooks, author of The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement, appears to be the latest in a long line of writers who have failed to resist the temptation. Brooks gained fame for several books. His latest book The Social Animal, however, is more ambitious and serious than his earlier books. It is an attempt to deal with a set of weighty topics. The book focuses on big questions: What has science revealed about human nature? What are the sources of character? And why are some people happy and successful while others aren't? To answer these questions, Brooks surveys a wide range of disciplines ( 学科 ). Considering this, you might expect the book to be a dry recitation of facts. But Brooks has structured his book in an unorthodox ( 非常规的 ), and perhaps unfortunate, way. Instead of introducing scientific theories, he tells a story, within which he tries to make his points, perhaps in order to keep the reader's attention. So as Harold and Erica, the hero and heroine in his story, live through childhood, we hear about the science of child development, and as they begin to date we hear about the theory of sexual attraction. Brooks carries this through to the death of one of his characters. On the whole, Brooks's story is acceptable if uninspired. As one would expect, his writing is mostly clear and, to be fair, some chapters stand out above the rest. I enjoyed, for instance, the chapter in which Harold discovers how to think on his own. While Harold and Erica are certainly not strong or memorable characters, the more serious problems with The Social Animal lie elsewhere. These problems partly involve Brooks's attempt to translate his tale into
science. 这是一篇书评，介绍了 Brooks 的一本新书。在 Brooks 的新书中，他从科学的角度，用 故事的形式讲述了人从出生到老死的整个生命进程中所蕴含的科学理论。 1．The author mentions the functions of science at the beginning of the passage to ________. A．illustrate where science can be applied B．demonstrate the value of Brooks's new book C．remind the reader of the importance of science D．explain why many writers use science in their works 答案 D [推理判断题。文章第一段说科学有很多用途，因此人们总想把科学运用到不 需要科学的地方，然后介绍了 David Brooks 的新书。从第一段可判断，列举科学的功能是为 了说明为什么很多作家都喜欢在自己的作品中运用科学理论，因此选 D。] 2．According to the author, which of the following could be a strength of the book? A．Its strong basis. B．Its convincing points. C．Its clear writing. D．Its memorable characters. 答案 C [推理判断题。第三段讲述 David Brooks 的这本书的具体内容，然后在第四段 说到“his writing is mostly clear”，因此选 C。文章最后一段说这本书的角色“not strong or memorable”(D 错)，第三段说作者在写作的时候“tries to make his points”(A、B 错)。] 3．What is the author's general attitude towards the book? A．Contradictory. B．Supportive. C．Cautious. D．Critical. 答案 D [ 推理判断题。最后一段作者在评价这本书的时候说到 “mostly clear; some chapters stand out above the rest; not strong or memorable characters; the more serious problems; attempt to translate his tale into science”，从这些信息看，作者对于这本书的态度是批判性的 (critical)。] 4．What is the author likely to write about after the last paragraph? A．Problems with the book. B．Brooks's life experiences. C．Death of the characters. D．Brooks's translation skills. 答案 A [推理判断题。文章最后一句说到这本书的一些问题，那么后文就很可能具体 说明这本书的问题所在。因此选 A。] Passage 5 [2015· 广东高考，B]体裁：夹叙夹议文 词数：314 When I was nine years old, I loved to go fishing with my dad. But the only thing that wasn't very fun about it was that he could catch many fish while I couldn't catch anything. I usually got pretty upset and kept asking him why. He always answered, “Son, if you want to catch a fish, you have to think like a fish.” I remember being even more upset then because, “I'm not a fish！” I didn't know how to think like a fish. Besides, I reasoned, how could what I think influence what a fish does? As I got a little older I began to understand what my dad really meant. So, I read some books on fish. And I even joined the local fishing club and started attending the monthly meetings. I learned that a fish is a cold－blooded animal and therefore is very sensitive to water temperature.
That is why fish prefer shallow water to deep water because the former is warmer. Besides, water is usually warmer in direct sunlight than in the shade. Yet, fish don't have any eyelids (眼皮) and the sun hurts their eyes... The more I understood fish, the more I became effective at finding and catching them. When I grew up and entered the business world, I remember hearing my first boss say, “We all need to think like salespeople.” But it didn't completely make sense. My dad never once said, “If you want to catch a fish yon need to think like a fisherman.” What he said was, “You need to think like a fish.” Years later, with great efforts to promote long－term services to people much older and richer than me, I gradually learned what we all need is to think more like customers. It is not an easy job. I will show you how in the following chapters. 本文是篇夹叙夹议文，主要讲述了“我”从父亲那里学到的钓鱼智慧。 1．Why was the author upset in the fishing trips when he was nine? A．He could not catch a fish. B．His father was not patient with him. C．His father did not teach him fishing. D．He could not influence a fish as his father did. 答案 A [细节理解题。通过第一段中的“But the only thing that wasn't very fun about it was that... I couldn't catch anything”可知答案。] 2．What did the author's father really mean? A．To read about fish. B．To learn fishing by oneself. C．To understand what fish think. D．To study fishing in many ways. 答案 C [推理判断题。通过第二段的内容可推知父亲说那句话的真正含义是让作者了 解鱼的习性，故答案为 C。] 3．According to the author, fish are most likely to be found ________. A．in deep water on sunny days B．in deep water on cloudy days C．in shallow water under sunlight D．in shallow water under waterside trees 答案 D [推理判断题。通过第二段中的“That is why fish prefer shallow water to deep water”与“water is usually warmer in direct sunlight...the sun hurts their eyes”可知答案。] 4．After entering the business world, the author found ________. A．it easy to think like a customer B．his father's fishing advice inspiring C．his first boss's sales ideas reasonable D．it difficult to sell services to poor people 答案 B [推理判断题。通过最后一段描述的作者回忆起父亲教导他的话可推知，作者 发现父亲的钓鱼建议在商界也很有启发。] 5．This passage most likely comes from ________. A．a fishing guide B．a popular sales book C．a novel on childhood D．a millionaire's biography
答案 B [推理判断题。根据最后一段的内容尤其是最后一句“I will show you how in the following chapters”可知，本文节选自一本关于销售的书。] 专题十八 主旨大意题 Passage 1 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅱ，B]体裁：说明文 词数：316 Your house may have an effect on your figure. Experts say the way you design your home could play a role in whether you pack on the pounds or keep them off. You can make your environment work for you instead of against you. Here are some ways to turn your home into part of your diet plan. Open the curtains and turn up the lights. Dark environments are more likely to encourage overeating, for people are often less self－conscious (难为情) when they're in poorly lit places—and so more likely to eat lots of food. If your home doesn't have enough window light, get more lamps and flood the place with brightness. Mind the colors. Research suggests warm colors fuel our appetites. In one study, people who ate meals in a blue room consumed 33 percent less than those in a yellow or red room. Warm colors like yellow make food appear more appetizing, while cold colors make us feel less hungry. So when it's time to repaint, go blue. Don't forget the clock—or the radio. People who eat slowly tend to consume about 70 fewer calories (卡路里) per meal than those who rush through their meals. Begin keeping track of the time, and try to make dinner last at least 30 minutes. And while you're at it, actually sit down to eat. If you need some help slowing down, turn on relaxing music. It makes you less likely to rush through a meal. Downsize the dishes. Big serving bowls and plates can easily make us fat. We eat about 22 percent more when using a 12－inch plate instead of a 10－inch plate. When we choose a large spoon over a smaller one, total intake (摄入) jumps by 14 percent. And we'll pour about 30 percent more liquid into a short, wide glass than a tall, skinny glass. 这是一篇科普性说明文。最新研究表明，房屋的窗帘、灯光设计、墙壁颜色、餐具大小 等都会影响食欲和食量，进而影响节食效果和身材。 1．The text is especially helpful for those who care about ________. A．their home comforts B．their body shape C．house buying D．healthy diets 答案 B [ 推理判断题。依据第一段中的 “Your house may have an effect on your figure...whether you pack on the pounds or keep them off”，再结合该段最后一句“Here are some ways to turn your home into part of your diet plan”可知，B 项正确。] 2．A home environment in blue can help people ________. A．digest food better B．reduce food intake C．burn more calories D．regain their appetites 答案 B [推理判断题。依据第三段第三句“In one study, people who ate meals in a blue room consumed 33 percent less than those in a yellow or red room”可知，在蓝色环境中人们的食 量会减少 33%，因此身处蓝色的环境中有助于减少食量。] 3．What are people advised to do at mealtimes? A．Eat quickly. B．Play fast music. C．Use smaller spoons. D．Turn down the lights. 答案 C [推理判断题。依据第四段的内容可知，吃饭吃得快的话会吃得多，因此为了
帮助减缓吃饭的速度，吃饭时可播放舒缓音乐，排除 A、B 项；D 项与第二段首句的内容相 矛盾；依据第五段的内容可知，使用小型的餐具有助于减少食物摄入量。故选 C。] 4．What can be a suitable title for the text? A．Is Your House Making You Fat? B．Ways of Serving Dinner C．Effects of Self－Consciousness D．Is Your Home Environment Relaxing? 答案 A [主旨大意题。本文主要讲的是房屋的窗帘、灯光设计、墙壁颜色、餐具大小 等方面均会影响食欲和食量，进而影响节食效果和身材，故 A 项“你的房屋在使你发胖吗？” 作文章标题最佳。] Passage 2 [2015· 陕西高考，B]体裁：记叙文 词数：291 When the dog named Judy spotted the first sheep in her life, she did what comes naturally. The four－year－old dog set off racing after the sheep across several fields and, being a city animal, lost both her sheep and her sense of direction. Then she ran along the edge of a cliff(悬 崖) and fell 100 feet, bouncing off a rock into the sea. Her owner Mike Holden panicked and called the coastguard of Cornwall, who turned up in seconds. Six volunteers slid down the cliff with the help of a rope but gave up all hope of finding her alive after a 90－minute search. Three days later, a hurricane hit the coast near Cornwall. Mr. Holden returned home from his holiday upset and convinced his pet was dead. He comforted himself with the thought she had died in the most beautiful part of the country. For the next two weeks, the Holdens were heartbroken. Then, one day, the phone rang and Steve Tregear, the coastguard of Cornwall, asked Holden if he would like his dog back. A birdwatcher, armed with a telescope, found the pet sitting desperately on a rock. While he sounded the alarm, a student from Leeds climbed down the cliff to collect Judy. The dog had initially been knocked unconscious(失去知觉的) but had survived by drinking water from a fresh stream at the base of the cliff. She may have fed on the body of a sheep which had also fallen over the edge. “The dog was very thin and hungry，” Steve Tregear said. “It was a very lucky dog. She survived because of a plentiful supply of fresh water， ” he added. It was, as Mr. Holden admitted, “a minor miracle(奇迹)”． 这是一篇记叙文。文章叙述了一只名叫 Judy 的狗，在追赶绵羊时掉落悬崖，掉进大海并 遭遇飓风，但是它在恶劣的环境下顽强地生存下来的故事。 1．The dog Judy fell down the cliff when she was ________. A．rescuing her owner B．caught in a hurricane C．blocked by a rock D．running after a sheep 答案 D [细节理解题。根据文章中的“The four－year－old dog set off racing after the sheep across several fields...”可知答案为 D。] 2．Who spotted Judy after the accident? A．A birdwatcher. B．A student from Leeds. C．Six volunteers. D．The coastguard of Cornwall. 答案 A [细节理解题。根据文章中的“A birdwatcher, armed with a telescope, found the
pet sitting desperately on a rock”可知，一位观鸟者用他的望远镜发现了绝望地蹲在岩石上的 Judy。故答案为 A。] 3．What can we infer from the text? A．People like to travel with their pets. B．Judy was taken to the fields for hunting. C．Luck plays a vital role in Judy's survival. D．Holden cared little where Judy was buried. 答案 C [推理判断题。根据文章中的“...had survived by drinking water from a fresh stream”以及“It was a very lucky dog”可知答案为 C。] 4．Which of the following can be the best title for the text? A．Miracle of the Coastguard. B．Surviving a Hurricane. C．Dangers in the Wild. D．Coming Back from the Dead. 答案 D [主旨大意题。 文章主要叙述了一只幸运的狗 Judy 在恶劣的环境下顽强生存下 来的故事，所以选项 D“起死回生”是文章的最佳标题。] Passage 3 [2015· 江苏高考，B]体裁：说明文 词数：384 In the United States alone, over 100 million cell－phones are thrown away each year. Cell－phones are part of a growing mountain of electronic waste like computers and personal digital assistants. The electronic waste stream is increasing three times faster than traditional garbage as a whole. Electronic devices contain valuable metals such as gold and silver. A Swiss study reported that while the weight of electronic goods represented by precious metals was relatively small in comparison to total waste, the concentration(含量) of gold and other precious metals was higher in socalled e－waste than in naturally occurring minerals. Electronic wastes also contain many poisonous metals. Even when the machines are recycled and the harmful metals removed, the recycling process often is carried out in poor countries, in practically uncontrolled ways which allow many poisonous substances to escape into the environment. Creating products out of raw materials creates much more waste material, up to 100 times more, than the material contained in the finished products. Consider again the cell－phone, and imagine the mines that produced those metals, the factories needed to make the box and packaging (包装) it came in. Many wastes produced in the producing process are harmful as well. The US Environmental Protection Agency notes that most waste is dangerous in that “the production, distribution, and use of products—as well as management of the resulting waste—all result in greenhouse gas release.” Individuals can reduce their contribution by creating less waste at the start—for instance, buying reusable products and recycling. In many countries the concept of extended producer responsibility is being considered or has been put in place as an incentive (动机) for reducing waste. If producers are required to take back packaging they use to sell their products, would they reduce the packaging in the first place? Governments' incentive to require producers to take responsibility for the packaging they produce is usually based on money. Why, they ask, should cities or towns be responsible for paying to deal with the bubble wrap (气泡垫) that encased your television?
From the governments' point of view, a primary goal of laws requiring extended producer responsibility is to transfer both the costs and the physical responsibility of waste management from the government and taxpayers back to the producers. 本文主要介绍了电子垃圾、电子垃圾的危害及我们应该如何处理它等信息。 1．By mentioning the Swiss study, the author intends to tell us that ________. A．the weight of e－goods is rather small B．e－waste deserves to be made good use of C．natural minerals contain more precious metals D．the percentage of precious metals is heavy in e－waste 答案 B [推理判断题。该研究表明电子垃圾中的贵重金属含量很高，再根据全文作者 的写作目的可知，作者意在说明电子垃圾值得被充分利用。因此选择 B。] 2．The responsibility of e－waste treatment should be extended ________. A．from producers to governments B．from governments to producers C．from individuals to distributors D．from distributors to governments 答案 B [推理判断题。根据文章最后一句可知，治理电子垃圾的责任应该从政府转到 生产商。因此选择 B。] 3．What does the passage mainly talk about? A．The increase in e－waste. B．The creation of e－waste. C．The seriousness of e－waste. D．The management of e－waste. 答案 D [主旨大意题。文章前半部分指出了电子垃圾的数量在不断增加及其危害，后 半部分提出了如何处理这些垃圾， 由此可推知如何处理电子垃圾是文章的主旨， 因此选择 D。 ] Passage 4 [2015· 重庆高考，A]体裁：记叙文 词数：291 At thirteen, I was diagnosed (诊断) with a kind of attention disorder. It made school difficult for me. When everyone else in the class was focusing on tasks, I could not. In my first literature class, Mrs. Smith asked us to read a story and then write on it, all within 45 minutes. I raised my hand right away and said, “Mrs. Smith, you see, the doctor said I have attention problems. I might not be able to do it.” She glanced down at me through her glasses, “You are no different from your classmates, young man.” I tried, but I didn't finish the reading when the bell rang. I had to take it home. In the quietness of my bedroom, the story suddenly all became clear to me. It was about a blind person, Louis Braille. He lived in a time when the blind couldn't get much education. But Louis didn't give up. Instead, he invented a reading system of raised dots (点), which opened up a whole new world of knowledge to the blind. Wasn't I the “blind” in my class, being made to learn like the “sighted” students? My thoughts spilled out and my pen started to dance. I completed the task within 40 minutes. Indeed, I was no different from others; I just needed a quieter place. If Louis could find his way out of his problems, why should I ever give up? I didn't expect anything when I handed in my paper to Mrs. Smith, so it was quite a
surprise when it came back to me the next day—with an “A” on it. At the bottom of the paper were these words: “See what you can do when you keep trying？” 这是一篇记叙文。作者讲述了自己克服阅读障碍，发现了一个新的自己的经历。 1．The author didn't finish the reading in class because ________. A．he was new to the class B．he was tired of literature C．he had an attention disorder D．he wanted to take the task home 答案 C [推理判断题。第一段作者就谈到他有注意力障碍，第二段的尾句说明作者认 为自己的身体状况使他不能完成老师布置的任务。] 2．What do we know about Louis Braille from the passage? A．He had good sight. B．He made a great invention. C．He gave up reading. D．He learned a lot from school. 答案 B [细节理解题。依据第五段的“he invented a reading system of raised dots(点)”可 知，Louis Braille 为盲人发明了一种非常有用的阅读体系。] 3．What was Mrs. Smith's attitude to the author at the end of the story? A．Angry. B．Impatient. C．Sympathetic. D．Encouraging. 答案 D [细节理解题。 文章尾段作者的老师 Mrs. Smith 写道“See what you can do when you keep trying？”说明了这位老师对作者的肯定，她在鼓励作者继续努力。] 4．What is the main idea of the passage? A．The disabled should be treated with respect. B．A teacher can open up a new world to students. C．One can find his way out of difficulties with efforts. D．Everyone needs a hand when faced with challenges. 答案 C [主旨大意题。作者在文中讲述了自己经过努力，终于完成了任务的经历。由 这件事可以看出，只要努力克服困难就能够成功。] Passage 5 [2015· 广东高考，D]体裁：议论文 词数：322 It was once common to regard Britain as a society with class distinction. Each class had unique characteristics. In recent years, many writers have begun to speak of the ‘decline of class’ and ‘classless society’ in Britain. And in modern day consumer society everyone is considered to be middle class. But pronouncing the death of class is too early. A recent wide－ranging study of public opinion found 90 percent of people still placing themselves in a particular class; 73 percent agreed that class was still a vital part of British society; and 52 percent thought there were still sharp class differences. Thus, class may not be culturally and politically obvious, yet it remains an important part of British society. Britain seems to have a love of stratification. One unchanging aspect of a British person's class position is accent. The words a person speaks tell her or his class. A study of British accents during the 1970s found that a voice sounding like a BBC newsreader was viewed as the most attractive voice. Most people said
this accent sounded ‘educated’ and ‘soft’. The accents placed at the bottom in this study, on the other hand, were regional (地区的) city accents. These accents were seen as ‘common’ and ‘ugly’. However, a similar study of British accents in the US turned these results upside down and placed some regional accents as the most attractive and BBC English as the least. This suggests that British attitudes towards accent have deep roots and are based on class prejudice. In recent years, however, young upper middle － class people in London, have begun to adopt some regional accents, in order to hide their class origins. This is an indication of class becoming unnoticed. However, the 1995 pop song ‘Common People’ puts forward the view that though a middleclass person may ‘want to live like common people’ they can never appreciate the reality of a working－class life. 英国是一个阶级分明的国家，但是近年来，很多作家都认为英国的阶级意识变弱了，甚 至说英国是一个无阶级的社会。真的是这样吗？ 1．A recent study of public opinion shows that in modern Britain ________. A．it is time to end class distinction B．most people belong to middle class C．it is easy to recognize a person's class D．people regard themselves socially different 答案 D [推理判断题。根据第三段第二句对调查结果的陈述可知，阶级意识在当代英 国仍然很普遍。故选 D。] 2．The word stratification in Paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ________. A．variety B．division C．authority D．qualification 答案 B [词义猜测题。根据上文的“it remains an important part of British society”可知， 英国人似乎喜欢“(社会的)分层”。] 3．The study in the US showed that BBC English was regarded as ________. A．regional B．educated C．prejudiced D．unattractive 答案 D [细节理解题。 根据第四段中的“However， ... placed some regional accents as the most attractive and BBC English as the least”可知答案。] 4．British attitudes towards accent ________. A．have a long tradition B．are based on regional status C．are shared by the Americans D．have changed in recent years 答案 A [细节理解题。 根据第四段中的“This suggests that British attitudes towards accent have deep roots and are based on class prejudice”可推知，英国人对口音的态度根深蒂固，且源 于阶级歧视。] 5．What is the main idea of the passage? A．The middle class is expanding. B．A person's accent reflects his class. C．Class is a key part of British society. D．Each class has unique characteristics. 答案 C [主旨大意题。本文主要讲的是阶级区分在英国社会中的普遍性。第三段中的 “yet it remains an important part of British society”也是提示。]
专题十九 词义猜测题 Passage 1
[2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ，C]体裁：说明文 词数：220 Salvador Dali (1904～1989)was one of the most popular of modern artists. The Pompidou Centre in Paris is showing its respect and admiration for the artist and his powerful personality with an exhibition bringing together over 200 paintings, sculptures, drawings and more. Among the works and masterworks on exhibition the visitor will find the best pieces, most importantly The Persistence of Memory. There is also L'Enigme sans Fin from 1938, works on paper, objects, and projects for stage and screen and selected parts from television programmes reflecting the artist's showman qualities. The visitor will enter the World of Dali through an egg and is met with the beginning, the world of birth. The exhibition follows a path of time and subject with the visitor exiting through the brain. The exhibition shows how Dali draws the viewer between two infinities (无限), “From the infinity small to the infinity large, contraction and expansion coming in and out of focus: amazing Flemish accuracy and the showy Baroque of old painting that he used in his museum－ theatre in Figueras，” explains the Pompidou Centre. The fine selection of the major works was done in close collaboration (合作) with the Museo Nacional Reina Sofia in Madrid, Spain, and with contributions from other institutions like the Salvador Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida. 本文介绍了著名的西班牙艺术家萨尔瓦多· 达 利 的 艺 术 作 品 即 将 在 法 国 巴 黎 The Pompidou Centre 展出的情况。 1．Which of the following best describes Dali according to Paragraph 1? A．Optimistic. B．Productive. C．Generous. D．Traditional. 答案 B [推理判断题。根据第一段可知，艺术家萨尔瓦多· 达利的 200 多幅油画、雕塑 和绘画作品等将在巴黎的 The Pompidou Centre 展出。由此可判断这个艺术家的创作颇丰。 optimistic“乐观的”；productive“多产的”；generous“慷慨的”；traditional“传统的”。故选 B。] 2．What is Dali's The Persistence of Memory considered to be? A．One of his masterworks. B．A successful screen adaptation. C．An artistic creation for the stage. D．One of the best TV programmes. 答案 A [细节理解题。 根据第一段中的“Among the works and masterworks on exhibition the visitor will find the best pieces, most importantly The Persistence of Memory”可知，萨尔瓦 多· 达利的作品 The Persistence of Memory 被认为是他的一幅杰作。] 3．How are the exhibits arranged at the World of Dali? A．By popularity. B．By importance. C．By size and shape. D．By time and subject. 答案 D [细节理解题。根据第二段中的“The exhibition follows a path of time and subject with the visitor exiting through the brain”可知， 达利的世界是按照时间和主题组织作品展览的。 ]
4．What does the word “contributions” in the last paragraph refer to? A．Artworks. B．Projects. C．Donations. D．Documents. 答案 A [词义猜测题。根据最后一段可知，多家博物馆通力合作共同精选展出作品。 文中提到像西班牙马德里的博物馆和圣彼德斯堡的博物馆这样的机构也提供萨尔瓦多· 达利 的作品参加展览。由此推测，contributions 指“作品”，故选 A。] Passage 2 [2015· 北京高考，C]体裁：说明文 词数：428 Life in the Clear Transparent animals let light pass through their bodies the same way light passes through a window. These animals typically live between the surface of the ocean and a depth of about 3,300 feet—as far as most light can reach. Most of them are extremely delicate and can be damaged by a simple touch. Sonke Johnsen, a scientist in biology, says, “These animals live through their life alone. They never touch anything unless they're eating it, or unless something is eating them.” And they are as clear as glass. How does an animal become see－through? It's trickier than you might think. The objects around you are visible because they interact with light. Light typically travels in a straight line. But some materials slow and scatter (散射) light, bouncing it away from its original path. Others absorb light, stopping it dead in its tracks. Both scattering and absorption make an object look different from other objects around it, so you can see it easily. But a transparent object doesn't absorb or scatter light, at least not very much. Light can pass through it without bending or stopping. That means a transparent object doesn't look very different from the surrounding air or water. You don't see it—you see the things behind it. To become transparent, an animal needs to keep its body from absorbing or scattering light. Living materials can stop light because they contain pigments (色素) that absorb specific colors of light. But a transparent animal doesn't have pigments, so its tissues won't absorb light. According to Johnsen, avoiding absorption is actually easy. The real challenge is preventing light from scattering. Animals are built of many different materials—skin, fat, and more—and light moves through each at a different speed. Every time light moves into a material with a new speed, it bends and scatters. Transparent animals use different tricks to fight scattering. Some animals are simply very small or extremely flat. Without much tissue to scatter light, it is easier to be see－through. Others build a large, clear mass of non － living jelly－ like ( 果冻状的 ) material and spread themselves over it. Larger transparent animals have the biggest challenge, because they have to make all the different tissues in their bodies slow down light exactly as much as water does. They need to look uniform. But how they're doing it is still unknown. One thing is clear: for these larger animals, staying transparent is an active process. When they die, they turn a non－transparent milky white. 本文是一篇说明文，向读者介绍了透明的动物，并解释了它们透明的原因。 1．According to Paragraph 1, transparent animals ________. A．stay in groups B．can be easily damaged
C．appear only in deep ocean D．are beautiful creatures 答案 B [细节理解题。根据文章第一段第三句话“Most of them are extremely delicate and can be damaged by a simple touch”可知，透明的动物很容易被伤害，故答案为 B 项。] 2．The underlined word “dead” in Paragraph 3 means ________. A．silently B．gradually C．regularly D．completely 答案 D [词义猜测题。根据第三段中第四句话前半句其他的动物吸收光，可以猜出后 面是完全地阻止光的传播，画线单词的意思应为“完全地”，故答案为 D 项。] 3．One way for an animal to become transparent is to ________. A．change the direction of light travel B．gather materials to scatter light C．avoid the absorption of light D．grow bigger to stop light 答案 C [细节理解题。根据第五段第一句话可知，要想变得透明，动物需要避免它的 身体吸收光或散射光，故答案为 C 项。] 4．The last paragraph tells us that larger transparent animals ________. A．move more slowly in deep water B．stay see－through even after death C．produce more tissues for their survival D．take effective action to reduce light spreading 答案 D [推理判断题。根据最后一段可知，较大的动物保持透明是一个积极的过程， 而根据前文我们知道保持透明需要减少光的扩散，故答案为 D 项。] Passage 3 [2015· 湖北高考，B]体裁：记叙文 词数：371 What Theresa Loe is doing proves that a large farm isn't a prerequisite for a modern grow－ your－own lifestyle. On a mere 1/10 of an acre in Los Angeles, Loe and her family grow, can (装 罐) and preserve much of the food they consume. Loe is a master food preserver, gardener and canning expert. She also operates a website, where she shares her tips and recipes, with the goal of demonstrating that everyone has the ability to control what's on their plate. Loe initially went to school to become an engineer, but she quickly learned that her enthusiasm was mainly about growing and preparing her own food. “I got into cooking my own food and started growing my own herbs (香草) and foods for that fresh flavor，” she said. Engineer by day, Loe learned cooking at night school. She ultimately purchased a small piece of land with her husband and began growing their own foods. “I teach people how to live farm－fresh without a farm，” Loe said. Through her website Loe emphasizes that “anybody can do this anywhere”. Got an apartment with a balcony (阳 台)? Plant some herbs. A window? Perfect spot for growing. Start with herbs, she recommends, because “they're very forgiving”. Just a little of the herbs “can take your regular cooking to a whole new level，” she added. “I think it's a great place to start.” Then? Try growing something from a seed, she said, like a tomato or some tea. Canning is a natural extension of the planting she does. With every planted food, Loe noted, there's a moment when it's bursting with its absolute peak flavor. “I try and keep it in a time
capsule in a canning jar，” Loe said. “Canning for me is about knowing what's in your food, knowing where it comes from.” In addition to being more in touch with the food she's eating, another joy comes from passing this knowledge and this desire for good food to her children: “Influencing them and telling them your opinion on not only being careful what we eat but understanding the_bigger_picture，” she said, “that if we don't take care of the earth, no one will.” 本文讲述的是 Loe 一家如何仅用一小片土地就过上了田园般的生活，并向我们讲述了如 何利用有限的条件自己栽种和保存果实。 1．The underlined word “prerequisite” (Para. 1) is closest in meaning to “________”． A．recipe B．substitute C．requirement D．challenge 答案 C [词义猜测题。从语境上看，下文讲述的是 Loe 和她的家人在仅仅只有十分之 一英亩的土地上栽种和保存他们所需的大部分食物， 由此可推断， 画线词的含义应是“必备条 件，先决条件”，同 C 项的含义相近，故选 C。] 2．Why does Loe suggest starting with herbs? A．They are used daily. B．They are easy to grow. C．They can grow very tall. D．They can be eaten uncooked. 答案 B [ 细节理解题。根据第四段中的 “Start with herbs... because they're very forgiving”可知，Loe 推荐从栽种香草开始是因为香草很容易栽种，即使被人们忽视了，它们 依旧能够存活，因此选 B。] 3．According to Loe, what is the benefit of canning her planted foods? A．It can preserve their best flavor. B．It can promote her online sales. C．It can better her cooking skills. D．It can improve their nutrition. 答案 A [细节理解题。根据第五段中的“there's a moment when it's bursting with its absolute peak flavor”可知，Loe 把她种的食物装罐是为了保持食物的最佳口味。] 4．What is the “the bigger picture” (Para. 6) that Loe wishes her children to understand? A．The knowledge about good food. B．The way to live a grow－our－own life. C．The joy of getting in touch with foods. D．The responsibility to protect our earth. 答案 D [推理判断题。 根据画线部分后面的“that if we don't take care of the earth, no one will”可推断，Loe 希望自己的孩子能够理解保护地球的重要性，因此选 D。] Passage 4 [2015· 湖南高考，B]体裁：说明文 词数：365 In its early history, Chicago had floods frequently, especially in the spring, making the streets so muddy that people, horses, and carts got stuck. An old joke that was popular at the time went something like this: A man is stuck up to his waist in a muddy Chicago street. Asked if he needs help, he replies, “No, thanks. I've got a good horse under me.” The city planners decided to build an underground drainage (排水) system, but there simply wasn't enough difference between the height of the ground level and the water level. The
only two options were to lower the Chicago River or raise the city. An engineer named Ellis Chesbrough convinced the city that it had no choice but to build the pipes above ground and then cover them with dirt. This raised the level of the city's streets by as much as 12 feet. This of course created a new problem: dirt practically buried the first floors of every building in Chicago. Building owners were faced with a choice: either change the first floors of their buildings into basements, and the second stories into main floors, or hoist the entire buildings to meet the new street level. Small wood－frame buildings could be lifted fairly easily. But what about large, heavy structures like the Tremont Hotel, which was a six－story brick building? That's where George Pullman came in. He had developed some house－moving skills successfully. To lift a big structure like the Tremont Hotel, Pullman would place thousands of jackscrews (螺旋千斤顶) beneath the building's foundation. One man was assigned to operate each section of roughly 10 jackscrews. At Pullman's signal each man turned his jackscrew the same amount at the same time, thereby raising the building slowly and evenly. Astonishingly, the Tremont Hotel stayed open during the entire operation, and many of its guests didn't even notice anything was happening. Some people like to say that every problem has a solution. But in Chicago's early history, every engineering solution seemed to create a new problem. Now that Chicago's waste water was draining efficiently into the Chicago River, the city's next step was to clean the polluted river. 芝 加 哥 早 期 城 市 规 划 不 合 理 ， 一 遇 洪 灾 路 面 就 会 十 分 泥 泞 ， 后 来 在 工 程 师 Ellis Chesbrough 和 George Pullman 的努力下，成功将城市路面以及建筑物提高，避免路面受洪灾 影响，但这又导致了另外一个问题的出现。 1．The city planners were convinced by Ellis Chesbrough to ________. A．get rid of the street dirt B．lower the Chicago River C．fight against heavy floods D．build the pipes above ground 答案 D [ 细节理解题。从文章第三段第一句 “An engineer named Ellis Chesbrough convinced the city that it had no choice but to build the pipes above ground and then cover them with dirt”可得出答案。] 2．The underlined word “hoist” in Paragraph 4 means “________”． A．change B．lift C．repair D．decorate 答案 B [词义猜测题。根据文章第四段画线词后面的 “Small wood － frame buildings could be lifted fairly easily”可知，hoist 与 lift 同义。] 3．What can we conclude about the moving operation of the Tremont Hotel? A．It went on smoothly as intended. B．It interrupted the business of the hotel. C．It involved Pullman turning ten jackscrews. D．It separated the building from its foundation. 答案 A [推理判断题。根据第五段最后一句“Astonishingly, the Tremont Hotel stayed open during the entire operation, and many of its guests didn't even notice anything was happening”可推断出，Tremont Hotel 的移动工程进行得很顺利。] 4．The passage is mainly about early Chicago's ________.
A．popular lifestyles and their influences B．environmental disasters and their causes C．engineering problems and their solutions D．successful businessmen and their achievements 答案 C [主旨大意题。 根据整篇文章可知， 本文主要讲的是芝加哥早期(关于城市规划) 的工程问题以及解决方案。] Passage 5 [2015· 陕西高考，D]体裁：议论文 词数：290 Parents who help their children with homework may actually be bringing down their school grades. Other forms of parental_involvement,_including volunteering at school and observing a child's class, also fail to help, according to the most recent study on the topic. The findings challenge a key principle of modern parenting (养育子女) where schools expect them to act as partners in their children's education. Previous generations concentrated on getting children to school on time, fed, dressed and ready to learn. Keith Robinson, the author of the study, said, “I really don't know if the public is ready for this but there are some ways parents can be involved in their kids' education that leads to declines in their academic performance. One of the things that were consistently negative was parents' help with homework.” Robinson suggested that may be because parents themselves struggle to understand the tasks. “They may either not remember the material their kids are studying now, or in some cases never learnt it themselves, but they're still offering advice.” Robinson assessed parental involvement performance and found one of the most damaging things a parent could do was to punish their children for poor marks. In general, about 20% of parental involvement was positive, about 45% negative and the rest statistically insignificant. Common sense suggests it was a good thing for parents to get involved because “children with good academic success do have involved parents”， admitted Robinson. But he argued that this did not prove parental involvement was the root cause of that success. “A big surprise was that Asian－American parents whose kids are doing so well in school hardly involved. They took a more reasonable approach, conveying to their children how success at school could improve their lives.” 最新的一项研究发现，父母帮助孩子完成家庭作业或以其他方式参与到孩子的教育中会 对孩子的学业产生不利的影响。 1 ． The underlined expression “parental involvement” in Paragraph 1 probably means ________. A．parents' expectation on children's health B．parents' participation in children's education C．parents' control over children's life D．parents' plan for children's future 答案 B [词义猜测题。根据画线部分前面的“help their children with homework”以及后 面的“including volunteering at school and observing a child's class”可推知， 画线部分的意思应是 “父母参与到孩子的教育中”。故答案为 B。] 2．What is the major finding of Robinson's study? A．Modern parents raise children in a more scientific way. B．Punishing kids for bad marks is mentally damaging.
C．Parental involvement is not so beneficial as expected. D．Parents are not able to help with children's homework. 答案 C [ 推理判断题。根据文章第四段中的 In general, about 20% of parental involvement was positive, about 45% negative and the rest statistically insignificant”可知， Robinson 的研究结果表明，大约 20%的父母的参与是积极的，大约 45%的父母的参与是消极 的，剩余的是无统计意义的。通过这些数据可判断出，父母的参与没有想象中的那么有益。 故答案为 C。] 3．The example of Asian－American parents implies that parents should ________. A．help children realize the importance of schooling B．set a specific life goal for their children C．spend more time improving their own lives D．take a more active part in school management 答案 A [推理判断题。 根据文章最后一段中的“conveying to their children how success at school could improve their lives”可知， 美籍亚裔父母向他们的孩子传递的信息是学校里的成功 如何能改善他们的生活，也就是说，父母应该帮助他们的孩子意识到学校教育的重要性。故 答案为 A。] 第 4 部分 完形填空 专题二十 完形填空 考点一 记叙文 Cloze 1 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ]My kids and I were heading into the supermarket over the weekend. On the way, we spotted a man holding a piece of paper that said, “__1__ my job. Family to Feed.” At this store, a __2__ like this is not normal. My 10－year－old noticed him and made a __3__ on how bad it must be to have to stand __4__ in the cold wind. In the store, I asked each of my kids to __5__ something they thought our “friend” there would __6__. They got apples, a sandwich and a bottle of juice. Then my 17－year－old suggested giving him a __7__. I thought about it. We were __8__ on cash ourselves, but... well, sometimes __9__ from our need instead of our abundance is __10__ what we need to do! All the kids __11__ something they could do away with for the week. When we handed him the bag of __12__， he lit up and thanked us with __13__ eyes. When I handed him the gift card, saying he could use it for __14__ his family might need, he burst into tears. This has been a wonderful __15__ for our family. For days the kids have been looking for others we can __16__！ Things would have played out so __17__ if I had simply said, “No, we really don't have __18__ to give more.” Stepping out not only helped a brother in __19__， it also gave my kids the __20__ taste of helping others. It'll go a long way with them. 本文讲述了作者在带着孩子们去超市购物的过程中，一家人主动帮助一个乞讨的失业者 的经历。 1．A.Lost B．Changed C．Quit D．Finished 答案 A [根据上下文内容及选项可知，这个人应该是失业了。lose one's job“失业”，符 合语境。] 2．A.condition B．place C．sight D．show
答案 C [在这家商店(外面)这样的情景并不常见。 sight“看见的事物， 情景”， 符合语境。 ] 3．A.suggestion B．comment C．decision D．call 答案 B [结合语境及选项可知， 这里应该指作者 10 岁的孩子注意到这个在寒风中乞讨 的人后作出了评论。make a comment on“对……作出评论”。] 4．A.outside B．proudly C．by D．angrily 答案 A [根据第一段中的“On the way， we spotted a man holding a piece of paper”及空后 的“in the cold wind”可知， 这个人应该是不得不站在外面的寒风中乞讨， 因此本空填 outside“在 外面”。] 5．A.draw B．say C．arrange D．pick 答案 D [由语境可知， 一进商店， 作者让孩子们为那个乞讨者挑选(pick)他和家人可能 需要的物品。] 6．A.order B．supply C．appreciate D．discover 答案 C [这里指这个乞讨者和他的家人会需要的东西。appreciate“欢迎”，符合语境。] 7．A.dollar B．job C．hot meal D．gift card 答案 D [根据第四段中的“When I handed him the gift card, saying he could use it”可知， 作者 17 岁的孩子提议送给乞讨者一张礼品卡(gift card)。] 8．A.easy B．low C．soft D．loose 答 案 B [ 由 下 文 中 的 “but...well, sometimes __9__ from our need instead of our abundance...to do”可知，作者自己家的钱也不多。low“不足的”，符合语境。] 9．A.giving B．saving C．spending D．begging 答案 A [由上下文语境可知，这里指从我们的需求中(拿出一些)赠给别人正是我们需 要做的事情。give“赠送”，符合语境。] 10．A.yet B．even C．still D．just 答案 D [参见上题解析。just“正好，恰好”，符合语境。] 11．A.declared B．shared C．ignored D．expected 答案 A [由上文可知， 作者让孩子们为帮助他人做出牺牲， 所以孩子们都宣布(declared) 这周他们可以不要哪些东西，这样他们可以省下钱为乞讨者买东西。] 12．A.toys B．medicine C．food D．clothes 答案 C [根据第三段的第二句“They got apples, a sandwich and a bottle of juice”可知， 他们给这个乞讨者购买了一袋食物。] 13．A.sleepy B．watery C．curious D．sharp 答案 B [收到我们送给他的食物，他感动得热泪盈眶。watery eyes 表示“泪汪汪的”， 符合语境。]
C．whichever D．whenever 答案 B [作者送给他一张礼品卡， 这样他和家人就可以用卡来买他们可能需要的东西。 whatever“任何事物”，符合语境。] 15．A.experience B．example C．message D．adventure 答案 A [这次在超市的爱心行动是我们家一次愉快的经历(experience)。] 16．A.rely on B．respect C．learn from D．help 答案 D [连续几天，孩子们都在找其他我们可以帮助(help)的人！] 17．A.suddenly B．vividly C．differently D．perfectly 答案 C [根据下句引号里的内容可知，如果作者那天拒绝为失业者买礼品卡，事情会 以不同的方式结束。differently“不同地”，符合语境。] 18．A.time B．power C．patience D．money 答案 D [这里表示：不行，我们真没有钱(money)给(他)了。] 19．A.fear B．love C．need D．memory 答案 C [这里表示这次爱心行动不仅帮助了一位处在困境中的兄弟，也让作者的孩子 们尝到了帮助他人的甜头。in need“在危难之中，在困难时”，符合语境。] 20．A.strong B．sweet C．strange D．simple 答案 B [参见上题解析。] Cloze 2 [2015· 北京高考] A Welcome Gift Dario and his mother loved their new apartment. The living room was large enough for their piano. That night, the two of them __1__ side by side at the piano. They played jazz music to celebrate their new home. The loud __2__ filled the room and made them feel very happy. The next morning, __3__， their happiness disappeared. Someone had left a __4__ under their door during the night. One of their neighbors had written to complain (抱怨) about the sound of the piano. Dario's mother asked the building superintendent( 管理员 ) if he knew anything about it. But he said that they were all __5__ people and he couldn't imagine any of them had done that. Later that morning, Dario suggested that they write a letter to their __6__ and apologize for their playing. “Maybe we could go and __7__ everyone in person，” his mother said. “What if we invited them to come here for a __8__ instead？” Dario asked. They both loved the __9__. Over the next few days, they sent out invitations and prepared desserts __10__ their guests. They decorated the apartment with streamers(彩带) and party lights. Finally, the day of the party __11__. Some guests brought presents. Others brought flowers. Some even brought desserts to __12__. One woman, Mrs. Gilbert, __13__ Dario's mother with a book of piano music by Chopin.
“I heard you playing the other night，” she said. “The sounds woke me out of bed. I __14__ that you might play like this every night. So I wrote a short note. I hope you don't think I disliked the playing.” Dario's mother smiled at Mrs. Gilbert. “I think maybe we __15__ you an apology，” she said. “I didn't __16__ how late it was when we were playing. Maybe we should play some quieter music at night.” “You play, you play！” Mrs. Gilbert said. “I like what you play! Just not so loud at night.” She pointed to the book she had given them. “These songs are not such __17__ music.” “These songs are beautiful music， ” Dario's mother said. “We will be __18__ to play them in the evening.” “And we won't play so loud or late！ ” Dario said. He was already looking forward to __19__ the new music. More than that, however, he was happy to see the big smile on his mother's face. It gave him a feeling of __20__ and made him feel that they were home at last. Dario 和他母亲因乔迁新居深夜弹钢琴庆祝而影响了邻居的休息，后来他们通过举办一 个聚会加强了彼此之间的沟通和理解。 1．A.sat B．stood C．lay D．walked 答案 A [根据空后的“side by side at the piano”可知，他们应该是坐(sat)在一起的。] 2．A.voice B．ring C．music D．cry 答案 C [根据上文中的“They played jazz music”可知，这里应该是吵闹的音乐(music) 充满了整个房间。 3．A.therefore B．however C．otherwise D．instead 答 案 B [ 根 据 上 文 中 的 “made them feel very happy” 以 及 空 后 的 “their happiness disappeared”可知，此处应为转折关系，故用 however。] 4．A.note B．poster C．bill D．report 答案 A [根据下文中的“One of their neighbors had written to complain (抱怨) about the sound of the piano”可知，这里指一张便条(note)。] 5．A.proud B．rich C．lucky D．nice 答案 D [根据下文中的“he couldn't imagine any of them had done that”可知， 管理员认为 邻居们都很友善(nice)。] 6．A.neighbors B．friends C．relatives D．audiences 答案 A [根据上文一位邻居留便条抱怨可知，他们应该是给邻居们(neighbors)写信致 歉。] 7．A.blame B．instruct C．question D．visit 答案 D [根据“we could go”和“in person”可知，这里是表示“拜访(visit)每一个人”。] 8．A.party B．concert C．show D．play 答案 A [根据下文中的“party lights”和“the day of the party”可知，他们是想举办一个聚
会(party)。] 9．A.experience B．idea C．performance D．action 答案 B [根据上文 Dario 的建议可知，他和母亲都喜欢这个想法(idea)。] 10．A.to B．with C．for D．from 答案 C [prepare sb.for sth.意思是“为某人准备某物”，这里指他们为邻居们准备了一些 甜点。] 11．A.continued B．arrived C．passed D．finished 答案 B [ 根据下文中的 “Some guests brought presents” 可知，最后，聚会那天到了 (arrived)。] 12．A.order B．sell C．share D．advertise 答案 C [因为是参加聚会，所以一些邻居带甜点是用来分享(share)的。] 13．A.treated B．presented C．helped D．served 答案 B [treat“款待”；present“赠送”；help“帮助”；serve“服务”。present sb.with sth.意 思是“赠给某人某物”，根据语境，这里表示 Mrs. Gilbert 给 Dario 的母亲带来了一本书。] 14．A.promised B．admitted C．agreed D．worried 答案 D [根据下文中的“you might play like this every night”可知，这里应该是说 Mrs. Gilbert 当时很担忧(worried)。] 15．A.give B．send C．offer D．owe 答案 D [Dario 的母亲认为他们应该向 Mrs. Gilbert 道歉。owe sb. sth.“欠某人某物”， 符合语境。] 16．A.realize B．remember C．understand D．accept 答案 A [根据上下文语境可知， 这里表示他们当时没有意识到(realize)他们那么晚了还 在弹钢琴。] 17．A.sweet B．strange C．funny D．loud 答案 D [根据上文中的“Just not so loud”可知，这些歌曲不是那么吵闹(loud)。] 18．A.brave B．sorry C．happy D．afraid 答案 C [根据上下文语境可知，他们将会非常高兴(happy)在晚上弹奏这些音乐。] 19．A.changing B．practicing C．recording D．writing 答案 B [因为是新的音乐，所以 Dario 很期盼练习(practicing)。] 20．A.equality B．freedom C．warmth D．sympathy 答案 C [根据下文中的“made him feel that they were home at last”可知，他们融入了新 的生活，应该有温暖的(warmth)感觉。]
Cloze 3 [2015· 陕西高考]Dad had a green comb. He bought it when he married Mum. Every night, he would hand me his __1__ and say, “Good girl, help Daddy clean it, OK？” I was __2__ to do it. At age five, this dull task brought me such __3__. I would excitedly turn the tap __4__ and brush the comb carefully. Satisfied that I'd done a good job, I would happily return the comb to Dad. He would __5__ affectionately at me and place the comb on his wallet. Two years later, Dad started his own __6__， which wasn't doing so well. That was when things started to __7__. Dad didn't come home as early and as much as he used to, Mum and I became __8__ with him for placing our family in trouble. With __9__， an uncomfortable silence grew between us. After my graduation, Dad's business was getting back on track. On my 28th birthday, Dad came home __10__. As usual, I helped him carry his bags into his study. When I turned to leave, he said, “Hey, would you help me __11__ my comb？” I looked at him a while, then __12__ the comb and headed to the sink. It hit me then: why, as a child, __13__ Dad clean his comb was such a pleasure. That routine (习惯) meant Dad was home early to __14__ the evening with Mum and me. It __15__ a happy and loving family. I passed the clean comb back to Dad. He smiled at me and __16__ placed his comb on his wallet. But this time, I noticed something __17__. Dad had aged. He had wrinkles next to his eyes when he smiled, __18__ his smile was still as __19__ as before, the smile of a father who just wanted a good __20__ for his family. 本文为记叙文。起初作者认为自己的父亲忙于事业对家人缺乏关心，但是后来作者发现 父亲做的这一切其实都是为了家人的幸福。 1．A.bag B．wallet C．comb D．brush 答案 C [根据文章首句“Dad had a green comb”可知， 此处指作者的父亲会把梳子(comb) 交给她，让她去清洗这把梳子。] 2．A.annoyed B．relieved C．ashamed D．pleased 答案 D [ 根据上下文语境可知，作者是很高兴 (pleased)地去做这件事情的。下文的 “excitedly”和“...clean his comb was such a pleasure”也是暗示。] 3．A.joy B．sadness C．courage D．pain 答案 A [根据上下文语境可知，此处指这份乏味的工作给作者带来了快乐(joy)。] 4．A.out B．over C．in D．on 答案 D [根据上下文语境可知，此处指的是作者打开水龙头。turn on“打开”，符合文 意。] 5．A.stare B．smile C．shout D．laugh 答案 B [根据上下文语境可知，此处表示父亲会亲切地对着“我”笑(smile)，然后把梳 子放到他的钱包上。stare“凝视，盯着看”，shout“大声说，喊叫”，laugh“笑，发出笑声”，均 不符合文意。]
6．A.family B．business C．task D．journey 答案 B [根据下文的“Dad's business”可知， 两年之后父亲开创了自己的事业(business)， 但是情况不太好。] 7．A.progress B．change C．improve D．form 答案 B [根据后文的“Dad didn't come home as early and as much as he used to”以及“for placing our family in trouble”可知，那时候，事情开始变化(change)了。] 8．A.satisfied B．delighted C．mad D．strict 答案 C [根据句意，作者的母亲和作者很生父亲的气，因为他把他们的家陷入到困境 中。be mad with 意思是“对……很生气”，符合句意。satisfied“满意的”，delighted“高兴的”， strict“严格的”，均不符合文意。] 9．A.time B．patience C．speed D．ease 答案 A [根据文意， 随着时间(time)的推移， 我们之间慢慢产生了令人感到不舒服的沉 默，这暗示出家庭成员之间有了隔阂。] 10．A.occasionally B．early C．frequently D．rarely 答案 B [结合上下文语境可知，此处指由于父亲的事业慢慢步入了正轨，在作者 28 岁生日那天，父亲早早地(early)回了家。occasionally“偶尔，间或”，frequently“经常地，频繁 地”，rarely“很少”，均不符合文意。] 11．A.sharpen B．repair C．clean D．keep 答案 C [根据第一段中的“Good girl， help Daddy clean it, OK”可知， 此处指父亲让作者 帮助他清洗(clean)一下梳子。] 12．A.dropped B．took C．handed D．threw 答案 B [根据上下文语境可知， 此处指作者接过(took)那把梳子， 然后向洗涤池那里走 去。] 13．A.watching B．letting C．helping D．hearing 答案 C [根据上文的“Good girl, help Daddy clean it, OK”可知，此处指帮助(helping)父 亲清洗梳子。] 14．A.find B．lose C．waste D．spend 答案 D [这个习惯意味着父亲早早地回到家里，与母亲和“我”一起度过(spend)晚上的 时间。] 15．A.affected B．broke C．meant D．supported 答案 C [根据上文的“That routine(习惯)meant...”可知，此处指这意味着(meant)一个快 乐的和充满爱的家庭。] 16．A.firmly B．hurriedly C．casually D．carefully
答案 D [父亲对“我”笑了笑，小心地(carefully)把梳子放在他的钱包上。 firmly“坚决 地”，hurriedly“匆忙地”，casually“随便地”，均不符合文意。] 17．A.different B．exciting C．interesting D．urgent 答案 A [但是， 这一次， “我”注意到一些不同的(different)事情。 后文中的“Dad had aged. He had wrinkles...”也是暗示。] 18．A.for B．or C．so D．yet 答案 D [根据空处上下文的语境可知，此处表示意思上的转折，故要用 yet“然而，但 是”。] 19．A.convincing B．heartwarming C．cautious D．innocent 答案 B [父亲的微笑仍然像以前一样令人感到幸福快乐(heartwarming)。convincing“令 人信服的，有说服力的”，cautious“谨慎的，十分小心的”，innocent“无辜的，无罪的”，均不 符合文意。] 20．A.origin B．life C．reputation D．education 答案 B [从父亲的笑中，作者体会到父亲是想让自己的家人有好的生活(life)。] Cloze 4 [2015· 四川高考]My previous home had a stand of woods behind it and many animals in the backyard. That first year, I __1__ feeding peanuts to the blue jays, then the squirrels. The squirrels had no __2__ coming up right to me for them. As the months went by, the rabbits saw that I was no __3__ and didn't escape. When I threw carrot slices (薄片), they even came for a nibble (啃) . Slowly they came to __4__ me, and by the end of the year they were eating out of my hand. That second year, the rabbits __5__ me, and one would even sit up for slices! While I was feeding them, I __6__ that a groundhog who used to run away was now taking an __7__ interest in this food situation. I carefully extended a long __8__， with a keen eye on those teeth, and __9__， there were times I would have the groundhog sitting next to a rabbit, both munching (津津有味地咀嚼) on carrots. A few months later, while __10__， she would even turn her back to me. __11__ when she was facing away, I reached out and __12__ scratched (搔) her back with my finger. She didn't move. By year three, the rabbits and the groundhog were back. The groundhog __13__ didn't have a problem with me scratching her back, and I got an idea. I'd always __14__， while slicing up carrots, that the end looked like a cap. __15__ one day, just to see what she would do, I gently __16__ one on top of the groundhog's head. Again, not a __17__. The next time, I had my camera ready to record what you see here, one of several dozen such pictures. __18__ she had a slice to eat, she never __19__ the one on her head. It was a fair __20__—I got a pleasure, and she had yet another tasty treat. 本文是一篇记叙文。 “我”以前的家的后面有一片树林， 在后院有很多动物。 最初“我” 给冠蓝鸦喂花生吃，后来松鼠、兔子、土拨鼠也熟悉了“我”，甚至会在“我”手中吃东西。 “我”还将胡萝卜头放在土拨鼠的头上并拍照留念。 1．A.avoided B．started C．canceled D．suggested 答案 B [第一年，“我”开始给冠蓝鸦喂花生吃，然后又喂松鼠。start doing sth.“开始做
某事”。] 2．A.business B．fun C．problem D．privilege 答案 C [松鼠毫无困难(problem)，直接上来享用花生。] 3．A.help B．cheat C．threat D．exception 答案 C [几个月过去了，兔子见“我”没有威胁，不逃走了。threat“威胁”，符合语境。] 4．A.trust B．miss C．admire D．appreciate 答案 A [根据“they were eating out of my hand”可知， 它们都信任“我”。 故选 trust“信任， 信赖”。] 5．A.feared B．ignored C．discovered D．remembered 答案 D [remember“想起，记得”。第二年，兔子记得“我”，甚至有一只会坐着享用胡 萝卜薄片。] 6．A.proved B．decided C．noticed D．understood 答案 C [结合空后内容可知，此处是“我”注意到的现象。notice“注意”，符合语境。] 7．A.extreme B．increasing C．additional D．inspiring 答案 B [increasing“不断增加的”。当“我”给冠蓝鸦、松鼠、兔子喂食物的时候，“我” 注意到以前会跑开的土拨鼠对这种喂食情况越来越感兴趣了。] 8．A.squirrel B．rabbit C．peanut D．carrot 答案 D [“我”小心翼翼地伸出一个长长的胡萝卜。下文中的“both munching(津津有味 地咀嚼)on carrots”也是提示。] 9．A.before long B．long ago C．over and over D．all over again 答案 A [不久之后， 土拨鼠就坐在兔子旁边， 津津有味地咀嚼着胡萝卜。 before long“不 久之后”，符合语境。] 10．A.eating B．playing C．sitting D．sleeping 答案 A [在几个月后，咀嚼着(eating)胡萝卜时，土拨鼠甚至会背朝着“我”。] 11．A.Next B．Once C．Soon D．Lately 答案 B [Once“有一次”，此处是介绍“我”的一次经历。] 12．A.carefully B．suddenly C．violently D．patiently 答案 A [当土拨鼠转身后，“我”小心翼翼地(carefully)伸出手，用手指抓挠她的背。] 13．A.also B．thus C．just D．still 答案 D [第三年，兔子和土拨鼠回来了。“我”用手指抓挠土拨鼠的背仍然(still)没有困 难。] 14．A.thought B．doubted
C．admitted D．recognised 答案 A [切胡萝卜片的时候，“我”一直认为(thought)胡萝卜头看起来像一顶帽子。] 15．A.While B．Or C．So D．For 答案 C [So“因此”，引出结果。因此有一天，“我”轻轻地将胡萝卜头放在土拨鼠的头 上，看看她会做什么。] 16．A.fixed B．placed C．hung D．kept 答案 B [place“放置”。此处指“我”轻轻地将胡萝卜头放在土拨鼠的头上。] 17．A.tremble B．move C．delay D．hesitation 答案 B [根据下文中的“The next time，I had my camera ready to record what you see here，one of several dozen such pictures”可知，“我”轻轻地将胡萝卜头放在土拨鼠的头上时， 土拨鼠没有半点移动(move)。] 18．A.Even if B．Ever since C．As far as D．So long as 答案 D [只要土拨鼠有一片胡萝卜吃，她从不管头上的胡萝卜头。So long as“只要”， 引导条件状语从句。] 19．A.welcomed B．required C．bothered D．expected 答案 C [参见上题解析。bother“费心，因……操心”，符合语境。] 20．A.trade B．competition C．task D．affair 答案 A [根据下文中的“I got a pleasure, and she had yet another tasty treat”可知，这是公 平的交易。fair trade“公平交易”。] Cloze 5 [2015· 湖北高考]“Daily Star, sir，” called Jason, carrying some newspapers under his arm. The little boy had been running up and down the street，but there were still twenty __1__ left. His voice was almost gone and his heart was __2__. The shops would soon close, and all the people would go home. He would have to go home too, carrying the papers __3__ money. He had hoped to sell more papers tonight to make more money to buy a __4__ for his mother and some seeds for his bird. That was why he had bought the papers with all his money. He __5__ as he thought of his failure to sell all his papers. “You don't know the __6__ of selling papers. You must shout, ‘Hot news! Bomb bursting！’” another newsboy Chad told Jason. “__7__ it's not in the paper at all，” replied Jason. “Just run away quickly __8__ they have time to see, and you'll __9__ out and get your money，” Chad said. It was a new __10__ to Jason. He thought of his bird with no __11__ and the cake he wanted to buy for his mother，but was __12__ that he would not tell a lie. Though he was __13__ a poor newsboy，he had been __14__ some good things. The next afternoon Jason went to the office for his papers __15__. Several boys were crowding around Chad, who declared with a __16__ smile that he sold six dozen the day before. He added that Jason __17__ money because he would not tell a lie. The boys __18__ at Jason. “You wouldn't tell a lie yesterday, my boy？” A gentleman at the office came up and
patted Jason's shoulder __19__. “You're just the boy I am looking for.” A week later Jason started his new __20__. He lost the sale of twenty papers because he would not tell a lie, but got a well－ paid job because he told the truth. 即使手头的报纸没卖完而赔钱， Jason 也不愿意像同伴那样靠虚假消息去卖报纸， 最后他 因为诚实而得到了一份好工作。 1．A.shops B．coins C．people D．papers 答案 D [小男孩儿很卖力地在街上跑着卖报纸，但是仍然有 20 份报纸没有卖出去。 因此选 D。] 2．A.open B．heavy C．pure D．weak 答案 B [报纸没卖完，小男孩儿的心情当然是沉重的(heavy)。] 3．A.instead of B．in return for C．regardless of D．in exchange for 答案 A [报纸没有卖完，那么小男孩儿就只能把剩余的报纸而不是钱拿回家，故用 instead of 表示“而不是”。] 4．A.cup B．card C．comb D．cake 4．答案 D [根据第 11 空后的“the cake he wanted to buy for his mother”可知，他要给妈 妈买蛋糕。] 5．A.gave in B．broke down C．got away D．showed up 答案 B [想到自己没能把报纸都卖完，小男孩儿要崩溃了。break down 表示“(健康、 精神)垮掉”。] 6．A.difficulty B．process C．goal D．secret 答案 D [下文中的报童 Chad 给小男孩儿传授了卖报纸的诀窍， 因此选 D 表示“诀窍”。 ] 7．A.And B．But C．For D．So 答案 B [Chad 给 Jason 传授卖报纸的诀窍， 说报纸上有爆炸性新闻， 此时 Jason 说： “但 是报纸上根本没有这些新闻。”故选 B。] 8．A.before B．since C．though D．unless 答案 A [这里应用 before 引导时间状语从句表示“在……之前”。 在他们有时间看(报纸) 之前，你就赶紧跑开。] 9．A.call B．drop C．sell D．reach 答案 C [根据空后的“get your money”可知， 此处表示卖完报纸， 因此用 sell out 表示“卖 完”。] 10．A.edition B．idea C．policy D．task 答案 B [Chad 告诉 Jason 的卖报诀窍对于 Jason 来说是一种新的想法(idea)， 因此选 B。 ] 11．A.bread B．insects C．seeds D．water
答案 C [本空所在部分与前面第 4 空后的“some seeds for his bird”相对应，给他的鸟买 种子，因此选 C。] 12．A.concerned B．amazed C．excited D．determined 答案 D [小男孩儿下定决心不能撒谎，故用 determined 表示“坚定的”。] 13．A.still B．already C．just D．also 答案 C [从本题的四个选项看，这里应用 just 表示“仅仅，只是”，此处指尽管自己只 是个贫穷的报童。] 14．A.taught B．handed C．awarded D．allowed 答案 A [这里说的是小男孩儿从小受到的教诲，故用 teach 表示“教导，教育”。] 15．A.at once B．by chance C．as usual D．on purpose 答案 C [Jason 像往常一样去办公室取他的报纸，故用 as usual 表示“像往常一样”。] 16．A.proud B．gentle C．warm D．polite 答案 A [Chad 面带得意的笑容，说自己昨天卖了六打报纸。因此选 A。] 17．A.borrowed B．lost C．made D．saved 答案 B [除了为自己的(卖报)成绩感到骄傲之外，Chad 还补充说 Jason 因为不愿意撒 谎而没卖完报纸亏本了。这里用 lose 表示“(使)亏损，(使)损失”。] 18．A.laughed B．shouted C．nodded D．stared 答案 A [根据空格后面的叙述可知，其他的报童都在因为 Jason 不撒谎而嘲笑他，因 此选 A。] 19．A.bravely B．gratefully C．fondly D．modestly 答案 C [此时从办公室走过来的一位先生听到报童们的话，很赞赏 Jason 的行为，因 此选 C，表示“喜爱地”。bravely“勇敢地”；gratefully“感激地”；modestly“谦虚地”。] 20．A.duty B．business C．job D．method 答案 C [根据下文中的“a well－paid job”可知，选 C，此处指 Jason 开始了自己的新工 作。] 考点二 夹叙夹议文 Cloze 1 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅱ]Where do you go when you want to learn something? School? A friend? A tutor? These are all __1__ places of learning. But it may well be that the learning you really want __2__ somewhere else instead. I had the __3__ of seeing this first hand on a __4__. My daughter plays on a recreational soccer team. They did very well this season and so __5__ a tournament, which normally was only for more skilled club teams. This led to some __6__ experiences on Saturday as they played against teams __7__ trained. Through the first two games, her __8__ did not get one serious shot on goal. As a parent, I __9__ seeing my daughter playing her best, __10__ still defeated.
It seemed that something clicked with the __11__ between Saturday and Sunday. When they __12__ for their Sunday game, they were __13__ different. They had begun to integrate (融合) the kinds of play and teamwork they had __14__ the day before into their __15__. They played aggressively and __16__ scored a goal. It __17__ me that playing against the other team was a great __18__ moment for all the girls on the team. I think it is a general principle. __19__ is the best teacher. The lessons they learned may not be __20__ what they would have gotten in school, but are certainly more personal and meaningful, because they had to work them out on their own. 这是一篇夹叙夹议文。作者的女儿参加一项娱乐性足球赛并进入锦标赛。周六在与水平 更高的队比赛时她们队输了，但是她们的球队善于学习，周日比赛时她们表现得完全不同， 居然还进一球。作者由此感慨：实践出真知，经验是最好的老师。 1．A.public B．traditional C．official D．special 答案 B [结合生活常识可知，在学校学习，向朋友学习，向老师学习都是“传统的”学 习方式。这也是与下文中的向对手学习相对而言的。] 2．A.passes B．works C．lies D．ends 答案 C [但是你真正需要的学习很可能“存在于”别的地方。] 3．A.dream B．idea C．habit D．chance 答案 D [结合下文提到的女儿所在球队是在周六、周日比赛，因此作者“有机会”在一 个“周末”亲身体会这一点。] 4．A.trip B．holiday C．weekend D．square 答案 C [参见上题解析。] 5．A.won B．entered C．organized D．watched 答案 B [依据语境可知，女儿所在的球队表现不错，因此“进入”锦标赛。] 6．A.painful B．strange C．common D．practical 答案 A [依据下文该球队周六的比赛情况可知，这是些“痛苦的”经历。] 7．A.less B．poorly C．newly D．better 答案 D [结合语境可知，对手显然是训练有素的，故选 better。] 8．A.fans B．tutors C．class D．team 答案 D [根据语境可知，此时是两个球队在比赛，故此处指女儿所在的“球队”。] 9．A.imagined B．hated C．avoided D．missed 答案 B [作为父母，作者“讨厌”看到女儿非常尽力，“但是”球队最后还是输掉比赛这 样的结局。] 10．A.if B．or C．but D．as 答案 C [结合语境可知，女儿所在的球队第一天还是输了。]
11．A.girls B．parents C．coaches D．viewers 答案 A [根据语境，此处是说女儿所在球队的队员们，故选 girls。] 12．A.dressed B．showed up C．made up D．planned 答案 B [她们第二天“出现”在运动场上风格完全不同了。show up“出现，露面”。] 13．A.slightly B．hardly C．basically D．completely 答案 D [依据下文中的“They played aggressively and __16__ scored a goal”可知，周日 他们的表现“完全”不同。] 14．A.seen B．known C．heard D．read 答案 A [她们把前一天从对手身上“看到”的技巧和合作精神融入到自己的比赛中。] 15．A.styles B．training C．game D．rules 答案 C [此空照应上文中的“for their Sunday game”。] 16．A.even B．still C．seldom D．again 答案 A [她们表现得很有进攻性，“甚至”还进了一球。] 17．A.confused B．struck C．reminded D．warned 答案 B [ 这不由让作者想起和其他队比赛也是一个难得的学习机会。 It strikes sb. that...“让某人突然想到……”，为固定句型。] 18．A.touching B．thinking C．encouraging D．learning 答案 D [本句与文章首句“Where do you go when you want to learn something”照应。] 19．A.Experience B．Independence C．Curiosity D．Interest 答案 A [结合上文的比赛情况可知，“经验”是最好的老师。] 20．A.harmful to B．mixed with C．different from D．applied to 答案 C [这些经验与她们在学校学到的东西可能不会有太大的“不同”，但是肯定更加 深入、更加有意义，因为这是她们自己摸索出来的。different from“与……不同”，符合语境。] 考点三 说明文 Cloze 1 [2015· 安徽高考]In our modern world, when something wears out, we throw it away and buy a new one. The __1__ is that countries around the world have growing mountains of __2__ because people are throwing out more rubbish than ever before. How did we __3__ a throwaway society? First of all, it is now easier to __4__ an object than to spend time and money to repair it. __5__ modern manufacturing (制造业) and technology, companies are able to produce products quickly and inexpensively. Products are plentiful and __6__. Another cause is our __7__ of disposable (一次性的) products. As __8__ people, we are always looking for __9__ to save time and make our lives easier. Companies __10__
thousands of different kinds of disposable products: paper plates, plastic cups, and cameras, to name a few. Our appetite for new products also __11__ to the problem. We are __12__ buying new things. Advertisements persuade us that __13__ is better and that we will be happier with the latest products. The result is that we __14__ useful possessions to make room for new ones. All around the world, we can see the __15__ of this throwaway lifestyle. Mountains of rubbish just keep getting bigger. To __16__ the amount of rubbish and to protect the __17__， more governments are requiring people to recycle materials. __18__， this is not enough to solve (解决) our problem. Maybe there is another way out. We need to repair our possessions __19__ throwing them away. We also need to rethink our attitudes about __20__. Repairing our possessions and changing our spending habits may be the best way to reduce the amount of rubbish and take care of our environment. 这是一篇说明文。文章分析了为什么我们的社会变成了一个一次性物品充斥的社会，同 时指出要解决这一问题，除了回收资源以外，人们更应该改变的是消费习惯。 1．A.key B．reason C．project D．problem 答案 D [根据第一段末句中的“because people...than ever before”可知， 这里描述的是一 种世界各国正在面临的问题(problem)。] 2．A.gifts B．rubbish C．debt D．products 答案 B [根据空格后的原因状语从句“because people are throwing out more rubbish than ever before”可知答案。] 3．A.face B．become C．observe D．change 答案 B [文章第二段、 第三段和第四段分析了我们变成一次性物品充斥的社会的原因。 由此可知此句是总领性的句子——我们是怎样变成一次性物品充斥的社会的。] 4．A.hide B．control C．replace D．withdraw 答案 C [因为此文谈及的是一次性物品充斥的社会。在一次性物品充斥的社会中，和 花时间与金钱修理东西相比，更换一个东西当然要更容易些。 hide“隐藏”；control“控制”； replace“取代”；withdraw“提取”。] 5．A.Thanks to B．As to C．Except for D．Regardless of 答案 A [由于现代制造业和技术，公司可以更快地、更加低成本地生产东西。 thanks to“幸亏，由于”。] 6．A.safe B．funny C．cheap D．powerful 答案 C [由上一句中的“produce products quickly and inexpensively”可知，产品应该是 充足的和便宜的。故此空应填 cheap。] 7．A.love B．lack C．prevention D．division 答案 A [由第三段可知，人们喜爱一次性产品是因为它可以节约时间，使人们的生活 更轻松。这里表明人们对一次性产品的喜爱是另外一个原因。prevention“预防”；division“分
开，分隔”。] 8．A.sensitive B．kind C．brave D．busy 答案 D [为什么要节约时间？是因为人们比较忙。busy“忙碌的”，符合语境。] 9．A.ways B．places C．jobs D．friends 答案 A [忙碌的我们总是寻找节省时间的方法，故选 ways。] 10．A.donate B．receive C．produce D．preserve 答案 C [公司生产许多不同种类的一次性产品。根据前句的语境可知此处表示生产 (produce)一次性产品。donate“捐赠”；preserve“保护”。] 11．A.adapts B．returns C．responds D．contributes 答案 D [由本段内容可知，我们对新产品的强烈欲望也会引起这个问题。adapt to“适 应”；return to“返回”；respond to“对……作出反应”；contribute to“是……的原因之一”。] 12．A.tired of B．addicted to C．worried about D．ashamed for 答案 B [根据前句“我们对新产品的欲望也会引起这个问题”，以及后句“we will be happier with the latest products”推理可知此处应选 B，be addicted to“对……上瘾”。] 13．A.newer B．stronger C．higher D．larger 答案 A [根据空后的“we will be happier with the latest products”可知此处表示“越新越 好”。] 14．A.pick up B．pay for C．hold onto D．throw away 答案 D [make room for new ones 意为“为新东西腾出空间”，那么如何为新东西腾出空 间呢？当然是通过 throw away“仍掉”。] 15．A.advantages B．purposes C．functions D．consequences 答案 D [根据后句“Mountains of rubbish just keep getting bigger”可知，此处指的是“这 种抛弃型的生活方式造成的后果 ” 。 advantage“ 优点 ” ； purpose“ 目的 ” ； function“ 功能 ” ； consequence“结果，后果”。] 16．A.show B．record C．decrease D．measure 答案 C [根据后句中的“more governments are requiring people to recycle materials”和文 章最后一句中的“...to reduce the amount of rubbish and take care of our environment”可知，人们 回收资源的目的是减少垃圾的数量和保护环境。decrease“减少”，符合语境。] 17．A.technology B．environment C．consumers D．brands 答案 B [参见上题解析。] 18．A.However B．Otherwise C．Therefore D．Meanwhile 答案 A [根据下一段内容以及空格后的“this is not enough to solve (解决) our problem” 推理可知空格前后应为转折关系，故选择 However。]
19．A.by B．in favour of C．after D．instead of 答案 D [维修东西和扔掉它们是对立的概念，因此选择 instead of“而不是”。in favour of“支持”。] 20．A.spending B．collecting C．repairing D．advertising 答案 A [根据前句中的“to repair our possessions __19__ throwing them away”以及后句 中的“Repairing our possessions and changing our spending habits...”可知选 A。] 第 5 部分 七选五 专题二十一 七选五 Passage 1 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ] Building Trust in a Relationship Again Trust is a learned behavior that we gain from past experiences. __1__ Trust is a risk. But you can't be successful when there's a lack of trust in a relationship that results from an action where the wrongdoer takes no responsibility to fix the mistake. Unfortunately, we've all been victims of betrayal. Whether we've been stolen from, lied to, misled, or cheated on, there are different levels of losing trust. Sometimes people simply can't trust anymore. __2__ It's understandable, but if you're willing to build trust in a relationship again, we have some steps you can take to get you there. ●__3__ Having confidence in yourself will help you make better choices because you can see what the best outcome would be for your well－being. ●__4__ If you've been betrayed, you are the victim of your circumstance. But there's a difference between being a victim and living with a “victim mentality”. At some point in all of our lives, we'll have our trust tested or violated. ●You didn't lose “everything”. Once trust is lost, what is left? Instead of looking at the situation from this hopeless angle, look at everything you still have and be thankful for all of the good in your life. __5__ Instead, it's a healthy way to work through the experience to allow room for positive growth and forgiveness. A．Learn to really trust yourself. B．It is putting confidence in someone. C．Stop regarding yourself as the victim. D．Remember that you can expect the best in return. E．They've been too badly hurt and they can't bear to let it happen again. F．This knowledge carries over in their attitude toward their future relationships. G．Seeing the positive side of things doesn't mean you're ignoring what happened. 本文介绍三种策略，帮助我们重新建立信任关系。 1． B [根据上句“信任是我们从过去的经历中获取的一种行为”和下句“信任是一种冒险” 可知，此空填 B，本句是对第一句话的进一步解释：“信任是信赖某人”。] 2．E [上句“有时，人们简直无法再信任(别人)了”；下句“这是可以理解的”，由此可推 测本句应是解释人们无法信任某人的原因。故填 E。] 3．A [由下句“对自己有信心能帮助你做出更好的选择”可知，前一句应是“学会真正信 任自己”，故填 A。] 4．C [由本段最后一句“在我们生活中的某些时候，我们的信任会被检验或打破”可知，
此处应填 C，意为“不要认为自己是个受害者”。] 5．G [副词“Instead”表示转折。可推测这里应是“看到事物积极的一面并不意味着你无 视已经发生的事”。故填 G。] Passage 2 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅱ]Training for a marathon requires careful preparation and steady, gradual increases in the length of the runs. __1__， buy the best－fitting, best－built running shoes you can find. No one can say which brand will work best for you or feel best on your feet, so you have to rely on your experience and on the feel of each pair as you shop. When you have found shoes that seem right, walk in them for a few days to double－check the fit. __2__. As always, you should stretch (伸展) at least ten minutes before each run to prevent injuries. During the first week, do not think about distance, but run five minutes longer each day. __3__， it is wise to take a day off to rest. But during the next week, set a goal of at least a mile and a half per run. __4__. After two weeks, start timing yourself. __5__. Depending on the kind of race you plan to enter, you can set up a timetable for the remaining weeks before the race. A．After six days B．For a good marathon runner C．Before you begin your training D．With each day, increase the distance by a half mile E．If they still feel good, you can begin running in them F．Time spent for preparation raises the quality of training G．Now you are ready to figure out a goal of improving distance and time 这是一篇说明文，介绍了参加马拉松训练需要细心准备并采取循序渐进的策略和技巧。 1．C [根据上文中的“requires careful preparation”和下文中的“buy the best－fitting, best －built running shoes”可知，此处指的应是在开始训练前需要购臵合适的跑鞋，故选 C。] 2．E [根据上文中的“to double－check the fit”及 E 项中的“still feel good”与上文中的 “seem right”相呼应可知答案。] 3．A [根据上文中的“During the first week”及下文中的“take a day off to rest”可推知，此 处指六天后休息一天，故选 A。] 4．D [根据上文中的“set a goal of at least a mile and a half per run”及下文内容可知，此处 指的应是每天增加半英里，故选 D。] 5．G [C 项中的“improving distance and time”与上文中提到的延长跑步距离，记录跑步 时间的内容相呼应，故选 G。] Passage 3 [2015· 北京高考] This Way to Dreamland Daydreaming means people think about something pleasant, especially when this makes them forget what they should be doing. Daydreamers have a bad reputation for being unaware of what's happening around them. They can seem forgetful and clumsy. __1__ They annoy us because they seem to be ignoring us and missing the important things. But daydreamers are also responsible for some of the greatest ideas and achievements in human history. __2__ Can you imagine what kind of world we would have without such ideas and inventions? So how can you come up with brilliant daydreams and avoid falling over tree roots or otherwise looking like a fool?
First, understand that some opportunities (机会) for daydreaming are better than others. Feeling safe and relaxed will help you to slip into daydreams. __3__ And if you want to improve your chances of having a creative idea while you're daydreaming, try to do it while you are involved in another task—preferably something simple, like taking a shower or walking, or even making meaningless drawings. It's also important to know how to avoid daydreams for those times when you really need to concentrate. “Mindfulness”， being focused, is a tool that some people use to avoid falling asleep. __4__ Finally, you never know what wonderful idea might strike while your mind has moved slowly away. __5__ Always remember that your best ideas might come when your head is actually in the clouds. A．Having interesting things to think about also helps. B．They stare off into space and wander by themselves. C．Without wandering minds, we wouldn't have relativity, Coke or Post－it notes. D．At one time, daydreaming was thought to be a cause of some mental illnesses. E．It involves slow, steady breathing for self－control that helps people stay calm and attentive. F．Daydreams are often very simple and direct, quite unlike sleep dreams, which may be hard to understand. G．Therefore, it's a good idea to keep a notebook or voice recorder nearby when you're in the daydream zone. 本文是一篇说明文， 分析了空想的利弊， 并介绍了如何有效利用空想来培养创新的想法。 1．B [空前一句和空后一句都是空想家不好的外在表现，主语都是 They，故本空答案 为 B 项。] 2 ． C [ 选项 C 中的 “relativity, Coke or Post － it notes” 与空前的 “greatest ideas and achievements”和空后一句中的“such ideas and inventions”相对应，故答案为 C 项。] 3．A [选项 A 中的“also helps”与空前一句中的“help”对应，且两句话主语形式统一，都 说的是进入空想的条件，故答案为 A 项。] 4．E [本段主要谈如何避免空想。选项 E 中的 It 指代上句中的 Mindfulness，此处是对 上句内容的解释，故答案为 E 项。] 5． G [选项 G 中的“to keep a notebook or voice recorder nearby”很好地解决了上句话中提 出的问题，同时 Therefore 很好地把两句话进行了连接，故答案为 G 项。] Passage 4 [2015· 陕西高考] 1．________ There is the belief that, if you arrive at an appointment late, you will be considered important. This is a mistaken view. Being unpunctual, we are not respectful of others; we are interfering (扰乱) with another man's time. We must realise that keeping appointments or being punctual is a contract that is silently agreed and we are expected to respect this contract. It is only natural that we lose faith, trust and confidence in a person who is tardy (延迟的)． 2．________ To be punctual one has to have self－discipline (自律), and the lack of it affects others. A school boy or girl is unpunctual because he or she does not have the necessary human virtue of
self－discipline. It is also a mark of disrespect for a system or an institution. Unpunctual people seldom realise that their habit causes problems to others. A salesman who is not punctual may not make a sale if he arrives late for an appointment. If one is late for a job interview, it is not likely that he will get the job. 3．________ Being punctual, we can avoid anxiety. Imagine the anxiety if you do not want to be considered unpunctual. You will be anxious if you set out for a dinner late. The person who sets out late might be careless in driving. He will ignore traffic rules. A traffic jam, flat tyres, etc. can delay him further. Happy and calm is the man who takes all these possibilities into consideration and arrives at the appointment either early or on time. 4．________ Many of those who attend dinners are notorious (声名狼藉的) for unpunctuality. They ignore the appointed time and leave their homes only after the fixed time. They are indifferent to the inconvenience caused to others. If the self－centred guest arrives late, the nine others at the table set for ten will have to wait. The host is put in an unpleasant situation and this man seldom thinks of the inconvenience caused to all—the waiters, the management staff, etc. It is necessary for us to think of others and be considerate to them. 5．________ However, we cannot always be intolerant (无法容忍的) of tardiness, for ordinary living requires some tolerance. There can be a busy executive who fights to keep to his schedule. Such a person may be forgiven if he is late, but not those who are deliberately late to create impression. In modern society, punctuality is a necessary virtue. It is a recognition of the importance of other people. A．The mistaken belief B．The need for tolerance C．Unpunctuality at dinners D．Punctuality and confidence E．Self－discipline and punctuality F．Avoid anxiety by being punctual 1．A [根据“This is a mistaken view”可知，此空选 A。] 2．E [根据“To be punctual one has to have self－discipline (自律)”可知，此空选 E。] 3．F [根据“Being punctual, we can avoid anxiety”可知，此空选 F。] 4．C [根据“who attend dinners are notorious (声名狼藉的) for unpunctuality”可知，此空 选 C。] 5．B [根据“for ordinary living requires some tolerance”可知，此空选 B。] 第 6 部分 写作 专题二十二 短文改错 Correction 1 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ]When I was a child, I hoped to live in the city. I think I would be happy there. Now I am living in a city, but I miss my home in countryside. There the air is clean or the mountains are green. Unfortunately, on the development of industrialization, the environment has been polluted. Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very seriously problem. The airs we breathe in is getting dirtier and dirtier. Much rare animals are dying
out. We must found ways to protect your environment. If we fail to do so, we'll live to regret it. 答案 1． 第一处： think→thought。 [前两句是回忆童年的事情， 因此应用一般过去时， 把 think 改为 thought。] 2．第二处：在 countryside 前加 the。 [in the countryside“在农村”，应在 countryside 前 加上冠词 the。] 3．第三处：or→and。 [根据前后句之间为并列关系可知，此处应把 or 改为 and。] 4．第四处：on→with。 [随着工业化的发展，环境被污染了。这里表示伴随状况，因 此把 on 改为 with。] 5．第五处：去掉 been。 [很多研究表明：全球变暖是一个非常严重的问题。本句应用 主动语态，因此去掉 been。] 6．第六处：seriously→serious。 [应用形容词 serious 修饰名词，因此把 seriously 改为 serious。] 7．第七处：airs→air。 [air 为不可数名词，因此把 airs 改为 air。] 8．第八处：Much→Many。 [Much 修饰不可数名词，rare animals 为复数形式，因此把 Much 改为 Many。] 9． 第九处： found→find [在情态动词 must 之后应用动词原形， 因此把 found 改为 find。 ] 10．第十处：your→our 或 the。 [本句的主语为 We，用了第一人称，因此把物主代词 your 改为 our，此处也可以改为 the。] Correction 2 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅱ]One day, little Tony went to a shopping center with his parent. It was very crowded. Tony saw a toy on a shop window. He liked it so very much that he quickly walked into the shop. After looks at the toy for some time, he turned around and found where his parents were missing. Tony was scared and begun to cry. A woman saw him crying and telling him to wait outside a shop. Five minutes later, Tony saw parents. Mom said, “How nice to see you again! Dad and I were terrible worried.” Tony promised her that this would never happen again. 答案 1．第一处：parents→parents。 [结合下文的“his parents were missing”可知托尼是和爸爸 妈妈一起去购物的，因此应用复数形式 parents。] 2．第二处：on→in。 [结合生活常识可知，这里表示在商店橱窗里摆放着一个玩具， 故应用 in。] 3． 第三处： 去掉 very。 [这里 so...that...引导结果状语从句， 表示“如此……以至于……”， 因此 very 应去掉。] 4．第四处：looks→looking。 [结合语境这里应用动名词作介词 After 的宾语，故应把 looks 改为 looking。] 5．第五处：where→that 或者去掉 where。 [本句中连词 that 引导的从句充当动词 found 的宾语，that 不作句子成分只起连接作用，同时宾语从句又可以省略掉连词 that。] 6．第六处：begun→began。 [这里是对过去发生的事情的客观叙述，应用一般过去时， 故应把 begun 改为 began。] 7．第七处：telling→told。 [此处 and 连接的两个先后发生的动作在时态上应保持一致， 故应把 telling 改为 told。] 8．第八处：a→the。 [结合语境可知，同一名词第二次提到应表示特指，故应把 shop 前的 a 改为 the。] 9．第九处：parents 前加 his。 [结合语境可知，这里 parents 并不是表示泛指而是指托
尼的爸爸妈妈，故应在 parents 前加 his。] 10．第十处：terrible→terribly。 [修饰形容词应用副词，故用 terribly。] Correction 3 [2015· 陕西高考]My soccer coach retired in last week. I wanted to do anything special for him at his retirement party. My mum makes the better biscuits in the world, so I decide to ask her for help. Mum taught me some basic step of baking. I insisted on doing most of the baking myself. I thought the biscuits were really well. My only mistake was that I dropped some on the floor after I was packing them up. At a party, my coach, with a biscuit in his mouth, asked surprisingly who made them and joked, “I might have to retire again next year just get some more of these biscuits.” My favorite picture at the party is of my coach and me enjoy the biscuits with happy laughter! 答案 1．第一处：去掉 last 前的 in。 [考查时间状语。当用作时间状语的词前有 next，last 等词时，其前不用介词。] 2．第二处：改 anything 为 something。 [考查不定代词。句意：我想为他做一些特别的 事情。表示“一些”要用代词 something，而 anything 的意思是“任何事情”。] 3．第三处：改 better 为 best。 [考查形容词最高级。句意：我的母亲做出世界上最好的 饼干。由 makes 后的 the 可知，此处要用形容词最高级。] 4．第四处：改 decide 为 decided。 [考查动词时态。根据整篇文章所发生的时间来看， 此处表示的是过去的事情，所以要用一般过去时。] 5．第五处：改 step 为 steps。 [考查名词复数。表示“烘饼干的一些基本步骤”，要用名 词的复数形式。] 6．第六处：改 well 为 good。 [考查形容词辨析。well 通常指健康状况，而此处指的是 食物很好，要用 good。] 7．第七处：改 after 为 when/while。 [考查状语从句。句意：当我在把它们打包起来时， 一些(饼干)掉到了地板上。表示“当……的时候”，要用 when 或 while。] 8．第八处：改 a 为 the。 [考查冠词。根据前面的“retirement party”可知，此处表示特 指，要用 the。] 9．第九处：在 just 后加 to。 [考查非谓语动词。句意：我可能明年必须再退休一次， 仅仅是为了吃到更多的饼干。根据句子结构来判断，此处要用动词不定式作目的状语。] 10．第十处：改 enjoy 为 enjoying。 [考查非谓语动词。在介词 of 之后要用动词－ing 形式。] Correction 4 [2015· 四川高考] Hi, Janice， It's been a month since I came to this new school and I really want share with you some of the problems I have been experiencing. As I tell you last time, I made three new friend here. We hang out together during lunch and after school. We've been spending a lot of time sing in karaoke bars. It's been three Saturdays now and it really costs me many. And I started to see this as a time－wasting activity! In fact, I don't like to go anymore, so I'm afraid I'll lose their friendship. How do you think I should do? If you are me, would you talk to him? Please help with me and give me some advice.
Grace 答案 1．第一处：want 后加上 to。 [考查非谓语动词。want 后接不定式作宾语。] 2．第二处：tell→told。 [考查时态。句中的“last time”表明此处用一般过去时。] 3．第三处：friend→friends。 [考查名词。句中的信息词“three”表明此处用名词的复数 形式。] 4．第四处：sing→singing。 [考查非谓语动词。spend time (in) doing sth.“花费时间做某 事”，为固定用法。] 5．第五处：many→much。 [考查代词。根据语境，此处指花了“我”很多钱，应用 much 代指不可数名词。] 6．第六处：so→but。 [考查连词。上下句有转折关系，应用 but。] 7．第七处：How→What。 [考查疑问词。do 后缺少宾语，所以疑问代词用 What，表 示“所……的事情”。] 8．第八处：are→were。 [考查虚拟语气。根据语境，此处是对现在事实的假设，条件 状语从句中的谓语动词应用过去式。] 9． 第九处： him→them。 [考查代词。 此处指作者的三个朋友， 是复数概念， 应用 them。 ] 10．第十处：去掉 help 后的 with。 [考查介词。help 为及物动词，其后可直接跟宾语。] Correction 5 [2015· 浙江高考]My old classroom was interesting because three side of the classroom were made from glass. I enjoyed sit close to the windows and looking at the view. On the left－hand side of the class, I could easy see the football field. In the mornings, it was full of students exercising. The view from the back of the classroom is also splendid. Close to the school there was a beautiful park with many tress around them. Farther in the distance, I could not enjoy the view of snowy mountains. On the right side of the class was the road. I was always interested to see the drivers in hurry in the morning. The position of the classroom with its view made me felt like I was dreaming. If I was only a child when I studied in the classroom, I will never forget it. 答案 1．第一处：side 改为 sides。 [考查名词复数。前面为数词 three, side 为可数名词，所 以要用复数形式。] 2．第二处：from 改为 of。 [考查介词。be made of“由……组成”，可以看得出原材料， be made from“由……组成”，看不出原材料。] 3．第三处：sit 改为 sitting。 [考查非谓语动词。enjoy 后要接动词－ing 形式。] 4．第四处：easy 改为 easily。 [考查副词。此处修饰动词 see，需要用副词。] 5．第五处：is 改为 was。 [考查时态。从上下文的时态可知，此处应用一般过去时。] 6．第六处：them 改为 it。 [考查代词。此处代词指代前面的 park，是单数，所以用 it。] 7．第七处：could 后的 not 去掉。 [考查上下文逻辑。根据上下文内容可知，从远处可 以看到雪山，故将 could 后的 not 去掉。] 8．第八处：in 后面加 a。 [考查冠词。in a hurry 是固定词组，意为“匆忙”。] 9．第九处：felt 改为 feel。 [考查非谓语动词。make sb. do sth.意为“使某人做某事”， 此处应用动词原形作宾补。] 10．第十处：If 改为 Although/Though。 [考查连词。此处意为“虽然”，应用 Although 或 Though 来引导让步状语从句。] 专题二十三 书面表达 考点一 提纲类作文
Writing 1 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅰ]假定你是李华，你校英文报“外国文化”栏目拟刊登介绍美国节日 风俗和中学生生活的短文。请给美国朋友彼得写信约稿，要点如下： 1．栏目介绍； 2．稿件内容； 3．稿件长度：约 400 词； 4．交稿日期：6 月 28 日前。 注意： 1．词数 100 左右； 2．可以适当增加细节，以使行文连贯； 3．开头语已为你写好。 Dear Peter， I'd like to ask you to write an article for our school's English newpaper. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Yours， Li Hua One possible version： Dear_Peter， I'd_like_to_ask_you_to_write_an_article_for_our_school's_English_newspaper. The “Foreign Cultures” section in our newspaper is very popular among us students. It carries articles written by foreign friends about the cultures of their home countries. Would you please write something about the culture in your part of the United States? And we would especially welcome articles about how Americans spend their holidays and festivals, and the life of American high school students. You can write anything relevant so long as it's interesting and informative. 400 words would be fine. Could we have your article before June 28? I'm looking forward to hearing from you. Yours， Li_Hua Writing 2 [2015· 课标全国卷Ⅱ]假定你是李华，计划和同学去敬老院(nursing home)陪老人们过重阳 节(the Double Ninth Festival)。请给外教露西写封邮件，邀她一同前往，内容包括： 1．出发及返回时间； 2．活动：包饺子、表演节目等。 注意： 1．词数 100 左右； 2．可以适当增加细节，以使行文连贯； 3．结束语已为你写好。 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________
Looking forward to your reply. Yours， Li Hua One possible version： Dear Lucy， I'd like to invite you to join us for a visit to the nearby nursing home next Saturday for the Double Ninth Festival. It is the day for the elderly in our culture. We'll go and make dumplings and cakes with the elderly people there. We'll also spend some fun time together singing, dancing and playing games, which we hope will make them happy. We should be back around 4 o'clock in the afternoon. If you are able to come with us, please let us know and we'll wait for you at the school gate at 9 in the morning. Looking_forward_to_your_reply. Yours， Li_Hua Writing 3 [2015· 重庆高考]Bookcrossing. com 是一个面向全球的图书分享网站。该网站组织的分享 活动有两种参与方式：一是自由分享(wild release)，即把书放在指定地点，由其他参与者自由 获取；二是定向分享(controlled release)，即直接传递给另一位参与者。 假设你是李华，请用英文写信申请参加。内容应包括： ●表明写信目