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英语独立主格结构


例句如下 made a monitor, I am very happy. 我被选为班长很高兴。

my friend made a monitor, I am very happy.我朋友被选为班长我很高兴。 明白以下几点: 1,过去分词(made)表达的是被动与完成,所以是“我被选为班长”。而现在分词表达的是主 动与进行 2,made a monitor

肯定做得是“状语”。当没有明确指出状语的“主语”我们默认为“主句的主 语”。既是“我”被选为班长。 3,第二句表达的意思是“我朋友被选为班长了我很高兴”。“I am very happy”还是主句,my friend made a monitor 还是做状语,只是状语的逻辑主语换成了 my friend. 4,明白"什么能够做状语的逻辑主语":那就是"名词的主格"一定不是“所有格”。所以你也千万 不要认为 my friend made a monitor 这句话有问题。

同样的道理 being a techer,I am happy. 表达的意思是 “我当了一个老师,我很高兴。” being a teacher, my mother is happy. 意思就是“妈妈当了老师,妈妈很高兴” 那要表达“我当了老师妈妈很高兴”怎么说呢? I being a teacher, mom is very happy.

此独立形式只是一个小短语,而不是主谓完整的简单句,又称之为独立分词构句。当分词意 义上的主语不是主句的主语时,必须在分词前保留意义上的主语,否则语意不通。示例: Being ill in bed, I can't go to school. Mother being ill in bed, I can't go to school. 1. 独立主结构形式可用以表时间,理由,条件,伴随状态等。 He lay on the grass, the sun shining upon him. = He lay on the grass, and the sun was shining upon him. Weather permitting, I'll start tomorrow. = If weather permits, I'll start tomorrow. School being over, the boys went home. = When school was over, the boys went home. The sun having set, we arrived at the station. = After the sun had set, we arrived at the station.

王牌重点:当独立主格结构的主语表示“一般人”,如:we, one, you 时,主语可省略, 此用法常用于下列表达方式中: generally speaking 一般来说 strictly speaking 严格地说 talking of ... 谈到 speaking of ... 说到 judging from ... 由??来判断 taking all things into consideration 把一切都考虑在内 considering ... 考虑到?? [示例] If we judge from his face, he must be ill. = Judging from his face, he must be ill. He has lots of books if we consider that he is young. = He has lots of books, considering that he is young. 2.with 复合结构也是独立主格结构形式之一。这种结构在句中作状语(表示原因,方式, 伴随等)和定语,作定语时紧随被修饰名词后。 (1) with+ 名词 + 介词短语 The woman with a baby on her back is my sister. The boy rushed into the room, with his schoolbag in his hand. (2) with + 名词 + adj. with the door open, he left the classroom. (3) with + 名词 + adv. With the gloves off, she felt cold. With the lights on, the building looks beautiful. (4) with + 名词 + 现在分词(主动) with + 名词 + 过去分词(被动) With the guide leading us, we got to the village. The boy was crying with the vase broken. (5) with + 名词 + 不定式 With the hard work to be done, we have to prepare for it. 【1】 【2】 独立主格结构(Independent Genitive) 独立主格结构有两部分组成,前一部份是名词或者代词,后一部分是非谓语动词或其 他的一些词。前后两部分具有逻辑主谓关系。独立主格结构在句中做状语,多用于书面语。 独立主格结构本身不是句子,在句子中作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、伴随等。 独立主格结构的功能 独立主格结构主要用于描绘性文字中,其作用相当于一个状语从句,常用来表示时间、 原因、条件、行为方式或伴随情况等。例如:

1) 表示时间 The meeting being over, all of us went home. 开完会后我们都回家了。 Her work done, she sat down for a cup of tea. 她干完了活,坐下来喝茶。 2) 表示条件 The condition being favourable, he may succeed. 若条件有利,他或许能成功。 3) 表示原因 There being no taxis, we had to walk. 没有出租车,我们只好步行。 He wrapped her up with great care, the night being dark and frosty. 夜又黑 又冷,所以他把她裹得严严实实的。 4) 表示伴随情况 Almost all metals are good conductors, silver being the best of all. 几乎所 有的金属都是良导体,而银则是最好的导体。(=Almost all metals are good conductors, and silver is the best of all.) 常见的独立主格结构有如下几种: 1. 名词/主格代词+现在分词。名词/主格代词与现在分词之间主谓关系。如: The girl staring at him (= As the girl stared at him), he didn”t know what to say. 姑娘两眼望着他,他不知道说什么好。 Time permitting (= If time permits), we will go for an outing tomorrow. 如 果时间允许的话,我们明天去郊游。 2. 名词/主格代词+过去分词。名词/主格代词与过去分词之间的动宾关系。如: The problems solved (= As the problems were solved), the quality has been improved. 随着问题的解决,质量已经提高了。 Her glasses broken (= Because her glasses were broken), she couldn”t see the words on the blackboard. 由于眼镜摔坏了,她看不见黑板上的字。 3. 名词/主格代词+不定式。名词/主格代词与不定式之间是主谓关系,且强调的是一 次具体性的动作。如: He is going to make a model plane, some old parts to help. 借助于一些旧零件, 他要做一个飞机模型。 They said good-bye to each other, one to go home, the other to go to the bookstore. 他们道别后,一个回了家,一个去了书店。 4. 名词/主格代词+形容词。如: An air accident happened to the plane, nobody alive. 那架飞机遭遇了空难,无 一人生还。 So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off. 这么多人缺席,会议 不得不取消。 5. 名词/主格代词+副词。如: He put on his sweater wrong side out. 他把毛衣穿反了。 The meeting over, they all went home. 会议一结束,他们就都回家了。 6. 名词/主格代词+介词短语。如: The boy goes to the classroom, book in hand. 那男孩手里拿着书去教室。 Mary was sitting near the fire, her back towards the door. 玛丽靠近火炉坐着, 背对着门。 7. There being +名词(代词)如: There being nothing else to do, we went home. 没有别的事可做,我们就回家了。

There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed. 没有再要讨论 的事了,我宣布散会。 8. It being +名词(代词)如: It being Christmas, the government offices were closed. 由于圣诞节的缘故, 政府机关都休息。 It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于今天是假日,所有商店都关门 了。 独立主格结构的特点: 1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。 2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定 式,介词等是主谓关系。 3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。 举例: The test finished, we began our holiday. = When the test was finished, we began our holiday. 考试结束了,我们开始放假。 The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. = After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. 总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。 Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow. 如果天气允许,我们明天去看你。 This done, we went home. 工作完成后,我们才回家。 The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier. 会议结束后,每个人都想早点回家。 He came into the room, his ears red with cold. 他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏了。 He came out of the library, a large book under his arm. 他夹着本厚书,走出了图书馆 注:独立主格结构有时可在其前加上介词 with。 如:Don’t sleep with the windows open. 别开着窗睡觉。 He was lying on the bed with all his clothes on. 他和衣躺在床上。 She came in with a book in her hand. 她手里拿着一本书走了进来。 He fell asleep with the lamp burning. 他没熄灯就睡着了。 I won’t be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill. 因为妈妈有病, 我无法去度假。 He sat there with his eyes closed. 他闭目坐在那儿。 All the afternoon he worked with the door locked. 整个下午他都锁着门在房里 工作。 I can’t go out with all these clothes to wash. 要洗这些衣服,我无法出去了。 使用独立主格五点注意: 1.独立主格与状语从句的转换当状语从句的主语与主句的主语不是指同一个对象时, 可用独立主格结构取代状语从句, 但不再保留连词。 After class was over (=Class being 如: over / Class over), the students soon left the classroom.下课后,学生很快离开了 课室。

2. 不能省略 being (having been)的情形在下列两种情况下,独立主格结构中的 being (或 having been)不能省略。 (1) 独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时。如:It being Sunday, we went to church.因为 是星期天,我们去了做礼拜。 (2)在 There being+名词的结构中。如:There being no bus, we had to go home on foot.因为没有公共汽车,所以我们不得不步行回家。 3. 通常不用物主代词或冠词在“名词 (或代词) +介词短语”构成的独立主格结构中, 一般不用形容词性物主代词和冠词。 如: Miss Smith entered the classroom, book in hand. 史密斯先生走进了课室,手里拿着一本书。比较 with 的复合结构。如:Miss Smith entered the classroom, with a book in his hand. 4. 独立主格结构没有所有格形式 The chief-editor arriving, we began the meeting. 主编来主编来了,我们开始开会。(比较动名词复合结构。) 独立主格结构的用法 独立主格结构主要表示谓语动词发生的时间、原因、条件或伴随情况等,相当于一个 状语从句或并列句。 1. 用作时间状语:The work done (=After the work had been done), we went home. 工作完成后,我们就回家了。 2. 用作条件状语:Weather permitting (=If weather permits), they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow. 如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游。 3. 用作原因状语:An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=As an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night. 因为明天要发表一个重要的演讲,教授不得不熬夜到很晚。 4. 用作伴随状语:He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head (=and his hands were crossed under his head).他躺在草地上,两手交叉枕在脑后。 5.表示补充说明:We redoubled our efforts, each man working like two. 我们加 倍努力,一个人干两个人的活。 *注:独立主格结构表示时间、条件或原因时,相当于一个状语从句,一般放在句首, 表示原因时还可放在句末;表伴随状况或补充说明时,相当于一个并列句,通常放于句末。 独立主格结构妙题赏析 请看下面一道题: Not far from the school there was a garden, _________ owner seated in it playing chess with his little grandson every afternoon. A. its B. whose C. which D. that 【分析】此题很容易误选 B,许多同学会认为句中逗号后是一个非限制性的定语从句, whose 在定语从句中用作定语修饰其后的名词 owner。此分析从表面上看,似乎天衣无缝, 但实质上是错的,原因是空格后根本不是一个句子,因为没有谓语。尽管句中有两个动词, 但它们都是非谓语动词。也许有的同学认为,其中的 seated 可视为谓语动词,但是注意, seat 用作动词时,它总是及物的,其后要么接宾语,要么它就用于被动语态,所以若在 seated 前加上助动词 is,则可以选择 B(当然若将 seated 改为 sitting,也应选择 B)。 所以此题最佳答案选 A。 请再看一个类似的例子: (1) He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ translated into foreign languages. A. it B. them C. this D. that

(2) He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ were translated into foreign languages.A. it B. them C. which D. that 第(1)应选 B,而不能选 C,是因为句中的 translated 是过去分词(非谓语动词),若 选 C,则该从句无谓语;第(2)应选 C,因为句中有谓语 were translatedC。 再请看下面一例: (3) He wrote a lot of novels, and many of _________ were translated into foreign languages. A. it B. them C. which D. that 【分析】此题与上面的第(2)题不同,两句间多了一个并列连词 and,说明这是一个并 列句,故应选 B,则不能选 C。 请做做以下三题(答案均为 B): (1) There I met several people, two of _________ being foreigners. A. which B. them C. whom D. that (2) There I met several people, two of _________ were foreigners. A. which B. whom C. who D. that (3) There I met several people, and two of _________ were foreigners. A. which B. them C. whom D. that
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一、独立主格结构的概念及基本构成形式 独立主格结构(the absolute structure)是由名词或代词加上分词或分词短语构成的一种独 立结构,用于修饰整个句子,而不是一个词或词组。独立主格结构中的名词或代词与其后的 分词或分词短语构成逻辑上的主谓关系。 这种结构与主句不发生句法上的联系, 独立主格结 构的位置相当灵活,可置于主句前、主句末或主句中,常由逗号将其与主句分开。需特别注 意的是,独立主格结构与主句之间不能使用任何连接词。例如: 1)Night enshrouding the earth,nobody could make out what the dark mass was from a distance. (黑夜笼罩大地,谁也看不清远处黑压压的一片是什么东西。) 2)He lay at full length upon his stomach,his head resting upon his left forearm. (他的脊背朝天,四肢伸展,头枕着左臂,直挺挺地趴伏着。) 3)The coward was backing,his face being deathly pale,toward another room.(那个 胆小鬼向另一个房间退去,脸色煞白。) 独立主格结构多用于书面语,尤其是描述性语言中,在口语和非正式文体中,一般用从句或 两个句子来代替。例如,上述例句可变为: 1) Because night enshrouded the earth, nobody could make out what the dark mass was from a distance. 2)He lay at full length upon his stomach.His head rested upon his left forearm. 3)The coward was backing toward another room.His face was deathly pale. 二、独立主格结构的特殊构成形式 独立主格结构除上述基本构成形式,即名词/代词+分词(短语)外,还有如下特殊构成形 式。 1.名词+介词短语

1) The mayor of Hiroshima strode at a leisure pace toward the puzzled journalist, bunch a of flowers in his hands.(广岛市市长双手捧着一束鲜花,迈着方步走向那个迷惑不解的记 者。) 2)Every afternoon a very old woman hobbled past the ramshackle house,a vast load of firewood on her back.(每天下午,一个背着一大背柴禾的老妇人都会从那间东倒西歪的 房屋前蹒跚着走过。) 2.名词+形容词(短语) 1)The Trojans asleep,the Greek soldiers crept out of the hollow wooden horse.(特洛 伊人睡着了,于是希腊士兵从中空的木马里悄悄爬了出来。) 2) The wretched boy, who has recently been dragged from the forest to scrub floors in the barracks,is now sweeping away the snow,his hands numb with cold.(那个可怜的小 男孩最近刚刚从森林中被抓进兵营里打扫地板,现在他正在扫雪,手都冻麻了。) 3.名词+副词 1)This little excitement over,noth- ing was to be done but to return to a steadfast gaze at my mute companion. (一阵小小的兴奋过后,除了再去死死地盯着我的哑伴外,别无它事 可干了。) 2)This intermezzo over,he found himself surrounded by several stunning, porcelain-faced Japanese women in kimonos. (这曲子过后,他发现自己身处几位穿着和 服并且有着娇好面容的日本女人的包围之中。) 此外,with 常常用在独立主格结构前,构成介词短语作状语。这种用法中的 with 不表达什 么意义,因而常可省略。请看例句: 1)With a revolver in his right hand, Johnny hurled his muscular body against the door and smashed it down with a crash.(约翰尼右手拿着左轮手枪,健壮的身体猛扑在门上, 轰隆一声把门撞开了。) 2)The traffic inched along,with horns honking.(汽车缓慢地向前挪着,喇叭声不断响 着。) 三、独立主格结构的用法 独立主格结构在句中一般作状语,表示时间、条件、原因、伴随状况等。 1.作时间状语 1)My shoes removed,I entered a low-ceilinged room,treading cautiously on the soft tatami matting. =After my shoes were removed, I entered a low-ceilinged room, treading cautiously on the soft tatami matting.(我脱掉鞋子后,走进一间屋顶很低的房间,小心翼 翼地踩在柔软的塌塌米垫子上。) 2)The governor pondering the matter, more strikers gathered across his path.=While the governor was pondering the matter,more strikers gathered across his path.(总督 思考这个问题时,更多的罢工工人聚集在他要通过的路上。) 2.作条件状语 1)Weather permitting,they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow.=If weather permits,they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow.(如果天气允许的话,他们将 在明天组织一次海滨小游。) 2)Such being the case,you have no grounds for dismissing him.=If such is the case, you have no grounds for dismissing him.(如果情况如此的话,你没有理由解聘他。) 3.作原因状语

1)The storm drawing near,the navvy decided to call it a day.=Since the storm was drawing near,the navvy decided to call it a day.(由于暴风雨即将来临,那个挖土小工 决定收工。) 2)The Cossack being intent on his stalking,his foot touched the protruding bough that was the trigger.=Because the Cossack was intent on his stalking,his foot touched the protruding bough that was the trigger.(这位哥萨克人只顾专心致志地朝前大步走着,所 以一只脚踩上了伸出地面的树枝,那是一个机关的起动装置。) 4.作伴随状语 1)I took my ticket,and marched proudly up the platform,with my cheeses,the people falling back respectfully on either side.=I took my ticket,and marched proudly up the plat- form,with my cheeses,and the people fell back respectfully on either side.(我拿 着车票还有我的奶酪, 雄赳赳气昂昂地跨步走向月台。 人们似乎很尊敬我, 纷纷向两边退去。 ) 2)He would appear in the doorway,gray fedora pulled low over his face,his eyes sweeping the room for any sign of trouble.= He would appear in the doorway.A gray fedora was pulled low over his face,and his eyes swept the room for any sign of trouble.(他常常出现在门廊里,一顶灰色浅顶软呢帽遮住大半个脸,眼睛扫过整个房屋, 寻找滋事的迹象。) 四、独立主格结构常见出题形式及解题策略 独立主格结构是一常考项目,在各级各类考试中多以语法结构填空形式出现。例如: 1)All flights ,we decided to take a greyhound. A.were canceled B.had been canceled C.having canceled D.having been canceled 2)The production steadily,the factory needs an ever-increasing supply of raw material. A.has gone up B.is going up C.having gone up D.being gone up 此类题型的解题策略可以概括为“结构分析法”, 即首先分析句子结构, 判断句子缺少的成分, 同时注意主句与其他部分之间有无连接词,是否用逗号隔开。若有逗号而无连接词,则可对 选项部分作如下初步判断:1)选项部分可能会构成状语从句或非限制性定语从句(但二者 必须由从属连词或关系代词、关系副词引导); 2)选项部分可能会构成起状语作用的非谓语动词短语(但非谓语动词作状语时其逻辑主语 通常为主句的主语); 3)选项部分可能会构成起状语作用的独立主格结构(独立主格结构有自己的主语,并可扩 展为状语从句或独立句子)。初步判断后,即可联系句子,对照选项,作出选择。 上述例题 1)中的选项 A 和 B 与 All flights 构成了句子,但该句没有任何从属连词、关系代 词或关系副词引导, 与主句之间也无连接词, 因而是错误的, 应排除。 选项 C 和 D 与 All flights 都可构成独立主格结构,作原因状语,但根据题意,应选 D,因为“班机”是“被取消”的。 同样,例题 2)中的选项 A 和 B 与名词 the production 构成了句子,但该句无连接词连接 两个句子,因而应排除。选项 C 和 D 与 the production 都可构成独立主格结构,作原因状 语,但根据题意,“产量在稳步增长”,在逻辑上是主谓关系,应用主动语态,所以应选 C。 此外,独立主格结构也时常见于其他诸如 Cloze Test 等题型中,并能广泛运用于写作和翻 译之中。可见,掌握了独立主格结构对于学生提高综合应试能力是大有裨益的。

Choose the best from the four choices. 1.Ford tried dividing the labor,each worker a separate task. A.assigning B.assigned C.was assigned D.would be assigned 2.The lecture ,he left his seat so quietly that no one complained that his leaving disturbed the speaker. A.began B.beginning C.having begun D.being beginning 3.Such the case ,there are no grounds to justify your complaints. A.being B.is C.was D.to be 4.Darkness in,the young people lingered on merrymaking. A.set B.setting C.has set D.was set 5.With all factors ,we think this program may excel all the others in achieving the goal. A.being considered B.considering C.considered D.are considered 6.A new technique ,the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent. A. have been worked out B. to having worked out C. working out D. having been worked out 7. the top was the clear outline of a great wolf sitting still, On ears , alert, listening. A.pointed B.pointing C.are pointed D.are pointing 8.Walter offered us a lift when he was leaving the office ,but our work ,we declined the offer. A. being finished B. having finished C. not been finished D. not not had was not finished 9.There are various kinds of metals ,each its own properties. A.has B.had C.to have D.having 10.The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports,each one major point in contrast with the other. A.makes B.made C.is to make D.making Key:1—5 BCABC 6—10 DAADD

名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词;

名词(代词)+形容词;

名词(代词)+副词;

名词(代词)+不定式;

名词(代词) +介词短语构成。

1.名词+介词短语 1)The mayor of Hiroshima strode at a leisure pace toward the puzzled journalist,a bunch of flowers in his hands.(广岛市市长双手捧着一束鲜花, 迈着方步走向那个迷惑不解的记者。) 2)Every afternoon a very old woman hobbled past the ramshackle house,a vast load of firewood on her back.(每天下午,一个背着一大背柴禾的老妇人 都会从那间东倒西歪的房屋前蹒跚着走过。) 2.名词+形容词(短语) 1)The Trojans asleep,the Greek soldiers crept out of the hollow wooden horse.(特洛伊人睡着了,于是希腊士兵从中空的木马里悄悄爬了出来。) 2)The wretched boy,who has recently been dragged from the forest to scrub floors in the barracks,is now sweeping away the snow,his hands numb with cold.(那个可怜的小男孩最近刚刚从森林中被抓进兵营里打扫地板,现在他正 在扫雪,手都冻麻了。) 3.名词+副词 1)This little excitement over,noth- ing was to be done but to return to a steadfast gaze at my mute companion.(一阵小小的兴奋过后,除了再去死死 地盯着我的哑伴外,别无它事可干了。) 2)This intermezzo over,he found himself surrounded by several stunning, porcelain-faced Japanese women in kimonos.(这曲子过后,他发现自己身处 几位穿着和服并且有着娇好面容的日本女人的包围之中。) 此外,with 常常用在独立主格结构前,构成介词短语作状语。这种用法中的 with 不表达什么意义,因而常可省略。请看例句: 1)With a revolver in his right hand, Johnny hurled his muscular body against the door and smashed it down with a crash.(约翰尼右手拿着左轮手枪,健壮 的身体猛扑在门上,轰隆一声把门撞开了。) 2)The traffic inched along,with horns honking.(汽车缓慢地向前挪着,喇 叭声不断响着。)
3


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