（一） 名词性从句的结构和功能 名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、 表语从句、同位语从句。名词性从句主要有 四种从句结构：以that引导的从句；以 whether/ if引导的从句，以特殊疑问词引导 的从句；以what或wh-ever等连接代词引导 的名词性关系从句。此外，as if/ as though 也可引导表语从句。具体用法见下表：
词性从句的连接词 引导名词性从句的连接词有：从属连词、 连接代词和连接副词。 1. 从属连词：that(本身无意义)，whether(是 否)，if(是否)。只起连接作用，在从句中不 作任何成分。 2. 连接代词：who, whom, whose, which, what, whatever, whoever等。它们除起连接作用 外，还可在从句中充当主语、宾语、定语、 表语等成分。
3. 连接副词：when(＝the time when什么时候， 何时)，where(＝the place where什么地方， 何地)，how(＝the way that/in which怎样， 以……方式，如何)，why＝the reason why 为什么)。它们除起连接作用，还在从句中 作状语。
温馨提示 what与that引导名词性从句的区别： 1. what在名词性从句中可充当主语、宾语和表 语，意义上相当于the thing(s) that，引导主 语从句时，其谓语动词的单复数依句意而定。 e.g. What the lecturer said is very valuable. We wonder what he will do next.
2. that引导名词性从句不充当任何句子成分， 只起连接作用，无任何意义。引导主语从 句时，常用it作形式主语，谓语动词用单 数，引导宾语从句时，常被省略。 e.g. That she will refuse the offer seems unlikely. I have found (that) all the tickets have been sold out. It is a pity that you missed such a fine talk.
（三）主语从句 1. 主语从句的基本用法 1) that引导的主语从句既可放在句首，也可 放在句尾，that起连接作用，无词义，在 从句中不作成分，一般不能省略。 e.g. That we are invited to a concert this evening is good news to us. ＝It is good news to us that we are invited to a concert this evening.
2) whether引导的主语从句可放在句首，也 可放在句尾；if引导的主语从句只能放 在句尾，前面需要it作形式主语。 whether/ if 起连接作用，“是否”，在 从句中不作成分。 e.g. Whether he will go there or not is not clear. It is doubtful whether/ if the work can be completed.
3) wh类连接词引导的主语从句： wh类连接词包括wh类的连接代词(who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever等)和连接副词 (when, where, how, why, whenever, wherever, however等)。what, when和wh-ever类的词有 时可不表疑问。wh类连接代词在句中既起连 接作用，又可充当主语、宾语、表语、定语等 成分。wh类连接副词在句中起连接作用，在 从句中可充当时间、地点、原因、方式状语。
2. 主语从句的单复数问题 1) 从句作主语时，谓语动词一般用单数。 e.g. That he will come and help us is certain. Who will go to the energy conference is not important. 2) what引导的从句作主语，表示单数概念， 谓语动词一般用单数形式；表示复数概念， 则谓语动词常用复数。 e.g. What he said is true. What he needs are books.
e.g. I know that he is friendly and
Go to stamp sales and buy whatever
you can afford.
温馨提示 doubt, doubtful与sure后名词性从句连接词 that, whether, if的选择。 ①当doubt, doubtful用于肯定句时，后面的名 词性从句的连接词常用whether或if；当 doubt, doubtful用于否定句或疑问句时，后 面名词性从句的连接词用that。 e.g. I doubt whether/ if he is at home. We don’t doubt that they can complete the task ahead of time. It is doubtful whether it is true or not.
②当be sure用于肯定句时，后面的宾语从句 的连接词常用that；当be sure用于否定句 时，后面的宾语从句的连接词常用whether 或if。 e.g. We are sure that he is innocent. The old man didn’t seem to be sure whether/ if he had met me.
2) 介词及形容词后接宾语从句的用法： e.g. We are talking about whether we admit students into our club. He was interested in whatever he saw there. He is pleased that he has passed a tough test.
温馨提示 ①一般情况下介词后只能用wh类连接词引导 的宾语从句。 e.g. I am surprised at what he said. ②介词后如果接that从句，要先加上it，再加 that从句，即“介词＋it＋that...”结构。 e.g. You may depend on it that they will support you.
③介词except, but, besides及in后可接that 从句。 e.g. I know nothing about him except that he lives here. ④常接宾语从句的形容词有sure, certain, glad, pleased, happy, afraid, surprised, satisfied, sorry等。 e.g. I’m afraid he won’t attend our wedding.
3) that引导的宾语从句： e.g. We are glad that so many old friends will attend our tea party. The headmaster said that the school reports had been sent off.
温馨提示 在suggest, demand, order, insist等动词之 后的宾语从句中用虚拟语气，“(should＋)动 词原形”。 e.g. He suggested that we (should) set about doing the work at once.
4) whether/ if 引导的宾语从句： e.g. I’ll try to find out whether/ if the machine is in good condition. 温馨提示 ①whether/ if引导宾语从句表示“是否” 的意思时，一般情况下可互换。 ②if引导宾语从句时可以有否定式，而 whether从句则没有。 e.g. I don’t care if he doesn’t come.
5) 特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句： 由who, what, how, which, whose, where, why等词引导的宾语从句，可作动词、 介词及形容词的宾语。 e.g. I can’t imagine how he did it. We are worrying about what we should do next. I wasn’t certain whose house I was in.
温馨提示 如果疑问词是介词的宾语，介词可位 于从句句首或句末。 e.g. I didn’t know in which building they lived. ＝I didn’t know which building they lived in.
2. 宾语从句的时态 1) 主句为现在或将来时态 主句谓语动词如果是现在时或将来时，从 句谓语动词可用任何所需要的时态。 e.g. She says that she works from Monday to Friday. I know he didn’t tell you that he would come then. He will tell me what happened to him during my absence.
2) 主句为过去时态 主句的谓语动词是一般过去时，从句的谓 语动词要用相应的过去时态。 e.g. He said there were no classes yesterday afternoon. He asked me if I was reading the book Red and Black when he came in.
3) 表示客观事实或真理 如果从句表示客观事实或真理，不管主 句的谓语动词是何时态，从句都要用现 在时态。 e.g. The teacher said that the world is made up of matter.
（五） 表语从句 1. 表语从句的基本用法 1) 基本结构：主语＋系动词＋表语从句， 常用的系动词有be，seem，remain， look等。 e.g. My idea is that you should make good use of your time. It seems that he has been to America.
2) as if/ as though引导的表语从句，系动词通 常为look，seem，sound等，从句可以用陈 述语气，也可以用虚拟语气。 e.g. It looks as if it is/ were going to snow. 3) that和what引导的表语从句的区别： that引导表语从句时，起连接作用，没有实 际意义，不作句子成分；what引导表语从 句时，既充当连接代词，又作句子成分。 e.g. Our plan is that we’ll go there once a week. That’s what he said.
4) 由连接副词引导的表语从句： 连接副词where，why，when等引导表 语从句，分别在从句中作地点、原因、 时间状语。 e.g. That is where the great writer used to live. That is why he didn’t pass the exam. That was when I was thirty.
2．表语从句需要注意的问题 1) 主语为名词reason，表语从句用that而不 用why引导。 e.g. The reason why he was absent from the meeting was that he fell ill suddenly. The reason for such a serious accident is that the driver was too careless and drunk.
2) 引导表语从句时，用whether，不能用if。 e.g. The question is whether he has signed the contract. (不能用if) 3) 表语从句中的虚拟语气： 如果主句的主语是名词idea, advice, suggestion, order, request, requirement等时，则表语从句 的谓语应用虚拟语气，“(should＋)动词原 形”。 e.g. My suggestion is that we (should) set out at once. The doctor’s advice is that you (should) rest more and drink more.
4) 使用连接词时的注意事项： 连接代词和连接副词一般都表疑问，但what, when和where等连接词有两种含义，一种表 示疑问，一种表示陈述。表陈述时，相当于 the thing that, the time when, the place where, 常意为“……的人/事”、“……的 时间”、“……的地点”等。 e.g. This is where he once lived. This is what I want to know. That was when he did the experiment.
句式 意义 例句
“那就是 That is why That is why we don’t ……的原因 ＋结果 trust him. ” That is because＋ 原因
“那是因为 That is because he often ……” lies. The reason why we don’t “……的原 trust him is that he often 因是……” lies.
The reason why...is that...
（六） 同位语从句 在主从复合句中作同位语的从句，叫同 位语从句。表示名词的内容，加以解释。 同位语从句的基本用法： 1. 能接同位语从句的名词：fact, idea, news, promise, information, message, belief, doubt, hope, opinion, possibility, thought, wish, truth, question, problem, reply, answer, report, suggestion, advice, order, warning等等。
2. that引导的同位语从句 e.g. We were very excited at the news that our Chinese athletes won many gold medals. The problem that they can’t get here early is hard to solve.
温馨提示 同位语从句通常由that引导，但根据 接同位语的名词不同，也可由whether, when, who, how, what, why等引导。 e.g. I have no idea when he will be back. The question who was to blame has never been settled.
（七）引导名词性从句只用whether 不用if的情况 1. 引导主语从句置于句首时： e.g. Whether he can finish the work on time is not clear. 2. 引导表语从句时： e.g. The problem is whether the meeting will be held. 3. 引导同位语从句时： e.g. I have no idea whether he is willing to help us.
4. 引导宾语从句前置时： e.g. Whether they will join in the Winter Camp I don’t care. 5. 作介词宾语时： e.g. We aren’t interested in whether he will agree with us or not. 6. 作动词discuss的宾语时： e.g. We are now discussing whether we should group these three companies.
7. 其后接动词不定式时： e.g. Can you tell me whether to go or to stay? 8. 与or not直接连用时，用whether，即 whether or not，如果分开时，两者都可 以，即whether/ if... or not。 e.g. I don’t care whether or not he has a holiday. ＝I don’t care whether/ if he has a holiday or not.
（八）同位语从句与定语从句的区别 1. 同位语从句既“说明、修饰”先行词，又 “等同”于先行词。定语从句“修饰、限 制”先行词，由“关系词”替代先行词， 在从句中充当成分。 e.g. We are delighted at the news that we are going to spend our summer vacation in Dalian. (同位语从句) Neither of us showed any interest in the news that John told us yesterday. (定语从句)
2. that在从句中的作用 同位语从句中that为连接词，只起连接作 用，在从句中不作成分，一般也不能省 略；定语从句中的that为关系代词，在从 句中充当句子成分，可作主语、宾语和 表语，作宾语时常可省略。 e.g. The news (that) he told me surprised me. (定语从句) The news that he gave in surprised me. (同位语从句)
3. 其他引导词的使用 引导同位语从句的词除连接词that外， 还可用whether，连接代词who，what及 连接副词when, where, how, why等；引 导定语从句的词除that外，还有关系代 词who, whom, whose, which, as以及关系 副词when, where, why。
（九） whever和“no matter＋wh?” whever既可引导名词性从句，又可引 导让步状语从句，而no matter wh只能引导 让步状语从句。 e.g. Whatever/ No matter what I said，he wouldn’t listen to me. (让步状语从句) He would believe whatever/ anything that I said. (宾语从句)
名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从 句、同位语从句和表语从句。考查要点 主要是连接代词和副词的正确使用，主 语、谓语的语序，双重连接词以及特殊 句型的使用等。其考点主要包括：
1. 名词性从句的连接词。如：有词义的连 接代词who, whose, whom, what, which; 连接副词when, where, why, how; 从属 连词that, whether, if, as if; 无词义的that 在从句中不担任成分，有时可省略。 2. 名词性从句的语序和时态。 3. it作形式主语、形式宾语的情况。 如：
1) It＋be＋形容词＋that从句 2) It＋be＋过去分词＋that从句 3) It＋be＋名词＋that从句 4) It＋不及物动词(appear, happen等)＋that 从句 4. 名词性从句中的虚拟语气。如： 1) It is (was)＋essential (important, natural…)＋that…； 2) It is (was) suggested (demanded, wished, desired…) that…等。
5. what引导名词性从句时的语义功能和语法 功能。如：what＝the thing that/ anything that…；what＝the place that…；what＝ the time that…；what＝the person that… 等。 6. whoever, whatever, whichever引导名词性 从句时的语义功能和语法功能。 重点考查连接词that, what的用法； 特殊 疑问词引导的名词性从句； wh-ever引导 的名词性从句。
从A、B、C、D四个选项中，选出可以填入 空白处的最佳选项。 1. The best moment for the football star was B he scored the winning goal. _____ A. where B. when C. how D. why
2. “Every time you eat a sweet, drink green tea.” This is _____ A my mother used to tell me. A. what B. how C. that D. whether 3. Some people believe _____ A has happened before or is happening now will repeat itself in the future. A. whatever B. whenever C. wherever D. however
4. It is difficult for us to imagine _____ B life was like for slaves in the ancient world. A. where B. what C. which D. why 5. _____ B the delayed flight will take off depends much on the weather. A. Why B. When C. That D. What
A impresses me about his 6. I think _____ painting is the colours he uses. A. what B. that C. which D. who 7. The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief ______ you are better B than anyone else on the sports field. A. how B. that C. which D. whether
8. I have no idea _____ B the cell phone isn’t working, so could you fix it for me? A. what B. why C. if D. which 9. The limits of a person’s intelligence, generally speaking, are fixed at birth, but _____ B he reaches these limits will depend on his environment. A. where B. whether C. that D. why
10. Scientists study _____ B human brains work to make computers. A. when B. how C. that D. whether
热点考向 1 主语从句 1. 主要考点: 1) that引导主语从句时, 常用it作形式主语, 常 见的句型: ①It+ be+形容词+ that从句 ②It+ be+名词 (短语)+ that从句 ③It+ be+过去分词(said/told/reported/decided 等)+ that从句 ④It+ 特殊动词 (seems/ appears/ happens/ matters)+ that从句
2) what与that在引导主语从句时的区别: what引导主语从句时在从句中充当句子成 分, 如主语、宾语、表语, 而that引导从句, 不充当成分。 e.g. What you said yesterday is right. (what引导主语从句, 作said的宾语) That English is important is an undoubted fact. (that引导主语从句, 不作任何成分, 但不可省略)
3) 主语从句若含有“是否”意义, 其引导词只 能用whether, 不能用if。 e.g. Whether he will be able to come tomorrow remains a question. 2. 突破技巧: 1) 掌握形式主语的句式及变化，根据句意选 取合适连接词, 除that在句子中没有意义, 但 不能省略外, 其他连接词均在句中有意义。 2) what, that, which, whether连接主语从句的 区别。
热点考向 2 宾语从句 1. 主要考点: 1) 动词find, feel, think, consider, take (认 为), make, believe, guess, suppose, assume等后面有宾语补足语时, 且宾语 是从句时, 需用it作形式宾语而将that引 导的宾语从句后置。
2) 宾语从句的语序为陈述语序; 主句谓语 动词用一般现在时, 从句谓语动词可以 用各种时态; 主句谓语动词用一般过去 时, 从句需用过去的相应时态, 但从句若 表示客观真理、规律, 用一般现在时。 e.g. He said that he had been to the space station.
3) 由whether或if引导的宾语从句, 要保持 陈述句语序。此外, whether与if在作 “是否”讲时, 一般可以换用, 但在下列 情况下一般只能用whether, 不用if。 ①引导的从句作介词宾语时。 e.g. Everything depends on whether we have enough money.
②从句中有or或whether or not连用时。 e.g. I wonder whether or not he will come. Tell me whether or not I should invite Nick. ③后接动词不定式时。 e.g. Can you tell me whether to go or to stay?
1) 把握句意, 选取合适的连接词、时
热点考向 3 表语从句 1. 考查内容: 1) 表语从句常跟在这些系动词后, 如be, look, remain, seem等。 e.g. That is just what I want. 2) 除常用的连接代词、副词外, as if/ though, because, why等也可以引导宾语从句。 e.g. It looks as if it’s going to rain. 3) 引导表语从句的that不能省略; if不能用于 引导表语从句。 e.g. The reason is that he got up late.
2. 突破技巧: 1) 理解句意, 把握语境, 扣准连接词在 句中的含义; 2) 掌握系动词后的表语从句辨析that, because, if, whether。
热点考向 4 同位语从句 1. 考查内容: 1) 同位语从句中的名词： 在复合句中, 同位语从句说明其前面名词的 具体内容, 同位语从句通常由that引导(that 不能省略)。可用于同位语从句的名词有 advice, demand, doubt, fact, hope, idea, information, message, news, order, problem, promise, question, request, suggestion, truth, wish, word等。
e.g. The news that the Shenzhou-Ⅹspaceship set off successfully is exciting. I have no idea when he will come back home. The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill.
2) 同位语从句与定语从句的区别： 在限制性定语从句中, 关系代词that充当 主语或宾语, 有实际意义, 作宾语时, 可省 略。同位语从句中的that是连词, 不充当 句子成分, 没有任何意义, 但不可省略。 e.g. The news (that) we heard on the radio was not true. (定语从句) The news that our football team won the match was encouraging. (同位语从句)
2. 突破技巧: 1) 熟记同位语从句的常用名词; 2) 分析句子成分, 防止句式变化; 3) 采取“意义法”区别同位语从句与 定语从句。
I. 用正确的连接词填空。 1. —Have you finished the book? —No, I’ve read up to ________ where the woman comes from. 2. Before going to the supermarket, I make a list of ________ what we will need for the coming week.
what it takes to be a doctor. 3. My sister has ________ 4. Mr Curry refused to say ________ had who organized the meeting. However, everyone knew it was Jim. 5. Many experts hold the view ________ the that worker’s development is where the key to better production lies. 6. —I prefer staying at home all day on Sundays. where I don’t agree. You —That’s ________ should have a more active life.
7. Jeremy shut the door heavily behind him. No one knew ________ he was so angry. why 8. —We haven’t discussed yet ________ where we are going to place our new furniture. —You can put it in the sitting room. 9. ________ What some people regard as a drawback is seen as a plus by many others. that 10. It never occurred to me ________ I could have the book sent to me.
II. 选用括号内合适的内容填空。 1. —What makes you so upset? —________ That (That, Because) I have lost my cell phone. 2. I’m somewhat tired of working here. I’ve been wondering ________ (if, why) I should if resign. 3. The teachers have been trying to do ________ whatever (whatever, however) is possible to help the students with their studies.
that 4. My brother had no doubt ________ (that, whether) he could pass the driving test, as he had practiced so much. what (what, that) 5. Denny hasn’t realized ________ help the reference book I gave him can be of to his studies. that 6. It is important ________ (when, that) we work out a plan to raise enough funds for the project.
that 7. In her letter was her promise ________ (that, what) she would bring me some foreign stamps when she returned from America. where (where, how) Bob 8. I have no idea ________ got such a large sum of money from. how (how, 9. —I don’t exactly know ________ whether) he is coming this time. —By air, of course.
How (How, That) he managed to 10. —________ finish the job is of no interest to us all. —On the contrary, in my opinion, we should learn from the ways he responded to the challenge.