现在分词和过去分词的区别： 在语态上，现在分词表示主动意义，过去分词表示被动意义； 在时间上，现在分词表示的动作往往正在进行或者与谓语动词同时发生，过去分词表示的动作已经完成或没有一 定的时间性。如：falling leaves 正在下落的树叶 fallen leaves 已经落在地上的树叶
一、分词的作用 1、 作定语 （1） 单个分词作定语，分词前置。如： The sleeping boy is my son. The excited people rushed into the building. He is a retired worker. （2） 分词短语作定语，分词后置；分词修饰不定代词 something 等要后置；个别分词如 give，left 等作定 语也后置。如： The girl standing under the tree is my niece. The building built last year is our library. （3） 过去分词作定语与其修饰的词是被动关系，相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。如： 1）Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists The first textbook ______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A have written B to be written C being written D written 2）What’s the language ______ in Germany? A speaking B spoken C be spoken D to speak 3) Prices of daily goods ______ through a computer can be lower than store prices. A are bought B bought C been bought D buying. 4) When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door ______ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A read B reads C to read D reading 2、 作状语 现在分词和过去分词在句中可以作时间、原因、方式、伴随、条件、结果等状语。 1)Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call. → I any letter from him, I gave him a call.(原因) 2)Given more attention, the trees could have grown better. →If the trees was given, the trees could have grown better.( ) 3)Walking along the street, I ran across my old friend. → I was walking along the street, I ran across my old friend. ( ) 4)Bitten by a snake, he was taken to hospital → he by a snake, he was taken to hospital．( ) 5)Though defeated, he didn’t lose heart. →Though he , he didn’t lose heart. ( ) 6)He lay on the grass, looking into the sky. → He lay on the grass, and into the sky. ( ) 7)Please answer the question using another way.( ) 8)______ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army. A Followed B Followed by C Being followed D Having been followed 9)There was a terrible noise______ the sudden burst of light.
A followed B following C to be followed D being followed 10)______ , liquids can be changed into gases. A Heating B To be heated C Heated D Heat * 注意： （1） 选择现在分词还是过去分词，关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是由主句的主语发出，分词就用现在 分词，反之就用过去分词。试比较： （Being）Used for a long time, the book looks old.由于用了很长时间，这本书看上去很旧。 Using the book, I find it useful.在使用的过程中，我发现这本书很有用。 （2） 分词作状语时，其逻辑主语必须和主句的主语一致，如果不一致，就用独立主格结构，即在分词前加 上它的逻辑主语。 1) When______, the museum will be open to the public next year. A completed B completing C being completed D to be completed 2) ______ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. A Having suffered B Suffering C To suffer D Suffered （3）熟记一些固定或特殊的用法，搭配或结构，常使用过去分词做状语的结构(源于系表结构） Lost in, devoted to, dressed in, determined to, addicted to, faced with, engaged in, based on, caught in, prepared for, tired of, disappointed at, seated, hidden, exhausted 等 considering ， judging by/ from, according to, including, owing to , talking/ speaking of, taking … into consideration/ account, supposing / providing that ①.____ with such great difficulty, Jack felt at a loss ______. A. Facing; what to say B. Faced; what to say C. Having faced; how to tell D. Being faced; how to speak ②（湖南）_______in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed ③（江苏）_______in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. A. Having lost B. Lost C. Being lost D. Losing ④Mr Smith , ____of the ___speech, started to read a novel. (03/20 北京春) A.tired; boring B. tiring; bored C. tired ,bored D. tiring; boring ⑤ ___ there, he wasn’t noticed by her. A. Seated B. Seating C. To seat D. Sat （4）独立主格结构：独立主格结构是由名词或代词加上分词等构成的一种独立结构，用于修饰整个句子，作 状语。独立主格结构中的名词或代词与其后的分词等构成逻辑上的主谓关系。这种结构与主句不发生句法上的联 系，它的位置相当灵活，可置于主句前、主句末或主句中，常由逗号将其与主句分开。需特别注意的是，独立主 格结构与主句之间不能使用任何连接词。 There being no bus, we had to walk home. 由于没有公共汽车，我们只好走回家。 He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. 他上课专心听讲，眼睛紧盯着黑板。 Weather permitting，they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow． 如果天气允许的话，他们将在明天组织一次海滨郊游。 The key lost, she couldn’t enter the room 3、 作表语 现在分词作表语多表示主语具有的特征，过去分词作表语多指主语所处的状态。如： The film is touching. She looked tired with cooking.
He remained standing beside the table. —I’m very______ with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious. —Mm, it does have a ______ smell. A pleasant; pleased B pleased; pleased C pleasant; pleasant D pleased; pleasant 4、 作宾语补足语 分词和不定式一样，在一些感官动词或使役动词后作宾语补足语。如： I smell something (burn)in the kitchen. I heard him (sing) the song in the next room. I heard my name (call) from behind. I can’t make myself (understand) in English. I found my car missing I’ll have my watch repaired.我想把我的手表修一下。 The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ the next year. A carry out B carrying out C carried out D to carry out 作插入语 其结构是固定的，意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。 generally speaking 一般说来 talking of (speaking of) 说到 strictly speaking 严格地说 judging from 从· · ·判断 all things considered 从整体来看 taking all things into consideration 全面看来。如： Judging from his face, he must be ill.从他的脸色看，他一定是病了。 Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs.总的来说，狗比猪跑得快。 二，分词的时态 1、 与主语动词同时。如： Arriving there, they found the boy dead.刚一到那儿，他们就发现那男孩死了。 The secretary worked late into the night, ______ a long speech for the president. A to prepare B preparing C prepared D was preparing 2、 先于主语动词 分词作时间状语，如果先于主动词的动作，且强调先后，要用 having done。如： Having finished his homework, he went out for a walk. After he had finished his homework, he went out for a walk. ______ a reply, he decided to write again. A Not receiving B Receiving not C Not having received D Having not received 三，分词的语态 1、 通常情况下，现在分词表示主动，过去分词表示被动。如： He is the man giving you/who gave you the book 他就是给你书的那个人 She is the girl stopped by/who was stopped by the car.她就是那个被车拦住的女孩。 2、 不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生。像：gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned 等 词。如： a retired person 一个退休的人 a fallen ball 一个落下来的球 a burnt-out match 烧完了的火柴 先来测一测 做下列各题并将其非谓语动词所属用法的题号填入相应地方： 在句中的作用 动名词 不定式 现在分词 过去分词
作主语 作宾语 作表语 作定语 作状语 作宾语补足语 作主语补足语 ★非谓语动词具体有哪些基本形式？它们分别表达什么具体意义？（以 do 为例） 类 主动语态 别 一般式 进行式 完成式 被动语态 一般式 不定式 __________ (主动和后时) ___________ (主动和同时) ___________ (主动和先时) ___________ (被动和后时) _____________ (被动和先时) _________(主动/先时) ____________( 被 动 / 同 时) _______________ (被动/先时) _______(vt 被 动 和先时/vi 只表先 时不表被动) 动名词/现在分词 _______(主动/同时) 过去分词
2014 年高考 1（2014 安徽卷）While waiting for the opportunity to get , Henry did his best to perform his duty. A. promote B. promoted C. promoting D. to promote 2（2014 北京卷） Last night, there were millions of people _______ the opening ceremony live on TV. A. watch B. to watch C. watched D. watching 3（2014 北京卷） There are still many problems ______ before we are ready for a long stay on the Moon. A. solving B. solved C. being solved D.to be solved 4（2014 北京卷）The film star wears sunglasses. Therefore, he can go shopping without ______.. A. recognizing B. being recognized C. having recognized D. having been recognized 5（2014 大纲卷） Toady there are more airplanes _____ more people than ever before in the skies. A. carry B. carrying C. carried D. to be carrying 6（2014 福建卷） the past year as an exchange student in Hong Kong, Linda appears more mature than those of her age. A. Spending B. Spent C. Having spent D. To spend 7（2014 福建卷）30. For those with family members far away, the personal computer and the phone are important in staying________. A. connected B. connecting C. to connect D. to be connected 8（2014 湖南卷）____your own needs and styles of communication is as important as learning to convey your affection and emotions. A. Understanding B. To be understood C. Being understood D. Having understood （2014 湖南卷） 9 . There is no greater pleasure than lying on my back in the middle of the grassland, _____at the night sky. A. to stare B. staring C. stared D, having stared
10（2014 湖南卷） ourselves from the physical and mental tensions，we each need deep thought and inner quietness. A. Having freed B. Freed C. To freeD. Freeing 11（2014 江苏卷）. His lecture____, a lively question-and-answer session followed. A. being given B. having given C. to be given D. having been given 12（2014 江苏卷）— ! Somebody has left the lab door open. A. Dear me B. Hi, there —Don't look at me. C. Thank goodness D. Come on 13（2014 江西卷）. ___nearly all our money , we couldn’t afford to stay at a hotel . A. Having spent B. To spent C. Spent D. To have spent 14（2014 江西卷）34.He is thought ___foolishly .Now he has no one but himself to blame for losing the job . A. to act B. to have acted C. acting D. having acted 15（2014 山东卷） There is a note pinned to the door______ when the shop will open again. A. saying B. says C. said D. having said 16（2014 山东卷）. It’s standard practice for a company like this one______ a security officer. A. employed B. being employed C. to employ D. employs 17（2014 陕西卷） It’s quite hot today. Do you feel like _________ for a swim? A. to go B. going C go D. having gone 18（2014 陕西卷）. ________ the difficult maths problem, I have consulted Professor Russell several times. A. Working out B. Worked out C. To work out D. Work out 19（2014 四川卷） The manager was satisfied to see many new products ______ after great effort. A. having developed B. to develop C. developed D. develop 20（2014 四川卷） — I hope to take the computer course. A. To find out B. Finding out — Good idea. ____ more about it, visit this website. C. To be finding out D. Having found out 21（2014 天津卷） Anxiously, she took the dress out of the package and tried it on, only ______ it didn’t fit A. to find B. found C. finding D. having found 22（2014 天津卷） Clearly and thoughtfully________, the book inspires confidence in students who wish to seek their own answers. A. writing B. to write C. written D. being written 23（2014 浙江卷 ） Annie Salmon, disabled, is attended throughout her school days by a nurse _______ to guard her. A. to appoint B. appointing C. appointed D. having appointed 24（2014 重庆卷 ） The producer comes regularly to collect the cameras ______ to our shop for quality problems. A.turning B. returned C. to turn D. to be returned 25（2014 重庆卷 ）.Group activities will be organized after class _____ children develop team spirit. A. helping B. having helped C. helped D. to help 2013 年高考 1.（福建卷）22. _____ basic first-aid techniques will help you respond quickly to emergencies. A. Known B. Having known C. Knowing D. Being known 2. （福建卷） 32. Anyone, once ____ positive for H7N9 flu virus, will receive free medical treatment from our government. A. to be tested B. being tested C. tested D. to test 3.（安徽卷）32. ______in the early 20th century, the school keeps on inspiring children’s love of art. A. To found B. Founding C. Founded D. Having founded 4. （全国统一考试）5. I got to the office earlier that day, the 7:30 train from Paddington A. caught B. to have caught C. to catch D. having caught 5.（全国课标 I 卷）22. ----They might just have a place ______on the writing course. -----why don't you give it a try? A. leave B. left C. leaving D. to leave 6. （全国课标 I 卷）28. The driver wanted to park his car near the roadside but was asked by the police . A .not to do B. not to C. not do D. do not
7. （全国课标 I 卷）35. The sunlight is white and blinding, hard-edged shadows on the ground. A. throwing B. being thrown C. to throw D. to be thrown 8. (江苏卷) 24. Lionel Messi, _____ the record for the most goals in a calendar year, is considered the most talented football player in Europe. A. set B. setting C. to set D. having set 9. (江苏卷) 31. Shortly after suffering from a massive earthquake and _____ to ruins, the city took on a new look. A. reducing B. reduced C. being reduced D. having reduced 10. （北京卷）21．Volunteering gives you a chance lives, including your own． A． change B． changing C． changed D． to change 11. （北京卷）24． the course very difficult, she decided to move to a lower level． A． Find B． Finding C． To find D． Found 12. （北京卷）29． When we saw the road with snow, we decided to spend the holiday at home． A． Block B． to block C． blocking D． blocked 13. （湖南卷）25. The sun began to rise in the sky, ________ the mountain in golden light. A. bathed B. bathing C. to have bathed D. have bathed 14. （湖南卷）29. You cannot accept an opinion ________ to you unless it is based on facts. A. offering B. to offer C. having offered D. offered 15. （湖南卷）30. Every day ________ a proverb aloud several times until you have it memorized. A. read B. reading C. to read D. reads 16. （湖南卷）31. ____ warm at night, I would fill the woodstove, then set my alarm clock for midnight so I could refill it. A. Staying B. Stayed C. To stay D. Stay 17. （江西卷）34.If _____ to look after luggage for someone else, inform the police at once. A. asked B. to ask C. asking D. having asked 18. （山东卷）25. The room is empty except for a bookshelf _____ in one corner. A. standing B. to stand C. stands D. stood 19. （山东卷）29. I stopped the car ____ a short break as I was feeling tired. A. take B. taking C. to take D. taken 20. （山东卷）33. ________ at the cafeteria before, Tina didn’t want to eat there again. A. Having eaten B. To eat C. Eat D. Eating 21. （四川卷）8. _______ which university to attend, the girl asked her teacher for advice. A. Not knowing B. Knowing not C. Not known D. Known not 22. （四川卷）10. The airport _______ next year will help promote tourism in this area. A. being completed B. to be completed C. completed D. having been completed 23. (天津卷) 10. In some languages, 100 words make up half of all words in daily conversations. A. using B. to use . having used D. used 24.（上海卷） 31. The judges gave no hint of what they thought, so I left the room really ________. A. to be worried B. to worry C. having worried D. worried 25. (重庆卷) 30. When I was little, my mother used to sit by my bed, me stories till I till asleep, A. having told B. telling C. told D. to tell 26. (重庆卷)34. The engine just won't start. Something seems wrong with it. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone 27. (辽宁卷) 28. Laura was away in Paris for over a week. When she got home, there was a pile of mail ____for her. A. waited B. to wait C. waiting D. was waiting 28.（浙江卷）7. ____how others react to the book you have just read creates an added pleasure. （3） Hearing B. Hear C. Having heard D. To be hearing
29.（浙江卷）There are some health problems that, when ____in time, can become bagger ones later on. A.not treated B. not being treated C. not to be treated D. not having been treated 30.(上海卷）34. Young people may risk ________ deaf if they are exposed to very loud music every day. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone 31.(上海卷 35. Sophia got an e-mail ________ her credit card account number. A. asking for B. ask for C. asked for D. having asked for 32.(上海卷 37. ________ at the photos, illustrations, title and headings and you can guess what the reading is about. A. To look B. Looking C. Having looked D. Look 33.（陕西卷）13. Let those in need ______that we will go all out to help them. A. to understand B. understand C. understanding D. understood 34.（陕西卷）14. The witnesses _____by the police just now gave very different descriptions of the fight. A. questioned B. being questioned C. to be questioned D. having questioned 35.(上海卷）32. The students are looking forward to having an opportunity ________ society for real-life experience. A. explore B. to explore C. exploring D. explored 2012 高考 1.(2012 全国卷 I)28. The party will be held in the garden, weather _______. A. permitting B. to permit C. permitted D. permit 2.(2012 全国卷 I)32. Film has a much shorter history, especially when _______ such art forms as music and painting. A. having compared to B. comparing to C. compare to D. compared to 3.(2012 全国卷 II)10. Tony lent me the money, ___ that I’d do as much for him. A. hoping B. to hope C. hoped D. having hoped 4.(2012 全国卷 II)15. The old man sat in front of the television every evening, happy ___ anything that happened to be on. A. to watch B. watching C. watched D. to have watched 5.(2012 北京卷)23. One learns a language by making mistakes and ______ them. A. corrects B. correct C. to correct D. correcting 6.(2012 北京卷)27. _______ with care, one tin will last for six weeks. A. Use B. Using C. Used D. To use 7.(2012 北京卷)32. Birds’ singing is sometimes a warning to other birds ________ away. A. to stay B. staying C. stayed D. stay 8.(2012 上海卷)27. As Jack left his membership card at home, he wasn't allowed into the sports club. A. going B. to go C. go D. gone 9.(2012 上海卷)33. When Peter speaks in public, he always has trouble _ the right things to say. A. thinking of B. to think of C. thought of D. think of 10.(2012 上海卷)36. The club, _ _ 25 years ago, is holding a party for past and present members. A. founded B. founding C. being founded D. to be founded 11.(2012 上海卷) 39. "Genius" is a complicated concept, _ _ many different factors. A. involved B. involving C. to involve D. being involved 12.(2012 天津卷)11. He got up late and hurried to his office, _________the breakfast untouched. A. left B. to leave C. leaving D. having left 13.(2012 江苏卷) 31. ________ an important decision more on emotion than on reason, you will regret it sooner or later. A. Based B. Basing C. Base D. To base 14.(2012 安徽卷)24. I remembered ________ the door before I left the office, but forgot to turn off the lights. A. locking B. to lock C. having locked D. to have locked 15.(2012 安徽卷)30. When ________ for his views about his teaching job, Philip said he found it very interesting and
rewarding. A. asking B. asked C. having asked D. to be asked 16.(2012 湖南卷) 21. We’ve had a good start, but next, more work needs ________ to achieve the final success. A. being done B. do C. to be done D. to do 17.(2012 湖南卷)23. Time, ________ correctly, is money in the bank. A. to use B. used C. using D. use 18.(2012 湖南卷)31. The lecture, ________ at 7：00 pm last night, was followed by an observation of the moon with telescopes. A. starting B. being started C. to start D. to be started 19.(2012 福建卷)28.China recently tightened its waters controls near the Huangyan Island to prevent Chinese fishing boats from ______in the South China Sea. A. attacking B. having attacked C. being attacked D. having been attacked 20.(2012 福建卷)34.Pressed from his parents，and _____that he has wasted too much time, the boy is determined to stop playing video games. A. realizing B. realized C. to realize D. being realized 21.(2012 陕西卷)15.________ in a long queue, we waited for the store to open to buy a New iPad. A. Standing B. To stand C.Stood D. Stand 22.(2012 陕西卷)22. If he takes on this work, he will have no choice but ______ an even greater challenge. A. meets B. meeting C. meet D. to meet 23.(2012 山东卷)26. George returned after the war, only _______ that his wife had left him. A. to be told B. telling C. being told D. told 24.(2012 山东卷)35. After completing and signing it, please return the form to us in the envelope ________. A. providing B. provided C. having provided D. provide 25.(2012 重庆卷)23. ________ to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film. A. Having been asked B. To ask C. Having asked D. To be asked 26.(2012 重庆卷)28. We’re having a meeting in half an hour. The decision ________ at the meeting will influence the future of our company. A. to be made B. being made C. made D. having been made 27.(2012 四川卷)6. Tom took a taxi to the airport, only ________ his plane high up in the sky. A. finding B. to find C. being found D. to have found 28.(2012 四川卷) 8. I looked up and noticed a snake ________ its way up the tree to catch its breakfast. A. to wind B. wind C. winding D. wound 29.(2012 四川卷)12. Before driving into the city, you are required to get your car________. A. washed B. wash C. washing D. to wash 30.(2012 江西卷)33．Having finished her project, she was invited by the school to the new students. A．speaking B．having spoken C．to speak D．to have spoken 31.(2012 江西卷)35．John has really got the job because he showed me the official letter ______ him it. A．offered B．offering C．to offer D．to be offered 32.(2012 浙江卷)3.No matter how bright a talker you are, there are times when it's better _____ silent. A. remain B. be remaining C. having remained D. to remain 33.(2012 浙江卷)11. "It's a such nice place," Mother said as she sat at the table________ for customs. A. to be reserved B. Living reserved C. reserving D. reserved 34.(2012 辽宁卷)25. The old couple often take a walk after supper in the park with their pet dog them. A. to follow B. following C. followed D. follows 35.(2012 辽宁卷)26. Rod loves clocks. However, he never manages to put them together again. A. taking apart B. giving away C. making up D. turning off
36.(2012 辽宁卷)29. This machine is very easy A. operating B. to be operating
. Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes. C. operated D. to operate