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高中英语语法加练习大全:第19章 定语从句

高中英语语法加练习大全:第 19 章


一.概念 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句,称为定语从句,也叫形容词性从句 二.相关知识点精讲 1.关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成 分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。 1)who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中作主语和宾语。例如: Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that 在从 句中作主语) He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。 (whom/that 在从句中作宾语) 2) whose 用来指人或物, (只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同 of which 互换) 。例如: They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大 家都跑过去帮忙。 Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮 的书。 3)which, that 所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。例如: A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。 (which / that 在句中作宾语) The package (which / that)you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你 拿的包快散了。 (which / that 在句中作宾语) 2.关系副词引导的定语从句 关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。 1) 关系副词 when, where, why 的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构, 因此常常和"介词+ which" 结构交替使用。例如: There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服 的时候。 Beijing is the place where(in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。 Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们 帮助他的理由吗? 2)that 代替关系副词,可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代 when, where, why 和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中 that 常被省略。例如: His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他 出生那年逝世了。 He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。 3.判断关系代词与关系副词 方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无 宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 这是我去年呆过的山村。

I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.我永远不会忘记与 你共事的日子。 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when 联系在一起。此两题错在关 系词的误用上。 方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状) ,也能正确选择 出关系代词/关系副词。 关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系 代词(who, whom, that, which, whose) 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ; ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。 4.限制性和非限制性定语从句 1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它 主句意思往往不明确; 非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明, 去掉了也不会影响主句的意 思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。例如: This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。 (限制性) The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们 上个月买的。 (非限制性) 2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时, 其后的定语从句通常是非限制性 的。例如: Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理·史密斯 去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。 My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的 那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。 This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动 人,我已经读了三遍。 3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用 第三人称单数。例如: He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎 没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。 Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽, 这就叫做蒸发。 说明:关系代词 that 和关系副词 why 不能引导非限制性定语从句。 5.介词+关系词 1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。 2)that 前不能有介词。 3)某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词 when 和 where 互换。例如: This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住过的房子。 This is the house where I lived two years ago. Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 还记得你加入我们俱乐部 的那一天吗? Do you remember the day when you joined our club?, which 非限定性定语从句 由 as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as 和 which 可代整个主句,相当于 and this

或 and that。As 一般放在句首,which 在句中。例如: As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。 The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 太阳使地球暖起来,这 对我们人类很重要。 as 和 which 在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思, 且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点: (1)as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而 which 不可。 (2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行 为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用 which.。 7.先行词和关系词二合一 1) Whoever spits in public will be punished here. (Whoever 可以用 anyone who 代替) 2) The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school. (what 可以用 all that 代替) 8. what/whatever; that/what; who/whoever 1)what = the thing which;whatever = anything。例如: What you want has been sent here. 你要的动词都送来了。 Whatever you want makes no difference to me. 不管你要什么,跟我没什么关系。 2) who= the person that whoever= anyone who。例如: 3) that 和 what 当 that 引导定语从句时,通常用作关系代词,而引导名词性从句时,是个不充当任何 成分的连接词。宾语从句和表语从句中的 that 常可省略。What 只能引导名词性从句,用作 连接代词,作从句的具体成分,且不能省略。例如: I think(that)you will like the stamps. 我想你会喜欢这些邮票的。 What we need is more practice. 我们需要的是更多的实践。 9.关系代词 that 的用法 1)不用 that 的情况 a) 引导非限定性定语从句时。例如: (错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here. b) 介词后不能用。例如: We depend on the land from which we get our food. 我们依赖土地获得食物。 We depend on the land that/which we get our food from. 2) 只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 a) 在 there be 句型中,只用 that,不用 which。 b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little 等作先行词时,只用 that,不用 which。 c) 先行词有 the only, the very 修饰时,只用 that。 d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用 that。. e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。例如: All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需的只是供油问题。 Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。 三.巩固练习 1. His parents wouldn’t let him marry anyone ______ family was poor.

A. of whom B. whom C. of whose D. whose 2. She heard a terrible noise, _______ brought her heart into her mouth. A. it B. which C. this D. that 3. In the dark street , there wasn’t a single person _____ she could turn for help. A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom 4. The weather turned out to be very good , ____ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it 5.After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child. A. which B. where C. that D. when 6.Carol said the work would be done by October, _____personally I doubt very much. A. it B. that C. when D. which 7.Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ________,of course , made the others unhappy. A.who B.which C.this D.what 8. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase , _____ was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose 9._____ has already been pointed out , grammar is not a set of dead rules. A. As B. It C. That D. Which 10. He lived in London for 3 months , during ____ time he learned some English. A. this B. which C. that D. same 11. Oh the wall hung a picture, _____ color is blue. A. whose B. of which C. which D. its 12.Whenever I met him , ____ was fairly often, I like his sweet and hopeful smile. A. what B. which C. that D. when 13. The visitor asked the guide to take his picture _____ stands the famous tower. A. that B. where C. which D. there 14.The boss ____ department Ms King worked ten years ago look down upon women. A. in which B. in that C. in whose D. whose 15. I don’t like _____ you speak to her. A. the way B. the way in that C. the way which D. the way of which 16.I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella ._______ I got wet through . A. It’s the reason B. That’s why C. There’s why D. It’s how 17. He made another wonderful discovery , ____ of great importance to science. A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D.I think which is 18.He was very rude to the customs officer, ____ of course made things even worse. A. who B. whom C. what D. which 19. a) He is an interesting speaker, and, _______ is more important, he knows his subject thoroughly. b) He went to the meeting, and, _______ was worse, insisted on speaking. A. what B. which C. that D. when 20. The farmer uses wood to build a house ________ to store grain.

A. in which B. where C. which D. with which 21. I will invite _______ my daughter loves. A. whoever B. whomever C. whichever D. whatever 22.You can buy as many copies of this book ________ you wants. A. that B. which C. as D. for which 23. Tom ate more food _______ was good for his health. A. that B. as C. than D. which 24. He was hiding behind the door _________ he could see what was happening. A. which B. from where C from which D. where 25. She wore, _______ was very uncommon in the country, a red garment. A. what B. that C. which D. it =She wore a red garment , _______ was very uncommon in the country. 26. The English play ____ my students acted at the New Year's party was a great success. A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which 27. ______ is reported in the newspapers, talks between the two countries are making progress. A. It B. As C. That D. What 28. The journey around the world took the old sailor nine months, _____ the sailing time was 226 days. A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which 29. I work in a business almost everyone is waiting for a great chance. A. how B. which C. where D. that 30. There were dirty marks on her trousers ______ she had wiped her hands. A. where B. which C. when D. that 31. Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others , , of course , made the others envy him . A. who B. that C. what D. which 32. ________ is often the case, we have worked out the production plan. A. Which B. When C. What D. As 33. Anyway, that evening, ____ I’ll tell you more about later, I ended up staying at Rachel’s place. A. when B. where C. what D. which 34. A story goes ______ Elizabeth I of England liked nothing more that being surrounded by clever and qualified noblemen at court. A. when B. where C. what D. that 35. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year , 80% are sold abroad . A.of which B.which of C.of them D.of that 36.There was time I hated to go to school . A.a; that B.a; when C.the; that D.the ; when 37. There are two buildings , stands nearly a hundred feet high . A.the larger B.the larger of them C.the larger one that D.the larger of which

38. What surprised me was not what he said but

he said it .

A.the way the way that the way D.the way which 39. American women usually identify their best friend as someone _____ they can talk frequently. A. who B. as C. about which D. with whom 40. George Orwell, _______ was Eric Arthur, wrote many political novels and essays. A. the real nameB. what his real name C. his real name D. whose real name 四.答案 1-5DBDBB 6-10DBBAB 11-15ABBCA 16-20BADAA 21-25 BCCBC 26-30CBACA 31-35DDDDA 36-40BDADD


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