动词不定式 指出下列不定式在句中的成分： 1. It’s important for us to learn English well. 2. The teacher told the students to be quiet .(object complement) 3. My dream is to be admitted to a key university.(predi
cative) 4.You have every right to feel betrayed …(attribute) 5.…she wanted to embarrass you in public…(object) 6.It seems you need to apologize quickly to avoid losing a friend!( Adverbial object) 7. …, one of you has to be the first to admit … (object) (attribute) I. 构成形式 动词不定式基本形式是由 “ to + 动词原形” 构成，但也有变体： 主动 被动 一般式 to do to be done 完成式 进行式 完成进行式 to have done to be doing have been doing to have been done
II. 用法要点讲解 一．做主语 动词不定式作主语时，句子的谓语动词常用单数，其位置有以下两种： (1)把不定式置于句首。如： To get there by bike will take us half an hour. (2)用 it 作形式主语，把真正的主语不定式置于句后，常用于下列句式中。如： ①It＋be＋名词＋to do It's our duty to take good care of the old. ②It takes sb + some time + to do to How long did it take you to finish the work? ③It＋be＋形容词＋for sb＋to do (difficult, easy, hard, important, impossible, necessary) It is difficult for us to finish writing the composition in a quarter of an hour. ④It＋be＋形容词＋of sb＋to do (careless, clever, good, foolish, honest, kind, lazy, nice, right, silly, stupid, wise 等), 相当于 sb. is＋形容词＋to do 句式 ， It is stupid of you to write down everything the teacher says. It's kind of you to help me with my English. =You are kind to help me with my English. ⑤It seems(appears)＋形容词＋to do It seemed impossible to save money. 二、作宾语 ① 直接用不定式作宾语的动词很多， 常见的有： agree, afford, tend, ask, decide, determine, expect, fail, hope, learn, intend, manage, offer, plan, promise, refuse, want, wish 等 I decided to ask for my money back. ②当复合宾语中的宾语是不定式时， 先用形式宾语 it 代替不定式， 把不定式置于补语之后， 即：主语＋动 词＋it＋补语＋to do 句式。如： We think it quite important for us to learn a foreign language well. He feels it his duty to help the poor. ③不定式一般不作介词的宾语，只有少数介词如 but, except 等后面可以跟不定式作宾语。 一般情况下作介词宾语的不定式都带 to，如果 but 或 except 前面有 do, does, did, to do 时， 通常省略 to。 e.g. 1) The bus hadn’t come. We had no choice but to wait.= We could do nothing but wait. 2)The enemy soldiers had no choice but to give in. On Sunday afternoon I had nothing to do but watch TV. 三、做表语 不定式作表语表示具体动作或将来动作； 当句子的主语是 aim, idea, policy, question, suggestion, wish, task, duty, job, purpose 等或者主语是 what 引导的名词性从句时，后可用不 定式做表语，用以说明主语所包含内容。
e.g. Our most important task now is to make a plan. ★ 作表语的不定式都带 to，但当主语部分有实义动词 do 时，to 可以省略。 e.g. The only thing we can do now is wait and see. 四、作定语 不定式在句中作定语，置于被修饰的名词或代词之后。如： ①The next train to arrive is from Washington. ②Do you have anything to wash? 你有什么要洗吗？ ③Do you have anything to be washed? 你有什么要（别人）洗吗？ ④Would you please give me some paper to write on? ⑤My wish to visit France has come true at last. 不定式短语作定语和被修饰词之间表示以下关系： 1)表示将来的动作（例①）。 2)与被修饰词之间有动宾关系，如是不及物动词，则需加介词（例④）。 3)不定式作定语时，一般可转换为定语从句，例①to arrive=that will arrive。 五、作补足语 ⒈ 作宾语补足语 一些及物动词除要求接宾语外，有时还需要有宾语补足语，说明宾语的行为、 状态、特 征，这时意思才相对完整。 (1)常要求不定式作宾补的动词有：allow, ask, advise, beg, cause, drive（强迫），encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, would like (love, hate), order, permit, persuade, teach, tell, want, warn, wish 等。如： ①Would you like me to give your regards to Mary? ②I want you to understand the whole passage clearly. (2)部分动词后常接 to be＋形容词、 名词短语等形式， 有时 to be 可省略， believe, consider, 如： discover, find(=consider),feel(=think), imagine, judge, know, prove, think, suppose, see(=understand), understand 等。 ①We all believe John (to be) honest. ②I consider him (to be) one of the best teachers of No. 1 Middle School. 但当不定式是完成式时，to 不能省略，如：We consider him to have been foolish. (3)感觉动词和使役动词后用作宾补的不定式须省略 to。 ①I didn't hear anyone say anything about it. ②They make the students do too much homework every day. 在变为被动语态时，to 不能省略，如第②句：The students are made to do too much homework every day. (4)help 后面的"to"可有可无。如： Would you please help me (to) fill in the tax form? (5)部分短语动词后，常接不定式作宾补，如：ask for, care for, call on, count on, depend on, wait for, long for（渴望），prepare for, wish for eg. 1）You may depend on them to be there early. 2）The Party calls on us to increase production and practise economy. 2. 作主语补足语 不定式作主语补足语，和主语构成一种逻辑上的主谓关系。如： ①He was not allowed to enter the classroom for being late. ②The young university student is considered to have great promise. 六、作状语 ⒈作目的状语 ①I stayed there to see what would happen. ②Henry has decided to go to the hospital to be examined by the doctor. 为了强调，不定式前可加 in order 或 so as。如：
Bob took down my telephone number so as (in order) not to forget it. 有时为强调目的状语可把 in order to 或不定式置于句首，但 so as to 不能这样用。在这种 句式中不定式部分可转换为 so that, in order that,成为目的状语从句， 如： I stayed there so that (in order that) I could see what would happen. ⒉作原因状语 在部分表示感情色彩的形容词、过去分词或动词之后可接不定式，如：astonished, glad, happy, laugh, pleased, sad, smile, sorry, surprised 等。 ①We are glad to hear the news. ②I was surprised to see that a three-year-old baby could write so well. 在部分形容词后接不定式，用主动形式表示被动意义，常这样用的形容词有：interest, heavy, comfortable, easy, dangerous, difficult, expensive, fit, impossible 等。 如：The question raised by the student is difficult to answer. The room is really comfortable to live in. ⒊ 作结果状语 We came home after our holiday to find our garden neat and tidy. 不定式作结果状语还常用在下列句式中。如： ①so…as to; such…as to I'm not so stupid (a fool) as to put it in writing. 我不至于愚蠢到会把它写下来。 I'm not such a stupid fool as to put it in writing. ②enough…to The speed is high enough for us to catch up with the first liner. ③only to Jane hurried back only to find her mother dying in the hospital. ④too…to I'm too tired to stay up longer. 但在下列结构中，too…to 并非是“太……而不能……”之意。如： ①I'm only too glad to have passed the exam.考试及格我太高兴了。 ②We have too much to learn.我们要学的太多了（不定式作定语）。 4. 不定式短语还可作独立成分，用于句首、句中或句末。如： To tell the truth, the play was a great disappointment tome. 常见的短语有 to be exact（确切地说），to begin with（首先），to do him justice （说 句对他公道的话），to be sure（真的）等等。 七、其它用法 ⒈ 疑问词＋不定式结构 疑问词 who, what, which, when, where, whether, how 后可接不定式构成不定式短语， 在 句中作主语、宾语、表 语等。如： ①When to leave for London has not been decided yet. ②Mr. Smith didn't know whether to leave or stay there. ③I asked Professor Xu how to learn English well. ④The question was where to get the medicine needed. 以上例句中疑问词＋不定式部分，均可转换为相应的从句形式。如：①When we shall leave…③…how I could learn… 常用动词有：consider, decide, discover, explain, find out, forget, hear, know, learn, observe, understand, wonder 等。 ⒉ 动词不定式的时态、语态 (1)时态 ①一般式：表示的动作发生在谓语动词之后，有时表示同时发生。如： I hope to become a university student this year.（to become 发生在 hope 之后） We often hear Dick play the piano in the next room.（play 和 hear 同时发生） ②完成式：表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。如： I'm sorry to have kept you waiting. We are too young to have seen the old society.
③进行式：表示的动作与谓语动词同时发生。如： The teacher happened to be correcting our papers when I came in. They seemed to be discussing something important. (2)语态 如果不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者， 不定式一般要 用被动语态形式。如： It's a great honour to be invited to Mary's birthday party.（主语） It was impossible for lost time to be made up.（主语） I wish to be sent to work in the country.（宾语） Can you tell me which is the car to be repaired?（定语） He went to the hospital to be examined.（状语） 在 There be 结构中， 修饰主语的不定式可用被动， 也可用主动。 There are still many 如： things to take care of (to be taken care of).但有时两种形式表达的意思不同，如：These is nothing to do now.( We have nothing to do now.) There is nothing to be done now.(We can do nothing now.) 动名词 I. 构成形式 一般式 完成式 II. 用法要点讲解 一．作主语 Learning without practice is no good. 动名词做主语时，也常用 It 句式。如： ①It's +no good (no use, fun, a pleasure, a waste of time)+doing… It's no good reading in dim light. It's no use sitting here waiting. ②It's＋形容词＋doing It's dangerous swimming in the sea in windy days. 这样用的形容词有 expensive, nice, tiring 等， important, necessary 则不适用于这种结构， 但 应用不定式 代替，如：It's important for you to keep fit. ③There is no + doing There is no saying what will happen next. There is no denying that he has stolen the bike. 在这一结构中，动名词后常带宾语，相当于"It's impossible to…"结构。 二. 作宾语 ①以下动词后，只能接动名词作宾语，如：admit, appreciate, consider, delay, enjoy, finish, keep, imagine, mind, miss, practise, resist, risk, save, suggest, don't mind, give up, insist on, put off 等。如： I suggest spending our summer vacation in a seaside town. You must give up smoking, for it does too much harm to your health. ②动名词作介词的宾语 I should go to attend the birthday celebration instead of staying at home. What about inviting Li Jun to make a speech? 动名词前的介词有时可以省略，如：have difficulty(in) doing, have no trouble(in) doing, lose no time (in) doing, prevent/stop…(from)doing, there is no use(in)doing 等。 三. 作定语 意为：用来……的； ① This passage can be used as listening materials. ② The reading room of our school library can hold 800people. ③ All moving bodies have energy. 第③句为现在分词作定语， 分词作定语与被修饰词之间构成逻辑上的主谓关系，如： man The 主动 doing having done 被动 being done having been done
standing at the school gate is Professor Smith. 四. 作表语 动名词作表语表示抽象的一般行为。 ① Our work is serving the people. ②What he likes is taking a walk after supper. ③The story told by Mr. Wang is interesting. ①②句动名词作表语，与主语部分可以转换，如 Serving the people is our work, 而③句中是 现在分词作表语，说明主语的性质、状态，现在分词具有形容词的各种特征，另外，动名词 作表语还应与进行时态区别开来。 五. 动名词的时态、语态 (1) 时态 ①一般式：动名词的一般式所表示的动作可以是泛指，也可与谓语动词同时发生，或发 生在谓语动作之前 、之后。如： We are interested in collecting stamps. I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time. We are not afraid of dying. ②完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前。如： Imagine having travelled on the moon. We were praised for having finished the work ahead of time. (2)被动语态 ①如果动名词的逻辑主语为动名词所表示的动作的承受者，动名词要用被动 语态，动 名词的被动语态有一般式与完成式之分。如： The young man came in without being noticed. He prided himself on having never been beaten in class. ②有些动词后的动名词用主动形式，但表示被动意义。如： The bike needs repairing. If a thing is worth doing, it is worth doing well. 六. 动词不定式和动名词的区别 1.不定式作主语经常表示具体动作，常与特定的动作执行者联系在一起； 而动名词作主语 经常表示抽象动作，经常不与特定的动作执行者联系在一起。如： It's no good eating too much fat. It's no good for you to eat so much fat. 2.动名词作主语，可以用名词或代词属格形式作逻辑主语。如： It's no use your pretending that you didn't know the rules. 3.部分动词后面，既可接动词不定式，也可接动名词作宾语，意义不变。如： begin, continue, start, hate, like, love, need, require, want 等。 在 need, require, want 后接-ing 形式，表示被动意义，也可接不定式，但要用被动形式， 如：Your handwriting needs improving (to be improved). hate, love, like 接不定式表示特定的未来事件，接动名词表示目前 正在进行的活动或一 般的行为。 ★ 在下列情况下，一般要用不定式： 1)hate, like, love 前有 would(should)时，如：I'd like to have a cup of coffee. 2)当谓语动词 begin, continue, start 等是进行式时，如：The students are starting to work on the difficult math problem. 3)begin, continue, start 与 know, understand 等状态动词连用时，如：I soon began to understand what was happening. 4)advise, allow, encourage, forbid, permit 等动词后接动名词作宾语，或带不定 式作宾语 补足语。如： Our teachers don't permit our swimming in the lake. Our teachers don't permit us to swim in the lake.
5)部分动词后接不定式或动名词时，意义差别较大，应根据句子语境选择使用。 ①forget, remember, regret 后接不定式，表示现在或未来的动作，接动名词表 示动作已 经发生。如： 1)Don't forget to post the letter for me. Have you forgotten meeting her in Beijing Airport? 2)Remember to close the windows before you leave. I remember writing him a letter a year ago. 3)We regret to tell you that all of you are not invited to attend the meeting. They regretted ordering these books from abroad. ②mean to do 打算做某事 mean doing 意味着…… I meant to catch up with the early bus. This means wasting a lot of money. ③try to do 设法尽力做某事 try doing 试着做某事 You should try to overcome your shortcomings. Try working out the physics problem in another way. ④stop to do 停下一件事去做另一件事,stop doing 停止做某事 On the way to the airport, I stopped to buy a paper. You'd better stop arguing and do as you are told. ⑤can't help doing 禁不住…… can’t help to do 不能帮助干…… They couldn't help jumping up at the news. Sorry I have lots of work to do. So I can't help to make up the room for you. ⑥go on to do 做不同的事或不同内容的事 go on doing 继续不停地做某事，指同一动作的继续 He went on to talk about world situation.他接着又谈了世界形势。 We'll go on fighting so long as there is oppression in the world. 语法练习 一、用动词的不定式、动词 ing 形式填空。 10. Please ask uncle Wang 1. My mother told me the lights just now. 2. Chinese would like friends with a lot of foreigners. 3. He feels like 4. A lot of people likes shopping on Sundays. 5. They asked me mother. 6. Would you like coffee ? 7. A lot of children like because it is good for health. 8. Please ask her (arrive) school at (swim) , (drink) tea or (thank) your (eat) an apple (do) some (make) (turn) on the TV set. 11. When the baby heard the music, he stopped (cry) at once. (lie) on
12. Look! There is a cow the road. 13. I am sorry 14. He wants
(hear) the bad news (go) there with you. (grow)
15. We will help the farmers rice next week 16. It is time now. 17. Lots of children enjoys to music. 18. Could you tell me if you like (sing) English songs?
(begin) our lessons
seven thirty tomorrow morning. 9. My father was glad old friends yesterday. (see) his
19. I would love lake.
(go) fishing in the
20. It took him one hour his homework. 21. I spent three weeks in my work. 22. What about walk? 23. Do you mind window? 24. He practices every morning. 25. We are busy English exam. 26. He gave up (open) the
36. Remember English books here.
37. I remembered meeting ten years ago. 38. Don’t forget lights when you leave. 39. I forgot morning.
(see) him in the
(go) out for a
(turn) off the
(lock) my door this
40. Thanks very much for me study English.
(get) ready for the
41. You should give up bad for your health.
(smoke). It is
(learn) maths. (see)
42. He kept me time.
(wait) for a long
27. Will you go to the cinema a film? 28. He went to the school library books. 29. In winter, leaves of trees begin (turn) yellow. (borrow) some English
43. The heavy rain stopped me from (go) out. (dance) in her
44. I often see her room. 45. I heard him
(sing) an English
song when I was walking past her room. (swim) 46. How did Ling Feng make the baby stop (cry) ?
30. It is the best season for in summer.
31. I spent two hours on maths exercises last night. It took me two hours maths exercises last week. 32. He is good at 33. Let us make a contribution to 34. I used to 35. I am used to (protect) our environment. (be) a history teacher. (get) up early (swim). my
47. When I met Lucy in the street yesterday, I stopped (talk) with him.
48. When the teacher walked into the classroom, the students stopped 49. You are very tired, you had better stop (have) a rest. (talk) loudly in (talk) .
50. It is not polite public.
二、单项选择。 1. What is the way Lao Wang thought of _______ enough money to buy the house? A. to get B. getting C. having got D. being got 2. Without fact, we can’t form a correct opinion, for we need to have actual knowledge __________ our thinking. A. which to be based on B. which to base on C. on which to base D. which to base 3. Tom pretended _________ it， but in fact, he knew it very well. A. not listen to B. not to hear from C. not to have heard about D. not to be listening to 4. The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if _________ whether he was going in the right direction. A. seeing B. having seen C. to see D. to have seen 5. Hearing his words, I couldn’t decide __________ or remain. A. whether to go abroad B. if I go abroad C. if to go abroad D. to go abroad 6. Lily’s mobile phone was left in a taxi accidentally, never _______ again. A. to find B. to be found C. finding D. being found 7. --- Tomorrow is a holiday. Why are you doing your homework? --- I’m doing this exercise now so that I won’t have ________ on Sunday. A. for B. them C. it D. to 8. I did nothing all day but ________ to my friend who I haven’t seen for almost a year. A. write B. to write C. wrote D. writing 9. Would you please ________ leave the door open? It’s too cold here. A. not B. not to C. to not D. don’t 10. ---I hear that you and your parents are going to spend your summer vocation in Beijing. --- Yes, we’re planning _________. A. to B. to be C. it D. to do it 11. I don’t think it wise ________ the hard work that they have refused to do. A. for you to take on B. of you to take on C. for you taking on D. of you taking on 12. My father promised to give some money and _______ anything I want to. A. to allow me to buy B. allow me to buy C. promised to allow me to buy D. that I would ask them to buy 13. He spoke English slowly and clearly in class _________ because they are all freshmen. A. so as to be understood B. to be understood C. so as to understand D. to understand 14. ________ the truth, he is not an honest man we can believe in. A. I am to tell B. Told C. Telling D. To tell 15. ________ a long story short, he wanted to marry her and get a lot of money. A. Make B. To make C. Jack had made D Making 16. --- Have you found out the telephone number I need? --- Yes, but ________, I have sat here for nearly a half hour. A. for finding it out B. to find it out C. for finding out it D. to find out it 17. Though it is polluted a little, yet this city with a long history is still a good place ___________. A. in which to live B. to live in C. to live D. all the above are right 18. We didn’t expect the plan we had made very carefully for them ______ so coldly.
A. refused B. to refuse C. to be refused D. refusing 19. _______ into the college, he had to work hard at all the subjects, some of which he didn’t like. A. In order to admit B. In order to be admitted C. So as to admit D. So as to be admitted 20. She works ______ hard ______ catch up with the top students. A. so; as to B. very; as to C. so; to D. as; as to
答案： 一、用动词的不定式、动词 ing 形式填空。 1. to turn 6. to drink 11. crying 16. to begin 21. finishing 26. learning 31. to finish 36. to bring 41. smoking 46. crying 2. to make 7. swimming 12. lying 17. listening 22. going 27. to see 32. swimming 37. seeing 42. waiting 47. to talk 3. eating 8. to arrive 13. to hear 18. singing 23. opening 28. to borrow 33. protecting 38. to turn 43. going 48. talking 4. doing 9. to see 14. to go 19. to go 5. to thank 10. to mend 15. (to)grow 20. to finish
24. speaking 25. getting 29. to turn 34. be 39. locking 44. dance 49. to have 30. swimming 35. getting 40. helping 45. singing 50. to talk
二、单项选择。 1—5 ACCCA 6—10 BDAAA 11—15 BBADB 16—20 BDCBA