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2012年高三二轮复习金子般的学案语法部分:非谓语动词(新人教版)


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高三一轮复习金子般的学案语法部分:非谓语动词非谓语动词包
括不定式(to do)、动名词(-ing)、现在分词(-ing)与过去分词(-ed)。它们不受主语人称和 数的限制, 在句子中不能充当谓语, 但可以充当句子的其他成分, 并且有时态和语态的变化。 所以,要正确使用非谓语形式,一定要充分理解不同形式所表现的意义,要明确非谓语动词 与逻辑主语

之间是“主动”还是“被动(或状态)”,所表示的动作是“过去”、“现在”还是“将来”, 以及和谓语动词所表示的动作是同步发生还是有先后之分。 一、不定式和动名词作主语 【例句观察】 吸烟在这儿是禁止的。 Smoking is prohibited here. (抽象) 吸烟太多对你不好。 It is not very good for you to smoke so much. (具体) 【结论 1】动名词作主语通常表示抽象动作, 而不定式作主语表示具体动作。 【例句观察】 Working in these conditions is not easy. (一般式) 在这样的条件下工作不容易。 Having studied computer is an important qualification for the job. (完成式) 学过电脑是获得这份工作的重要条件。 Their not being served by the waiter added to their anger. (被动式,Their 不可用 They 和 Them,not 在 doing 前) 没有被服务增添了他们的愤怒。 【结论 2】动名词和不定式作主语除了一般式和主动式,还有完成式、被动式。完成式表示 该动作比谓语动词动作先发生。 【完成例句】 (1)他的到来将会是很大的帮助。 His coming here will be a great help. (不可用 He 和 Him) (2) Jack 的突然消失使他们很担忧。 Jack's suddenly disappearing made them worried. (不可用 Jack) 【结论 3】当动名词带逻辑主语时,只可在其前加上物主代词或名词的所有格,不可以用人 称代词主格和宾格,也不可以用名词的普通格。 【完成例句】 (3)我觉得他一个人是不可能做那份工作的。 I found it impossible for him to do the job alone. (4)他那样做是理智的。 It was wise of him to do that. 【结论 4】It's +adj. / n. for / of sb. to do sth. 在表示人物性格、 特性等的形容词 brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly, stupid, good, nice, kind, thoughtful, considerate, greedy, generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel, selfish, wicked, wrong 等后面,常用 of 引出不定式的逻辑主语,否则用 for。 【翻译句子】 (5)哭是没有用的。 It is no use / good crying. 【结论 5】It is + no use, no good (fun, a great pleasure, a waste of time)+ doing sth.
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二、不定式和动名词作宾语 【例句观察】 你介意我看下你的报纸吗? Do you mind my / me reading your paper? 她不喜欢 Mary 那样说话。 She doesn't like Mary / Mary's talking that way. 【结论 1】动名词作宾语时,可以带逻辑主语。此时,带逻辑主语既可以是物主代词或名词 的所有格,也可以是人称代词宾格和名词的普通格。 【例句观察】 I regret not having taken her advice. (not 须放在 having 前)我很后悔没有采纳她的建议。 They couldn't stand being treated like that. 他们不能忍受被那样对待。 He decided to help me but I pretended to have finished my job. 他决定帮助我但是我假装已经完成我的工作了。 【结论 2】作宾语的动名词和不定式除了一般式和主动式,还有完成式、被动式。完成式表 示该动作比谓语动词动作先发生。 常见的带不定式作宾语的动词如下:(利用口诀进行记忆,事实上,口诀内的动词 后跟动词不定式,几乎都有将来意味。建议考生要记牢口诀。 想要干 早打算 同意否 问问看 决定了 尽力干 别装蒜 want, wish, hope , expect, seek, attempt, aim, claim,would like / love, desire, swear plan, prepare, mean, arrange agree, promise, undertake, offer, choose, refuse, afford ask, beg,(ask to do 要求做…) decide, determine / be determined, make up one's mind try, manage(反义词 fail), struggle, strive pretend

介词以及少数动词(“动词不定式口诀”以外的动词)和词组后只能用动名词作宾语: admit, dislike, appreciate, avoid, enjoy, bear(忍受), envy, can't help(不禁), delay, escape, can't stand(受 不了), deny, excuse(借口), consider(考虑), fancy, mind, miss(错过), mention, finish, pardon, resist,forgive,imagine,risk,practise,suggest(建议),keep,quit,put off, give up, feel like, be worth, set about, burst out, be / get / become used to(习惯于), look forward to, pay attention to, devote…to, lead to, stick to, get close to, object to, contribute to, get down to, be equal to(能胜任), turn to(求 助于)等。 例如:I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago. He used to be lat e for work, but now he has been used to getting up early.
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【完成例句】 (6)你要听话好好待在家里。 You would be well advised to stay indoors. (7)老师建议采取不同的方法。 The teacher advised taking a different approach. 【结论 3】动词 advise / allow / permit / forbid 后跟 doing,也可跟 sb. to do。 【完成例句】 (8)路被落叶覆盖住了,它们需要被清理。 The road is covered with some fallen trees and they need removing / to be removed. 【结论 4】need, require, want, deserve +doing / to be done 表示被动意义。 【翻译句子】 (9) I forgot buying a pen for him yesterday, and returned home directly. 昨天我忘记给他买笔,而是直接回家了。 (10) Thank you for reminding me,or I forget to post my letter. 非常感谢你提醒我,否则我就会忘记去寄信的。 【结论 5】①有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语有差别: forget to do 忘记要去做某事(此事未做) forget doing 忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生) stop to do 停止、中断(某件事),目的是去做另一 件事 stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事 remember to do 记住去做某事(未做) remember doing 记得做过某事(已做) regret to do 对要做的事遗憾(后常跟动词 say, tell, inform 等) regret doing 对做过的事后悔 try to do 努力、企图做某事 try doing 试验、试一试某种办法 mean to do 打算,有意要…… mean doing 意味着 go on to do 继而(去做另外一件事情) go on doing 继续(原先没有做完的事情) propose to do 打算(要做某事) propose doing 建议(做某事) ②like / love / hate / prefer +to do 表示具体行为;+doing sth. 表示抽象、倾向概念。 如果这几个动词前有 should / would,其后宾语只跟不定式,不能跟动名词。 Don't you remember seeing the man before? You must remember to leave tomorrow. I should like to see him tomorrow. 【注意】不定式和动名词作宾语时还有一些固定句型: There is no use (good / point / sense / harm)+doing sth. 做某事没用(不好 / 没意义 / 没害处) have difficulty / trouble / problem / a hard time / a good time / fun + (in)+doing spend / waste / lose time (in) doing sth.
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There is no + doing…(there is no 表“不可能”) 【疑难 1】 I think you'll grow to like him when you know him better. 【疑难剖析 1】 come / become / grow / get to like / love / realize / understand / know 等 表示心理活动的过程,意为“渐渐地喜欢上 / 意识到 / 懂了 / 知道了……” 【疑难 2】 Last night I did nothing but watch TV. The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking. 【疑难剖析 2】do / did / does+nothing/anything/everything but(except)+动词原形,如果谓语 动词不是 do / did / does,but(except),所跟的不定式须带 to。 【疑难 3】 When I consider how talented he is as a painter, I cannot help but believe that the public will appreciate his gift. 【疑难剖析 3】can not (help / choose)but do,can do nothing but do,have no choice / alternative to do 表示“不得不”。 【疑难 4】 Why not take a holiday? 【疑难剖析 4】“Why not +动词原形”表达向某人提出建议,翻译为:“为什么不……?”“干 嘛不……?” 【疑难 5】 You had better have your eyes examined. 【疑难剖析 5】“would rather / had better+(not)+动词原形”意为“宁愿 / 最好(不)做某事”。 【疑难 6】 We don't want there to be any comrades lagging behind. I don't mind there being a chair here. There being nobody else at hand, I had to do by myself. 【疑难剖析 6】there be 的非谓语形式: 作动词 expect,like,mean,intend,want,prefer,hate 宾语时,通常用 there to be 结构,在 mind, object to 等后面用 there being。作状语多用 there being 结构。 【疑难 7】 John didn't pass his driving test, but I expected him to. — Hasn't he finished writing the report? — No, but he ought to have. — Aren't you the headmaster? — No, and I don't want to be. 【疑难剖析 7】为避免重复,在 hope, expect, wish, want, like, love, decide, plan, need, mean, forget, refuse, tell, know, have to, be going to, used to, ought to 等动词后面再次出现相同的不定 式作宾语时,常出现单独使用的 to,而把曾出现过的动词省略掉。但是,如果在省略的不定 式结构中含有 be, have, have been 时,要保留这些词。 三、不定式、动名词和分词作表语 【完成例句】 (11)我的建议是马上开始工作。 What I would suggest is to start work at once. (12)他的爱好是集邮。
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His hobby is collecting stamps. 【 结论 1】不定式作表语一般表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作。动名词作表语,表示 抽象的一般性的行为。 【完成例句】 (13)旅行很有趣但有些累。 Travelling is interesting but tiring. (14)学生被迫学得太多会混乱的。 The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much. 【结论 2】表心理状态的 interesting, exciting, delighting, disappointing, encouraging, worrying, puzzling, satisfying, surprising, pleasing 等形容词化分词作表语时,表示 “ 令人 …… 的 ” ; interested, excited, delighted, disappointed, encouraged, pleased, puzzled, worried, surprised 等表 示“感到……”。 【完成例句】 (15)工人们被告知他们按小时计酬。 What the workers have been told is that they get paid by the hour. 【结论 3】除 be done 外, get, become, look, seem, appear, remain 等系动词都可跟 done。如 remain seated / hidden,get paid / dressed / changed / stuck / hurt / injured / burnt 等。 【完成例句】 (16)他一直沉迷于电脑游戏,所以他得不了好成绩。 He was addicted to computer games, so he couldn't get good marks. 【结论 4】下列 be done 表示所处的状态 be addicted to…沉迷于…… be absorbed in…全神贯注于 be aimed at…旨在 / 意图…… be armed with… 有……装备 be buried in…埋葬在…… be based on / upon…以……为基础 be born…出生于…… be burdened with…担负着 be crowded with…挤满了…… be covered with / by…覆盖着 be coated with…涂抹了…… be combined with…与……联合 be compared with…与……相比较 be caught in… 陷入…… be lost in…沉迷于…… be concerned about…关心…… be dressed in…穿着…… be devoted to…专心致志于…… be divided into 分成 be engaged in…忙于…… be engaged to sb. 与……订婚 be fixed on…专注于…… be faced with…面临着……
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be filled with…装满了…… be greeted with…受到了……问候 be grown up 已经长大了 be hidden in…躲在…… be linked to …与……有关 be paved with…铺着…… be loaded with…载有…… be located in…位于…… be matched 很般配 be mistaken 弄错了 be replaced with…更换为…… be related to / with…与……有关 be seated 坐着 be married(to sb. )与某人结婚了 be separated from…与……隔开 be shouldered with…肩负着…… be stationed in…驻扎在…… be surrounded with / by…四周环绕着…… be supposed to do…应该做…… be recovered from …从……中康复 be connected with…与……相连 / 有关 be made of / from / up of 由……制成 / 组成 be designed / meant / intended for…专为……而设计 be known as / for / to…以……著称 / 因……著名 / 为……所知 四、不定式、动名词和分词作定语 【完成例句】 (17)我遗憾地告诉你还有东西没解决。 I regret to tell you that there is something unsolved. (18)水被工厂污染应该受到批评。 The water polluted by the factory should be to blame. 【结论 1】单个非谓语动词作定语一般在名词前,但修饰不定代词时在代词后;非谓语动词 短语作定语一般要跟在名词后。 【例句观察】 The meet ing to be held tomorrow is important. 明天要开的会很重要。 The meeting being held now is important. 现在正在开的这个会很重要。 The meeting held yesterday was important. 昨天开的那个会议很重要。 【结论 2】不定式、动名词和分词作定语的区别如下:

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to do sth.

与被修饰的名词有①主谓关系; ②动宾关系; 名词前有序数词或 最高级;③不定式修饰一些表示方向、原因、时间、机会、权利 等抽象名词

名词+doing sth.

①正在进行的动作;②经常性动作或现在(或当时)的状态;③即 将发生的动作 表示将要被做

to be done

done

表示已经完成的或表被动的动作

being done

表示正在发生的被动动作

【完成例句】 (19)我没有登山鞋。 I have no climbing shoes. (20)那个睡觉的男孩是他弟弟。 The sleeping boy was his brother. 【结论 3】动名词作定语只放在名词前,说明该名词的性能或用途,不表动作,被修饰的名 词与动名词在逻辑上没有主谓关系,反之则是现在分词作定语。 【完成例句】 (21)地上有很多落叶。 There are a lot of fallen leaves on the ground. 【结论 4】一些形容词化的过去分词表示已完成的动作或所处的状态,意为“已经……的”。 a fallen leaf 落叶(已经落在地上) a falling leaf 飘零的落叶(尚在空中) a developed country 发达国家 a developing country 发展中国家 a risen sun 升起的太阳 a rising sun 冉冉升起的太阳 a returned student 归国学生 a retired worker 退休工人 an advanced worker 先 进工作者 boiled water 开水 (boiling water 沸水) a bent branch 弯曲的树枝 determined opposition 强烈的反对 a devoted soldier 忠诚的士兵 a well-informed professor 见多识广的教授 【疑难 1】 The teacher is satisfied with our satisfying performance in class, which can be seen from her satisfied expression on her face.
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老师对我们在课堂上令人满意的表现很满意,这可以从她脸上满意的表情看出来。 【疑难剖析 1】表示心理状态的-ing 形式,表示“令人……的”; -ed 形式,表示“(人)感 到……”,也可修饰体现内心感受的 look, expression, tears, smile, voice 等名词。 【疑难 2】 ①The man who came this morning is our legal adviser. (√) The man coming this morning is our legal adviser. (× ) ②Is there anyone who can answer this question? (√) Is there anyone answering this question? (× ) ③Those who have finished their work can go home now. (√) Those having finished their work can go home now. (× ) 【疑难剖析 2】 不宜用现在分词短语作定语的情况: ①不能用 doing 表达过去动作(见①); ②用 answering 表达 can answer 的意思是错的(见②); ③完成式不能作定语(见③)。 五、不定式和分词作状语 【例句观察】 Standing on the tower, the whole city could be seen. (× 前后主语不一致) Standing on the tower, we could see the whole city. (√前后主语一致) 站在塔上,我们可以看见整个城市。 We found the room too small to hold so many people. 我们发现房间太小,容不下这么多人。 He made a long speech only to show his ignorance of the subject. (出乎意料的结果) 他作了很长的演说,结果却是偏离主题的。 Being watched by the audience, the young speaker felt very nervous. (因为正在被……) 被观众一直看着,年轻的演说者感到有些紧张。 Encouraged by these successes, they decided to expand the business. (被动,先发生但不 强调) 被这些成功鼓舞,他们决定拓展他们的贸易。 When leaving the airport, they waved again and again to us.(主动,同步) 当离开机场的时候,他们一次又一次地向我们挥手。 Not having received an answer, he decided to write another letter to them. (主动,先发 生且强调) 没有收到来信,他决定再写一封信给他们。 Having been criticized by the teacher, Li Ming gave up smoking. (被动,先发生) 被老师批评后,李明戒了烟。 【结论 1】 ①only+ to do 表示意想不到的结果。 ②doing sth. 与谓语动词同时发生的动作(主动关系) ③being +p.p. 强调与谓语动词同时发生的被动动作(“因为正在被……”) ④done 已经发生的被动动作 ⑤having done 先于谓语动词发生的动作(主动关系) ⑥having been done 先于谓语动词发生的动作(被动关系) 【翻译句子】
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(22) He worked deep into the night, preparing a speech for the president. (worked 与 preparing 同 时发生) 他为总统准备演说,工作到深夜。 (23) I got up very early this morning to prepare breakfast for my family. (got up 先,prepare breakfast 后) 我今天早上起床很早给我的家人准备早餐。 【结论 2】不定式“to do sth. ”作目的和结果状语时总是在谓语动词后发生,而分词一般式 “doing sth.”作状语时总是与谓语动词同时或几乎同时发生。 【翻译句子】 (24) She is so kind as to help me. = She is so kind that she helps me. 她和善地来帮我。 (25) She is such a kind girl as to help me. = She is such a kind girl that she helps me. 她是一个和善的女孩,常来帮我。 【结论 3】so + adj. / adv.+ as to do 或 such+(a / an)+adj. + n. + as to do, 可以转化为 so …that 或 such… that 引导的 结果状语从句。 【疑难 1】 too…to do 表示肯定的情况 I'm only too pleased to help you. 我很高兴能帮助你。 One is never too old to learn. 活到老,学到老。 【疑难剖析 1】①当 only too 和 all too 与动词不定式连用时,表示肯定意义。 ②too ready (anxious,eager, glad, willing)+to do,其后的动词不定式具有肯定意义。 ③never (not)+too…to…句型为“不会太……所以能……”之意。 【疑难 2】 Seating himself / Seated / Sitting in the room, he is absorbed in reading. Have you noticed the student losing himself / lost in thought? 【疑难剖析 2】devote,absorb,lose,seat,dress,hide 等动词作状语和定语时可以用它们 的-ed 形式(devoted, absorbed,lost,seated,dressed,hidden)或-ing+oneself 形式(devoting / absorbing / losing / seating / dressing / hiding oneself)。 【疑难 3】 Generally speaking,the more expensive the camera, the better its quality . 【疑难剖析 3】有些 to do 短语,doing 短语和 done 短语已经当作插入语使用,此时,句子 的主语在逻辑上与它们不存在主动或被动关系: ① to tell you the truth(实话说), needless to say(不用说), to be honest / frank(老实说, 坦白说), to be more exact(更确切地说),to make things worse (更糟的是),not to mention…(更不用说) ② Generally / Frankly / Roughly speaking (一般说来 / 坦白说 / 粗略地说),considering…(鉴 于 / 考虑到……), judging by / from…(从……来看, 依据……来判断), supposing that…(假 定……), providing that… (假定……), according to…(依据……), including…(包括……), owing to…(由于……),talking / speaking of…(谈及……) ③given…(考虑到……), provided that…(如果……) 【疑难 4】 It being Sunday, we needn't go to school. → Because it is Sunday, we needn't go to school. All the work done, you can have a rest.
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→ If all the work is done, you can have a rest. 【疑难剖析 4】独立主格结构:n. / pron. +doing / done / to do / adv. / adj. / prep. 短语 前后主语不一致时,分词作状语需有自己的逻辑主语,且分词与逻辑主语之间存 在着逻辑上的主动或被动关系,此时,视为独立主格结构。若把独立主格结构还原为状语从 句,则主句的主语与从句的主语是不同的。 【疑难 5】 连词+分词(短语) While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building. He will not attend the p arty unless invited. 【疑难剖析 5】 有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚,可在分词前加连词。连词有 when,while,if, unless,though,aft er, before, as 等。但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个。 六、不定式和分词作宾语补足语 【完成例句】 (26)我爸爸允许我周末上网。 My father permits me to surf the Internet at the weekend. 【结论 1】like, hate, encourage, wish, warn, tell, want, desire, expect, get, permit, order, allow, invite, force, ask, cause, advise, request, prefer, beg, persuade, teach, lead 等动词+宾语+to do sth. ,宾语与 to do 为主动关系。 do sth. (用于 let, make, have 以及感官动词后) to do sth. (主动) / to be done (被动) doing sth. (主动,正在进行或 持续进行) done (被动,状态或完成) being done(被动,正在进行) 动词+宾语+宾补 究竟用何种形式,取决于带复合宾语的动词的特征。 【特别提醒】hope, welcome, agree, suggest, demand 不能跟 sb. to do。 (╳)hope sb. to do sth.应改为→ wish / expect sb. to do sth. (╳)welcome sb. to do sth.应改为→ sb. be welcome to do sth. (╳)agree sb. to do sth.应改为→ allow / permit sb. to do sth. (╳)suggest sb. to do sth.应改为→advise sb. to do sth. / suggest sb. (should)do sth. (╳)demand sb. to do sth.应改为→require sb. to do / demand sb. (should )do sth. 【完成例句】 (27)他看见老人过马路。 He saw the old man cross the road. → The old man was seen to cross the road. (28)小孩子最后被看见在河边玩。 The children were last seen playing by the river. 【结论 2】感官动词 see, observe+宾语+do sth.(主动,全过程或经常性动作) hear, notice, watch, feel+ 宾语+doing(主动,正在进行) feel,look at, listen+宾语+to be done(与宾语是被动关系)
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【注意】若感官动词在被动语态中,则 to 要还原。 【翻译句子】 (29) His words sent me thinking. 他的 话令我深思。 (30) The teacher often gets us to recite texts. 老师经常叫我们背课文。 (31) I'd like to get my car repaired before the New Year. 我想新年前把车修好。 (32) To our surprise, he was sent to work abroad. 令我们惊讶的是他被送往国外工作了。 【结论 3】get / send / set +宾语+doing 表示“使……起来”,动作由静止到运动并持续下去 get+宾语+to do=let / have sb. to do 表示“让某人做某事” get+宾语+done=have sth. done 表示“使某事被做” send+宾语+to do 表示“派某人去做某事” 【翻译句子 】 (33) I made my little brother cry. / My little brother was made to cry. 我把弟弟弄哭了。 (34) I spoke clearly and slowly to make myself heard and understood. 我说得又慢又清楚好让自己被听明白。 【结论 4】使役动词 make+宾语+do / done;宾语与 do 为主动关系,与 done 是被动关系; 如 make 在被动语态中,to 要还原。 【例句观察】 The teacher often has us debate in class. 老师经常叫我们在课堂上辩论。 They had the lights burning while working. 他们工作的时候把灯亮着。 Nancy will have her house painted. Nancy 要漆房子。 I am going to the supermarket and have many things to buy. Do you have anything to be bought? 我要去超市买点东西,你有东西要买吗? do sth. (主动,让某人做某事) doing sth. (主动,让某人或某 物一直做某事) done(被动,①叫人做某事 ②遭遇某事) 使役动词 have + 宾语+ have 表示“有”时,用 have+宾语+to do,表示“有某事要做(主语本人做)”; 用 have+宾语+to be done,表示“有某事被做(不是主语本人做)”。 【结论 5】 【例句观察】 Sorry to have kept you waiting for me for such a long time. 不好意思让你等了这么久。 They went home, leaving much work unfinished.
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他们回家了,留下很多事情都没做。 I have once seen the child caught stealing money. 我曾经看到一个小孩偷钱被抓。 I found the little boy lying under the tree when I passed by. 我路过的时候发现那个小男孩躺在树底下。 She found a small boy seated at the back of the classroom. 她发现一个小男孩坐在教室后面。 The teacher wanted the paper (to be)finished in an hour. 老师想让试卷在一个小时内完成。 【结论 6】 ① keep / leave+宾语+doing(主动,且持续进行) / done(被动) ② catch+宾语+doing 表示“发现某人正在做某事”,宾语与 doing 为主动,且正在进行。 ③find+宾语+doing(主动,正在进行) / done(被动、状态或完成) ④ want / order / ask / wish +宾语+(to be )done (宾语与 done 之间为被动关系) 七、with 复合结构 【完成例句】 (35)小孩跟着他,他不得不回到公园。 With the children following him, he had to go back to the park. (36)工作完成了,他可以回家了。 With the work finished, he could go home. (37)这么多书要看,我不能外出。 With so many books to read, I could not go out. (38)天气这么热,他们入室休息了。 With the weather so hot, they went in to have a rest. (39)随着彩电价格降了 50%,公司处境艰难。 With the prices of color TV down by 50%, the company has a very hard time. (40)他妻子走下楼梯,手里拿着一本书。 His wife came down the stairs, with a book in her hand / a book in her hand / a book in hand. (41)升国旗的时候学生们站成一线。 The students stood in line with the national flag being raised. 【结论】with 复合结构是独立主格结构的一种,常在句中充当状语和定语,是英语中的一种 常见结构。它由“with+宾语+补语”组成,其中,宾语和宾补之间必须有逻辑一致关系。 其结构为: adv. / prep. adj. +to do(表示将要发生的动作) doing(主动,同时) / being done(正在被) done(被动或完成)

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