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A STUDY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING


2009 年6 月 第 32 卷 第3 期

中国英语教学 (双月刊) CELEA Journal(Bim onthly)

Jun.2009 Vol. No. 32 3

A STUDY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT : FROM A PERSPECTIVE OF SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY

Yu Yuanfang Dalian University

Abstract   This paper reports a study of foreign language learning m otivation and learning achieve ment fro m a cross - cultural perspective.The study investigates Australian studentslearning Chinese as a foreign language(FL) and Chinese students learning English as a foreign language(EFL ) university level.The findings of the study at sho w that Chinese university students were m ore instru mentally m otivated than their Australian counterparts ,
w hile Australian university students were m ore integratively m otivated than their Chinese counterparts in FL learning.Ho wever , differences between the tw o groups in terms of internal underlying structure of FL the learning m otivation discovered by exploratory factor analysis revealthatthe results cannot be understood by the conventional interpretation. Instead , contextual or socio- cultural factors need to be taken into consideration. Based on the discussion of the results ,we conclude that FL learning m otivation is closely associated with language policy , curriculu m , and pedagogy. We suggest that integrative m otivation be pro m oted to help Chinese learners of English reach a higher goal of co m m unicative co m petence. Key w ords FLlearning m otivation ; factor analysis ; sociocultural theory

1. Introduction
It has been generally proved in the research literature that m otivation to learn a second language learning of that language (L2)or an FL is one of the m ost im portant factors for successful acquisition/ (Ellis in press ) More im portantly , m otivation is of particular interest to L2 or FL teachers , . ad ministrators and researchers , because it can be presu m ably enhanced in one specific learning context but weakened in anotherlearning context. Scholarly interestin L2 or FL m otivation can be traced back to Gardner &La m bert s early w ork (1959 ) Since that tim e , quite a few m odels of L2 language learning . m otivation have been proposed , each of w hich has contributed to our understanding of the relationship between L2/ m otivation and learning achieve m ents.However , m ong the m , FL a Gardner s( 1985)Socio- Educational Modelis recognized as the m ostinfluentialtheoretical construct concerning language learning m otivation.Therefore , this paper , report a study w hich exa mined the relationship between FL in we learning m otivation and learning achieve m ent fro m a cross context perspective by using Gardner s - Attitude and Motivation Test Battery ( AMTB ) Firstly the paper atte m pts to use exploratory factor . analysis to discover internal underlying structure of FL learning m otivation.Secondly it exa mines the contribution of m otivation types to language achieve m ent. Finally it interprets the differences of m otivation types between the Australian and Chinese university students fro m a cross context perspective. -

2.Research on Motivation in L2/ Learning FL
Many L2 researchers(Brow n 2000 ; rnyei 1998 , D 2005 ; Ellis in press ; Gardner et al. 2004)argue
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A Study of Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Achieve m ent   Yu Yuanfang

that L2 learning is involved with m any affective variables , m ong w hich attitudes and m otivation are a im portant predictors of learning achieve m ent. Theoretically , m otivation can be defined fro m tw o different paradig ms : behaviorism and cognitive psychology. The form er stresses the role of rewards , w hich serves to reinforce behavior , other w ords , cause it to persist.Therefore ,the anticipation of in to “ reinforce m ent” can be defined as m otivation by a behaviorist psychologist(Brow n 2000) According to . cognitive theories(Ellis in press) m otivation ste ms fro m 1 ) the innate drives of the learner to explore , the unknow n , be m entally and e m otionally stim ulated and to controlthe learning environ m ent ; ) to 2 the need for self estee m , and the choices of the learner s ow n as to w hat to pursue and w hat not to pursue. - In educational psychology , otivations are divided into tw o typesintrinsic and extrinsic.The form er m is generally believed to relate to long- term success and the latter to short term success(Ellis in press) - . Defining m otivation in the context of L2 learning , Gardner(1985 : ) 10 states that“ m otivation refers to the co m bination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language along with favorable attitudes toward learning thatlanguage” He further explains that m otivation to learn an L2 refers to the . extent to w hich the individual w orks or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity.Therefore , otivation in L2 learning is defined in terms of the m learner s overall goal or orientation. In the last three decades , any studies of L2 learning m otivation have been done under the influence m of social psychological theories(e g Belm echri & Hu m m el 1998 ;Gardner et al.1997 ;Keller 1983 ; .. Lennon 1993 ;Tre m blay & Gardner 1995 ) Am ong these studies , one of the best know n constructs . concerning language learning m otivation is Gardner s (1985 )Socio- Educational Model. Many studies Gardner &La m bert 1972 )of language learning m otivation were conducted (Gardner &La m bert 1959 ; under the influence of socio- educational theory , ainly investigating the relationship between attitudes m and m otivation and L2 achieve m ent and it is found that integrative m otivation contributes m ore to L2 achieve m ent than instru m ental m otivation (Ely 1986 ; Gardner 1988 ; Gardner et al.1997 ) However , . so m e other studies show that instru m ental m otivation contributes m ore to L2 achieve m ent( Au 1988 ; Crookes &Sch midt 1991 ; rnyei 1990 , D 1994a , 1998 , 2003 , 2005 ; Feng 1995) . Moreover , m e researchers have found that m otivation is affected by various factors such as so individual differences , learning situation and socio- cultural contexts(e g Au 1988 ; Crookes &Sch midt .. 1991 ; Norton 2000 ; Oxford 1996 ; Ellis in press) They argue that m otivation is closely related to social , . contextual and psychological variables w hich collectively influence L2 learning achieve m ent , the role and of these variables will vary fro m setting to setting.Consequently , m e researchers(e g Norton 1997) so .. argue that SLA theorists have not developed a co m prehensive theory of identity that integrates the language learner and the language learning context.Taking a postm odern position , Norton (1997 )has draw n on her ow n case study data( o im migrants in English do minant Canadian society) argue that tw to m otivation is not a fixed personality trait but m ust be understood with reference to social relations of power that create the possibilities for language learners to speak. Many other researchers , such as D rnyei and colleagues( 2002 , 2006) Wen and colleagues( Wen 2001 ; Qing & Wen 2002 )and Gao and , colleagues( 2004 , 2007)have recently either expanded Gardner s m otivation m odel or constructed a m uch m ore co m plex construct , especially to acco m m odate the influence of context factors in research on L2 learning m otivation. Taking a social cultural position , D rnyei and his colleague (2002 ,2006 ) conceptualized their theoretical construct of L2 m otivation in terms of seven co m ponents : Integrativeness , Instru mentality , Vitality of the L2 Co m m unity , Attitudes toward the L2 Speakers/ Co m m unity , and Cultural Interest , Linguistic Self Confidence , and Milieu.As described by D rnyei and - Csizé( r 2002) these dim ensions originally e m erged fro m factor analysis , and the m ulti ite m scales that , - were form ed on the basis of these factors displayed satisfactory internal consistency reliability.They also displayed re m arkable consistency across five different target languages exa mined and across tim e. Despite the recent develop m ents of L2 learning m otivation studies w here social cultural factors are taken into consideration in different theoretical constructs , little research has been done so far on investigating FL m otivation fro m the co m parative perspective of learning situations in different social contexts. w ould be helpfulin better understanding the relationship between L2 learning m otivation and It achieve m ents if research could be expanded to look into the situational factors fro m different social
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contexts(Brow n 2000 ; Ellis in press) Therefore , w hat follows we atte m pt to explore the following in . research questions : 1 ) What are the co m ponents oflanguage learning m otivation in differentlearning contexts(Australia and China) ? 2) Which type of m otivation (integrative vs. instru m ental ) contributes m ore to language achieve m ent in these contexts and w hy ? 3) What is the pedagogicalim plication of m otivational contribution in FL achieve m ent ?

3. Methodology
3. Participants 1
In this study , participants were chosen fro m tertiary institutions in both Australia and China — the the Australian participants were students learning Chinese as a foreign language ( CFL ) w hereas the Chinese counterparts were students learning English as a foreign language ( EFL ) Am ong the . 151 Australian participants fro m three universities , percent were first year students , percent were 40 29 second year , and 30 percent were third year.About 30 percent of the participants had learned the target language for m ore than six years in secondary schools and 41 percent started learning the language as beginners.There were 56 m ale and 95 fe m ale students , and a m ong the m 85 percent was under the age of 25 , and 15 percent above the age of 25. The participants of Chinese in this research were 344 students fro m three universities in Northeast China.Thirty- seven percent of the participants were first year students , percent were second year and 50 13 percent were third year students.All of the participants had been studying EFL for at least six years before they entered universities. Am ong the participants 221 were m ales and 123 were fe m ales.Their ages ranged fro m 17 to 30 years , with 99 percent under the age of 25 years.They were all non- English m ajors.

3. Instru mentation 2
The instru m entation of this study was a survey questionnaire consisting of four parts.Part A was about the personal background of the participants , such as gender , , age and year level.Part Bcontained state m ents concerning the learners attitudes and m otivation based on AMTB , developed by Gardner (1985)and was m odified to suit the purpose of this study. Gardner s subjects were living in a bilingual social environ m ent(French and English co m m unities) attitudes towards French- speaking Canadians and , European French people were a very im portant variable in his study ; hereas the subjects in this study w living m ainly in a m ono- lingual social environ m ent(either English or Chinese co m m unity)are studying the target languages either as CFL or EFL ,w hich is different in several ways fro m L2 learning. Therefore , the learners attitudes towards the language- speaking people are not considered as an im portant variable(Crookes &Sch midt 1991 ; rnyei 1990 ) the FLL situation , D in especially in a study like this.As a result , ms concerning attitudes towards the language- ite speaking people were excluded in this study. Moreover , since the socio- cultural settings of the language learners in the current study are quite different fro m that of Gardner s , exploratory factor analysis(EFA ) was also e m ployed to explore the possible underlying structure in the interrelated variables of this study.EFA seeks a sm all set of easily interpretable factors a m ong m any variables fro m a group of participants. Variables that are correlated with one another but largely independent of other subsets of variables are co m bined into factors. The factors are thought to reflect underlying processes that have correlations a m ong variables. Language proficiency levels of the participants were m easured in Part C . Actual achieve m ent was m easured by m eans of se m ester results of the participants , ho were tested on listening( % , w 20 ) reading perceived achieve m ent was m easured (40 % , ) vocabulary and structure(25 % , ) and writing(15 % .Self- ) by the participants self rated proficiency levels in such part as listening , speaking , reading and writing. - The participants were asked to rate their four basic language skilllevels and the overalllevel of the target language proficiency via a 5- point scale ,w hich is the standard Can do scale especially developed for language learning students by Clark( 1981) The scale is m ost appropriate for m easuring the proficiency .
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A Study of Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Achieve m ent   Yu Yuanfang

of different language learners fro m different cultural contexts(Clark 1981) In the scale , there are tw o . ways in terms of w ording for participants to respond.One is of five alternatives for speaking and writing w orded and ranging fro m “VP = very poor” “P =poor” “AV = average” “ G =good” to“ VG = very , , , , good” The other is of five choices for listening and reading ranging fro m “VD = very difficult” “D = . , difficult”“N = neutral”“E = easy” to“ VE = very easy” Language achieve m ent in this study is taken , , , . as one variable ,that is the participants actual achieve m ent and the perceived achieve m ent are a m alga m ated.

4.Results
The analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS(Version 9) EFA (using principal co m ponents) . was perform ed to investigate the patterns in the participants responses to the adapted AMTB ( Gardner 1985) The goal of principal co m ponents analysisis to extract m axim u m variance fro m the data with each . - co m ponent.The principal co m ponents are ordered with first co m ponent extracting the m ost variance and the last co m ponent the least variance.The estim ate of the nu m ber of factors can be obtained fro m the sizes of eigenvalues , hich represent the variance of co m ponents.A co m ponent with an eigenvalue less w than one is considered as not im portant.As a result , there are different factor solutions for the tw o data sets : three factor solution was chosen as the best m odel for Chinese data , hich had a sim ple structure a w with very few split loadings( see Table 1 ) The eigenvalues of the three factors were 7. , . , 48 4 65 and . 2 55. The three factors of language learning m otivation were identified as integrative m otivation . Instru m ental) and m otivationalintensity( Intensity) Integrative (Integrative) instru m ental m otivation( , . involves positive attitude towards and interest in learning FL . Instru m ental is m ainly co m posed of ite ms on the im portance and usefulness of learning the target language. And Intensity includes willingness to spend tim e and energy on learning the language. However , tw o factor solution was the best choice for Australian data. The tw o factors were a identified as Integrative and Instru m ental Most ite ms in factor three( Intensity) the Chinese m odel in . were clustered into the first factor(Integrative)in the Australian m odel The eigenvalues of the tw o . factors were respectively 6. and 4. .Fro m a co m parative point of view , 90 25 factor analysis shows that there were similarities as well as differences between the Australian and Chinese m odels both in factor solution and factor co m ponents.This result indicates that the factors used to m easure different types of language learning m otivation vary greatly fro m setting to setting( refer to Appendix 1 & ) 2 . A standard m ultiple regression was perform ed between language achieve m ent and language learning m otivation , using the three categories of language learning m otivation : Integrative , Instru m ental and Intensity for the Chinese m odel , and tw o categories of Integrative and Instru m ental for the Australian m odel.Table 1 indicates that the Australian university students were m ore integratively m otivated with the m ean scores respectively of 3. ( 97 Integrative) and 2. ( 76 Instru m ental) w hile the Chinese university , students were m ore instru m entally m otivated , with the m ean scores of 4. ( 15 Instru m ental)and 2. 67 the correlation between language achieve m ent and integrative (Integrative)respectively. Moreover , m otivation was significantly positive(p < 001) the Australian m odel w hereas the correlation between in . language achieve m ent and integrative m otivation was significantly negative (p < 001 )in the Chinese . m odel.

  Table 1.Standard Multiple Regression of FL Learning Motivation and Language Achieve m ent
China Variables Instru m ental Integrative Intensity Australia Variables Instru m ental Integrative M 2 76 . 3 97 . SD .29 .51
90

M 4 15 . 2 67 . 3 55 .

SD .67 .36 .58

r    .36 *** - 20 ** . .11 * r    .04 .34 ***

B .11 - 30 . .03 B .12 .13

β    .22 ** * - 15 ** . .03 β    .08 .18 **

R 38 R   *p < 05 ** p < 01 *** p < 001 ; =. ; 2 = 08 . . . .

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5.Discussion
With the help of factor analysis , atte m pted to answer the first research question “ What are the we co m ponents of language learning m otivation in both Australian and Chinese university students ? The ” three- factor result of learning m otivation in the population of Chinese FL learners showed that in the Chinese learning situation , Intensity could be related to both integrative and instru m ental m otivations. Whereas the tw o- factor solution in the Australian m odel revealed that Intensity was m ore related to integrative m otivation since m ost co m ponential ite ms of Intensity in the Chinese m odel were clustered into the integrative factor in the Australian m odel. This finding supports Gardner and his colleagues 2004)claim that L2 learners with integrative m otivation will spend m ore tim e and energy in their (1997 , learning. Although there are m ore similar ite ms in factor co m ponents in the tw o m odels , the differences do suggest that language learning m otivation is culture- specific in certain aspects(D rnyei 1998 ; midt et Sch al. 1996) For instance , the m ost“ typical” m of instru m ental m otivation in the L2 literature did not ite . fall into the instru m ental factor in the Chinese m odel. Studying English isim portant to m e because Iwant to pass the course exa ms fell into the integrative category with a negative loading , hich suggests that w studying the language is im portant to the learner not only because they want to pass the course exa ms but also because they have other reasons or purposes.The original integrative co m ponential ite m “Studying English isim portant for m e because it m akes m e m ore knowledgeable” fellinto the instru m ental category , w hich is different fro m the Australian m odel , indicating that Australian and Chinese learners have different perceptions on w hat it m eans by“being m ore knowledgeable” . Just as D rnyei( 1998)co m m ented , otivation is subject to considerable contextual variation and it m is an a m biguous task to decide w hich ite ms could be sim ply clustered to form a co m posite score and w hich could be kept separate since they are associated with m ental activities and learning behaviors(D rnyei 1998) The co m ponential differences in factor solutions reflect the m ental activities of learners fro m . different social contexts(D rnyei 1998)because“ language learners are e m bedded in and learn to beco m e co m petent participants in culturally , socially ,and politically shaped co m m unicative contexts. The linguistic forms used in these contexts and their socialsignificance affect how learners co m e to understand and use language ” Zuengler & Miller 2006 : ) The negative loading of the above m entioned ite m 40 . ( clustered to the integrative factorin the Chinese m odel de m onstrates that for Chinese learnerslearning an FLis no longer just to pass course exa ms. One m ust do better than that to be “knowledgeable”and in learning an FL m akes one m ore knowledgeable” ms to see “co m petitive” the present day society.And“ - be considered m ore as a tool for life because m any learners assu m e that the process of learning an FLis the process of transform ation w hich leads to the change of socialidentities Zuengler & Miller 2006) ( . It is generally believed that learners m ental activities have a great im pact on their learning attitude ’ and learning behaviors.Therefore , there w ould be no surprise to find out that Chinese FLlearners had higher scores on instru m ental than on integrative m otivation and instru m ental m otivation had significant positive correlation with language achieve m ent. Whereas Australian FLlearners showed higher scores on integrative m otivation and Integrative had a predictive power for language achieve m ent. This finding helps partly answer the second research question “ Which type of m otivation (Integrative vs. Instru m ental)contributes m ore to language achieve m ent in different contexts and w hy ? Integrative ” m otivation as a culture- specific learning behavior of Australian university students can be interpreted fro m a contextual perspective.They learned CFLin a socio- cultural context w here curriculu m design , ways of assessm ent , and learning environ m ent in FL teaching and learning are different fro m those of China (Zuo 2008) . Firstly FL as a university course in Australia is optional rather than co m pulsory. There are no required national tests for learners at any stage in the w hole process of FLlearning.Curriculu m design and assessm ent design are generally university- based , w hich great attention is paid to cater for students in learning needs and interests. Secondly , purpose of both curriculu m design and assessm ent design is to the upgrade students co m m unicative co m petence.Teachers always endeavor to reduce learners anxieties by creating a co mfortable classroo m atm osphere. It is evident that such a design of curriculu m and
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A Study of Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Achieve m ent   Yu Yuanfang

assessm ent helps facilitate learners in developing their integrative m otivation ( Brow n 2000 ;D rnyei 2003 ; Oxford 1996 ) Thirdly , m bedded in their m other tongue co m m unity is a large target language e . co m m unity( this case , in Chinese)w here learners have friends , colleagues and even relatives w ho are ready and willing to co m m unicate or help the m in their target language learning.This favorable learning environ m ent is different fro m the environ m ent investigated by Norton( 1997)w here the learners learn a do minant language as a m arginalized m e m ber. As a result , ost learners at Australian universities are m m otivated to learn an FL out of their personal need or interest rather than as m eans to gain access to social status or power ; other w ords , in their learning context helps the m develop integrative orientation. In contrast , the positive significance of instru m ental m otivation in the Chinese m odel could be explained by a different m eans of assessm ent fro m that of Australia , hich is nation- w wide standardized exa m .This type of assessm ent does not encourage students to develop integrated learning m otivation. In order to pass the nationalstandardised tests such as university entrance exa ms , the college English tests or Band 4 or Band 6 , students were very likely to study English for the exa m rather than for developing their real co m m unicative co m petence in Chinese universities. Itis equally likely that teachers were under great pressure to prepare their students for those exa ms by focusing on vocabulary , m m ar and sa m ple gra writings in their classroo ms.According to Shi 2000) these practices are perceived to encourage students ( , to develop certificates m otivation w hich is classified as the sub- category of instru m ental m otivation(Gao et al. 2004) . In addition , m astery of an FL , the especially English , considered a m ong m any Chinese learners as is access to further education , acade mic achieve m ent , and social or econo mic advance m ent.English is one of the priority subjects in school and university curricula throughout China , and English is not only a co m pulsory subject but a selection criterion for entering universities and postgraduate studies. As noted earlier , sociocultural theory regards contexts of FLL as factors that largely determine or condition w hat learners expect and desire in their learning process , w hich FLlearners identity is socially constructed in the (Norton &Toohey 2001) In the Chinese context , identity for language learners see ms to be possibly . constructed in m astering the target language by anticipating that they will acquire sy m bolic and m aterial resources , hich will , turn , w in enhance their social prestige and their betterm ent for the future Norton & ( Toohey 2001) On the other hand , Chinese learners basically learn English as an FLin the classroo m the . that has no social function in their everyday life.In other w ords , they find it difficult to practice w hat they learn in real co m m unication.These realities see m to be that the career determinative factor could - drive the language learners to develop a learning m otivation with Chinese culture- specific features , na m ely the Instru m ental. The significance of instru m ental m otivation of learning English in the Chinese setting particularly supports the theory of the Need for Achieve m ent m otivation ( D rnyei 1998 ;Keller 1983 ) Many . theorists and researchers(Crookes &Sch midt 1991 ; rnyei 1990 , D 1994b , 1998 , 2003 ; Oxford 1996 ) look at m otivation as a m ultifactor trait with m any possible influences on it.Culture- specific m otivations are related to language policy , language curriculu m and assessm ent design. According to Brow n (2000 ) and Sch midt ,Boraie & Kassagy (1996 ) instru m ental m otivation could be developed by vocabulary/ , gra m m ar focused classroo m teaching and assessm ents.In turn , integrative m otivation can be very m uch - fostered by learner needs curriculu m design and co m m unicative language pedagogy. - Therefore , negative significance of integrative m otivation in Chinese university students does not the necessarily m eans that integrative m otivation is not im portant for Chinese students.Instead , im plies it so m e linkage between their instru m ental m otivation ,ways of assessm ent , and classroo m practice in China.In other w ords ,w hat is lacking currently in the Chinese context is a facilitating learning environ m ent w here students integrative m otivation can be developed in their English learning. Even though the College English Curriculu m Require m ents(2007 )puts e m phasis on learners co m m unicative ability to m eet the needs of China s social develop m ent and international exchanges , classroo m teaching has been m ainly teacher fronted and language learning is still a practice of knowledge transmission in - m any cases(Zuo 2008) What is m ore , mination- exa oriented skill training does not facilitate learners . develop m ent of integrative m otivation(Clé ent et al. m 2007 ; Pae 2008) .

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6.Pedagogical Im plications
This study atte m pted to explore the internal structure of language learning m otivation and the relationship between language learning m otivation and language achieve m ent in tw o different social contexts.The findingsindicated that Australian university students were m ore integratively m otivated and Chinese university students were m ore instru m entally m otivated and instru m ental m otivation had a significant positive correlation with their language achieve m ent w hile integrative m otivation had a significant positive correlation with language achieve m ent in Australian students.The findings , the on one hand , support so m e e m pirical studies( D rnyei et al 2006 ;Gardner 1988 ;Gardner et al.1997 ; . Gardner et al.2004 ; Pae 2008 )that m otivation plays an im portant role in L2 learning and language learning m otivation varies significantly fro m different social contexts. On the other hand , the findings indicate thatlearning m otivation m ay be very m uch influenced by the language curriculu m design , ways of assessm ent and pedagogical practices(Brow n 2000 ; rnyei 1998 , D 2003 ; midt et al 1996) Sch . . However , findings do not show that one type of learning m otivation(e g integrative) better the is .. than the other(.g instru m ental) but rather these findings im ply that each type serves its ow n specific e . , purpose in a specific learning environ m ent.Moreover , different m otivation types and their different the correlations with their learning outco m es identified between the students in the tw o different cultural contexts in question show that there are inherent proble msin correlation or m ultiple regression analysis of the relationship between student learning m otivation and learning outco m e with a priori theoretical construct or m odal. These analyses cannot explain contextual factors that affect learning m otivation develop m ent. is also proble m atic if we take into consideration the cause- It effect relationship between learning m otivation and learning outco m es. With the above generalim plication in mind , believe that China specific English learning context we ways of assessm ent and classroo m practice) could have influenced or encouraged (e g curriculu m design , .. the students to develop their instru m ental m otivation ( Wang &Liu 2002 ; Zuo 2008 ) and this type of , m otivation , turn , in serves their exa m - oriented learning. However , English in China is going to be as used m uch m ore widely due to the fast process of globalization ,co m m unicative co m petence and integrative m otivation need to be developed for students in all stages of their FL learning. As noted earlier , instru m ental m otivation plays an im portant role in their exa m - oriented learning but not contribute m uch to their develop m ent of co m m unicative co m petence , therefore ,we argue in line with other researchers that the develop m ent of integrative m otivation be of necessity in FL learning because the desire to really learn a language is associated with integrative m otivation , and the evident concern with the use of an L2/ will sustain the integrative m otivation of the learners , FL and stim ulate their active participation in the learning process(D rnyei 2003 , 2005 ; Gardner 1985 ; Gardner et al. 2004 ; Gardner et al. 1997) . In addition , integration of the Intensity ite ms into the Integrative factor in the Australian m odel the also im plies that learners with integrative m otivation tend to sustain their effort on the target language learning(Gardner 1985 ; Gardner et al. 2004 ; Gardner et al. 1997 ) Therefore , is im portant for FL it . teachers and educators to pro m ote integrative m otivation in FLlearners.Mean w hile , best facilitator the of pro m oting FLlearners integrative m otivation co m es fro m the classroo m ( the teaching styles , teaching m aterials and teaching activities) Brow n (2000 )and Sch midt , Boraie & Kassagy (1996 )claim that . co m m unicative teaching pro m otes learners integrative m otivation ,w hich ,we believe , coupled with instru m ental m otivation will m ake language teaching and learning in China even m ore effective and fruitful. With co m m unicative co m petence as the final goal oflanguage learning and teaching , self evident itis - that Chinese learners of English not only need the linguistic knowledge to pass exa ms or get a good job but also to do the real co m m unication in a m uch wider range of social and acade mic contexts. Itisim perative that FL curricula and classroo m teaching practice in China be co m m unication- oriented and language practitioners be aware of the im portance of helping learners develop their integrative m otivation as well as co m m unicative co m petence.

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References Au , Y .1988. A critical appraisal of Gardner s socio- S. psychological theory of second- language learning. Language Learning 38 : - . 75 100 Belmechri , .& Hu m mel , .1998. Orientations and m otivation in the acquisition of English as a second F K language am ong high school students in Quebec city. Language Learning 48 : - . 219 244 Bro w n , .D . H 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching( th ed.. White Plains , 4 NY : Long man. ) Clark ,.L.D . J 1981. Can do” Scales. Washington : Center for Applied Linguistics. “ Cl ment , . Noels ,K . A .& MacIntyre , . D .2007. Three variations on the social psychology of R , P é bilinguality : Context effects in m otivation , usage and identity. A . Weatherall , . M . Watson &C . In B Gallois( .. Language ,Discourse and Social Psychology.New York : eds ) Palgrave Macmillan. - . 51 77 Crookes , .&Sch midt , . G R 1991. Motivation : Reopening the research agenda. Language Learning 41 : - 469 512. D rnyei , . Z 1990.Conceptualising m otivation in foreign language learning. Language Learning 40 : - . 45 78 D rnyei , .1994a. Motivation and m otivating in the foreign language classroo m . Language Learning 78 : Z 273- . 284 D rnyei , .1994b. Understanding second language m otivation : Z On with the challenge ! Modern Language Journal 79 : - . 505 518 D rnyei , . Z 1998. Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching 31 : - . 117 135 D rnyei , . 2003. Attitudes , Z orientations , and m otivation in language learning :Advances in theory , research , applications. Language Learning 53 :- . and 3 32 D rnyei ,Z . 2005. The Psychology of the Language Learner :Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Marwah : Lawrence Erlbau m Associates. D rnyei , . & Csizé ,K . 2002. So me dynamics of language attitudes and m otivation :Results of a Z r longitudinal nation wide survey. Applied Linguistics 23 : - . 421 462 D rnyei , . Csizé , .&N é Z , r K meth , . N 2006. Motivation , Language Attitudes and Globalisation : Hungarian A Perspective.Clevedon : Multilingual Matters. Ellis , . press. The Study of Second Language Acquisition( nd Ed) Oxford : R in 2 Oxford University Press. . Ely , . 1986. Language Learning Motivation : A Descriptive and Causal Analysis. The Modern Language C Journal , , - . 70 28 35 Feng , . M 1995.An investigation on psychological aspects of English learnersin the universities of science and technology. Foreign Language Teaching and Research 2 : - . 54 57 Gao , . Zhao , . Cheng , .&Zhou , . Y , Y , Y Y 2004.Motivation types of Chinese university undergraduates. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching 14 : - . 45 64 Gao , . Zhao , . Cheng , .&Zhou , . Y , Y , Y Y 2007.Relationships between English learning m otivation types self identity changes am ong Chinese students. TESOL Quarterly 41 : - . 133 155 & - Gardner , .C . R 1985. Social Psychology and Second Language Learning :The Role of Attitudes and Motivation. London , Ontario : ward Arnold. Ed Gardner , .C . R 1988.The social educational m odel of second language learning : Assu m ptions , findings , and issues. Language Learning 38 : - . 266 272 Gardner , .C .&Lam bert ,W .E.1959. Motivational variables in second language acquisition. Canadian R Journal of Psychology 13 : - . 266 272 Gardner , . C .&Lam bert ,W . E.1972. Attitudes and Motivation in Second language Learning. Ro wley , R - Mass. New bury House Publishers. : Gardner , .C . Masgoret , . M . Tennant , R A - , J.&Mihic , . L 2004. Integrative Motivation : Changes during , a year long intermediate level language course. Language Learning 54 :- . 1 34 - - Gardner , .C . Tre m blay , . .&Masgoret , . R P F A 1997.To wards a full m odel of second language learning : , An e m pirical investigation. The Modern Language Journal 81 : - . 344 362 Keller ,. M . J 1983. Motivational design of instruction. M .Reigeluth( ..Instructional Design Theories In ed ) and Models.Hillsdale , New Jersey : Erlbam . - . 386 433 Lennon , . P 1993.The advanced learner : Affective , socialand m otivationalfactors.Language Learning 8 : - 39 43. Masgoret , . M .& Gardner , . C .2003. Attitude ,m otivation , A R and second language learning : meta A - analysis of studies conducted by Gardner & associates. Language Learning 53 : - . 123 163
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Norton , . B 2000.Identity and Language Learning :Gender , Ethnicity and Educationalchange.Harlo w : Pearson Education Limited. Norton , .&Toohey , .2001.Changing perspectives on good language learners. TESOL Quarterly 35 : B K 307- . 322 Oxford , .L. R 1996. Language Learning Motivation : Pathwaysto the New Century. Manoa : Second Language Teaching &Curriculu m Center University of Hawai i at Manoa. Pae , . T 2008.Second language orientation and self- determination theory : Astructural analysis of the factors affecting second language achieve ment.Journal of Language and Social Psychology 27 :- . 5 27 Qing , .& Wen ,Q .2002. The internal structure of non- X English majors English- learning m otivation. Foreign Language Teaching and Research 1 : - . 51 58 Ramirez , .G . A 1995. Creating Contexts for Second Language Acquisition :Theory and Methods. White Plains , N . . Long man Publishers USA . Y : Sch midt , . Boraie , .&Kassagy O .1996.Foreign language m otivation : R , D Internal structure and external connections. R . .Oxford( .. Language Learning Motivation : In L ed ) Pathwaystothe New Century Manoa : Second Language Teaching &Curriculu m Center University of Hawai i at Manoa.9- . 70 Shi , . Y 2000.Asurvey on university students English- learning m otivation.Foreign Language Teaching Abroad 4 :- . 8 11 Tre m blay , .F.& Gardner , . C .1995.Expanding the m otivation construct in language learning. The P R Modern Language Journal 79 : - . 505 520 Wang , .& Liu ,X .2002. Learner factors affecting the English reading efficiency of natural science X students. Foreign Language Teaching 1 : - . 49 54 Wen , .2001. Develop mental patterns in m otivation , Q beliefs and strategies of English learners in China. Foreign Language Teaching and Research 2 : - . 105 110 Zuengler ,.&Miller , . J E 2006.Cognitive and sociocultural perspectives : o parallel SLA w orlds ? Tw TESOL Quarterly 40/ : - . 1 35 58 Zuo , . L 2008.Co m parison of EFLteaching in America and in China — A reflection of English teaching in China. Teaching English in China 31 : - . 68 79 2007 《 大学英语课程教学要求 。北京:清华大学出版社。 教育部高等教育司, , 》

Appendix 1  Pattern m atrix of FLlearning m otivation(China)
Factors Ite ms Integrative Instru m ental Intensity If English were not taught at the university , w ouldn t bother I learning it at all. Ifind learning English is boring. When Ifinish the course , on t study English any m ore because Iw I m not really interested in it. Ireally enjoy learning English. The m ore Ilearn English , the m ore Idon t like it. Learning English is a waste of tim e. Studying English is im portant to m e because I want to pass the course exa ms. Studying English isim portant to m e because it willlet m e be m ore at ease with the people w ho speak the language. I w ould rather spend m y tim e on subjects other than English. Studying English is im portant to m e because I want to travel to the language- speaking country so m eday. Istudy English because I m expected and/ required to do so by or m y parents. Idon t like to do any extra w ork on English.

- 743 . - 732 . - 691 .
638 . - 606 . - 559 . - 547 . 511 .

- 499 . 435 . - 428 . - 424 .

95

A Study of Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Achieve m ent   Yu Yuanfang

Factors Ite ms Integrative Instru m ental Intensity Studying English is im portant to m e because I want to learn a lot about the people and the culture. English is an im portant part of m y university studies. I think English is an im portant language in the econo mic develop m ent of the w orld. Iplan to learn English as m uch as possible. Studying English can be im portant for m e because Ithink it will so m eday be usefulin getting a good job. It s im portant for m e to study English because it will allow m e to m eet and converse with m ore and varied people. Studying English is im portant for m e because it m akes m e m ore knowledgeable. English is really great. Spending tw o hours on English ho m ew ork each day is too m uch for m e. Outside of classroo m , spend at least 1- hours everyday on I 2 English. Ireally try very hard to learn English. When it co m es to English ho m ew ork , Ijust skim over it. Istudy English by m yself on weekends and holidays. 409 . 813 . 802 . 710 . 666 . 598 . 531 518 .

- 693 .
692 . 640 . - 602 . 366 .

Appendix 2  Pattern Matrix of FL Learning Motivation(Australia)
Factors Ite ms Integrative Instru m ental Ithink that learning Chinese is boring. I w ould rather spend m y tim e on subjects other than Chinese. When Ifinish the course , w on t study Chinese any m ore because I m not I really interested in it. When it co m es to Chinese ho m ew ork , Ijust skim over it. Idon t like to do any extra w ork on Chinese. Ireally enjoy learning Chinese. The m ore Ilearn Chinese , the m ore Idon t like it. Learning Chinese is a waste of tim e. Ireally try very hard to learn Chinese. Iplan to learn as m uch Chinese as possible. Outside of class , Ispend at least 1- hours everyday on Chinese. 2 Studying Chinese is im portant for m e because it m akes m e m ore knowledgeable. Spending tw o hours on Chinese ho m ew ork each day is too m uch for m e. If Chinese were not taught at the university , ouldn t bother learning it at Iw all. Istudy Chinese because I m expected and/ required to do so by m y or parents. Chinese is really great. It s im portant for m e to study Chinese because it will allow m e to m eet and converse with m ore and varied people.

- 85 . - 81 . - 74 . - 74 . - 67 . 67 . - 62 . - 60 . 59 . 53 . 51 . 50 . - 49 . - 47 . - 45 .
44 . 35 . 75 .

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Factors Ite ms Integrative Instru m ental Studying Chinese is im portant to m e because I want to travel to the language- speaking country so m eday. Ithink Chinese is an im portant language in the econo mic develop m ent of the w orld. Chinese is an im portant part of m y university studies. Studying Chinese can be im portant for m e because Ithink it willso m eday be usefulin getting a good job. Studying Chinese is im portant to m e because I want to pass the course exa ms. Studying Chinese is im portant to m e because it will let m e be m ore at ease with people w ho speak the language. Studying Chinese is im portant to m e because I want to learn a lot about the people and the culture. 65 . 60 . 58 . 52 . 48 . 44 . 38 .

52 (.. . continued fro m p. ) 2004 , 刁琳琳, 英语本科生词块能力调查,解放军外国语学院学报 第4 期。 《 》 2005 , 丁言仁、 戚炎, 词块运用与英语口语和写作水平的相关性研究,解放军外国语学院学报 第3 期。 《 》 霍恩比 (主编 , 《 牛津高阶英汉双解词典(第六版 。北京: )2004 , 》 ) 商务印书馆。 2004 , 教育部高等教育司, 《 大学英语课程教学要求 (试行 》 ) 。北京: 外语教学与研究出版社。 2005 语料库技术开发及应用平台, 李文中、 卫乃兴, , 卫乃兴、 李文中、 濮建忠等, 语料库应用研究 。上海: 《 》 上海外语教育出版社。 2008 , 毛澄怡, 语块及其在英语学习者会话中的使用特征,解放军外国语学院学报 第2 期。 《 》 郑树棠 (主编 , 《 新视野大学英语1》 )2008 , (第二版 。北京: ) 外语教学与研究出版社。

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