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复习——宾语从句与状语从句


状语从句

一、对时间状语从句的考查 引导时间状语从句的连词有:while, when, as, as soon as, until, not…until, before, after, since, etc. 要掌握每个连词的含义及其用法, 还有它们之间的一些区别。

when,while的区别: ①二者均可表示“当……的时候”,如

果主句表示的是短暂的动作,而从句 表示的是一段时间,二者可通用。如: I met Kang Li when/while I was walking along the street.当我沿街散

步时碰见了康丽。

② when可与终止性动词连用, while只

能与延续性动词连用。如:
It was snowing when we got to the airport.当我们到达机场时,天正下 着雪。(不能用 while) ③ while强调主句表示的动作持续于while 所指的整个时间内;when可指主、从 句所述动作同时或先后发生。如:

Please write while I read. 我读的时候,请写下来。 When he reached home,he had a little rest.回到家后,他休息了一会 儿。

3)until=till在肯定句中表示“直到…… 为止”,主句要用延续性动词;在 否定句中,表示“直到……才”, 主句常用终止性动词,这时till和 until可用before替换。如: I waited till/until he arrived.我一 直等到他到来。

We won't start until/till/before Bob comes.鲍勃到来之前,我们不会动 身。 4)since从句中常用过去时,主句用一般 现在时或现在完成时;as soon as如 果主句是一般将来时,情态动词加动 词原形或祈使句时,时间状语从句用 一般现在时。如:

Where have you been since I saw you last? 上次我和你见面之后,你到哪里去了? I’ll phone you as soon as I arrive in Tonghua. 我一到通化就给你打电话。

2.考例: 1)我一到美国就给你打电话。(北京市 海淀区) I'll ring you up __ soon as I get to __ as America. 2)昨天直到雨停了,孩子们才离开学校。 (同上) The children didn’t leave school ___ ______ till the rain stopped yesterday.

3)It ______ ten years since they ______ to France.(河北) A.as;covered B.was;have moved C.is;have moved D.is;moved D

4)He ______ wait until the rain ______ .(南京市) A.won't;will stop B.won't;stop C.will;stops D.will;will stop

5) When all the work _have been finished____(finish), you may go back home. 6) My brother_began___ (begin) to learn English when he was eight. 7) Please don’t leave_____(not leave) here until you _are told____(tell) to. 8) As soon as he___gets__ (get) there, he will write to us at once.

9) He took out the camera as soon as he __saw___(see) the monster. 10) I often _go___(go) to see her when she was ill. 11) Please don’t talk so loud while others are working_____(work). 12) Where _did___ you _study___(study) before you went to college?

二、对条件状语从句的考查

1.要点:引导条件状语从句的连词有if
(如果),unless在意义上相当于 if...not。条件状语从句也像时间 状语从句一样,如果主句用将来时, 从句要用现在时代替将来时。如:

You will fail unless you study hard.(=You will fail if you don‘t study hard.) 除非你努力学习,否则你会失败。 2.如: 1)He will go to the Great Wall if it ______ B tomorrow.(北京市宣武区) A. won't rain B. doesn't rain C.don't rain D. isn't raining

C 2) ______ you eat old food,you may be ill.(湖南)

A.Before
C.If

B.Why
D.Which

三、对比较状语从句的考查 1.要点:引导比较状语从句的连词有 as...as,than。 1)表示甲与乙在某一方面相同时,用 “as+原级+as”句型;表示甲在某一 方面不如乙时,用“not as /so +原 级+as”句型。如: Dalian is as beautiful as Shenzhen.大 连和深圳一样的美。

I don't run as/so fast as Kang Li.我 不如康丽跑得快。 2)表示甲超过或不及乙时,用“比较级 +从句”(从句中常省略意义与主句 相同的部分)。如: He runs faster than you(do).他跑 得比你快。 Today is less cold than yesterday.今 天没有昨天冷。

2.如: 1)Jack runs as ____ as Tom. A (北京市宣武区)

A.fast
C.fastest

B.faster
D.much faster

2)30, 000 dollars is a large amount of money,but it's ______ than we C need.(上海市) A.for more C.far less B.very much D.very little

四、对结果状语从句的考查 1.要点:引导结果状语从句的连词有 so…that(如此……以致于), such…that(如此……以致于)等。 常用句型: so+形容词/副词+that从句 such a/an +形容词+单数可数名词+ that从句 such+形容词+复数可数名词 /不可数名词+that从句

so+形容词+a/an+单数可数名词+ that从句 He spoke so fast that I couldn't follow him.他讲得太快,我跟不上。 He told us such funny stories that we all laughed. 他给我们讲了那么多有趣的故事,我们 全都哈哈大笑。

2.如: 1)这山太高,我们很难到达山顶。(四 川)

This mountain is __ high that we can so ____ ___ reach not ______ the top.

2)Miss Gao asked a question,but it was

D ______ that nobody could answer it.
A. very difficult B. too difficult

C. difficult enough
D. so difficult

五、对其它状语从句的考查 还有五种状语从句:地点状语从句、 原因状语从句、目的状语从句、方式 状语从句、让步状语从句。 1.要点: 1)掌握常用的引导词: ① 引导地点状语从句的有: where(在哪里),wherever(无论 何地),etc.

如: Where there is a will,there is a way.有志者,事竞成。 Wherever you go,I go too. 无论你去哪里, 我都去。

② 引导原因状语从句的有because,as, since,for 。because常回答why引导的 疑问句,该从句一般位于主句后;since 比as正式,两者不回答why引导的问句, 而且其从句一般放在句首。如: —Why can't I go?为什么我不能去? —Because you're too young.因为你年 纪太小了。

As(Since)you are not feeling well, you'd better stay at home. 既然你不太舒服,还是留在家里的好。

② 引导原因状语从句的有because,as, since,for 。because常回答why引导 的疑问句,该从句一般位于主句后; since比as正式,两者不回答why引导 的问句,而且其从句一般放在句首。 如:

—Why can't I go?为什么我不能去? —Because you're too young.因为你年纪 太小了。 As(Since)you are not feeling well, you'd better stay at home. 既然你不太舒服,还是留在家里的好。

③ 引导目的状语从句的有so that(以 便)等。如 我给他包了一点食物,让他不致挨饿。 I packed him a little food so that he wouldn't be hungry.

⑤ 引导让步状语从句的有though/although (虽然),even though(尽管),no matter who(无论谁),no matter how (无论怎样),no matter what(无论什 么)等。如: 尽管这工作很辛苦,我还是很喜欢。 Though it's hard work,I enjoy it. 不管工作多么艰难,他都从不放弃 No matter how hard the work was, he never gave it up.

2)because不能与并列连词so,though / although不能与but同时在句中使用。如 She was late for school because she missed the bus. =She missed the bus,so she was late for school. It's not cheap,but it's very good. = Though it's not cheap,it's very good.

2.如: 1)I can't understand this passage _____ C there are no new words in it.(安徽) A. if B. because C. though D. and A 2)“Why did Li Lei use a pencil?”“ _____ his pen was broken.”(福州市) A. Because B. When C. Until D. If

六、对状语从句和宾语从句、简单句、 并列句的混合考查 【1】区分when,if引导宾语从句和状语 从句的不同:when引导时间状语从 句意为“当……时候”,引导宾语 从句意为“什么时候”;if引导条件 状语从句意为“如果”,引导宾语 从句意为“是否”。如:

1.—Mike wants to know if _____ a C picnic tomorrow. —Yes.But if it _____ ,we'll visit the museum instead.(河北) A.you have;will rain B.you will have;will rain C.you will have;rains D.will you have;rains

2.—Do you know when he _____ back C tomorrow? —Sorry,I don't.When he _____ back, I'll tell you.(安徽) A. comes;comes B. comes;will come C. will come;comes D. will come;will come

【2】 状语从句和宾语从句、状语从句和简单 句、并列句的同义转换。如: 1.A:He is too young to go to school. B:He is _____ young _____ he can't go to school.(四川)

2.A:Tom is the tallest in his class. B:Tom is taller ___ any other ____ than student in his class.(四川) 3.A:The box is so light enough the boy ______ can carry it. B:The box is light for the boy to carry.(南京)

4.A:Put on your coat,or you'll catch a cold. B: If you _____ put on your coat, __ don’t you'll catch a cold.(上海)

宾语从句

宾语从句

在复合句中用作宾语的从句叫做宾语从 句。宾语从句是初中英语中最重要的一 种从句,它内容完整,句型结构较为复 杂,主句和从句时态搭配要求严格。

第一关,选好连接词(也有人叫关联词)。 引导宾语从句的连接词,课本上写有三类 但从学习的角度看分为四类更为实用。 1.连词that:只起连接作用,在从句中不作 句子成分,也无词汇意义,在口语中或 非正式文体中常被省略。例如: 1)He knew(that)he should work hard. 2)I am glad(that)you've passed the exam.

2.连词whether或if:它们起连接作用, 在从句中不作句子成分,作“是否” 解,口语中多用if。例如: 3)Do you know whether he will ride here at 8 tomorrow morning?(注:上海市徐 汇区中考试题填上答案后的句子。以下 再有这种例句,都为中考题,只写某 地。) 4)Tom didn't know if/whether his grandpa liked the present.

作“是否”解的if和whether在具体用法 上差别较大,同学们不易掌握。在宾语 从句中用whether没有用if时受到那么多 限制。例如:
He asked me whether or not I was coming. 他问我是否要来。(该句中的whether不能 换成if,因为if不能与or连用。)

3.连接代词who,whom ,whose,what, which:它们起连接作用,作句子成分, 各有其自己的意义。例如: 6)The teacher asked the new student which class he was in?(武汉市)(which引 导宾语从句,在从句中作定语,修饰 class,意为“哪个”。) 7)Can you tell me whom he is waiting for? (天津市)

4.连接副词when,where, why,how:起 连接作用,分别作时间、地点、原因、 方式状语,各有其自己的意义。例如: 8)I wonder where he got so much money.对他从哪里弄到那么多钱我感到 疑惑。(where在从句中作地点状语,修 饰got,意为“哪里;什么地方”。)

9)He didn't tell me how old his friend was.(how引导宾语从句,作程度状语, 修饰old,意为“怎样;如何”等意。)

第二关,牢记宾语从句的语序是陈述句语序, 即“连接词+主语+谓语+其他”。这里特 别强调的是,它的主语和谓语的语序是陈述 句的语序,不是疑问句的倒装语序。例如:
10)You must remember what your teacher said. 11)—Dad,do you know when the football game will start? —In half an hour.

12)汉译英:你能不能告诉我,我们去看 望谁? 误:Can you tell me who(m)do we have to see? 正:Can you tell me who(m)we have to see?

第三关,注意时态的呼应。 宾语从句中谓语动词的时态,常常受主句 谓语时态的制约,这种现象称为“时态的 呼应”。例如: 13)汉译英:我原以为你今天有空的。 误:I thought(that)you are free today. 正:I thought(that)you would be free today

14)He thought he was working for the people. 15)I heard she had been to the Great W all. 16)John hoped that he would find a job soon.

但宾语从句如果表示定理法则、永恒真理 等,则不变化: 17)The teacher told us that the earth moves around the sun.

巩固与检测请做下列中考题: 1. In the bookshop,a reader asked the shopkeeper _____ Who Moved My D Cheese was an interesting book. (北京市东城区) A.that B.how C.what D.if

2.—I don't know _____ Mr Green will A come to see us. —He will help us with our English.(杭州市) A.why B.when C.how D.where

3.—We never know ____ the old man is. A —They say he is a teacher.(鄂州市) A.what B.who C.which D.where 4.I was told _____ Bill Gates was thirteen D he began to play with computers. (重庆市) A.that how B.how that C.when that D.that when

5.—Could you tell me _____ ?I'm going C to see him. —Sorry,I don‘t know. (北京市海淀区) A.where does Mr Li live B.where did Mr Li live C.Where Mr Li lives D.where Mr Li lived

6.—W here do you think _____ he A _____ the computer? —Sorry,I have no idea.(南京市) A./;bought C.did;buy B.has;bought D.does;buy

7.I don't feel very well.Mum asked

me _____ this morning.(重庆市) C
A.what the matter is

B.what is wrong
C.what was the matter

D.what wrong was

8.—Where is Jack?

—He is away to spend his
holiday.He's gone either to

Hangzhou or to Wuhan,but I'm not C sure _____.(南昌市) A.that
C.where

B.which
D.there


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