Unit 5 Meeting your ancestors
第一部分 《金色教案》教学设计说明 About topic the structures 单元话题和 结构 the and 本单元的主题是考古学,涉及到历史和人类学；语文知识和语言技能都是 围绕这一主题设计的。 具体涉及“周口店遗址的北京猿人”、 “早期人类 生活方式”、 “如何判断遗址年份”、 “秦始皇兵马俑
”、 “埃及金字塔” 等， 帮助学生增长考古学知识， 更好地了解早期人类的生活方式和人类文 明的发展进程。 本单元语言功能项目是： “存在”和“非存在” “度量” “特点” 。 本单元语言结构项目是“复习动词时态” 。 本单元还要求学生学习写作“描写文：考古发现” 。 《金色教案》教学设计在单元课时划分上与课本保持一致，即“阅读课、 知识课、运用课三课时/三课型划分” 。但在实际教学过程中 ，建议教师 依据学生基础、教学条件、学校安排的因素，对课本、对《金色教案》教 学设计重新划分课时，裁剪、拼接使用提供的材料，以便“物尽所用” ， 达到最佳教学效果。教师也可以参照《金色教案》提供的“实际教学过程 课时划分建议”进行教学。 Period 1 Reading 阅读课 Warming Up 课本在此阶段以四张古文物照片导入新课，通过让学生鉴别 照片中的物品、 讨论物品的原材料及其用途， 来激发学生了解古物的兴趣。 Pre-reading 课本呈现了北京猿人的头盖骨图片，通过谈论我们今天使
用的生活用品及生活方式， 猜测几万年前北京猿人可能使用的生活用品及 生活方式，将学生的思维引入“史前人类生活”，为下文阅读做好铺垫。 教师也可以采用本书的 Pre-read by getting to know what archaeology or archeology is 进行预读/读前教学。 Reading 阅读课可以从介绍阅读技巧入手， 重点引导学生使用正确的阅读 方法，并适当地讲解语言难点， 然后进行及时的相关阅读训练。训练可 限定时间，以集中学生注意力，培养学生的阅读意识。另外，在阅读训练 时， 应鼓励学生充分利用他们在阅读汉语时的经验， 以帮助学生培养良好 的英语阅读技能和习惯， 不断提高阅读能力。 建议教师采用如下设计进行
阅 读 教 学 ： reading for forms of language, copying and making sentences, transforming information， reading the text again for the type of writing and summary of A VISIT TO ZHOUKOUDIAN CAVES，writing a passage of their own ， closing down by reading more about Zhoukoudian. Period 2 Learning about language 知识课 Learning about language 主要突出本单元的重点词汇和主要语法项目。 通过 warming up by revising the verb tenses <including the Present Perfect Continuous Tenses>, reading aloud to the recording,
discovering useful words and expressions, reading more about Davidson Black, revising the present perfect continuous tense, discovering useful structures and closing down by looking and saying 等活动，帮助学生掌握 the verb tenses <including the Present Perfect Continuous Tenses>,的各种语用功能。
Period 3 Using language 运用课
部分。 听力课文介绍了考古学家判断遗址年份的两种方法； 阅读课文描述 了早期人类生活的一个侧面，包括人与人的关系、男女分工的不同、家庭 之间的聚会等； “说与写”部分提供了从三星堆发掘的古文物照片， 让学 生来描述，使学生进一步认识早期人类的生活方式，拓展考古知识。教师 通过 warming up by getting to know where my ancestor lived, reading for forms，copying useful expressions and making sentences， reading more about man of 18,000 BC, speaking and writing about Sanxingdui, writing as they do， writing an ad for the Sanxingdui site 完成 本节教学。 实际教学过程课时划分建议
将 Warming Up、 Pre-reading、Reading 和 Comprehending 整合在一起上 一节“阅读课” 。
将 Learning about language 和 Workbook 中 的 USING WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS、USING STRUCTURES 整合在一起上一节“语言知识课” 。
将 Using language 设计为一节包括听说读写单项技能或组合技能训练的
“综合技能课（一） ” 。 Period 4 将 Workbook 的 READING AND LISTENING 和 TALKING 整合在一起上一节 “听 说课” 。 Period 5 将 Workbook 的 LISTENING TASK、 READING AND WRITING TASK 和 SPEAKING TASK 整合为一节“综合技能课（二） ” 。 第二部分 教学资源说明 Section 1 Background 背景 围绕单元话题“Festival around the world” ， 《金色教案》提供了几则 语言规范、 短小精干的趣味性材料。 这些材料既可以作为教师教学参考材 料为教师所用， 也可以直接或改写、 重组后作为课堂内外的拓展性阅读材 料呈现给学生。 Section 2 Explanation 解析 Section 3 Vocabulary 词汇 第三部分 教学测评说明 重点针对“阅读课型”中的课文难句， 《金色教案》不仅提供了详尽的， 就句论句的解析和翻译， 而且还以解析的焦点话题为线索， 进行了一定的 归纳、辨析和总结，以帮助教师更好地实施“语言形式”的教学。 按照课本单元词汇表顺序， 《金色教案》重点提供动词、短语搭配的讲解。 所提供的例句，经典、地道、实用、易懂，完全可以直接用于教学。
围绕单元词法、句法项目， 《金色教案》提供了长短不一的“单元教学测评” ，并备有参考答案供教师使用。有 些测评题目直接源于历年高考试卷，更具有说服力和实用性。
Part 1 Teaching Design
Period 1 A sample lesson plan for reading
(A VISIT TO THE ZHOUKOUDIAN CAVES) Introduction
In this period, after the warming up, students will first be guided to pre-read by getting to know what archaeology or archeology is. Then they shall be reading for forms of language, copying and making sentences, transforming information. Students will be reading the text again for the type of writing and summary of A VISIT TO ZHOUKOUDIAN CAVES. They will be asked to write a passage of their own. The period will end by students reading more about Zhoukoudian.
To help students understand the text’s forms and contents and learn about ancestors To help students communicate on th e topic in focus with the words, expressions and structures learned in this unit Focus Words identify, excavate, int errupt, assume, sharpen, scrape, preserve, applaud, accelerate, arrest Collocations Patterns regardless of, cut up, look ahead 1. It is a great pleasure to meet you, students from England, who are interested in archaeology. 2. You must be aware that it’s here that we’re found evidence of some of the earliest people who lived in this part of the world. 3. We have been excavating here for many years and ? 4. My hands are dirty. I have been painting the wall. 5. It must have been very uncomfortable. 6．Do you mean to say they made their own clothes? Aids Multimedia facilities, tape-recorder, photos, diagrams Procedures 1. Warming up by talking about ancestors An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor. So this includes a father or mother, as well as grandparents, great-grandparents, and so on, although the correct female form of the word is "ancestrix", pl: "ancestrixes" or
"ancestrices". Two individuals have a genetic relationship if one is the ancestor of the other or if they share a common ancestor; in a curious use of language in evolutionary theory, this is called common descent. (Strictly speaking this may not be true for some bacteria and similar organisms whi ch are capable of direct horizontal gene transfer.) Some societies have ha d a form of ancestor worship; most modern societies seem to have focused this into genealogy. 2. Pre-reading by getting to know what archaeology or archeology is Archaeology or archeology is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. The goals of archaeology are to document and explain the origins and developm ent of human culture, understand culture history, chronicle cultural evolution, and study human behaviour and ecology, for both prehistoric and historic societies. 3. Reading for forms of language At your first reading of the text it is usua lly best not to stop and consult your dictionary. This will interrupt your process of reading and understanding. Often the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases becomes clear as you continue to read through the text. The dictionary can be used at a later stage. Read the text to: cut/ the sentence into thought groups, blacken the predicates, darken the connectives and underline all the useful expressions. 4. Finding collocations and making sentences Why do we learn collocations? ? ? ? Your language will be more natural and more easily understood. You will have alternative and richer ways of expressing yourself. It is easier for our brains to remember and use language in chunks or blocks
rather than as single words. Now read the text and find the collocations.
Collocations from A VISIT TO THE ZHOUKOUDIAN CAVES come to?for a visit 来??参观， show?around 带领??参观， a great pleasure to do? 非常乐意做??，be interested in? 对??感兴趣，find evidence of? 找到??的证 据，in the caves higher up the hill 在高山上的洞穴里，regardless of the cold 不 顾寒冷，keep warm 保暖，in the center of ? 在??的中心，construct fires 生火， cook the food 做饭， scare wild animals away 吓跑野兽，excavate layers of ?挖 掘一层层的??，keep the fire burning 让火一直着着，all winter 整个冬季，at the cave mouth 在洞口，to keep out the cold 御寒， tell?about? 告诉??关于??， 挖一个??的洞，make 穿着完全由??
show pictures of ?, 展示??的照片，make the hole for ?
one’s own clothes 做自己的衣服， wear clothes made entirely of? 制 成 的 衣 服 ， use sharpened stone tools
使 用 尖 利 的 石 器 ， cut up? 切 碎 ，
clean?from ?把??从??去掉， rub an ample amount of?inside the skin 擦上大 量的??在兽皮里， make? soft enough 使??足够柔软，a primitive necklace 一条 原始的项链，care about? 在意??，from the seaside 从海边， look very like?看 起来非常像??， part of a large shallow lake 一个很大的浅水湖的一部分， miles from the sea, 离海几英里远 ， travel to? 去??旅行， on the journeys 在旅途中， follow the herds of animals 跟着兽群， grow own crops 种植谷物， pick fruit 摘野果 5. Transforming information Where was the evidence of some of the earliest people who lived in this part of the world found? How could they live here? It's here that we’ve found evidence of some of the earliest people who lived in this part of the world. It is reasonable to assume they lived in these caves, regardless of the cold. How did they keep warm? Fireplaces in the centre of the caves have kept them warn, cooked the food and scared wild animals away as well. What wild animals were there all that time ago? Do they repair things? Yes, they do. Tigers and bears were the most dangerous enemies.
Where did they get the material for making their clothes?
They did indeed wear clothes made from animal skins.
Did early people really care about their appearance like we do?
Yes they do.
6. Reading the text for the type of writing and summary of A VISIT TO ZHOUKOUDIAN CAVES Determining the type of writing will help you determine the author’s topic (subject), purpose (why he is writing), style (how he should write) and tone (his attitude toward his subject - supportive, condeming, objective, etc.)
It is important to find main ideas when reading. Main ideas help you remember impor tant information. The main idea of a paragraph tells the topic of the paragraph. The topic tells what all or most of the sentences are about. The other sentences in the paragraph are called details. Details describe or explain the main idea. Read the text to find the main idea.
A DIALOGUE ENTITLED: A VISIT TO THE ZHOUKOUDIAN CAVES MAIN IDEAS OF THE DIALOGUE: A group of students from England has come to the Zhoukoudian Caves for a visit. An archaeologist is showing them around. DETAILED INFORMATION OF THE DIALOGUE: ●It's here that we’ve found evidence of some of the earliest people who lived in this part of the world. We ha ve found human and animal bones in those caves higher up the hill as well as tools and ornaments. ●We have discovered fireplaces in the centre of the caves where they constructe d fires. We have been excavating layers of ash almost six metres thick, which suggests that they might have kept the fire burning all winter. ●We have been finding the bones of tigers and bears in the caves and we think these
were their most dangerous enemies. ●Our evidence suggests they did indeed wear clothes made from animal skins. ●Perhaps there was trade between early peoples or they traveled to the seaside on their journeys. 7． Write as they do. (仿写) Now you are to write a passage of your own based on the text you leaned on page 38 just now. A VISIT TO PINGYAO A group of students/ from Japan/ has come to Pingyao/ for a visit. A tourist guide is showing them around. A: Welcome to Pingyao/ here/ in Shanxi, China. It is a great pleasure/ to meet you, students/ from Japan/ who are interested in the ancient Shanxi businessmen. You must be aware that/ it's here/ that we’ve found evidence of some of the
earliest people/ who started banks/ in this country of China. We have been studying the ancient Shanxi business/ here/ for many years and? S1: I'm sorry/ to interrupt you/ but how could they start banks here? There are only farms and coal mines here. A: We have found bank houses and money caves/ in the city streets/ as well as account books/ and abacuses. So/ we think/ it is reasonable/ to assume/ banks in China were started in these streets here. S2：How did they keep money? It must have been very difficult. A: We have discovered caves/ in th e centre of the courtyards/ where they dug caves. These caves would have kept gold and silver safe, held the coins/ and scared robbers away/ as well. We have been excavating layers of coins almost/ two meters thick, which suggests that/ the Pingyao businesses men or bankers might have kept the money
in the caves/ all years. We haven't yet found any doors, but/ we think/ they might have placed stones/ at the cave mouth/ to keep out the robbers and thieves. S3: What robbers and thieves were there/ all that time ago? A: Well, we have been finding the bones of robbers and thieves/ and tools used by them/ in the caves/ and we think/ these robbers and thieves were the banks’ most dangerous enemies. Now/ what do you think/ this tells us/ about the life of these early bankers? (shows a picture of the ancient Chinese coins) S2: That is an old coin. Goodness, does that mean/ they made coins? A: What else do you think/ they might have made? S4: Let me look at it. The diameter of the coin is about 2 meters. Ah yes, it seems to have been made of bronze. I wonder how they made the hole/ for the thread. S2: (interrupting) Do you mean to say/ they made their own coins? Where did they get the material? A: They didn't have material/ like we have/ today. Can you guess what they used? S1: Wow！Did they used coins/ made entirely of bronze? What technique did they use/ to make? Bronze would be so difficult to shape/ and melt. A: Our evidence suggests/ they did indeed use bank checks/ made from paper. We continue discovering tools/ that helped them cut/ and clean the paper. It seems that they might have used sharpened iron tools/ to cut up the paper/ and print the checks. Then/ smaller printers might have been used/ to print the pictures/ and numbers. After that/ they would have had to rub an ample amount of salt inside the paper/ to make it hard enough. Finally, they would have cut it/ and sewn the pieces together. Now look at this. (shows a bank check) S2: Why, it's a primitive bank check. Did early people really use bank checks/ like we do? It's surprising！ A: Yes/ and/ so well preserved. What do you think/ it's made of? S4: Let me feel it. Oh, I think/ some of them are made of animal skins/ but some are made of paper? A: How clever/ you are！One check is actually made from an animal skin/ and the
coins are made of gold. Can you identify any other coins? S1: This one looks very like a iron coin. Is that reasonable? A: Yes indeed, as the lab analyses have been specifically showing us, all the coins on this desk/ here/ used to be used for businesses. Undoubtedly/ there were worn and broken. S3: But/ a coin is not the bank. We are miles/ from the bank, so how did the coins get around in the country? A: Perhaps there was trade/ between early peoples/ or they travelled to other places/ on their business journeys. We know/ that they moved around, following the crowds of people. They didn't spend their own coins, but gained coins by trading/ and spent them. That's why they are called/ traders on the way. 8. Closing down by reading more about Zhoukoudian In December 1929, a Chinese paleoanthropologist named Pei Wenzhong discovered a complete skull of "Peking Man" on Dragon Bone Hill northwest of Zhoukoudian, in the southwest suburbs of Beijing. Later, archaeologists unearthed 40-odd individually fossilized skeletons of "Peking Man", male, female, old and young, all at the same site. Zhoukoudian, therefore, became the most common site for human remains with the most abundant fossils in the world from the same period. The discovery pushed the history of Beijing's civilization back to some 600,000 years. These fossilized remains prove that "Peki ng Man" was primitive man in an evolutionary process from ancient ape to modern man, and is the ancestor of the Chinese nation. Inside the 140-meter-long Peking Man Cave, stratum accumulation was of a depth of 40 meters. The inhabitants spanning more than 300,000 years left their remains, stone tools and traces of fire here. On Dragon Bone Hill were also found fossilized remains of Upper Cave Man, who lived 18,000 years ago, as well as sites of New Cave Man, who lived between Peking Man and Upper Cave Man. In 1987, the Zh oukoudian caves were listed as one of the world cultural heritage sites.