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2012年高考英语语法复习课件-非谓语动词


不定式、动名词用作主语
动名词作主语
1。直接作主语:

1.Seeing is believing. (1)眼见为实。 2.Doing morning exercises (2)天天做早操有益于健康。 every day is good for health (3)吸烟不是好习惯。 3.Smoking is not a good hab

it
1.It’s no use talking too much without

2.用it作形式主语,常与no use,no good,useless, worthwhile连用

(1)广说不做没用 (2)做无益的后悔没用 doing anything 2.It’s useless crying over the spilt milk. (3)吸烟太多无益 (4)学好英语是值得做的 3.It’s no good smoking too much

4.It’s worthwhile learning English wel

1。直接作主语 1.To see is to believe (1)眼见为实 2.To do morning exercises today is not (2)今天早晨做早操对身体无益 good for health. (3)在这里吸烟很危险

不定式作主语

3.To smoke here is dangerous

2。用it作形式主语,有自己特定的句型 1.It is very kind of you to say so. (1)你这么说真是太好了 2.It’s very foolish of him to say such things (2)他说出这样的话太愚蠢了 3.It is necessary for us to learn English well (3)我们学好英语是必要的 4.It’s not difficult for you to learn well English (4)你们学好英语语法并不难 grammar 3.固定句型 (1)李垒每天花两个半小时完成作业 (2)你昨晚用多长时间写完的作文?

1.It takes LiLei two and a half hours to complete his homework. 2.How long did it take you to finish writing your composition?

小结:动名词与不等式作主语时的区别
一、对称原则
主语和表语对称

二、特殊表达

动名词表示经常性、反复发生的动作 不等式表示具体的、某一次的动作

三、固定句型 It takes sb some time to do sth 四、习惯用法It’s no use/no good /useless/worthwhile

+ doing …

It’s kind/wise/clever… of sb to do sth It’s important/necessary/hard …for sb to do sth

Task: complete the following sentences
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

________________( It’s no 没有用) learning without practice use It’ s no good ________________________________ (广说不做) talking too much without doing anything It’s necessary _____________________________( 我们学好英语) for us to learn English well It’ very kind of ____________________________ (你帮助我) you to help me How long __________________________ (你每天参加体育活动? does it take you to do sport every day Because of the heavy sand storm, ________________( 今天做晨练) to do morning exercises today is of no benefit to you.

Multiple choice
1. It is very generous _____ you to buy me such a nice gift A. of B. for C. to D. with 2. You are clever; it will be easy ____ you to work out the word puzzle A. of B. for C. to D. with 3.I think it no good _____ without doing anything. A, to play about B, play around C. playing about D. played around

一、句型转换

不定式、动名词作宾语

I think it no use… … doing sth I feel it stupid of him to say such silly things to her I find it uneasy for you to learn your subjects well without hard work Can you tell me how many hours it took you to do your homework?

二、A 下列动词只能带动名词作宾语:记住下面这句话,巧记共 35个多动词

Miss Rescall can enjoy five apples at dusk
Miss Rescall ----miss, mind,risk,recall ,resist Can ----can’t help, consider ,can’t resist ,complete ,can’t stand (bear) Enjoy –enjoy escape ,excuse ,endure Five –finish ,fancy feel like ,favorite(利于)imagine ,include ---advise ,avoid ,appreciate ,admit ,allow--- practise ,postpone ,pardon ,prevent ,put off

B 以介词to结尾的常用短语be/get used to,come to,devote oneself to, listen to,look forward to object to /get down to, prefer...to, pay attention to,refer to stick to C 特殊句型 1 spend (waste )...(in) doing 2 be busy (in)doing 3 have difficulty (trouble ,fun ,pleasure ,a good ,hard time )in doing 4 stop \prevent ...(from )doing 5 There is \no use \no harm \no hurry ...(in)doing sth D. 下列动词只能带不定式作宾语:记住下面这句话, (2HD3A4P, worst fem各一) 巧记近20个多动词 afford ,agree ,attempt, decide ,demand ,expect ,fail ,help, hope ,manage , offer, plan, pretend, prepare, promise, refuse ,seem, tend , wish

E.注意下列11种不同动词或句型的用法
在forget ,remember ,regret ,want ,need ,require ,try ,stop ,go on,mean 等动词后,可接不定式,也可接动名词做宾语,但含义差别。 1 forget ,remember , regret +doing 动作已经发生+to do 动作未发生 2 want ,need ,require + doing 表被动= to be done 注:be worth doing = be worthy to be done 3 try doing 试着做 try to do 尽力做,想要做 4 stop doing 停止做某事,(先后是一件事). stop to do 停下来做某事,(先后不是同一件事) 5 go on doing 继续敌某事,(先后 是同一件事 ) go on to do 接下来做某事,(先后不是同一件事) 6 mean doing 意味着做某事 mean to do 故意或想要做某事 7 can’t help doing sth 抑制不住、禁不住做某事 can’t help (to) do sth 无帮助、无助于做某事 8 ,only to do … 结果是…(出乎预料) ,only doing… 结果是… (必然是…)

9 prefer to do… rather than do … 宁愿 … 而不… prefer doing …to doing … would rather do … than do … would do … rather than do … enjoy doing nothing but doing … 只喜欢做… want nothing but to do … 只想做…

10 have nothing to do /do nothing but/except do …只好做(别无选择)

11在 begin ,start ,continue 等词后可接不定式作宾语,也可接动名 词作宾语,意义区别不大.但要注意
1)本身是-ing 形式时,其后要接不定式 2)如果表示主语有意识地开始做某事,多用动名词 3)主语是物多用不定式

4)其后的动词是表示情感的或与智力有关的,不用 v-ing 形式
know, realize, hate , love , understand , wonder , remember , forget

Task: complete the following sentences

seeing the man before 1. Do you remember doing ___________________ (以前见过这个人吗)? wrong to their parents 2. He denied _______________________ (冤枉了他的父母) putting forward the suggestion to their leader … 3. She regreted ______________________( 在会上给领导提了意见) . advising him to give up smoking 4. Don’t waste timethan ___________________( 劝他戒烟) go out to play 5. I would rather stay at us home _______________( for to learn English well 也不出去玩) 6. Do you think it necessary _________________( 我们学好英语)? to finished writing your composition 7. How long did it take you __________________( 写完作文)? play all day long 8. He has done nothing but __________________ (玩了一整天). couldn ’t help crying 9. On hearing the news, Tom _________________( 抑制不住哭了) to be told that the performance had been over. 10. Little Sophia went the theater, only _________(被告知演出结束了) Multiple choice 1. Would you mind ______ the door? A. open B, opening C, to open D, opened 2. “So much for the new words and expressions; let’s go on _______ the text.” the teacher said with a smile. A. to talk about B, talking about C, to be talking D, talk about 3. I’m sorry, but I’ve forgotten ________my homework with me.

4. This room needs _______. It’s too shabby. A. paint B. painting C. to pain D. painted 5. Have you considered ______ to improve your spoken English? A. practising listening and speaking B. practising to listen and speak C. to practise listening and speaking D. to practise to listen and speak 6. At the age of 18 he began _______ the importance of knowledge. A.understand B. understanding C. understood D. to understand 7. In the old days, many people couldn’t afford ____their children to School. A. sent B, sending C, to send D send 8. --- ---We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. --- ---What do you suppose ________to her? A.was happening B, to happen C, has happened D. having happened 9.We all appreciate ____ ____ whenever you have time. A.Jane drop in B,Jane’s dropping in C,Jane to drop in D.Jane drops in 10. Have you got used _________ in Harbin? A.to living B, to live C, living D, to be living 11. Nobody is willing to go to a party without ___________. A. asking B, to be asked C, being asked D, having asked

4,B; 5,A;6,D;7,C;8,C;9,B;10,C;11,C

非谓语动词作表语
动名词作表语
1 对称原则,主语是动名词,表语一般也用动名词 Seeing is believing

2 动名词作表语表明主语的性质或内容(有时可与主语互换)
My job is teaching you English \ Teaching you English is my job. 不定式作表语: (1)计划,趋势将要做的 she is to get married next week. (2)责任,义务必须做的 I’ m to see you off at the airport tomorrow (3) 祁使 , 命令不得不做的 You ’ re to stand here ,do you understand . (4) 命运安排,注定做的 分词作表语表示主语的特点特征 . 现在分词表示主动,过去分词表 Disney met the mouse and he was to become a famous artist. 示被动;不及物动词的过去分词表示完成 The book is interesting and the students are moved . He is come. The quests are gone. The leaves are fallen.

非谓语动词作定语
动名词作定语 表示被修饰词用途 drinking water ==the water that is (used )for drinking drinking water , living room ,sitting room ,washing powder 分词作定语, 表被修饰词的特点、特征.单个分词作定语前置,分词 短语作定语,放在所修饰词之后。现在分词和过去分词的区别:时 态上,现在分词表示正在进行,过去分词表示已经完成;语态上, 现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动 boiling water =the water that is boiling. fallen leaves, boiled water sleeping child =the child who is asleep a moving film, a moved girl There was a surprised look on her face at the news. 动词不定式作定 1.后置,表示将来 In the years to come, we will study harder and harder. This is the Hope Project School to be built next year.

2.当特定的谓语动词(有,需要,给,找,弄have, need, want, give, find, get)后的名词(或 宾语)用不定式来修饰. 1. I have a lot of work to do . 2.I want to get something to read . 3.Do you need some water to drink? 4.Please give me a piece of paper to write on. 5.Let’s find a room to put those things in .
3.当名词有特定的定语,如形容词\副词的最高级,序数词及next, only, right等,其后接不定式作定语 He is the first(student) to come and the last to leave. Where is the best place to meet ? We need the next room to hold corn. He is the only person to be fit for the job. 4.一些需要不定式作宾语的动词转化成的名词,agreement, attempt, decision, need, promise, plan, wish等,常用不定式来修饰. There is no need to send for a doctor . 注:(1)不及物动词或特殊用法,要加合适的介词. They need a house to live in. There are many model bikes to choose from.

Practise
Fill in the blanks with verbs given in their proper forms
1] The man _______________________(stand )over there now. is standing 2] The man _______________________(stand)over there then. was standing 3] The man _______________________(stand )over there yesterday. stood 4] The man _______________________(stand ) over there very often. stands 5] The man _______________________(stand )over there tomorrow.. will stand

Fill in the blanks with verbs given in their proper forms

(who is) standing is standing 1] The manwho ___________(stand )over there now is from America. (who was standing 2] The manwho ___________(stand)over therewas) thenstanding is from America. (who) stood - standing stood 3] The manwho ___________(stand )over there yesterday is from America (who) stands - standing who stands 4] The man __________(stand ) over there very often is from America . (who will) stand-to stand who will stand 5] The man __________(stand )over there tomorrow is from America .

Fill in the blanks with verbs given in their proper forms

is being built 1, The building ______________(build )here now. was being built 2, The building ______________(build )here then. was built 3, The building ______________(build )here last year. is built 4, The building ______________(build )here very often. has been built 5, The building ______________(build)here already. will be built 6, The building ______________(build)here next year. Fill in the blanks with verbs given in their proper forms (which is) being built which is being built )here now is a school . 1, The building ______________(build (which was) being built which was being built )here then is a school . 2, The building ______________(build (which was)built which was built 3, The building ______________(build )here last year is a school . (that is) built that is built 4, The building ______________(build )here very often is a school (that has been) built that has been built 5, The building ______________(build)here already is a school. (that will)to be built that will be built 6, The building ______________(build)here next year.

Task: complete the following sentences
called/named Sally 1. Do you know the girl _____________________ (名叫沙丽的)? Standing behind the counter 2. Who is the woman _______________________( 站在柜台后的) being built 3. What is the house ______________( 在建的)used for? to ______________( be completed next year 4. We’ll move into the building 明年竣工的) to be a writer (当一名作家)will surely come true. 5. Her wish _____________ put the bookshelf 6. Where do you think is the best placeto __________( 放这个书架)? some water to drink 7. Can you get me ________________ (一些水喝) to be fit for the job 8. Who is the right person _______________ (适合这项工作)? many fallen leaves on the ground 9. It’s fall already and you can see ___________( 地上有很多落叶) playing football on the playground 10. Who is the boyoften ___________________ (经常在操场上踢足球)? Multiple choice 1.At the sight of the stranger, there was a ____expression on her face A. Surprised B, surprising C, shocking D, angry 2.The supermarket______ is the biggest one in our city. A.having already been built B, hasing already been built C.being already built D, already built

非谓语动词作补语
一、带to的不定式作宾补( a bright pace foul 一次聪明的速度犯规) A 在 allow, ask, advise, beg, command, cause, encourage, expect, force, get, hate invite like order permit prefer remind tell urge want ,wish等动词后,用带to的不定式作宾补 (1)I prefer you not to play all day long. (2)I’d like you to help me with my homework. (3) You’d better get more people to do the work. 二、表示见解\看法的动词 + 宾语 + 带to的不定式(to be doing/ to have done…). 具有这种用法的动词有:believe, consider, declare, discover, feel, find,guess, imagine, judge, suppose, think, understand 1, We found the rumor true. 2, I consider him to have done wrong. 3, I always imagine me to be a millionaire. 4, I felt him to be a spy 三、“短语动词 + 宾语 + 带to的不定式” 这类动词有arrange for, ask for, call on, count on, depend on, long for, rely on, wait for 1.You can not count on Tom to help you. Chairman Mao called on us to serve the people heart and soul.

四、省to的不定式作宾补:宾补省to记11,一感二听三使役; 五看一帮两均可,被动该to不能弃. eel,hear,listen to,have,let,make,see,look at,notice,observe,watch,help We often see them play football; They are often seen to play football He was made to stand outside for two hours

分词短语作宾补
一.能带现在分词做宾补的动词有: have ,get ,keep ,set ,send ,leave, catch, hear ,listen to,feel , see , find ,look at ,watch ,observe ,notice My father had only two men working for him Don’t have the horse running so fast ,It’s dangerous . Have you noticed the boy passing across the street ?

过去分词作宾补
二、能带过去分词作宾补的动词有make ,have ,get leave 及感官动词 see ,watch ,look at ,find hear listen to ,feel 等. 宾语与补语的关系是被动含义时,用过去分词作宾补 I was surprised to see so many people seated at the back of the class. I have never heard this song sung so sweetly You’d better get your bike repaired at once

Task: complete the following sentences
not to let out the secret 1.They required me __________________________( 不要泄漏秘密) 2.___________________ ,but he wouldn‘t. We advised him to give(我们劝他戒烟) up smoking play basketball 3.We often go and see them __________________( 打篮球) 4.I discovered him ________________( 在说谎) to be telling lies have completed their task ahead of time 5.We found themto _________________( 已经提前完成了任务) to work day and night 夜以继日地干活) 6.They were made ____________________( the lamps burning all让灯亮了一整夜) night long 7.The two cheats had _____________________( in a shop 在商店里偷窃) 8.The thief was caught stealing ________________( away in all the directions 9.The gunshot sent the birdsflying ________________( 四处飞去) study harder and harder 10.They are expected to ______________________( 越来越努力学习) Multiple choice 1.The missing boy was last seen __________ by the river. A. playing B, play C, played D, to play 2.Don’t have the horse ______ so fast; It’s dangerous. A, to run B, runs C, running D, ran 3.Tom had his pocket ______ on a bus this morning. A, pick B, to pick C, picking D, picked

4.People in the south often have their houses _______ bamboo. A. made of B, making of C, to be made of D, make of 5. People ____on the coast often have their houses ____by hurricanes A,living;damaging B, living;damaged C,lived,damaged D,live;damage 6.I will go back to our hometown. Do you have anything ______home? A. to take B, taking C, to be taken D, taken 7. Please come here; I have something important ______ you. A, telling B, to be told C, told D, to tell 8. Girls are not allowed ______ their fingernails red at school. A. painted B, painting C. to paint D, to be painted 9. You’d better get more people _____ the work immediately. A to do B, doing C do D, done 10. You’d better get the work ____ at once; It’s gong to rain. A to do B, doing C do D, done 11. Miss Sara, I _______ at the railway station. My boss is busy now. A am going to see you off B, to see you off C. am about to see you off D, must see you off 12.What he said got us ______ all the way. A. laughing B, laugh C ,to laugh D, laughed

非谓语动词作状语
(1)不定式做状语,表示原因,目的或结果。为了强调目的, 可与in order to 或so as to 连用。 1,I reached home only to find my old dog dead . 2, He got up early (in order)to catch the early bus . 3,To improve our English, we come here. 4, I’m so glad to see you. 5,They went to the railway station, only to be told that the train had left.注: (1)“only + 不定式”表示出乎预料的结果. He went to the seaside only to be drowned (2)不定 式表结果常与下列结构连用. A, so + adj/ adv + as(not) to do … (如此……以至于(没)… ) I’m not so stupid as to do that. B, such + ( adj ) n + as (not)to do …(如此……以至于(不)… ) I’m not such a fool as to believe that. C, enough + n + to do… (足够… … ) I don’t have enough money to buy a car. D, adj/adv + enough + to do … (足已到/能… … ) The girl is old enough to go to school. E, too + adj / adv + to do … (太… 以至于不能…) I’m too tired to go any further.

分词作状语
分词作状语可以表示时间,条件,原因,结果,伴随或方式 , 及独立成分。 分词作状语的首要条件是分词的逻辑主语是句子的主语,分词 与逻辑主语的关系是主动的,用现在分词,反之,用过去分词 1, Hearing the news ,he couldn’t help laughing .(时间) = when he heard the news, 2, Given enough time ,I can do it better (条件) = If I am given enough time, 3, Being ill ,he didn’t go to school (原因) = Because he was ill, 4, The glass fell to the ground ,breaking into pieces. (结果) = so that it broke into pieces. 5, Our teacher came in ,followed by many students (伴随) = and he was followed by many students 6, Judging from his accent, he is from America. 7, Generally speaking, one must be confident.

Task:complete the following sentences
followed by many students 1.He came into the room , ________________( 后面簇拥着许多学生) 2.His mother died, _____________________( leaving him an orphan 使他成为一个孤儿) to told that the train had left 3.He went to the railway station,only __________( 却得知火车已经开了) to have seen you 4. I’m so glad ________________( 见到你). Bye-by. so as to catch the early bus为了赶上早班车) 5.We got up early _______________________( from top of the 从山顶上看) hill 6. Seen _________________( ,the park looks more beautiful. Being a student, (作为学生),he always keeps a civil tongue. 7._________________ Being disabled, 8._________________( 因为残疾),Tom cannot move around. as not to pass the exam 以至于考试没有及格) 9.He is so lazy ____________________( to get married (结婚) 10.She is old enough ______________ to do your work 11.You can never be too careful ______________ (做工作) not to understand you 不会不理解你的话) 12.She is too clever _____________________( to learn 13.One is never too old _________________ (而不能学习) be invited to your birthday party 14.I am but too happy to ___________________( 被邀请参加你的聚会) Judging from his accent 15._________________( 从口音上判断), you’re a Harbinese as__________________( to believe your nonsense 16.I’m not such a fool 会相信你的鬼话) to be put into prison 17.He went to help the old man, only _________________( 却被关进监狱)

非谓语动词的时态、语态
主动语态 时态. 一般时 进行时 完成时 一般时 进行时 不定式 to do to be doing to have done to be done having done 被动语态 being done having done done being done 动名词 doing 分词 doing

完成时

to have been done having been done

having been done

动名词时态、语态的用法
1.动名词的一般形式表示一般性动作 ,(即是不明确过去,现在或 将来的动作 )或是与谓语动词同时发生的动作 We are interested in climbing mountains I prefer singing to dancing 2 如果强调动名词的完成时,要用完成形式 I regret having taken her advice. He was praised for having passed the exam . 3 当一个动名词逻辑上的主语是该动名词的承受者,这个动名词要 用被动形式 He entered the room without being seen He remembered being taken to Beijing when he was a child 4 如果动名词表示的动作 发生在谓语动词之前,要用完成形式 He is proud of having been sent to work in Tibet . Tom regretted not having been invited to the party.

不定式时态、语态的用法
1. 不定式的动作与谓语动词同时发生时,用一般时态 He wanted to see you 2. 强调不定式的动作正在进行时,用进行时态 When I came in ,he pretended to be reading a book He is said to be writing a novel 3. 强调 不定式的动作在谓语动词之前发生时,用不定式完成时 He is said to have written a novel . I’m so glad to have seen you . The ground is so wet ,It must have rained last night 不定式被动语态的用法. A, 当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式的承受者时,用被动语态 She asked to be sent to work in Tibet (宾语) The book is said to have been translated into English ( 或叫合 It is an honor for me to be asked to speak here (主 语)

B. 句子的主语是不定式的逻辑主语,尽管不定式与被修饰词是被 动关系,也还要用主动语态 1, Give him some book to read \Do you have any clothes to wash ? “Do you have any clothes to be washed?” asked the maid 2, S +be+easy \difficult \hard \pleasant \interesting \exciting \ comfortable +to do This question is easy to answer The boy is difficult to teach 3, The house is to let \The manager is to blame .\The reason is not far to seek . 4There be句型中,主动形式或被动形式均可但有时含意不同 There is nothing to do now (we have nothing to do now )现在没事干 There is nothing to be done now (we can do nothing now )现在没什 么办法 There is nothing to see (nothing is worth seeing )没有东西值得看 There is nothing to be seen 看不见有什么东西

分词时态、语态的用法
分词所表示的动作与谓语动词同时发生。分词与其逻辑主语的关 系时被动的,要用被动语态 1.Looking out of the window, I can see many cars and buses. 2.Seen from the top of Dragon Tower, Harbin looks more beautiful. 3.The teacher came in,following _______many students.(follow) 4.The teacher came in, followed _______by many students.(follow) 如果强调分词表示的动作正在进行时,要用分词的进行时态。 1. Being repaired, the building is forbidden to enter. 2. The house being built now is a Hope Project School. 3. Passing by the accident scene, I saw the man badly hurt being carried onto an ambulance.

如果强调分词表示的动作 发生在谓语动词之前,要用完成形式。 Not having finished his homework ,Tom was made to stay at school . Having closed all the windows ,I went home Having been invited to the party ,Tom was very happy .

Task: complete the following sentences

Do you have any clothes to be washed 1.“____________(你有衣服要洗吗) ?the maid asked. Not having finished没有完成作业 his homework, 2.________________( ),Tom was forbidden to watch TV. Being painted 3.________________( 正在刷油漆), the house was not allowed to enter. Not having been invited to the ball, ), Mary felt excited. 4.________________( 被邀请参加舞会 is difficult to work out 很难算出). 5.The difficult maths problem ____________________( having been invited 6.She was angry fornot __________________( 没有被邀请)to the ball. without being seen 没人看到) 7.The thief stole into the store_________________( is to let 8.The flat _________________( 出租) 9.The man who was on duty that day _________________( is to blame 应受谴责) been sent to work in Tibet 10.They were proud of having ____________________( 被派往西藏去工作) to be reading 11.When the teacher came in, Tom pretended _________________( 假装再看书) have written a book called “The Days” 12.Ni Ping is said to ____________________( 写了一本名叫“日子”的书) to be writing a book named “ The Months” 13.Song Dandan is said _______________( 在写一本叫“月子”的书) Looking out of the window, 14._________________( 从窗户往外看), I can see many tall buildings. Seen from top of the hill, 15._________________( 从山顶往下看), the city looks more beautiful. He has a lot of work to 他有很多活要干) do 16._________________( .Don’t bother him. He has a lot of work to 他有很多活要干 be done 17._________________( ) and you can go ,too.

不定式的省略

一.省to 不定式的固定句型 1, had better (not) do… you had better stay at home 2,would rather do ...than do… I’d rather stay at home than go out 3, prefer to do ...rather than do… I’d prefer to die rather than steal 4, cannot but do 不得不…必然… He cannot but agree. 5, cannot help but do ...不得不… Eg:I could not help but realize that I was wrong我这才意识到我错了。 6,do nothing but do ...\nothing to do but/except do 只能 ,只有 Eg:I had nothing to do but wait there . 7,why (not )do ... Why not ask your teacher for help ? 8, 当主语部分有do ,则表语可省to Eg:What I want to do is run a school =His wish is to run a school 9,当两个或更多相同的不定式并列使用时,除第一个不定式带to 外 其余的不加。 She told the child to stay there and wait till she came back .

二、不省“to”的情况 (1)在used to \be going to \mean to \ought to \plan to\try to\would like to \would love to \hope to \want to下列句子中,to 通常都得留 Eg:He doesn’t get up early ,but he used to –can you work out this maths problem ? --I’ll try to (2)在 be +adj (如:glad, happy, pleased, anxious, willing, ready)等 此后保留to Eg:---Would you like to join us in the game? --- I’d love to 3.在ask, advise, allow, permit, persuade, tell, wish 等词的复合结构 中to通常保留 Eg:Do the experiment as your teacher tells you to 4.不定式的否定形式后保留to Eg:He wanted to quiz school and I advised him not to 注:to 后若是主动词have 或 be时,必须保留。 Eg:---Sorry, I didn’t finished doing my home work. ---You ought to have Our school is no longer what it used to be

Wh-+to do 结构

1 作主语When to start \How to go there \Where to go \Who to do it has not been decided . 2 宾语。在discover ,find out ,know ,see ,show ,understand 等动词后, 不直接用不定式作宾语,必须用wh--+to 结构 ,在下列词中也带这 种结构, decide ,learn ,remember ,forget ,wonder I don’t know when to start who to do it \how to do it\ where to go \whether to do it 3表语 The problem is when to start it \who to do it \how to go there \where to go 4 状语。She was at a loss (as to )what to do 她不知如何是好 5 同位语: I have no idea which one to take 我不知道该拿哪个 注:why (not) do …

Task: complete the following sentences

When to start off 1.__________________( 什么时候动身)is still undecided. where to go 2.The problem is ________________________( 去哪)? one to choose 3.I don’t knowwhich _________________________( 选择哪一个) to run the computer 如何操纵这台电脑)? 4.Do you understandhow ____________________( Who to be fit for the job 谁适合这项工作) is still unknown. 5.______________________( why not go to Beijing. 6.I have no idea ____________________________( 为什么不去北京) 7. You’d betternot _______________________( 不要忘记过去) forget the past 8.I would rather starve to death ___________________( rather than go begging也不去乞讨) I ’ d rather fail to 我宁愿考试不及格) pass 9. _____________( rather than cheat in the exam cannot but我只得放弃) give up 10. No one supported me at the meeting, soI_________( help you improve your English 11.What I want to do is ____________________( 帮你提高英语) 12.I could do nothing in the worldbut _________ (只能在词在等一小时) wait here for another hour 13.------Would you like to come to my birthday party? I’d love to --- ---________________( 我很想去),but I’m too busy. is no longer what it used to 已不是以前的老样子了) be 14. Our school _______________________( is what is was before 15.My hometown _____________________( 还是以前的老样子) all advised 我们都劝他不要) him not to 16.He attempted to quiz his job and we ___________(

非谓语动词的复合结构

一.不定式的复合结构 for sb to do sth 作主语: It’s easy for us to remember a few new words 作宾语: I find it impossible for Tom to pass the exam . 作表语: This is for you to decide 定语: I have a lot of work for you to do 状语: The box is too heavy for me to take 二、分词的复合结构(词/代词(主格)+分词) 在句中多用来作状语 He fell to the ground ,nose bleeding He came into the room ,hair tied back . 三、动名词的复合结构(名词或代词的所有格+ doing) 1 作主语: Mary’s coming late made her teacher angry It’s no use your telling me not to worry 2 作宾语: Mother insisted on my brother’s going to college Would you mind my opening the door? 注:在口语中,动名词前的代词可用宾格,名词也可不用所有格 3 作表语:What is troubling us is their not having enough money

With 结构
With + 名词或代词(宾格)+ 名词(短语) + 不定式(短语) +现在分词(短语) +过去分词(短语) +介词短语 +形容词(短语) +副词(短语) He came into the room with Tom and Jane his classmates with a lot of work to do with his nose bleeding. with his hair tied at the back. with a pair of sun glasses on his nose. with his face red with cold with nothing on. Do you know the boy … …?

分词和不定式的独立成分
分词或分词短语作独立成份(作状语或插入语) strictly speaking ,generally speaking ,frankly speaking ,judging by From, broadly speaking talking of , considering , supposing Taking …into consideration, Strictly speaking, this sentence is wrong . Judging by the facts , Tom told us the truth . The house cost him, roughly speaking, 200,000 dollars
不定式或不定式短语作独立成份(状语或插入语) to tell (you )the truth, to be, honest, to be frank, to be exact, to be brief to begin with, to start with, to do him justice (说句对他公道的话) To tell you the truth, I do want to learn English well. To be frank, you have probably done wrong to her. To do him justice, he is quite fit for the job.

Task: complete the following sentences
Mary’s coming late to马丽迟到了) school 1.___________________( made her teacher quite angry. Time permitting, 2.___________________( 时间允许), I’ll go with you to the park. for us to learn English well 3. It’s easy _____________________( 我们学好英语) for Tom to complete his 汤姆按时完成作业) homework in tim. . 4. I find it impossible____________________( for you to tell Tom 5.This is_____________________( 有你来告诉汤姆) Jane to write 要珍妮来写) 6.I have many letters for ______________( for me to carry 我抬不起来) 7.The box is too heavy______________( To tell you the truth跟你说实话吧), I don’t like English 8.________________( Strictly speaking, 严格地讲), this sentence is wrong. 9.________________( To do him justice 说句对他公道的话), he is not to blame 10._______________( Take his ability into 考虑到他的能力), consideration, 11._______________( he did the work fairly well. Green signals given, 12._____________( 绿色信号灯给过后), cars and buses began to move. sword in hand 13.He climbed over the fence, ___________________( 手里拿着刀). with a few stamps to buy 14.He went to the post office ____________________( 要买几张邮票) with a few stamps bought 15.He went out of the post office ________________( 买了几张邮票) hands tied at the back 手被绑在背后) 16.Tom came into the room, ____________________(

Task:change the following sentences into simple ones.
1. Since I don’t know her address, I can’t get in touch with her. Not knowing her address, 2. We have come here in order that we can improve our English. To improve our English, we have come here. 3. They came into the room and they were singing and dancing. They came into the room, singing and dancing. 4. When she heard the news, she couldn’t help laughing. Hearing the news, she… … 5. After he closed the windows, he went home. Having closed the windows, … … 6. When we had finished the work, we went out to play. Having finished the work, we … … 7. After the signals were given, cars and buses began to move. Signals given, … … 8. If the weather permits, we’ll go out on an outing. Weather permitting, … …

Task:change the following sentences into simple ones.
1. He got up early so that he could catch the early bus. He got up early so as to catch the early bus. 2. That Sam came to school late made his teacher quite angry. Sam’s coming to school late made his teacher quite angry 3. Mother insisted that my brother should go to college. Mother insisted on my brother’s going to college 4. The stone is so heavy that I can not lift it. The stone is too heavy for me to lift 5. Tom is so old that he can certainly get married. Tom is old enough to get married. 6. You are not so old that you can’t work. You are not so old as not to work 7.Though he had been told several times, he didn’t understand me. Having been told several times, … … 8. Young as he is, he knows a lot.
Being young, he knows a lot.

达标测试50题

1.Because of my poor English, I’m afraid I can’t make myself _____ A. understand B, understood C. to understand D. understanding 2.Would you be so kind ______ me with the suitcases? A. as help to B, to help C, as to help D. as kind as to 3.This book cannot help _______ the question A, to understand B, understanding C, understood D, to understanding 1.B;2.C; 3.A; 4.D; 5.A; 6.B; 7.D 4.This book is ______. A. worth to be read B, worth being read C, worthy reading D, worthy of being read 5.The squirrel was lucky enough to miss ________. A. being caught B, catching C. to be caught D. caught 6.He was disappointed to find his suggestions _________. A. being turned down B, turned down B. C, to be turned down D. to turn down 7.I was surprised to see so many people ______at the back of the room A. seating B. to seat C. seat D. seated

8.I’ll never regret _____even if it might upset me. A. telling him what I thought B, to tell him what I thought C. to have told him that I thought D. telling what I thought 9.Do you know the man _______ under that big tree? A. lying B, laying C. lain D. lay 10.There was a terrible noise ________the sudden burst of light. A. followed B. to follow C. to be followed D. following 11.Tom kept quiet about the accident ______ lose his job. A. not so as to B. so not as to C. so as not to D. so as to not 12.I can hardly imagine Peter ____across the Atlantic in five days. A. sail B. sailing C. to sail D. to have sailed 13.Chenqi was made _____ in the countryside as a punishment. A, living B, live C, to live D. to be washing 14._______ a reply, he decided to write again. 8,A; 9,A; 10,D; 11,C; 12.B;13.C;14,C;15,B; A. Not receiving B. Receiving C. Not having received D. Having not received 15.“There seemed to be no point ____English well for being disabled” Tom thought. A. learn B. in learning C. with learning D. to learn

16._____reading and listening, and you’ll better your spoken English. A. Practise B. To practise C. Practising D. Having practised 17._____some of this juice, perhaps you’ll like it A. Trying B, Try C, To try D. Have tried 18._____ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose 19._____people’s housing conditions, the government has done a lot. A. To improving B. Change C. To make better D. Doing better 20._____the poem a second time, the meaning will become clearer A. Your having read B. While reading C. If reading D.When you read 21._____at the door before entering please. A. Knock B. Knocking C. To knock D. Kocked 22._____late in the morning, Bob turned off the alarm. A. To sleep B. Sleeping C. Sleep D. Having slept 23._____in 1636, Harvard is one of the famous universities in the US. A. As founded B, Being founded C. It was founded D. Founded 24._____such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. A, Having suffered B. Suffering C. To suffer D.Suffered 16,A;17,B;18,C;19,C;20,D;21,A;22,A;23,D;24,A

25.The discovery of new evidence led to _______ A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught 26.Peter sat under a tree and seeing his teacher, _____up in no time. A. standing B. stood C, stand D. was standing 27.The professor dipped a finger into the mixture, took it out and then sucked it, ______ rather pleased. A. looked B, to look C. looking D. having looked 28.The student ______ in the front roll listened attentively. A, seat B, to seat C, seating D, seated 29.The old worker,____in the factory for 20 years, retired yesterday A, having worked B, had worked C. worked D. to have worked 30. The modern building ______ will be used as a city library. A. having already completed B. already completed C. having been already completed C. being completing 31.The bird flu is believed ________ by fowls. A. to be infected B. infecting C. to infect D. having infected 25,C;26,B;27,C;28,D;29,A;30,B;31,A

32.I couldn’t do my work with all that noise ___________. A. going on B. went on C. goes on D. to go on 33. They are going to get through another hard year with so many difficulties_______. 32,A;33,C;34,B;35,A;36.D;37,B;38,A A. settled B, to be settling C. to settle D. to have settled 34.______comfortably in his armchair, the old man enjoyed the light music from the radio with his eyes half ______. A. Seating,closed B. Seated, closed C. Sitting, closing D. sat, closed 35.I glanced over at her, _____ that she was very tiny but seemed well put together. A. noticing B. noticed C. having noticed D. to notice 36.You should understand the traffic rules by now. You’ve had it ______ often enough. A. explaining B. explain C. to be explained D. explained 37.I really can’t understand _______ her lie that. A. you treat B. you treating C. why treat D. you to treat 38.I don’t want _____ like I’m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair. A. to sound B. to be sounded C. sounding D. to have sounded

39.Unless _____ to speak, you should remain silence at the conference A. invited B. inviting C. being inviting D. having invited 40.When _____, the museum will be open to the public next year. A. completed B, to be completed C. being completed D. completing 41.Though ____money, his parents managed to send him to college. A. lack B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked 42._______ to the sun for too much time will do harm to one’s skin. A.Exposed B.Having exposed C.Being exposed D.After being exposed 43.Friendship is like money, easier made than ________. A. kept B. to be kept C. keeping D. being kept 44.Having been attacked by terrorists,________. A.doctors came to their rescue B. the tall building collapsed C. an emergency measure was taken D. warning was given to tourists 45.While watching TV, _______. A. The door bell rang B. we heard the door bell rings C. We heard the door bell ring D. the door bell rings 39,A;40,A;41,C;42,B;43,A;44,B;45,C


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