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Unit 8 Learning a foreign language教案


Unit 8 learning a foreign language
整体感知 单元要点

1.motivation 3.alphabet 5.acquire

2.dictation 1.动机 2.听写 3.字母表 4.stick 4. 粘 贴 5. 获 得 6. 获 得 6.acqision 7.可怕的 8.指导 9.数据

7.auful 8.instruct 9.data 10.学术的;大学生 11. 10.academct 11.comprehension Word study 12.anxious 14.translator 理解(力) 12.忧虑的 13.安全的 14.译者 15.

13.secure 口译者 16.日常的 17. 耐心的 18.收养、采纳

15.interpreter 16.everyday 19.轮胎 20.超重的 21. 17.patience 19.tyre 18.adopt 手术运转 22.水平 23. 20.overweight 年少的 24.较年长的, 年 22.level 长者 25.社团 26.合适 24.senior 的 27.邮政编码

21.operation 23.junior 25.association 26.appropriate 27.postcode 1.make sense of Useful expressions

2.take 1. 理 解 2. 冒 险 3. 实 验

risks 3.experiment with 4.成堆的 5 撞倒 6 落后 4.piles of 5.knock down 7.换句话说 6.fall behind 7.in other words

First, you should …… What do you think …… What advice would you give …… Sentence pattern Make sure that you do I don’t …… You can also …… It / this will help you …… They do better in …… The more …… the better . If they were not ,they would not …… Not all of us wait to be translator or interpreters. Twice as hard Grammar 复习虚拟语气(the Subjunctive Mood ) 1. 虚拟语气在条件句中的应用 If you were to spend as many hours studying English, you would make great progress. 2.虚拟语气在某些从句中的应用:It is time that we should leave. Topics & writing 练习应用文的写作方法和技巧。

&communicative English

背景知识 BBC English One of the best ways to learn a foreign language is to follow the method you use to learn your native language. As a child you hear the sounds of your own

language and you repeat it. You see the written form of the language around you and little by little you are taught to link the two forms of the language. The BBC uses this method in many different ways. English teaching radio programs With explanations in 37 languages as well as completely in English ,these program are broadcast to most areas of the world from London and by some 300

overseas radio stations in more than 100 countries. Courses of textbooks and audiocassettes These audio courses are for people who wish to learn English at home or in the classroom. They can all be used for studying English from beginners’ level to advanced. Video courses BBC English programs have been broadcast successfully on television in more than 100 countries. They can also be got on video. With supporting textbooks and audiocassettes; they form complete courses for home study or teaching. A magazine The BBC English magazine is a bi-monthly publication and is a companion to BBC English radio broadcasts. It is written by the program makers and includes program details, practical home study exercises and features, as well as items of general interest from BBC programs dealing with science, medicine , technology, etc. English language summer school This popular course for learners and teachers of English is held in London every summer.

细说教材 warming up Memorize new words.记新单词。 [点拨] memorize 用法小结: memorize + 名词 e.g. 1. He could memorize nothing. 他什么也记不住。 e.g. 2. They are beginning the task of memorizing the dialogue. 他们正开始 记对话。 另外与 memorize 相关的词有:memory 记忆,记忆力 memoirs 回忆录 memorable 值得怀念的 memorial 纪念碑

Practice dictation.练习听写。 [点拨]dictation 用法举例: eg.1. How many spelling mistakes are there in your dictation? 你的默写有多少个拼写错误? eg.2. Hand in your dictations, please. 请把听写簿交上来。 eg.3. I have them write out the whole dictation. 我让他们把听到的全写出来。 Ask the teacher to make corrections.请老师 批改。 [点拨]correction 用法举例: eg.1. These papers are in need of correction. 这些讲义需要订正。 eg.2. The correction of compositions takes a large part of the teacher’s time . 作文的批改花费了老师大量的时间。 [点拨]有些 make 与名词构成的词组相当于名词的同根动词。 eg. make corrections = correct make an apology = apologize make an explanation = explain Listening This is a call-in show.这是电话讨论节目。 [点拨]call-in 此处为 (电 “打 话)进来” 动词词组 call in 还有以下用法: eg.1. I formed the habit of calling in on him in the evening. 我养成了晚上去看他的习惯。 eg.2. Your father is very ill; you should call in a doctor at once. 你父亲病的很重,你应该立刻请医生。 eg.3. The librarian has called in all the books.

图书管理员收回了所有的书。 Ask questions about the topic being discussed.咨询正在讨论的话题。 [点拨]本句中的 being discussed 为现在分词的被动语态作定语,意为“正在被 讨论的” 。比较下列句子中动词不定式作定语、过去分词作定语与现在分词坐 定语的区别: eg.1. They were invited to the party to be held next week. 他们被邀请去参加下周将要举行的聚会。 eg.2. He attended the meeting held yesterday. 他出席了昨晚举行的会议。 Who do you think take part in the discussion? 你认为谁会参加这场讨 论? [ 点拨]take part in ,attend ,join 之间的区别: take part in 常用于参加各种活动; eg: The Swiss did not take part in the two world wars. 瑞士人民没有参加两次世界大战。 另外 take a ...part in 还有“起……作用”的意思。 attend 常用于出席会议、婚礼等或作上学、上课讲。 eg.1. He decided to attend the conference in person. 他决定亲自出席会议。 eg.2. Marry did not attend the wedding. 玛丽没有参加婚礼。 eg.3. I attended two lecture courses under him. 我听了他的两次讲座。 join 参加或加入某一团体或组织,或加入成为其中的一员 eg.1. In four months, more than 240 000 workers joined the Communist Party. 在四个月内有 24 万工人加入了共产党。 eg.2. Will you join us for dinner ? 我们一起吃饭吧?

speaking I always get stuck when I come across a new word. 遇到生词时我总是被难住。

[点拨]get stuck =be stuck 为被动语态,stick 被用作动词时本意为“固定” ,在 不同情况下译法不同。 eg.1. I was stuck by the question. 我被这问题难住了。 eg.2. As it was growing dark, I came to a car stuck in a drift. 天快黑时,我来到了一辆陷入雪堆里的汽车跟前。 stick 另一种用法为“伸出来”常于 out, out of 或 up 连用。 eg.1. He saw a branch sticking up in the water. 他看见一根树枝露出水面。 eg.2. From space the earth like a huge water-covered globe with a few patches of land sticking out above the water. 从太空看,地球就像一个巨大的被水覆盖的球体,上面有几块突出 水面的陆地。 固定短语 stick to 粘住;坚持;坚守 eg.1. Glue has stuck to my fingers. 胶水粘住了我的手指。 eg.2. But Einstein stuck to his theory and went on with his research. 但是爱因斯坦坚持他的理论,继续从事他的研究。 注意:stick to 中的 to 是介词,后跟名词,名词性从句或代词,不能跟动词, 也不跟动名词,即使表示“坚持干某事之意” 。 如:stick to one’s plans 坚持方案, stick to one’s promise 坚守诺言, stick to it 不 停地努力,I stick to what I said yesterday.我仍然坚持我昨天的话。 而 insist on 多用于“坚持意见、看法、主张。后常接动词的-ing 形式: eg. I insist on telling him how great you are. 我一定要告诉他你是多么的了不起。 “偶然发现” [点拨]come across 译为“偶然遇到” eg. I come across her in Paris.

我在巴黎偶然遇到了她。 come 构成的短语有:come about 发生 come into being 产生 come back 回来,想起 come at 袭击

come back to life 复活 come out 出版,印刷 come up 出现,发芽

I have been studying English for so long now.到现在我已经学了很久的英语 了。 [点拨]have been doing 为现在完成进行时,表示动作从过去开始一直持续到 现在,有可能继续延续下去或动作刚刚停止。 eg.1. All these years they have been fighting heroically for independence. 这些年来他们一直为独立而英勇战斗。 eg.2. They have been making oiled paper umbrellas for more than 400 years. 他们制造油纸雨伞已经有四百多年的历史了。 …… but now I feel as if I’m not making any progress.可是现在我感觉好象 没有进展。 [点拨]as if/though 意为“就像……似的,就仿佛……似的”连词词性,引导 的从句中,谓语常用虚拟语气。 eg.1. I remember the whole thing as if it happened yesterday. 我记得事情的全部经过就像发生在昨天一样。 eg.2. As if I cared! 我才不在乎呢! 当从句中的主语和主句中的主语一致,从句谓语中又包含动词 be 时,这个主 语和动词 be 省略。 eg.1. From time to time, John turned around as if(he was)searching something. 约翰不时的转过身来仿佛在找什么东西。 eg.2. He paused, as if to let the painful memories pass. 他顿了顿,像要避开那些痛苦的回忆。 [点拨]make progress 意为“前进、进展、取得进步、 (病情)有好转” ,progress 为不可数名词。 eg.1. Jane is still in hospital, but she is making progress. 简仍在医院里,但她的病情正有所好转。

eg.2. He made great progress in speaking English. 他在英语口语方面已大有进展。 Reading

Learning a foreign language: Twice as hard? 学习外语:双倍的努力? [点拨]此句为省略句, 完整的句子应为: Does learning a foreign language have to be twice as hard as learning our mother tongue? as…as 用于事物比较时,根据上下文可以省略被比较部分。 eg.1. I work very hard,but she doesn’t work as hard (as me). 我工作很努力,但她工作不如我努力。 eg.2. I play tennis well. You can’t expect to play tennis as well( as me). 我乒乓球打得好。你不能期望像我一样好。 eg.3. If you were to spend as many hours studying English ,you would make progress. 如果你花同样多的时间学英语,你会有进步的。 Learning a language is obviously more than just memory words, phrase and structures.学习语言显然不仅仅是记忆单词、词汇或句型。 [点拨]more than 意为“不仅仅是” : eg: He is more than our teacher .He is our friend. 他不仅仅是我们的老师还是我们的朋友。 more than 还有“超过”“很”“非常”的意思: 、 、 They were more than glad to help. 他们非常乐意帮助。 Instead we learnt or acquired our mother tongue by communicating with the people around us.相反,通过与周围人的交流我们学会我们的母语。 [点拨]acquire 经过一个过程或通过自己的努力等得到 eg.1. By the time, James was twenty, he had acquired a store of his own. 詹姆斯 20 岁的时候,他拥有了自己的店铺。 eg.2. It’s sometimes possible for a student to master English grammar and

acquire a large vocabulary, even without the help of a teacher. 即使没有老师的帮助,学生也有可能掌握英语语法和大量的词汇。 [点拨]communicate with 意为“与……交流/联系” : eg: They used carrier pigeons to communicate with headquarters. 他们用信鸽与总部联系。 And perhaps most puzzling of all, how were we able to make sense of what we heard. 大概最令人迷惑不解的是,我们如何能够理解我们听到的话。 [点拨]most puzzling of all 最令人迷惑不解的 most important of all 最为重要的 [点拨]make sense of sth 弄懂……意思: eg: Can you make sense of this poem? 你懂得这首诗的含义吗? make sense 有意义 eg: What you say doesn’t make sense /make no sense. 你的话毫无意义。 Some believe that we are equipped with a special ability to learn language and our brain adjust itself to the language of the culture we are born in. 有人认为我们具备特殊的学语言能力,而且我们的大脑能够自我协调 以适应我们本族文化的语言。 [点拨]equip A with B 用 B 装备 A

eg: The PLA men are equipped with modern weapons. 解放军战士是用现代化武器装备起来的。 ,它的宾语不能是指被设备或被装 [注意]equip 是指“加设备(或装置)于……” 置的东西的词。 eg: 可以说 They equipped the army with modern weapons. 但不可以说:They equipped modern weapons with the army. [点拨]adjust oneself/s.th. to eg.1. The body adjusts itself to changes in temperature.

身体能自行调节以适应气温变化。 eg.2. You can’t see well through a telescope unless it is adjusted correctly to your sight.除非你把望远镜准确的调节到适合你的视力,否则就看不清楚。 Well-adjusted 与他人关系和谐的,善于顺应的 Others think that we learn language in the same way…and that what we are born with is a… .另一些人认为和学习其他事物一样,比如走路,解决问题 等,我们用同样的方式学习语言,我们与生俱来的是一种学和用的综合能 力,而不是专门的语言学习能力 。 [ 点 拨 ] 上 一 句 的 some , 与 这 一 句 的 others 构 成 固 定 的 句 型 搭 配 some…others/other+ n(pl)…意为“一些……另一些……” 。 [点拨]that we learn language…与 that what we are born with…为谓语动词 think 的并列宾语从句,第一个引导词 that 可以省略,但第二个引导词 that 不可省略。 [点拨]in the same way 之后省略的关系代词 that 或 in which 与 we learn other things 一起构成 way 的定语从句。 Regardless of their theories, these language experts do agree that… 尽管众说纷纭,这些语言专家都承认生活是一所成功的语言学校。 [点拨] regardless of 意为 :不顾,不注意, eg.1. regardless of the consequences 不顾后果 eg.2. regardless of expense 不考虑费用 其反义为 regardful of 注意关心 eg: Be more regardful of your own interests. 请多注意你自己的利益。 That may not seem true to you. 对你来说那也许不是真的。

[点拨]may not 表猜测时意为“也许不” ,而 cann’t 用于猜测时表示绝对否定 “不可能” 。 eg: She can’t be serious.她不可能是当真的。 She may not be serious.她也许不会当真。

But once you consider the situation further, you will realize that this is indeed the case.但是一旦你更仔细地考虑这种情况,你会发现这的的确确是真的 [点拨]This/That’s the case=This/That’s true . the case 实情,真相 eg.1. Is it the case that you have lost all your money? 你的钱全部都损失了,是真的吗? eg.2. If that’s the case, you will have to work much harder. 如果情形是那样的话,你将必须更加努力工作。 As it often the case with … 这是常有的事 in any case 无论如何 in case 万一 …in other words, you were studying the language all day long! 换句话说,你一直在学这种语言。 [点拨]in other words 意为“换句话说” ,类似于“that’s to say 、namely”等。 eg: In other words, he cheated us.换句话说,他欺骗了我们。 与 word 构成短语有:in a word 总之,简言之 eat one’s words 认错,收回

前言并道歉 , get in a word 插话,have a word with 与某人谈话, break one’s word/promise 食言,失信 固定句型:word come that…消息传来 …so that is an awful lot of hours.所以说那是极长的时间。 [点拨]so that 在此句中不是固定短语“以便,以致于…”的意思。此处 so 为 连词,that 在句子中充当主语。 If you spend as many hours studying English…如果你花同样多的时间学英 语…… [点拨]此句为省略句,呈前省略了“as studying your mother tongue.” If you were to spend as many hours studying English, you would make great progress.如果你花同样多的时间学习英语,你将会取得很大的进步. [点拨]此句为虚拟语气,对未发生事情或情况的虚拟,从句用“主语 +should/were to/过去式” ,主句用“主语+would/should/could+动词原形。 ” eg: How nice it would be if we were still living by 2100! 如果到 2100 年我们仍活着的话,该多好啊! We have textbooks, teachers and classmates to instruct and assist us in the

process… 在学习的过程中,我们有教科书,有老师来指导我们,有同学 帮助我们… [点拨]①instruct + n 教授…

eg: instruct a class in history 教授一个班的历史 instruct recruits 教新兵 ②instruct sb to do sth 指导某人做某事 eg: instruct sb how to work 指导某人如何工作 [点拨]assist(sb)with sth/in doing/to do sth: 援助/帮助某人做某事,比 help 较 正式。 eg.1. She employed a woman to assist her with the housework. 她雇了一个妇女来帮忙做家务。 eg.2. He asked us to assist him in carrying through their plan. 他请求我们协助他完成他们的计划。 The data suggests that what successful language learners have in common is, among other things, an interest…ability. 数据显示成功语言学习者共同

拥有的是:了解自身的兴趣,对世界的好奇心,抢抓机遇和对自己能力 的自信。 [点拨]这是一个长句,that 引导的宾语从句中, “What successful language learners have in common”作宾语从句中的主语.“is”为系动词,an interest …ability 作为并列表语。 Active learners are able to acquire new skills faster and put what they know to better use. 用。 [点拨]put to use 固定搭配意为“加以利用” eg.1 He puts his training to good use in his job. 他把他受到的业务培训很好地利用到工作中来。 eg.2. It’s a pity to throw anything away if it can be put to use. 东西只要还可以加以利用,扔掉了总是可惜的。 积极学习者能够更快获得新技巧而且更好的学以致

As a consequence, they do better in areas such as reading comprehension, … 结果, 他们阅读理解、 词汇学习、 写和说方面做得更好。 [点拨]as a consequence= in consequence =as a result eg: we hadn’t enough money to pay our bus fare, and as a consequence, we have to walk. 我们没有足够的钱坐公交车,结果不得不步行。

as/in a consequence= as a result of 由于…… eg: As a consequence of his laziness, he was fired. 由于懒惰,他被解雇了。 另外,consequence 还有“重要,要紧”的意思 eg: It’s of no consequence.不打紧 The less anxious and more relaxed the learner, the better the language acquisition proceeds. 学习者越放松,越不紧张,语言的获得进展越好。 [点拨]the adj/adv(比较级)…,the +adj/adv (比较级)… 译为“越……越……” The sooner , the better.越快越好。 [点拨]anxious 用法小结 1.be anxious to do sth(for sth)急于/渴望干某事或得到某物 eg.1. They are anxious to know the result.他们急于知道结果。 eg.2. The boy was anxious for a new pen.那个男孩渴望有一支新钢 笔。 2.be anxious about = be worried about 为……担忧 eg: Some people are anxious about the future.有些人对前途感到不 安。 (辨析)anxious 和 eager 都有“渴望” “急于”的意思,但用法略有不同, anxious 着重指焦急、着急或担心,eager 着重指对成功的期望或进取的热情。 eg.1. We are anxious to arrive home before dark. 我们急于在天黑之前到家。 eg.2. We are eager to join the army.我们渴望参军。

They are more willing to take risks…. 他们更愿意冒险。 [点拨]take/run risks/a risk 意为“冒险” eg: She’s too sensible to take a risk when she’s driving. 她在开车时很有判断力而不致冒险。 Take/run risk of doing sth 冒险做某事:冒……之险 eg: He was ready to run/take the risk of being taken prisoner by the enemy. 他愿意冒被敌人俘虏的危险。 If they were not, they wouldn’t be ready to experiment with new forms and to make mistakes, all of which contribute to their increased ability to learn. 如果他们不自信,他们不会愿意去尝试新的形式去出错,而只有尝 试新的事物及错误的纠正才有助于学习能力的提高。 [点拨]experiment with 试验,试用 eg.1. In order to discover the crops most suited to the soil, they experimented with various kinds of grain. 为了发现最适合土壤的庄稼,他们试验了各种谷物。 eg.2. That man is experimenting with dyes to get the color he wants. 那人正用染料做试验想要获得他所想要的颜色。 [点拨]contribute to 用法小结 eg.1 捐赠、捐助 contribute to the Red Cross 捐助红十字会 eg.2 有助于,促成 Drink contribute to his ruins.饮酒促成了他的毁灭。 eg.3 投稿于:Mr. Green has contributed poems to the London Magazine for several years.格林先生向《伦敦杂志》投诗稿已有几年了。 Not all of us want to be translators or interpreters. 并不是每个人都想成为一个翻译者或口译者。 Grammar I have piles of homework to do, therefore I can’t relax.

我有许多作业要做,因此,我无法放松。

[点拨]piles of 意为“一堆堆的,成堆的” eg: a pile of books 一堆书 piles of books 一堆堆的书 pile 亦可用作动词,词组 pile up 意为“累积” “堆积” eg: My work keeps piling up.我的工作越积越多。 Most exchange students say that they feel as if they were truly part of their host families and that they will always stay in touch. 许多交流学生 说他们觉得他们真正成了房东家庭的一员而且他们将永远保持联系。 [点拨]此句中 that they feel…and that they will…in touch 构成谓语 say 的并列 宾语从句,其中第二个 that 在句中不可省略。 [点拨]stay in touch = keep in touch 意为“保持联系” ,touch 后常与介词 with 搭配意思为“与……的联系” 。 与 touch 构成的其他短语有:be in touch with 和……有联系 be/get out of touch with 脱离、 失去联系 bring…in touch with 使接触, 使认识 get in touch with 和……取得联系 lose touch with 与……失去联系 What’s perhaps the most valuable is what you learn about yourself and your own culture. 可能最重要的便是你对自身和所属文化的了解。 [点拨]名词性从句 what is…以及 what you …own culture 分别充当主语和表语 从句,其中 what 可以理解成 something that. eg: Our hometown isn’t what it used to be.我们的家乡不再是过去的样子。 Integrating skill Many language learners think that the best way to learn a language is to spend time in a country where the language is spoken.许多语言学习者认为 学语言最好的方式就是去在讲这种语言的国度里呆上一段时间。 [点拨]1.这是一个长句, 主句为 many language learners think that…,在 that 引 导的宾语从句中,the best way 作主语,to learn a language 作 the best way 的定

语,to spend time in a country 作宾语从句中的表语,where the language is spoken 作 a country 的定语从句。 [点拨]2.关系副词 where 引导的定语从句, where 相当于 in which 或 at which 在定语从句中充当地点状语。 eg.1. The factory where his father works is in the west of the city. 他父亲工作的工厂在城市西边。 eg.2. This is the house where we lived last year. 这是我们去年住的房子。 Many school offer exchange program at various academic levels at a reasonable cost.许多学校提供价格合理的不同学术层次的交流计划。 [点拨]at…a level 意为“以……水平”又如:consultations at cabinet level 内 阁阁员间的磋商 [点拨]at…a cost 以……为代价、以……的价格 eg.1. to sell sth at cost 照成本卖 eg.2. The battle was won at (a) great cost in human lives. 牺牲了许多士兵的性命才换来的这场战役的胜利。 又如固定搭配:at all costs 不惜任何代价,无论如何 at the cost of 牺牲,丧失 eg: He saved his son from drowning, but only at the cost of his own life. 他救了他儿子的命:幸免于溺死,但却牺牲了他自己的命。 …it is also possible that some of them may fall behind in their studies. 一些学生有可能在学习上会落到后面。 [点拨]It is possible that…为固定句型,其中 possible 也可以用 likely 替换,意 思为“有可能……” 。此句型还可用 sb be likely to do sth…句型替换。但不可以说 sb be possible to do sth. eg: It’s likely/possible that he will do very well. 他有可能会干得很出色。 [点拨]fall behind 意为“落在后面”

eg: Soon he fall behind in the race. 比赛不久,他就落在了后面。 He didn’t want to fall behind in his studies. 他不想在学习上落到了别人的后面。 Grammar 虚拟语气(The Subjunctive Mood)表示说话人所说的话不是事实,而是一种 假设、愿望、怀疑或推测。虚拟语气主要用于条件从句、让步从句和名词性从 句中。 (1) 虚拟语气在条件从句中的用法: 条件从句 表示现在情况 条件从句的谓语形式 If I(you, he /she, we, they) +动词过去式 If I(you, he /she, we, they) 表示过去情况 +had+过去分词 If I(you, he /she, we, they) +动词过去式 If I(you, he /she, we, they) 表示未来情况 +should+动词原形 If I(you, he /she, we, they) + were to +动词原形 根据下面例句进一步理解: ① 与现在事实相反: If I were you, I should do it in another way. 如果我是你的话,我会用另一种方法做。 ② 与过去事实相反: If I had not studied hard , I would have failed in the exam. 假如我学习不那么刻苦,就不会通过那次考试了。 ③ 与将来事实相反: If you missed(were to miss/should miss)the film tonight, you would feel should/would/could/might +动词原形 主句的谓语形式 should/would/could/might +动词原形 should/would/could/might +have+过去分词

sorry for it.假如今晚错过了这部电影,你将会感到遗憾的。 (2) 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的用法: ①在 wish 后面的宾语从句中,谓语常用过去式来表示现在的情况,用过 去完成时表示过去的情况,用 would/could/might + 动词原形来表示将来 的情况。如: I wish that she were here with me and that we weren’t sick. I wish I had sent the old man to hospital in time. I wish I could be with you for the next three months. would rather, as if, it’s time…, what if, if only 也有类似用法

②在 demand, suggest, order, propose, request, command, insist 等动词后的宾 语从句中,谓语通常用 should + 动词原形或只用动词原形来表示愿望、 建议、命令、请求等。 She suggested we (should) leave early. The teacher insisted that the students (should) have a test.

考题档案 1. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she brother. A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come(MET94) . , she would have met my

2. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken

D. had been broken(MET95) so tired.

3. You didn’t let me drive. If we A. drove ; didn’t get

in turn, you B. drove ; wouldn’t get

C. were driving ;wouldn’t get got(MET95) 4. - I stayed at a hotel while in New York. - Oh, did you? Oh, I A. could have stayed C. would stay 5.

D. had driven ; wouldn’t have

with Barbara. B. could stay D. must have stayed(MET98)

it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the Yangpu Bridge.

A. Were

B. Should

C. Would

D. Will(上海 94) ill, and her parents suggested that

6. Jane’s pale face suggested that she she a medical examination.

A. be; should have 海 94) 7.

B. was; have C. should be; had

D. was; has(上

for the free tickets, I wouldn’t have gone to the films so often. A. If it is not C. Had it not been B. Were it not D. If they were not(上海 95)

8.Yesterday Jane walked away from the discussion. Otherwise, she something would regret later. A. had said 海 96) 9.Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night cold for us to live. A. would be freezing cold C. would be frozen cold 10. If only he much now. A. lies 2000) 11. What would have happened A. Bob had walked farther C. had Bob walked farther 2001) 12. If you had your test paper carefully before handing it in, you would , as far as the river back? B. if Bob should walk farther D. if Bob walked farther(上海 B. lay C. had lain D. should lie(上海 B. will be freezing coldly D. can freeze coldly(上海 97) , too B. said C. might say D. might have said(上

quietly as the doctor instructed, he would not suffer so

have made fewer mistakes. A. looked up 2000) 13. If I had hurried, I A. would catch the train. B. will have caught B. thought about C. gone over D. gone round(上海

C. would have caught

D. had caught(92 成人高考) in love,

14. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. A. wouldn’t have fallen C. should fall 15.____be sent to work there? A. Who do you suggest should C. Do you suggest who should B. had not fallen D. were to fall

B. Who do you suggest that

D. Do you suggest whom should

参考答案:1-5:DCDAB 6-10:BCDAC 11-15:CCCBA

一课一测 (检测自己的能力) A 级(基础训练 基础训练) Ⅰ.单项填空 单项填空 1. She is ____ to leave as soon as possible. A. hurried B. anxious C worried D. nervous

2. As we joined the big I got _____ from my friends A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed

3. News reports say peace talks between the two countries _____with no agreement reached. A. have broken down B. have broken out C. have broken in broken up 4. ——I didn’t see your sister at the meeting . _____But she ____the meeting .she just arrived 5 minutes late A. attended attend 5. I soon found that the work I was doing had already been done by someone else A. in words , I was waste my time. B. in a word C. in other words D. in many B. has attended C. had attended D. was going to D. have

words 6.____ is often the case, we have worked out the production plan. A. Which B. When C. What D. As

7. It isn’t ____that I should accept such an offer as that. A. possibly B. likely C. perhaps D. probably

8. He knocked him ____with one blow of his fist. A. up B. off C. over D. down

9.He is _____a teacher. He is our good friend. A. no more than B. not more than C. more than D. less than

10..Paper produced every year is ________ the world’s production of vehicles. A. the three times weight of C. as three times heavy as B. three times the weight of D. three times as heavier as

B 级(应用创新) 应用创新) Ⅰ.单项填空 单项填空 1. Being determined is a kind of quality and that’s __ _____ it takes to do anything properly. A. how B. which C. where D. what

2. — Mr. White didn't come last night, did he? — No. We ________ for him . A whole night was wasted. A. had waited C. were waiting B. have been waiting D. had been waiting

3.When she woke up, she realized that the things she had dreamt about could not ________ have happened. A. possibly C. certainly B. likely D. usually

4.Some women ______ a good salary in a job instead of staying home, but they decided not to work for the sake of the family. A. must make B. should have made

C. would make

D. could have made

5.The little boy is dirty from head to foot because he ______ in the mud all morning. A. has played C. has been playing B. is playing D. was playing

6.They told me it would be cheap but __ _____it cost me nearly £ 500. A. as a consequence B. in a work C. at last D. in fact

7.Most museums are just for looking. But today some of them have things for you to touch. The signs say, “______!” A. Be touching B. To touch C. Do touch D. No touch

8.If Bush ___ ___his sister to attend the party, she will certainly be glad. She hasn’t met Bush for years. A. allows B. promises C. demands D. suggests

9.— I’m not the man __ __the phone. She asked for Henry. — I’m sorry I was mistaken. A. called on B. calling over C. wanted on D. rung up on

10.The step you have taken is ______ much risk(冒险). A. one of B. the one of C. the one D. that one

11.Come on, Harry, Why stand there alone ? We’ll go to play ball games. How about_____ us? A. join in B. taking part in C. attending D. joining

12.____I can see , there is only one possible way to keep away from danger. A. As long as B. As far as C. Just as D. Even if

13.The famous scientist grew up ____he was born and in 1930 he came to Shanghai. A. when B. whenever C. where D. wherever

14.The house rent is expensive. I’ve got about half the space I had at home and I’m paying __ ___ here. A. as three times much C. much as three times B. as much three times D. three time as much

15.As far as I am concerned , education is about learning and the more you learn ,___

___. A. the more for life are you equipped are C. the more for life you are equipped life Ⅱ。完形填空 James sat outside the office waiting for the interview. He felt so __1__ that he didn't know what to do with __2__. The person who had gone in __3__ him had been in there for nearly an hour. And she looked so confident (自信的) when she went in, __4__ James. He felt __5__ that she had already got the __6__. The problem was that he wanted this job __7__. It meant __8__ to him. He had __9_ it such a lot before the day of the interview. He had imagined himself __10__ brilliantly at the interview and _11__ the job immediately. Now here he was feeling __12__, however. He couldn't _13__ all those things he had __14__ to say. At that moment, he almost decided to get up and __15__. But no-he had to do this. He had spent so much time considering it that he couldn't __16__ like that. His hands were hot and sticky and his mouth felt dry. At last the door of the office opened. The woman who had gone in an hour earlier came out looking very __17__ with herself. She smiled sympathetically (同情地) at James. At that moment James __18__ her. The managing man then appeared at the office door. "Would you like to come in now, Mr. Davis? I'm sorry to have kept you waiting." James suddenly __19__ that he had gone home. He got up. Legs __20__ and forehead sweating and wondered whether he looked as terrified as he felt. 1. A. healthy B. nervous C. careless D. confident 2. A. the manager B. the woman C. himself D. anything 3. A. by B. with C. before C. do as C. angry C. prize D. after D. do like D. astonishing D. job D. you are equipped the more for B. the more equipped for life you

4. A. not like B. so did 5. A. doubtful B. sure 6 A. reward B. first

7. A. hopelessly B. naturally C. easily D. so much 8. A. everything B. happiness C. difficulty D. nothing 9. A. done B. learned of C. thought about D. talked about 10. A. explaining B. performing C. answering D. writing 11. A. offered B. asked for C. being offered D. being asked for 12. A. crazy B. excited C. probable D. terrible 13. A. depend on B. afford C. believe in D. remember 14. A. kept B. been taught C. planned D. been supplied 15. A. leave B. go in C. prepare D. practise 16. A. take back B. put off C. give up D. put down 17. A. ugly B. pleased C. sad D. pretty 18. A. noticed B. loved C. missed D. hated 19. A. thought B. hoped C. wished D. regretted 20. A. shaking B. bending C. walking D. stopping Ⅲ。阅读理解 A Language learning begins with listening. Children are greatly different in the amount of listening they do before they start speaking, and later starters are often long listeners. Most children will “obey” spoken instructions some time before they can speak, though the word“obey”is hardly exact as a description of the eager and delighted co- operation(合作) usually shown by the child. Before they can speak, many children will also ask questions by gestures and by making questioning noises. Any attempt to study the development from the noises babies make to their first spoken words leads to considerable difficulties. It’s agreed that they enjoy making noises, and that during the first few months one or two noises sort themselves out as particular expression like delight, pain, friendliness and so on. But since these can’t be said to show the baby’s intention to communicate, they can hardly be regarded as early forms of language. It is agreed too, that from about three months they play with sounds for enjoyment, and that by six months they are able to add new words to their

store. This self - imitation(自我模仿)leads out to deliberate(有意的)imitation of sounds made or words spoken to them by other people. The problem then arises to the point at which one can say that these imitations can be considered as speech. It is a problem we need to get our teeth into. The meaning of a word depends on what a particular person means by it in a particular situation and it is clear that what a child means by a word will. change as he gains more experience of the world. Thus the use, at seven months, of“ mama” as a greeting for his mother cannot be dismissed as a meaningless sound simply because he also uses it at another time for his father, his dog, or anything else he likes. Playful and meaningless imitation of what other people say continues after the child has begun to speak for himself. I doubt, however , whether anything is gained when parents take advantage of his ability in an attempt to teach new words. 1.Children who start speaking late ________ A. may have problems with their listening B. probably do not hear enough language spoken around them C. usually pay close attention to what they hear D. often take a long time in learning to listen properly 2.A baby’s first noises are ________ . A. an expression of his moods and feelings B. an early form of language C. an imitation of the speech of adults D. a sign that he means to tell you something 3.The problem of deciding at what point a baby’s imitation can be considered as speech ________ . A. is important because words have different meanings for different people B. is not especially important because the change takes place gradually C. is one that should be ignored(忽略)because children’s use of words is often meaningless D. is one that can never be properly understood because the meaning of words changes with age

4.The speaker implies that ________ . A. even after they have learnt to speak, children still enjoy imitation B. children who are good at imitating learn new words more quickly C. children no longer imitate people after they begin to speak D. patents can never hope to teach their children B For some time past, it has been widely accepted that babies and other creature learn to do things because certain acts lead to “rewards”, and there is no reason to doubt that this is true. But it used also to be widely believed that effective rewards, at least in the early time, had to be directly connected to such basic physiological “drives”as thirst or hunger. In other words, a baby would learn if he got food or drink or some sort of physical comfort, not otherwise. It is now clear that this is not so. Babies will learn to behave in ways that produce results in the world with no reward except success in sight. Papousek began his studies by using milk in the normal way to“reward”the babies and so teach them to carry out some simple movements , such as turning the head to one side or the other. Then he noticed that a baby who had had enough to drink would refuse the milk but would still go on making the learned response(回答) with clear signs of pleasure. So he began to study the children’s responses in situations where no milk was provided. He quickly found that children as young as four months would learn to turn their heads to right or left if the movement“ turned on” some lights - and indeed that they were able to learn some more turns to bring about this result, for example, two left or two right, or even to make as many as three turns to one side. Papousek’s light experiment was placed directly in front of the babies and he made the interesting observation that sometimes they would not turn back to watch the light closely although they would“ smile and speak” when the light was on. Papousek concluded that it was not the sight of the lights which pleased them. It was the success they were achieving in solving the problem, in mastering the skill, and then there is a basic human nature to make sense of the world and bring it under

control. 5.According to the writer, babies learn to do things that ________. A. will satisfy their surprise B. will meet their physical needs C. are directly connected to pleasure D. will bring them a feeling of success 6.Paponsek noticed in his studies that a baby would ________. A. make learned responses when it saw the milk B. continue the simple movements without being given milk C. turn its head to right or left when it had enough to drink D. carry out learned movements when it had enough to drink 7.In Papousek’s experiment babies make learned movements of the head in order to ________. A. be praised C. be rewarded with milk B. please their parents D. have the lights turned on

8.The babies would“ smile and speak”at the lights because________. A. they succeeded in “turning on” the lights B. the sight of lights was interesting C. they need not turn back to watch the lights D. the lights were directly connected to some basic“ drives” Ⅳ。短文改错 You can find all kinds information in just a few minute on the Internet. It’s like going to a huge library without have to walk around to find your books. Recently even though, many people have been discussing the dangers of the Internet. They have been reports in America about people trying to steal person information for bad purposes. Finding information on the Net is easily. But not all information are good to society. For example, you 1. __________ 2. __________ 3. __________ 4. __________ 5. __________ 6. __________ 7. __________ 8. __________ 9. __________

can find such information like how to kill people. The problem will become more serious in the future. Ⅴ. 书面表达

10. __________

假设你是校学生会主席,请你为下周要举行的英语演讲比赛制定评分标准, 包含以下要点: 1.文章主题明确;20% 3.发音准确地道;20% 5.带有感情色彩。40% 不要逐条翻译,100 字左右。 参考答案 A级 Ⅰ。单项填空 1~5 BBAAC 6~10 DBDAB B级 Ⅰ。单项填空 1~5 DDADC 6~10 DCBCB 11~15 DBCDB Ⅱ。完形填空 1~5 BCCAB 6~10 DDACB 11~15 CDDCA 16~20 CBDCA 2.语言表达清楚;10% 4.语速适中;10%

Ⅲ。阅读理解 1~4 DABA 5~8 DBDA Ⅳ。短文改错 1. kinds →kinds of though 2. minute→minutes 3. have→having 4. even though→even 8. easily→easy 9. are→is

5. √ 6.They→There

7. person→personal

10. like→as

Ⅴ。书面表达 One possible version: If you want to get a very good grade in the coming English speech competition

next week, first, you must have a good piece of writing whose subject is quite clear. Also the article should have very good wording. And then, when you are giving the speech, you must pronounce every word correctly and you should have standard intonation and proper speed. The most important of all, you should give the speech with emotion. I hope that everybody is well prepared according to the rules mentioned above. Wish you good luck. 课文译文 在国外学习 许多语言学习者认为学习语言最好的方式就是去讲这种语言的国家里 去学习一段时间。过去,对大多数人来说,去国外学习不过是一个遥远渺茫的梦 想。但是,如今寻找出国的机会和方式都变得容易了。很多学校提供费用合理的 不同学术水平的交流项目。这些项目有为初、高中生准备的,也有为大学生准备 的, 有些计划项目提供 ‘食宿’ 服务: 去国外交流学生将与房东一家生活在一起。 对于年龄较小的学生来说,这也许是最好的选择,因为这意味着学生不必担心食 宿问题。与房东一家生活在一起也是学习他们国家文化的很不错的方式。大部分 交流学生说他们感觉他们(自己)真正成了房东家庭的一员而且他们将一直保持 着联系。 在国外的一年不仅仅是学一种语言的事。是的,一年后交流学生通常把 要学的这门新语言掌握得很流利。但是大多数学生会告诉你,他们也学会许多比 学习语言更重要的东西。成为一个交流学生有助于你和来自不同背景的人交朋 友,近而了解另一种文化。一年的时间不足以让你去全部了解一个国家或一种文 化,但它却足以开阔你的眼界,加深你对世界的了解。可能最有价值的便是你对 你自己和自身文化的重新认识。呆在国内,你很少去停下来想一想你自己是一个 什么样的人?你所拥有的文化真正是一种什么样的文化?作为一个交流学生, 你 不得不学着独立,别人也经常请你向他们介绍你的国家和文化。听起来似乎很奇 怪,但是许多外访归来的学生说国外一年的生活,让他们第一次了解自己的国家 和文化。 国外学习可能也有其缺点,他们在学到许多有用的东西同时,有些人也 有可能学习成绩要落后。由于交流学生一开始总是要经历语言和文化障碍,他们

将不能够被编入与国内同水平的班级上课。许多父母担心他们的孩子的安全问 题,费用的高低也在考虑之列。 如果你在考虑出国学习一段时间的话, 你应该先查找尽可能多的不同计 划项目。 你需要考虑费用及所停留的时间。 交流学生协会可以提供你有用的信息。 如果你从未去过国外或从没单独旅行过,最好先从短期的开始,比如一个暑期课 程。当你收集了基本的信息后,第二步就是来比较不同的项目安排。找一个合适 的课程是很重要的,因为你的决定将影响整个家庭,你的父母应起积极的作用, 他们帮你一起寻找什么是最好的。你也需要与去过国外的学生联系,听听他们的 经历。

学外语:两倍的努力? 学外语:两倍的努力? 学习一种语言显然不仅仅是记住单词、词组以及句子结构。我们学习母 语的时候,并没有受过多少正规的指导,极少有父母会给孩子上语言课。通过与 周围人的交往,我们学会了母语。在这个交往的过程中,我们是如何学会发音、 单词、语法以及句子构成呢?而且最令人迷惑不解的是,我们是怎么学会理解话 的意思以及分辨语言中出现的错误呢? 语言专家给了不同的答案, 有些人认为我们有天生学习语言的能力而且 我们的大脑适应母语语言文化。另一些人认为我们学习语言与学习其他事情一 样,比如走路、解决问题,我们生来就具备这种学习与适应能力,而不是仅仅学 习语言这一专有能力。尽管理论不同,但专家们都一致认为:生活是一所成功的 语言学校。事实上,每个人到他 5 岁的时候,就学会了使用语言且已掌握了它最 基本的用法。 学习外语与学习母语有所不同,通常是在学校里学习外语,很少有机会 与讲这种语言的人交流。而且,学外语要比学母语快得多,这让你听起来似乎很 难相信—— 想想所有你花在刻苦学习英语上的那些时间吧。但是一旦你仔细分 析情况,就会意识到这的确是真的。学习母语时,只要清醒着,你就一直用母语 交流。换句话说,一整天你都在学习这种语言!这样学了五年,想想那是多少日 日夜夜。如果你花同样多的时间去学英语,你会取得巨大的进展,当我们学外语 的时候, 也获得了许多帮助: 我们有教科书与老师的指导以及同学的帮助。 因此,

我们能学到更多的学习方法和技巧,那就意味着更具成效。 同样学外语,为什么有人会比别人学得好呢?研究表明,成功语言学习 者有一些共同的特点。数据显示在多种调查项目中,成功语言学习者的共性是: 了解自己的兴趣、对世界的好奇心、抢抓机遇以及对自身能力的自信。为了对付 学习上的一系列挑战,成功语言学习者也使用了不同的学习方法和学习计划。 他们计划并评价学习,因此,他们获得自信并感到轻松且享受知识。有 了更强的自控力和成就感 积极的学习者能够更快地学会新技巧且更好地学以致 用。结果,他们在理解力、词汇学习、写作及口语上做得更好,越从容越放松, 学语言的进程就会愈出色。自信、有安全感的学生才会是佼佼者。他们更愿意去 冒险,把自己放在新的学习情境中。否则,他们将不愿尝试新的体验,不愿犯错 误。而只有新的尝试和不断纠错才有助于学习能力的提高。 学习的目的也是重要的,并不是所有的人都想当翻译。大部分人仅仅只 是想学英语以供日常使用。有些人学语言,大概比其他人更有兴趣和能力,但这 并不等于我们就无法提高。学习语言需要耐心,如果我们想成为一个成功的语言 学习者, 就应该全力借鉴上述的学习习惯及学习特点。 一旦我们掌握了学习方法, 可能就会发现比起学母语来,学外语不需要去付出两倍的努力。而事实上,是两 倍的容易,两倍的快乐。



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