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牛津高中英语模块五第一单元Grammar and usage


牛津高中英语模块五第一单元 Grammar and usage(不定式) 胡玉杰 Ma Chang Middle School, Shu Yang County Jiangsu To-infinitive The to-infinitive is to +the base form of a verb, e.g, to do and to work. It can be used

alone or as part of an infinitive phrase(不定式就是 to+动词原形, 比如, do to 和 to work.可以单独使用,也可以作为不定式短语来使用) 一, 做主语 To find a best friend is difficult=It is difficult to find a best friend To walk 2000 miles in a short time is impossible to finish= It is impossible to walk 2000miles in a short time 二, 作宾语(常见形式是动词+ 不定式 ,这类动词有) afford agree arrange ask decide care choose come dare desire determine hope fail help learn mean manage offer ought plan prepare pretend promi se refuse I need to sleep at once after a hard-working night Tom wants to be a singer when he grows up 三 宾 语 的 补 足 语 ( 常 见 的 verb +object+ complement , 动 词 有 ask, beg, choose, expect , hate, help intend like, love, need prefer, prepare, promis e, want, wish) I asked her to come her but she didn’t turn up yesterday I once told you not to play jokes on your brother! 四 定语 I have a important meeting to attend The girl to attend the meeting is her sister 五,表语 His aim was to cheer me up My work is to clean the room every day. His dream is to be a doctor. 六状语 一) 表目的 To … only to ( 仅 仅 为 了 ), in order to, so as to, so(such) … as to … ( 如 此 … … 以 便……) You should get up early in the morning to catch the first bus 二)作结果状语,表事先没有预料到的,要放在句子后面。 He searched the room only to find nothing. 三) 表原因 I'm glad to see you. 不定式的 to 的省略 1) 情态动词 ( 除 ought 外,ought to): 2) 使役动词 let, have, make: 3) 感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补, 省略 to。 注意:在被动语态中则 to 不能省掉。

I saw him dance. =He was seen to dance. The boss made them work the whole night. =They were made to work the whol e night. 4) would rather,had better: 5) Why… / why not…: 6) help 可带 to,也可不带 to, help sb (to) do sth: 7)but 和 except: 前是动词 do 时, but 后面出现的动词用不带 to 的动词不定式。 8) 由 and, or 和 than 连接的两个不定式,第二个 to 可以省去: 9 ) 通常 在 discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand 等词后 ,可 以省去 to be: He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。 不定式的时态 不定式的时态 时态/语态 主动 被动 一般式 to do to be done 进行式 to be doing 完成式 to have done to have been done 完成进行式 to have been doing 1)不定式一般式的主动和被动:to do to be done 表示与谓语动词同时发生的动作和状态或发生在谓语动词的动作之后的动作和 状态。 He seems to be in the classroom. I hope to see you again. = I hope that I’ll see you again. The flu seems to be cau sed by the virus. To be invited to the banquet is a great honor. 2)不定式的完成时:to have done/ to have been done 表示在谓语动词之前已经发 生或过去结束了的动作或状态。 I’m sorry to have given you so much trouble. He seems to have caught a cold. To have been caught in a sandstorm is frightening. He is said to have studied in Oxford University when he was young. The temple i s said to have been built during the Qing Dynasty. 3) 不定式的进行时:to be doing 表示与谓语动词同时发生的正在进行的或即将 进行的动作和状态。 It’s good to be sitting here with you. I long to be seeing you. He seems to be eat ing something over there. . He pretended to be doing his homework when his mother came in. It is frightening to be cycling in a sandstorm. He is said to be writing a novel no w. 4) 完成进行时:to have been doing 表示在一段时间内一直在持续到谓语动词表 示的动作和状态为止。 She is known to have been working on the problem for many years. He is said to have been teaching in that school since he was graduated 不定式的否定 Tell him not to shut the window… 告诉他不要关窗户 She pretended not to see me when I passed by. 我走过的时候,她假装没看见。 不定式的特殊句型

1)too……to…….. He was too old to join the army 2) so as to He kept quiet in the class so as to not be noticed by his teacher 3)why not Why not join us in playing football ? to 为介词的固定短语搭配 1. be / get / become used to 习惯于 2. be related to 与…有关系 3. be addicted to 沉溺于;对…上瘾 4. be opposed to 反对 5. devote oneself to 献身于;专心于 6. be devoted to 致力于;忠诚于 7. be admitted to 被…录取;准进入 8. be reduced to 沦为 9. be attached to 附属于;喜欢;依恋 10. be adjusted to 适应 11. be known to 为…所知 12. be married to 和…结 13. be sentenced to 被判处 14. be connected to 和…连在一起 15. be exposed to 暴露于; 16. be compared to 被比喻成 compare… to…把…比作… 17. be engaged to 与…订婚 18. be/become/get accustomed to = accustomed to 惯于;有…习惯 19. be engaged to 与…订婚 20. get down to 着手做 21. lead to 导致 22. object to 反对;不喜欢;不赞成 23. put one’s mind to 全神贯注于 24. give rise to 引起 25. look forward to 盼望 26. stick to 坚持 27. pay attention to 注意 28. attend to 专心;注意;照料 29. see to 负责;注意 30. contribute to 对…作贡献;有助于 31. make contributions to 对…作贡献 32. apply oneself to 致力于 33. come close to 几乎;将近 34. reply to 回答 35. add to 增加 36. add up to 加起来

37. in addition to 除…之外 38. turn to 转向;求助于 39. look up to 尊敬 40. admit to 承认 41. belong to 属于 42. take to 喜爱;开始 43. cling to 附着 44. respond to 回答;对…作出回应 45. accustom oneself to 使自己习惯于 46. amount to 等于 如果自己喜欢可以自己去总结,查阅相关资料。 课堂练习 1. We’re looking forward _______ the photo exhibition. (A) to visiting (B) to visit (C) to having visited (D) visiting 2. -The light in the office is still on. --Oh, I forgot ______. (A) to turn it off (B) turn it off (C) turning it off (D) having turned it off 3. How about the two of us ________ a walk down the garden ? (A) to take (B) take (C) taking (D) to be taking 4. Charles Babbage is generally considered ______ the first computer. (A) to invent (B) inventing (C) to have invented (D) having invented 5. In those days my family didn’t have enough room_________ (A) to live (B) living in (C) to live in (D) living 6. He likes _________ , but he doesn’t like _______ today because it is too cold. (A) to swim; to swim (B) swimming; swimming (C) to swim; swimming (D) swi mming; to swim 7. Since he doesn’t want to accept your advice. It is no use ________ to him again . (A) in talking (B) talking (C) to talk (D) of talk 8. We regret ____ ____ that the movie was not worth_________. (A) to say; to see (B) to say; seeing (C) saying; to see (D) saying; to seeing 9. He couldn’t open the window, so he tried ________ it. (A) push (B) to push (C) pushed (D) pushing 10. She is often hea rd _______ English aloud in the morning. (A) to read (B) sang (C) to have sung (D) to be reading 11. The teac her doesn’t allow _________ in class. (A) smoke (B) to smoke (C) smoking (D) to have a smoke 12. Your hai r needs_______. You’d better have it ________ tomorrow. (A) to be cut; do (B) cutting; doing (C) to be cut; done (D) cutting; to be done 13. ______ in pencil, the letter was difficult________ out. (A) Being written; in making (B) Written; to make (C) Having written; to make (D) Having been written; making 14. He has no choice but ________ to see him. (A) to go (B) go (C) going (D) goes 15. There was nothing they co uld do but _______ for a mechanic to arrive. (A) to wait (B) waiting (C) wait (D) waited

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