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2017上海八校联考英语卷


Have you ever seen an old movie called Three Coins in the Fountain It is about three young American women (21) (search) for permanent romance in Rome and they all find it. Far-fetched Hollywo

od Well, from the world history point of view, romance did, in fact, set down its roots in Rome. The word romance evolved in Latin from Roma to Romanicus of the Roman language, to the Old French romanz escrive, (22) means “to write in a Romance language,” and on to the English romance. The Romance languages (23) (compose) of seven groups of languages that all have Latin (24) their basis. These languages include French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. The common people in ancient Rome spoke (25) is referred to as Vulgar Latin, an informal speech, as opposed to the classical Latin of the more educated. Most language experts agree that Vulgar Latin is the chief source of the Romance languages. Medieval Romances were tales (26) (write) primary in French verse about brave heroes. The notion of having a romance with another person is thought (27) (develop) sometime during the Middle Ages. In the late 8th century and on through the 19th, a romance was not a love story (28) a work of prose fiction that contained far-fetched, mysterious events. Romances of this period (29) (include) English Gothic novels like The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole. What exactly is a twentieth-century romance Does it have any relationship with the lively, popular novels written today, with their fantastic plots of love affairs Or did the playwright Oscar Wilde have it right in The Picture of Dorian Gray:”When one is in love, one always begins by deceiving (30) and one always ends by deceiving others. That is what the world calls a romance.”

In the wake of the historic announcement of the discovery of gravitational waves on February 11, 2016 by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), British physicist and black hole theorist Stephen Hawking was quick to 31 the US-led collaboration, sharing his excitement for the historic news. According to Hawking, these results confirm several very important 32 of Einstein’s theory of general relativity and it also confirms the existence of gravitational waves directly. As is becoming clear, the direct detection of these ripples in space time not only confirms Einstein’s famous theory of general theory but it also opens our eyes to a(n) 33 “dark” universe. Astronomers employ the electromagnetic spectrum (电磁光谱) to study the universe, but objects that do not radiate in the electromagnetic spectrum will go 34 . But now we know how to detect gravitational waves, which can help us detect and study some of the most energetic cosmic phenomena. “Gravitational waves provide a completely new way of looking at the universe and the ability to detect them has the 35 to revolutionize astronomy” said Hawking. “The discovery is the first observation of black holes merging. The observed 36 of this system are consistent with predictions about black holes that I made in 1970 in Cambridge.” However, this discovery also presents a puzzle for astrophysicists. The mass of each of the black holes are larger than expected for those formed by the gravitational 37 of a star---so how did both of these black holes become so massive This question touches on one of the biggest mysterious 38 black hole evolution. Currently, astronomers are having a hard time understanding how black holes grow to be so massive. On the one end of the scale, there are “stellar mass(恒星质量)” black holes that form

immediately after a massive star explodes, 39 an extremely bright light. And we also have an abundance of evidence for the existence of the super-massive that live in the centers of most galaxies. There should be evidence of black holes of all sizes, but “intermediate mass” black holes and black holes of a few dozen solar masses are 40 rare, throwing some black holes evolution theories into doubt. One thing is clear, however. This is the first time that we’ve acquired direct evidence of a black hole merger. So it’s good to know we’re on the right track.

Cowboy or spaceman A dilemma for a children’s party, perhaps. But also a question for economists, argued Kenneth Boulding, in an essay published in 1996. We have run our _41__, he warned, like cowboys on the open grassland: taking and using the world’s resources, ___42___that more lies over the horizon. But the Earth is __43__ a grassland than a spaceship--a closed system, alone in space, carrying exhaustible supplies. We need, said Boulding, an economics that takes seriously the idea of environmental ___44___. In the half century since his essay, a new movement has responded to his challenge. “Ecological economists,” as they call themselves, want to ___45___ its aims and assumptions. What do they say--and will their ideas take off To its __46__, ecological economics is neither ecology nor economics, but a mix of both. Their starting point is to recognize that the human economy is part of the natural world. Our environment, they note, is both a source of resources and a sink for wastes. But it is __47__ in traditional textbooks, where neat diagrams trace the flows between firms, households and the government as though nature did not exist. That is a huge mistake. There are two ways our economies can grow, ecological economists point out: through technological change, or through maximum use of resources. Only the __48__, they say, is worth having. They are suspicious of GDP(gross domestic product), a simple ___49___ which does not take into account resource exhaustion, unpaid work and countless other factors.__50___, they advocate more holistic approaches, such as GPI(genuine progress indicator), a composite(复合 的)index that include things like the cost of pollution, deforestation and car accidents. While GDP has kept growing, global GPI per person ___51___ in 1978: by destroying our environment, we are making ourselves poorer, not richer. The solution, according to expert, lies in a “steady-state” economy, where the use of materials and energy is held __52__. Mainstream economists are not ___53___. GPI, they point out , is a subjective standard. And talk of limits to growth has had a bad press since the days of Thomas Malthus, who predicted in the 18th century, wrongly, that overpopulation would lead to famine. Human beings find solutions to some of the most annoying problems. But ecological economists ____54__self-satisfaction. In 2009, a paper in Nature argued that human activity is already __55__ecologist economists are at least asking some important questions, even if their answers turn out to be wrong. 41. A. grassland B. nation C. economy D. spaceship 42. A. ignorant B. confident C. astonished D. Anxious 43. A. less B. smaller C. more D. larger 44. A. movements B. influences C. limits D. threats 45. A. reject B. realize C. resemble D. revolutionize 46. A. challengers B. learners C. advocates D. professors 47. A. addressed B. ignored C. opposed D. reflected 48. A. advanced B. former C. latter D. scientific 49. A. number B. product C. idea D. measure 50. A. In addition B. For example C. In other words D. In its place 51. A. peaked B. plunged C. persisted D. paused

52. 53. 54. 55. (A)

A. sufficient A. impressed A. call for A. setting

B. efficient B. involved B. contribute to B. overstepping

C. constant C. concerned C. warn against C. extending

D. adequate D. appointed D. refer to D. redrawing

Every April I am troubled by the same concern-that spring might not occur this year. he landscape looks dull, with hills, sky and forest appearing gray. My spirits ebb, as they did during an April snowfall when I first came to Maine 15 years ago."Just wait," a neighbor advised."You'll wake up one morning and spring will just be here." And look, on May 3 that year I awoke to a green so amazing as to be almost electric, as if spring were simply a matter of flipping a switch. Hills, sky and forest revealed their purples, blues and green. Leaves had unfolded and daffodils were fighting their way heavenward. Then there was the old apple tree. It sits on an undeveloped lot in my neighborhood. It belongs to no one and therefore to everyone. The tree's dark twisted branches stretch in unpruned (未经修剪的)abandon. Each spring it blossoms so freely that the air becomes filled with the scent of apple. Until last year, I thought I was the only one aware of this tree. And then one day, in a fit of spring madness, I set out with pruner to remove a few disorderly branches. No sooner had I arrived under its boughs than neighbors opened their windows and stepped onto their porches. These were people I barely knew and seldom spoke to, but it was as if I had come uninvited into their personal gardens. My mobile-home neighbor was the first to speak."You're not cutting it down, are you" Another neighbor frowned as I cut off a branch."Don't kill it, now," he cautioned. Soon half the neighborhood had joined me under the apple tree. It struck me that I had lived there for five years and only now was learning these people's names, what they did for a living and how they passed the winter. It was as if the old apple tree gathering us under its boughs for the dual purpose of acquaintanceship and shared wonder. I couldn't help recalling Robert Frost's words: The trees that have it in their pent-up buds To darken nature and be summer woods One thaw led to another. Just the other day I saw one of my neighbors at the local store. He remarked how this recent winter had been especially long and complained of not having seen or spoken at length to anyone in our neighborhood. And then, he looked at me and said, "We need to prune that apple tree again." 56. By saying that “my spirits ebb” (Para 1), the author means that _______. A. he feels relieved B. he feels blue C. he is surprised D. he is tired 57. The apple tree mentioned in the passage is most likely to ________. A. be regarded as a delight in the neighborhood B. have been abandoned by its original owner C. have been neglected by everyone in the community D. be appealing only to the author 58. In Para. 4 “neighbors opened their windows and stepped onto their porches” probably because _______. A. they were surprised that someone unknown was pruning the tree. B. they wanted to prevent the author from pruning the tree. C. they were concerned about the safety of the tree. D. they wanted to get to know the author 59. It can be inferred that author’s neighbor mentioned in the last paragraph most cared about

_____. A. when spring would arrive B. how to pass the long winter C. the neighborhood gathering D. the pruning of the apple tree (B) Mount Cook National Park is home of the highest mountains and the longest glaciers. It is alpine(高山) in the purest sense---with skyscraping peaks, glaciers and permanent snow fields, all set under a star-studded sky. Key Highlights Although it includes 23 peaks over 3,000 metres high, this park is very accessible. State Highway 80 leads to Mt Cook Village which is situated beside scenic Lake Pukaki and provides a comfortable base for alpine activities. Far from city lights, the stargazing here is magnificent— Aoraki Mount Cook National Park forms the majority of New Zealand's only International Dark Sky Reserve. Mountaineers regard the area to be the best climbing region, while less skilled adventurers find plenty of satisfaction with the mountain walks that lead to alpine tarns, herb fields and spectacular glacier views. Encounters with cheeky kea (mountain parrots) are part of the fun. Key Activities Mountain walks There are 10 short walks beginning near the village. All tracks are formed and well marked. The Red Tarns Track, Kea Point and the Hooker Valley Track each take around two hours return. For more experienced alpine hikers, there are three mountain pass routes—over the Mueller, Copland and Ball passes. Glacier viewing and skiing Helicopters and ski-planes provide access to the park's fabulous glaciers. The Tasman Glacier is an excellent choice for intermediate skiers, while the Murchison, Darwin and Bonney glaciers promise excitement for advanced skiers. From October until May, you can explore the Tasman Glacier's terminal lake by boat. Mountaineering Climbing Mount Cook remains the ultimate challenge, but there are many other peaks to tempt experienced climbers. Tasman, Malte Brun, Elie de Beaumont, Sefton and La Perouse are quite popular.. Key Tips ●Climbers don't require permits, but are requested to complete a trip intentions form. ●Local guides are available for climbing, walking and glacier skiing. ●Winter climbing is an extreme sport—only recommended for well-prepared, experienced mountaineers. ●The weather can change very suddenly—be prepared for heavy rainfall, snow and/or high winds. ●The park has an airport serving domestic commercial flights and scenic flight operators. 60. Which is one of the characteristics of Mount Cook National Park? A. It is alpine in the purest sense and hard to reach. B. It provides star-shining night skies for visitors. C. It attracts less skilled climbers to all alpine activities. D. It guarantees visitors a sight of cheeky kea. 61. Mike is an experienced adventurer and may find ________ the most exciting. A. Mountaineering on Elie de Beaumont B. Mountain walks via Hooker Valley Track C. Skiing on Tasman Glacier D. Climbing Mount Cook

62. If you are a visitor to the park, you should ________. A. properly evaluate your own experience and skill B. get your permit prepared before you start to climb C. hire local guides to help you to train for climbing D. avoid exploring glaciers in winter (C) How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems? This is one of the most critical yet debatable social policy questions. In many ways, our social statistics overstate the degree of hardship. Unemployment does not have the same horrible consequences today as it did in the 1930 ’ s when most of the unemployed were primary breadwinners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of survival, and when there were fewer effective social programs for those failing in the labor market. Increasing wealth, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing dominance of secondary earners among the unemployed and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably relieved the consequences of joblessness. Earnings and income data also overestimate the scale of hardship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the majority are from multiple-earner, relatively well-off families. Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market problems. Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labor-market-related hardship. The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty. Low wages and repeated or long-time unemployment frequently interact to weaken the capacity for self-support. Since the number experiencing joblessness at some time during the year is several times that unemployed in any month, those who suffer as a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffer. For every person counted in the monthly unemployment totals, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job. Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and non-cash transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected. As a result of such conflicting evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of labor market problems number in the hundreds of thousands or the tens of millions, and, hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be counteracted(抵消) by job creation and economic stimulation. There is only one area of agreement in this debate— that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one of their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems. 63. In Paragraph 2, the author contrasts the 1930 ’s with the present in order to show that_____________. A. more people were unemployed in the 1930’s B. unemployment is more intolerable today C. social programs are more in need now D. income level has increased since the 1930’s 64. Which of the following is true according to the passage? A. A majority of low-wage workers receive earnings from more than one job. B. Repetition of short-term unemployment mainly contributes to people’s loss of working capacity.

C. Many unemployed people are from families where other members are working. D. Labor market hardship is understated because fewer individuals are jobless than counted. 65. It can be inferred from the passage that the effect of income transfers is often not felt by _________________. A. those doing a low-paid, part-time job B. children in single-earner families C. workers who have just retired D. full-time workers who become unemployed 66. Which of the following is the principal topic of the passage? A. What causes labor market problems that result in suffering. B. Why income statistics are imprecise in measuring degrees of poverty. C. When poverty, employment, and earnings figures agree with each other. D. How statistics give an unclear picture of the labor-market-related suffering. Section C(4×2=8 分) A. Even being good at getting others to fight most efficiently is not being civilized. B. Most people believe those who have conquered the most nations are the greatest. C. However, every year conflicts between countries and nations still claim thousands of lives. D. And not only has it won, but also because it has won, it has been in the right. E. So there has been little time to learn in, but there will be oceans of time in which to learn better. F. People don’t fight and kill each other in the streets, but nations still behave like savages. Most of the people who appear most often and most gloriously in the history books are great conquerors and generals, while the people who really helped civilization forward are often never mentioned. We do not know who first set a broken leg, or launched a seagoing boat, or calculated the length of the year but we know all about the killers and destroyers. People think so much of them that on all the highest pillars in the great cities of the world you will find the figure of a conqueror or a general. ____67_________ It is possible they are, but they are not the most civilized. Animals fight, so do savages; so to be good at fighting is to be good in the way an animal or a savage is good, but it is not to be civilized. ____68_______. People fight to settle quarrels. Fighting means killing, and civilized peoples ought to be able to find some ways of settling their disputes other than by seeing which side can kill off greater number of the other side, and then saying that the side which has killed most has won. ___69______. For that is what going to war means; it means power is right. This is what the story of mankind has been like. But we must not expect too much. After all, the race of men has only just started. From the point of view of evolution, human beings are very young indeed, babies of a few months old. Scientists assume that there has been life of some sort on the earth for about twelve hundred million years; but there have been men for only one million years, and there has been civilized men for about eight thousand years. ____70_____. Taking man’s civilized past at about seven or eight hours, we may estimate his future at about one hundred thousand years. Thus mankind is only at the beginning of its whole a pretty beastly business, a business of fighting and killing. We must not expect even civilized peoples not to have done these things. All we can ask is that they will sometimes have done something else. 第 II 卷 (共 50 分) Summary (10 分) It's not piano lessons or dance classes. Nowadays, the biggest extra-curricular activity is going to

a tutor. "I spend about 800 Canadian dollars a month on tutors. It's costly," says Pat, a mother in Canada. However, she adds, "after finding out half my daughter's class had tutors, I felt like my child was going to fall behind because everyone else seemed to be ahead" Shelley, a mother of three, also has tutors constantly coming in and out of her home. "When I used to sit down with my children, it was hard to get them focused. I was always yelling. When I got a tutor once a week, they became focused for one entire hour and could get most of their homework done." Tutoring isn't simply a private school phenomenon. Nor is it geared only toward lower-achieving students. In Canada alone, seven percent of high school students reported using a tutor in 2010. That increased to 15 percent last year. Overall, parents hire tutors because they are worried schools are not meeting their expectations, but there is also a cultural shift. A special value is placed on education in Asia, where tutoring is viewed as an extension of the school day. As a large number of Asians emigrated to the West over the recent years, their attitudes towards education have had an impact. Another reason for the growth in business is parental frustration and their packed schedules. "A lot of parents just don’t have time to help their children with homework," says Julie Diamond, president of an American tutoring company. "Others couldn't help their children after Grade 3." There has been a shift in the attitudes, too. "Children used to get bullied (欺侮) for having a tutor," Diamond says. "Now it's becoming the norm to have one." Children don't seem to mind that they have a tutor. One parent feels surprised that so many of her child’s classmates have tutors. "For the amount we pay in tuition, they should have as much extra help as they need," she says. Still, she’ s now thinking of getting a tutor. Why? Her daughter has actually asked for one. II. Translation(3+3+4+5=15 分) 1. 没过多久,失主就来认领他的行李了。(claim) 2. MOOC 越来越流行,但学习者需要自律才能有所收获。(take) 3. 各国领导人不仅就气候变化达成了共识,还强调了经济全球化、技术进步的重要性。(Not only) 4. 网站上的报道引起了公众对弱势群体的关心,但真正重要的是怎样才能阻止这样的悲剧再 次上演。(matter) III. Guided Writing(25 分) 上海普通高中高三毕业生的志愿服务(公益劳动)将被记录在案,并纳入综合素质评价(part of Students’ Overall Quality Evaluation System) 。有人认为这会加重学生本已繁重的学业负 担,有人认为这有益于学生的全面发展,请结合自己经历谈谈体会。

2016 年高三年级 八校联合调研 英语试卷答案 II. Grammar and Vocabulary (20×1=20 分) 21. searching 22. which 23. are composed 24. as 25 .what 26. written 27. to have developed 28. but 29. included 30. oneself /himself 31-35 GHFDI 36-40 KCBJA III. Reading Comprehension (45 分) (15×1) 41-55 CBACD CBBDD ACACB (11×2) 56-59 BACC 60-62 BDA 63-66 DCAD (4×2) 67-70 BADE 第 II 卷 (共 50 分) I. Summary:(10 分) (1)Tutoring is gaining popularity in Canada, suited to children (2) at different levels. Generally, (3) higher academic achievements are the goal, beyond which are the cultural and attitudinal shifts, partly due to (4) Asian immigrants' influence, and (5) parents' lack of time or ability to help children. These all contribute to the rise of the business and (6)the growing acceptance among parents and children. (60 words) II. Translation:(15 分) ( 3+3+4+5) 1. 没过多久,失主就来认领了他的行李了。 (claim) It was not long before the owner of the lost property came to claim his luggage. 句型 1 分 1 分 1 分 2. MOOC 越来越流行,但学习者需要自律才能有所收获。 (take) MOOC is becoming increasingly/ more and more popular, 1分 -- but it takes learners self-discipline to achieve something. -- but it takes self-discipline for learners to achieve something. take 句型 1 分 0.5 分 0.5 分 5. 各国领导人不仅就气候变化达成了共识,还强调了经济全球化、技术进步的重要性。 (Not only) Not only did leaders from different countries agree on climate change 句型 1 分 0.5 分 but (also) they (also) emphasized/ placed emphasis on the importance of 句型 1 分 0.5 分 economic globalization and technological advances. 0.5 分 0.5 分 6. 网站上的报道引起了公众对弱势群体的关心,但真正重要的是怎样才能阻止这样的悲剧 再次上演。(matter) The reports on the websites have caused the public concern about the disadvantaged, 0.5 分 1 分 0.5 分 but what really matters is how to prevent such tragedies (as this) from happening again.


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