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高中英语语法


名词的分类
个体名词 teacher, bus,…..
people, class,….

可数名词 普通名词 不可数名词 名词
集体名词 物质名词 rice, air, water,… 抽象名词 knowledge, friendship

专有名词 Tom, China, the Great Wall, M

ay, Teachers‘ Day
人名、地名及某些人和事物专有的名称 注意:专有名词的第一个字母要大写

单数:a teacher, an apple, one boy 个体名词 复数:many teachers, a number of apples, a lot of/lots of/some boys, 只有复数形式的 集体名词 people, cattle, police 只有复数意思的: 作整体为单数,作成员为复数

可数名词

可数名词复数规则变化
情况 一般情况 以s,x,ch,sh,结尾的 以辅音+y结尾的 以辅音+o 结尾的 以f或fe结尾的 加法 加-s 加-es 去y加-ies 多数加-es 把f/fe改成ves 例词 brother; school bus; watch; dish *1 lady;country; hero; tomato half; knife *2 *3 *4

Notes: *1:stomach

stomachs

*2:以元音+y 或 以专有名词+y结尾的名词,直接在词尾加-s. boys; toys; days; Germanys; Henrys; Marys

*3: 以元音+o videos; studios 以oo结尾 zoos; bamboos;kangaroos 直接在词尾加-s.

一些外来词(特别是音乐方面的词) pianos 一些缩写词 kilos; photos; memos

一些专有名词 Eskimos; Filipinos
*4:以f/fe结尾只加-s的词:

proofs;gulfs; cliffs; roofs;serfs; beliefs;chiefs

复数不规则变化:1.变字母或加字母
1.man 2. oo 3. +en 4. ouse ice ee men Eg: woman– women; chairman-chairmen

Eg:foot-feet; tooth-teeth; goose-geese
Eg:child-children; ox-oxen Eg: mouse-mice; louse-lice(虱子)

有些外来词的不规则复数形式: Eg: analysis-analyses; basis-bases; thesis-theses; crisis-crises criterion-criteria; phenomenon-phenomena; medium-media

复数不规则变化:2.单复数同形
用单数表示:sheep, deer, fish; Chinese, Japanese; yuan, jiao, fen, jin, mu

用复数表示:means, works, species, series
*dollars, pounds…

只有复数形式的情况: trousers(裤子); glasses(眼镜); compasses(圆规) glasses, gloves,

shoes, scissors, socks, handcuffs(手铐), jeans(牛仔裤), a

pair of

thanks; clothes; remains; goods; earnings(薪水), savings(储 蓄),findings(调查结果), surroundings(环境), greetings(致敬), ruins, twins, resources, woods, forces(军队), arms(军火), plastics(塑料制品), manners(礼貌), greens(青菜), times(时代), sands(沙滩), works(工厂,作品)contents(内容), congratulations, tears, ashes, …..

视为整体时作单数看,突出它的成员时作复数看。 family; team; class; group; army; audience; crew; government; club; company; public; Eg: His family isn‘t large. His family are all music lovers.

?

Some ______ visited our school last Wednesday. A.German B.Germen C.Germans D.Germens

1.6 不同国家的人的单复数 名称 总称(谓语用复数) 一个人 两个人 中国人 the Chinese a Chinese two Chinese 瑞士人 the Swiss a Swiss two Swiss 澳大利亚人the Australians an Australian two Australians 俄国人 the Russians a Russian two Russians 意大利人 the Italians an Italian two Italians 希腊人 the Greek a Greek two Greeks 法国人 the French a Frenchman two Frenchmen 日本人 the Japanese a Japanese two Japanese 美国人 the Americans an American two Americans 印度人 the Indians an Indian two Indians 加拿大人 the Canadians a Canadian two Canadians 德国人 the Germans a Germans two Germans 英国人 the English an Englishman two Englishmen 瑞典人 the Swedish a Swede two Swedes

国家人的名词需要记住三种情况: 1、单复数同形:Chinese; Japanese; Swiss 2、需要变形:an Englishman – Englishmen an Frenchman- Frenchmen 3、其他加 –s :German – Germans

复合名词的复数形式:
1.词末+-s :

film-goers ; forget-me-nots; grown-ups
2.主体名词变为复数形式: lookers-on; editors-in-chief; sons-in-law 3.两个组成部分皆变为复数: two women doctors; many men cooks

这种形式的第一个名词必须是man或woman two boy friends

? 在短语中用复数形式的名词。如:do exercises, take turns, take notes, make repairs,in high spirits, as follows, hurt one’s feelings, in rags, in dozens, make friends with…, shake hands with…,

? 在有些短语中,名词用单复数均可。如:make
faces / a face, play jokes/a joke on sb.,have talkes/a talk with…
? 在有的短语中名词用单复数,意思有差别。如: have a word with sb.(同某人说句话),have words with sb.(同某人吵架)

不可数名词

物质名词beer; cake; cloth; cotton; fur; ice; paint; paper; soil; grass; coffee…

抽象名词education; love; policy; trust; nature; fashion; silence; truth… 不加a/an; 不加s much/a little/a great deal of/a large amount of/a lot of/lots of/some + 不可数名词

物质名词转变成可数名词
a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时。 Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (U) These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (C) b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,名词可数。 This factory produces steel. (U) We need various steels. (C) c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。 Our country is famous for tea. Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。 d. a heavy rain/snow rains (雨季)snows (积雪)waters(海域)…

抽象名词转变成可数名词
beauty(美,美貌)---a beauty(一个美人或美物) danger(危险)—a danger failure(失败)—a failure (一件危险的事或一个危险的人) (一件失败的事或一个失败的人)

honour(光荣)—an honour(带来荣誉的人或事) must( 必须)—a must(一件必要的事或物) pity(遗憾)—a pity(一件可惜的事)

service(服务)—a service(一个服务机构) success(成功)—a success (一件成功的事或一个成功的人) surprise(惊奇)—a surprise(一件令人吃惊的事) pleasure(乐趣)—a pleasure(一件有趣的事) worry(担心)—a worry (一件令人担心的事或一个令人担忧的人) experience(经验)—an experience(一次经历)

four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations 四个现代化 many interests 许多兴趣

不可数名词的量的表达---―a(数词)+单位词+of ‖

1. 表个数:piece(张,片,块,份) article(件) item(条) block(大块) set(台,套)sheet(张, 块) 如:some articles of furniture, four items of news 2. 以形状表个数: cake(块), bar(条),ear(穗), grain(粒),sheaf(捆),slice(薄片), pile(堆), loaf (块), flight(楼梯的一段), drop(滴) 如:a bar of chocolate, two ears of corn, a grain of rice 3. 以容器表数量:cup,bowl, bucket,box,spoonful(匙) 4. 以行为状态表数量:fit(一阵) flash(闪光,显露) ray(线) 如:a fit of anger(一阵怒火),a flash of lighting (一道闪电), a ray of hope(一线希望)

有些名词可以兼作可数名词和不可数名词。 a glass ( 玻璃杯 ) glass ( 玻璃 ) copper ( 铜 ) tin ( 锡 ) a copper ( 铜币/板 ) a tin ( 罐头,听头 ) a paper ( 报纸,证件,论文 ) an iron (熨斗 )

paper ( 纸 )
iron (铁 ) wood ( 木头 ) gold (金子 ) youth (青春 ) power ( 力量 ) beauty ( 美 )

a wood ( 树林 )
a gold (金牌 ) a youth (年青人 ) a power ( 大国 ) a beauty ( 美人,美的东西 )

pleasure( 愉快 )
relation(关系)

a pleasure( 使人感到愉快的事 )
a relation(亲戚)

英语中有许多对词,一个可数,一个不可数。
a poem(一首诗 ) a machine(一台机器 ) a job(一件工作 ) a laugh(一个笑声 ) poetry(诗歌总称 ) machinery(机器总称 ) work(工作 ) laughter(笑声 )

a permit(许可证 )
a garment (一件衣裳 ) a bag(case) (一件行李 ) a loaf (一只面包 ) a hair(一根头发 )

permission(允许 )
clothing(衣裳总称 ) luggage, baggage(行李 ) bread(面包 ) hair( 头发)

名词的格

? 所有格的形式: 有生命的后面加 ’s,如: Mary‘s book 以 –s 结尾的复数名词所有格在后面仅加 ’, 如: Teachers‘ Day, the students‘ reading-room 以 –s 结尾的专有名词所有格,如: Engels‘s works 或Engels‘ works

? ‘s 结尾的所有格形式多用于有生命的东西的 名词。但有时其它的名词也可以,如: today‘s newspaper, fifteen minutes‘ ride等与 时间有关的名词。 ? 凡不能加 ’s 构成所有格的名词,都可以与 of 结成短语,来表示所有格关系。就是有生 命的东西的名词也可如此,特别是当这个名 词有较长的定语时。如: Do you know the name of the girl standing at the gate?

? 一个名词所有格所修饰的词,如果前面已经 提到,往往可以省略,避免前后重复。如: This is not my pen, but Mary‘s. ? 有时某些 ’s 结尾的所有格形式可以表示地 点,如某人的家或店铺、教堂等: We can meet at Mary‘s. He went to his sister‘s for dinner yesterday. I had the dress made at the tailor‘s at the corner of the street. Last week we visited St. Paul‘s.

属格 形式

应用场合 用在表示有生命的名词后 用在时间名词后

举例

's属格

用在距离,长度名词后 用在地点名词后 用在天体名词后 用在价格名词后

Tom and Mike's room(两人共有 Tom's and Mike's rooms(两人分 别所有) three weeks' leave, today's paper twenty miles' journey
China's industry the earth's surface a dollar's worth

of属格 用在表无生命事物名词后 the door of our classroom 名词前有a, some, any, few, a friend of my brother's 双重 no, several 属格 several classmates of his 等词修饰时

名词所有格(The Possessive Case of Nouns)
some patterns: 1. I‘ll take the risk for friendship’s sake. (为了友谊)

(黔驴技穷) 2. She was at her wit’s end.
3. Now they could sing at their heart’s content. (尽情地) 4. We should get the children out of harm’s way. (不受损害) 5. We had best keep them at arm’s length. (保持距离) 6. For goodness’ sake,stop arguing. (看在上帝的份上)

7. Jane got the money’s worth out of the coat. (很合算)

名词在句子中的作用
名词在句子中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语、 补语等。 名词作定语时,需注意: an enemy soldier enemy soldiers several _______________ boy students a boy student three ____________ men teachers a man teacher three _____________ women doctors a woman doctor three ______________ a shoe store ___________ (一家鞋店)

指点迷津

is 1. Ten years ______(is ,are) short time for me. is 2. A pair of shoes ______(is, are) under the bed. is 3. The number of the students in our school _____(is ,are) 2,000. is 4. The woman with two children ______( is ,are ) coming

here.
am 5. Neither he nor I _____(are, am ) an American.

指点迷津

is 6. Maths ______(are, is ) hard to learn for the boy. women teachers 7. They are all _______________( woman, teachers ; women teachers). is 8. The population of China _______(are, is ) over 1,300,000,000. people 9. There are many ______(peoples,people )in the street in summer. has 10. One of the students ______(have, has) gone to Shanghai.

C 1.Several _____ are talking under the tree.And they are______. A.woman;children B.woman;child C.women;children 2.—How far is your school from here? —Not very far.It's about twenty C A.minute's

walk.(2000杭州)

3. There are three
A.people

B.minutes C.minutes' A in my family. (2004长春) B. person

C. child 4. Most students can go to college for further A A. education 5. This is B. information C.science

in our city.

B bedroom. The twin sister like it very much.

A. Ann and Jane B. Ann and Jane‘s C.Ann‘s and Jane‘s

The Browns is going to visit China. The Browns are going to visit China.

(Ⅹ ) (√ )

The young is dancing there.
The young are dancing there. Physics are very difficult to learn. Physics is very difficult to learn. We have five Germen in this meeting.

(Ⅹ )
(√ ) ( Ⅹ) (√ ) (Ⅹ )

We have five Germans in this meeting.

(√ )

This is one of the English-Chinese dictionary. ( Ⅹ ) This is one of the English-Chinese dictionaries. ( √ )

选择填空: ( D ) 1. Please give me ______ paper. A. one B. a piece C. a D. a piece of ( D ) 2. This table is made of_______. A. many glass B. some glasses C. glasses D. glass ( B ) 3.Bill runs fast. He won the _____ 800 metre race yesterday. A.boys B.boys‘ C.boy D.boy?s . ( A ) 4. Some ______ came to our school for a visit that day. A. Germans B. Germen C. Germany D. Germanies ( C ) 5. In the picture there are many______ and two_______. A. sheeps; foxes B. sheeps; foxes C. sheep; foxes D. sheep;foxs

( B ) 6. This is not my cap, but my _______.

A. brothers

B. brother‘s C. brothers‘ D. brother

( B )7.They write most of their_______ in English. A. business letter C. businesses B. business letters D. businesses letters

( D ) 8. _____are____for cutting things. A. Knife, used B. Knives, using C. Knife, using D. Knives, used

( A ) 9. John bought_____for himself yesterday. A. two pairs of shoes B. two pair of shoe C. two pair of shoes D. two pairs shoes ( A ) 10.Excuse me, where is the______? A. men's room B. mens' room C. men's rooms D. men rooms

根据所给单词的正确形式填空: ideas (idea) 1. Different people may have different _____. 2. I often go to work on foot . (foot) 3. I know one of the boys . (boy) 4. Mr. Brown is wearing a pair of glasses . (glass) 5. Please give them their photos . (photo) 6. Are there any watches in the box? (watch) 7. There are twelve in a year. (month) months tomatoes 8. Would you like some ? (tomato) 9. Look at those people in the boats! (people) 10. Look! The women are singing. (woman) Teachers‘ 11. September 10th is Day. (teacher) 12. Jim has some knives. (knife) 13. How much are these vegetables ? (vegetable) 14. My school is twenty minutes‘ ________ walk from here. (minute) Lucy‘s (Lucy) 15. The girl under the tree is a friend of________.

历年高考试题
1. _______ turn green in spring. (NMET 1986) A. Leaf B. Leafs C. Leave D. Leaves 2. He dropped the _______ and broke it. A. cup of coffee B. coffee’s cup C. cup for coffee D. coffee cup (NMET 1993) 3. I need _______ cloth, for I’m going to make _______ clothes. (上海 1993) A. a lot of; many B. much; much C. many; many D. many; a lot

4. He gained his _______ by printing _______ of famous writers. (NMET 1995) A. wealth; work B. wealths; works C. wealths; work D. wealth; works 5. Many countries are increasing their use of natural gas, wind and other forms of _______. A. energy B. source C. power D. material
(上海 1996)

6. You’ll find this map of great _______ in helping you to get round London. (NMET 1998) A. price B. cost C. value D. usefulness

7. ---- Who did you spend last weekend with? ---- _______ . (上海 1998) A. Palmer’s B. The Palmers’ C. The Palmers D. The Palmer’s 8. My parents always let me have my own _______ of living. (上海 1998) A. way B. method C. manner D. fashion 9. The lion is considered the king of the forest as it is a(n) _______ of courage and power. A. example B. sign C. mark D. symbol
(上海 1998)

10. We volunteered to collect money to help the _______ of the earthquake. (上海 1998) A. victims B. folks C. fellows D. villagers 11. If you don’t take away all your things from the desk, there won’t be enough _______ for my stationery. (上海 1998) A. area B. place C. room D. surface 12. It is widely accepted that young babies learn to do things because certain acts lead to _______ . (上海 2000) A. rewards B. prizes C. awards D. results

13. In the botanic garden we can find a(n) _______ of plants that range from tall trees to small flowers. (上海 2001) A. species B. group C. amount D. variety 14. ---- Can you shoot that bird at the top of the tree? ---- No, it’s out of _______ . (上海 2001) A. range B. reach C. control D. distance 15. The life of London is made up of many different _______ . (上海 2001) A. elements B. sections C. material D. realities

16. For the sake of her daughter’s health, she decided to move to a warm _______ . A. weather B. temperature C. season D. climate (上海 2002) 17. To regain their ______ after an exhausting game, the players lay in the grass. (上海 2002) A. force B. energy C. power D. health 18. I saw Bob play the piano at John’s party and on that _______ he was simply brilliant. A. scene B. circumstance C. occasion D. situation (上海 2002)

19. It can’t be a(n) _______ that four jewelry stores were robbed in one night. (上海 2002) A. coincidence B. accident C. incident D. chance 20. According to the recent research, heavy coffee drink and heart attack is not necessarily _______ and effect. (上海 2002) A. reason B. impact C. fact D. cause 21. ---- I’m sorry I stepped outside for a smoke. I was very tired. ---- There is no _______ for this while you are on duty. (上海 2003) A.reason B.excuse C.cause D.explanation

22. The manager has got a good business ________ so the company is doing well. A.idea B.sense C.thought D.thinking (2003北京春季) 23. Don’t leave matches or cigarettes on the table within ______ of little children. (2004湖北) A. hand B. reach C. space D. distance 24. The environmentalists and wild goats’ _______ on the vast grasslands was a good indication of the better environment. (2004上海) A. escape B. absence C. attendance D. appearance

25. The village is far away from here indeed. It‘s _____ walk. (2004上海春季) A . a four hour B. a four hour's C. a four-hours D. a four hours’ 26. I have read the material several times but it doesn't make any ________ to me. A. meaning B. importance C. sense D. significance
(2004上海春季)

问题1: --- How many --- Four. A.stomaches C.stomachs

does a cow have? B.stomach D.stomachies

?

以 s, sh, ch, x等结尾的名词变复数时加 –es; 但如果以 –ch 结尾的名词发音为 [k]时,只加 –s。

另外,以辅音字母 +y 结尾的名词变复数时,需将
y 变成 i,再加 -es;以元音字母 +y 结尾的则直接 加 -s。以辅音字母加 y 结尾的专有名词变复数时, 也直接加 -s。

问题2: The ______ of the building are covered with lots of ______. A.roofs; leaves B.rooves; leafs C.roof; leaf D.roofs; leafs

?

以 f 或 fe 结尾的名词变复数时: a. 加 s,如:serf --- serfs belief---beliefs roof---roofs chief --- chiefs safe---safes gulf---gulfs; b. 去 f, fe 加 ves,如:half---halves knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves wife---wives life---lives thief---thieves; c. 均可, 如:handkerchief --handkerchiefs / handkerchieves

问题3: When the farmer returned home he found three ______ missing. A.sheeps B.sheepes C.sheep D.sheepies

?

当sheep; deer; fish表示数量时,单复数同形; 如果表示不同种类,则需加 –s 或 –es。 单复数同形的名词有: deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese, Swiss

works, means, head

问题4: Some ______ visited our school last Wednesday. A.German B.Germen C.Germans D.Germens

?

国家人的名词需要记住三种情况:
1、单复数同形:Chinese; Japanese; Swiss 2、需要变形:English - Englishman 3、加 –s 或 -es:German – Germans 详见下表。

1.6 不同国家的人的单复数 名称 总称(谓语用复数) 一个人 两个人 中国人 the Chinese a Chinese two Chinese 瑞士人 the Swiss a Swiss two Swiss 澳大利亚人the Australians an Australian two Australians 俄国人 the Russians a Russian two Russians 意大利人 the Italians an Italian two Italians 希腊人 the Greek a Greek two Greeks 法国人 the French a Frenchman two Frenchmen 日本人 the Japanese a Japanese two Japanese 美国人 the Americans an American two Americans 印度人 the Indians an Indian two Indians 加拿大人 the Canadians a Canadian two Canadians 德国人 the Germans a Germans two Germans 英国人 the English an Englishman two Englishmen 瑞典人 the Swedish a Swede two Swedes

问题5: _______ will make a trip around the world during the coming Christmas. A. The Evens B. The Evens‘ C. The Evenses D. The Evenses‘

?

专有名词的复数与定冠词连用,常用来表示“一 家人”或一家之中的两个或几个重要的人。如: --- Who did you spend last weekend with? --- _____. A Palmer‘s B The Palmers‘ C The Palmers D The Palmer‘s

?

问题6: Mr Smith has two ______, both of whom are teachers in a school. A.brothers-in-law B.brother-in-laws C.brothers-in-laws D.brothers-in law

?

以连字符号连接的合成名词一般将中心名词变成 复数,如:managers-in-chief; fathers-in-law。如 果没有中心名词就在该合成词的最后加 –s。如: grown-ups。

问题1: He gained his _____ by printing _____ of famous writers. A. wealth; work B. wealths; works C. wealths; work D. wealth; works

?

抽象名词和物质名词被称为不可数名词。本题中 wealth 为不可数名词,works 作“作品”解,属 单复数同形的可数名词。

问题2: Can you give us some ______ about the writer? A.informations B.information C.piece of informations D.pieces information

?

大多数不可数名词都不可能转化为可数名词,常 见的有:information; news; advice; progress; fun ……如: This is not a match. We‘re playing chess for _____.

A habit B hobby C fun D game

?

问题3: Many people agree that ____of English is a must in international trade today. A. a knowledge B. knowledges C. knowledge D. the knowledge

?

有些抽象名词和物质名词也可转化为可数名词, 用来表示某种特定的意义。a knowledge of …表示 “对……有所了解“。又如: This meeting is a great success. 请看下面的可数与不可数名词的转化:

a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时。 Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (U) These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (C) b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,名词可数。 This factory produces steel. (U) We need various steels. (C) c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。 Our country is famous for tea. Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。 d. 抽象名词有时也可数。 four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations 四个现代化 many interests 许多兴趣

问题1 The ______ is just around the corner and you won‘t miss it. A. bicycle‘s shop B. bicycle shop C. bicycles shop D. bicycles‘ shop

?

名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。 1) 用复数作定语。 如:sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room 学生阅览室 talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系 2) 有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。 如:goods train (货车) arms produce 武器生产 customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush衣刷

问题2 It took us quite a long time to get here. It was ________ journey. A. three-hour B. a three hour C. a three-hour D. three hours

?

―数词+名词”构成的合成词作定语时,这个名词一般保留 单数形式。 如: a ten-mile walk; a five-year plan

但是如果不用连字符,就需用复数的所有格。 The village is far away from here indeed. It‘s _____ walk. A. a four hour B. a four hour's C. a four-hours D. a four hours'

?

问题3: There are only twelve _____ in the hospital. A.woman doctors B.women doctors C.women doctor D.woman doctor

?

man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复 数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。 如:a man worker → men workers a woman teacher → women teachers a gentleman official → gentlemen officials

问题1 We‘ve missed the last bus. I‘m afraid we have no ______ but to take a taxi. A. way B. choice C. possibility D. selection

?

可以将“ have no choice but to do … ‖视为一 个结构,现在考查这类搭配的题有很多,如: I am sure David will be able to find the library — he has a pretty good _______ of direction. A.idea B.feeling C.experience D.sense 类似的题还有:

?

1. Here‘s my card. Let‘s keep in __________. (A)

? 2. You can take as many as you like because they are free of
_______. (B)

A. touch

B. relation

C. connection D. friendship

? 3. The manager has got a good business _______ so the
company is doing well. B)

A. fare

B. charge

C. money

D. pay

? 4. I keep medicines on the top shelf, out of the children‘s
______. (A)

A.idea

B.sense

C.thought D.Thinking

?

A reach

B hand

C hold

D place

问题2 A rough estimate, Nigeria is__________ Great Britain. A. three times the size as B. the size three times of C. three times as the size of D. three times the size of

?

注意名词用来表示比较的特殊用法。它的结构为 “倍数+the +名词+ of + 对象”。常用在该结构 中的名词为:the size of; the weight of; the length of …….

问题1 Bill was doing a lot of physical exercise to build up his_______. (C) A. ability B. force C. strength D. mind

?

高考试卷中考查名词词义辨析的题目越来越 多了,这就要求我们在平时的学习过程中注意同 类词的比较和辨析,同时尽可能从阅读过程中汲 取更多的知识。本题的意思是参加体育锻炼的目 的是增强体质和力气。

主谓一致
1。语法形式上的一致(主单谓单;主复谓复) 2。意义上的一致(主语形单意复,谓语用复数。Eg:people;police) (主语形复意单,谓语用单数。Eg: news;economics)

3.就近原则: either…or; neither…nor; not only…but also
4. 单复数视情况而定。

1)集体名词作主语:强调整体,用单数;强调个体,用复数
2)单复数同形名词作主语,按意义一致原则。Eg:means,species

3)中心词是all, most, half, rest时,按意义一致原则。即主 语单数意义,谓语用单数;主语复数意义,谓语用复数。

4)主语是and连接两个名词时,指一样东西,谓语单数;指两样 东西,谓语复数。Eg: A knife and fork is on the table.

5)代词作主语,取决于它代替的是单数还是复数。意义一致原则。 Eg: ours, yours; such, the same; who, that, which; any, either, neither,(单独作主语,谓语单数) none, all, some, more,
6)分数,量词,half of, part of 作主语,于中心词保持一致。

7)what 引导的主语从句。通常用单数;所指的具体内容为 复数时,谓语用复数。 8)主谓倒装,谓语与其后主语一致。

5。

谓语用单数的情况。

1)名词所有格之后的名词被省略。(指商店,工场,住宅 等)作主语。Eg: The doctor‘s, my uncle‘s, the baker‘s 2) 中心词是时间、距离、金额、度量、书名等复数名词。Eg: three years; The selected poems of Li Bai; 3) each, every, no 所修饰名词,即使以and 或逗号连接。 Eg: each boy and each girl ; every man and woman 4) 主语有more than one…; many a

5) a kind of; a pair of; a series of…

6) This kind of… 7) The number of…

8) A great deal of…; a large amount of… +un
9) One and a half +可数名词复数

eg: One and a half bananas is left on the table.
10) The departed (死者)意义上指个体 11) the only one of +可数名词复数+定语从 句。从句中的谓语用单数。

6。谓语用复数的情况。 1)police,;people;cattle; militia(民兵)作主语。 2)有两个部分构成的名词。(表示衣物或工具)eg: glasses; chopsticks… 3)these kind of men(口语); men of this kind 作主语 4) both…and…. 修饰主语

5) A number of; large quantities of; large amounts of修饰主语 6) the+ 形容词作主语,一般情况下

7) one of the+可数名词复数+定语从句,从句中谓 语动词用复数。

Assignment:
1. Try to learn these words by heart: (通常用于复数形式的词)
scissors剪刀; compasses两脚规; earphones耳机; scales天平; pants裤子; cords灯心絨裤; pyjamas睡衣裤; overalls工装裤; contents目录 arms武器 ashes灰烬 tropics热带

spectacles眼镜;

braces背带;

stairs楼梯
brains头脑 tidings消息 findings调查结果

nail-clippers指甲刀;slacks便装裤; belongings所有物; savings积蓄; doings行为; writings作品;

And the words in your note paper. 2. Finish Ex. Book Chapter 2. Nouns. (P7-P16)&Chapter 12(P133-P136)


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