对比观点题型 （1） 要求论述两个对立的观点并给出自己的看法。 1． 有一些人认为。。。 2． 另一些人认为。。。 3． 我的看法。。。 The topic of ①-----------------（主题）is becoming more and more popular recently. There are two sides of opinions of it. Some
people say A is their favorite. They hold their view for the reason of ②-----------------（支持 A 的理由一）What is more, ③-------------理由二). Moreover, ④---------------(理由三). While others think that B is a better choice in the following three reasons. Firstly,-----------------(支持 B 的理由一). Secondly (besides),⑥------------------（理由二）. Thirdly (finally),⑦------------------(理由三). From my point of view, I think ⑧----------------（我的观点）. The reason is that ⑨--------------------(原因). As a matter of fact, there are some other reasons to explain my choice. For me, the former is surely a wise choice . （2） 给出一个观点，要求考生反对这一观点 Some people believe that ①----------------（观点一）. For example, they think ②-----------------（举例说明）．And it will bring them ③-----------------(为他们带来的好处). In my opinion, I never think this reason can be the point. For one thing,④-------------(我不同意该看法的理由一). For another thing, ⑤-----------------(反对的理由之二)． Form all what I have said, I agree to the thought that ⑥------------------(我对文章所讨论主题的看法)． 阐述主题题型 要求从一句话或一个主题出发，按照提纲的要求进行论述． 1． 2． 阐述名言或主题所蕴涵的意义． 分析并举例使其更充实．
The good old proverb ----------------（名言或谚语）reminds us that ----------------(释义). Indeed, we can learn many things form it. First of all,-----------------(理由一). For example, -------------------(举例说明). Secondly,----------------(理由二). Another case is that ---------------(举例说明). Furthermore , ------------------(理由三)． In my opinion, ----------------(我的观点). In short, whatever you do, please remember the say------A. If you understand it and apply it to your study or work, you”ll necessarily benefit a lot from it 解决方法题型 要求考生列举出解决问题的多种途径 1． 2． 问题现状 怎样解决(解决方案的优缺点) In recent days, we have to face I problem-----A, which is becoming more and more serious. First, ------------(说明 A 的现状)．Second, ---------------(举例进一步说明现状) Confronted with A, we should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation. For one thing, ---------------(解决方法一). For another -------------(解决方法二). Finally, --------------(解决方法三). Personally, I believe that -------------(我的解决方法). Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us because --------------(带 来的好处). 说明利弊题型 这种题型往往要求先说明一下现状，再对比事物本身的利弊，有时也会单从一个角度（利或弊）出发，最后往往要求考生表明自己的态度（或对事物前景提出预测） 1． 2． 3． 说明事物现状 事物本身的优缺点（或一方面） 你对现状（或前景）的看法
Nowadays many people prefer A because it has a significant role in our daily life. Generally, its advantages can be seen as follows. First ----------------(A 的优点之一). Besides -------------------（A 的优点之二）. But every coin has two sides. The negative aspects are also apparent. One of the important disadvantages is that ----------------(A 的第一个缺 点)．To make matters worse,------------------(A 的第二个缺点)．
Through the above analysis, I believe that the positive aspects overweigh the negative ones. Therefore, I would like to ---------------(我的看 法)． (From the comparison between these positive and negative effects of A, we should take it reasonably and do it according to the circumstances we are in. Only by this way, ---------------(对前景的预测)．) 议论文的框架 (1) 不同观点列举型（ 选择型 ） There is a widespread concern over the issue that __作文题目_____. But it is well known that the opinion concerning this hot topic varies from person to person. A majority of people think that _ 观点一________. In their views there are 2 factors contributing to this attitude as follows: in the first place, ___原因一_______.Furthermore, in the second place, ___原因二_____. So it goes without saying that ___观点一_____. People, however, differ in their opinions on this matter. Some people hold the idea that ___观点二_______. In their point of view, on the one hand， ___原因一_______. On the other hand, ____原因二_____. Therefore, there is no doubt that ___观点二______. As far as I am concerned, I firmly support the view that __观点一或二______. It is not only because ________, but also because _________. The more _______, the more ________. （2）利弊型的议论文 Nowadays, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)___作文题目______. In fact, there are both advantages and disadvantages in __题目 议题_____. Generally speaking, it is widely believed there are several positive aspects as follows. Firstly, ___优点一______. 优点二_____. Just As a popular saying goes, "every coin has two sides", __讨论议题______ is no exception, and in another word, it still has negative aspects. To begin with, ___缺点一______. In addition, ____缺点二______. To sum up, we should try to bring the advantages of __讨论议题____ into full play, and reduce the disadvantages to the minimum at the same time. In that case, we will definitely make a better use of the ____讨论议题___. （3）答题性议论文 Currently, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)__作文题目_______ .It is really an important concern to every one of us. As a result, we must spare no efforts to take some measures to solve this problem. As we know that there are many steps which can be taken to undo this problem. First of all, __途径一______. In addition, another way contributing And secondly ___
to success of the solving problem is ___途径二_____. Above all, to solve the problem of ___作文题目______, we should find a number of various ways. But as far as I am concerned, I would prefer to solve the problem in this way, that is to say, ____方法_____. (4) 谚语警句性议论文 It is well know to us that the proverb: " ___谚语_______" has a profound significance and value not only in our job but also in our study. It means ____谚语的含义_______. The saying can be illustrated through a series of examples as follows. ( also theoretically ) A case in point is ___例子一______. Therefore, it is goes without saying that it is of great of importance to practice the proverb ____谚 语_____. With the rapid development of science and technology in China, an increasing number of people come to realize that it is also of practical use to stick to the saying: ____谚语_____. The more we are aware of the significance of this famous saying, the more benefits we will get in our daily study and job.. 图表作文的框架 as is shown/indicated/illustrated by the figure/percentage in the table(graph/picture/pie/chart), ___作文题目的议题_____ has been on rise/ decrease (goesup/increases/drops/decreases),significantly/dramatically/steadily rising/decreasing from______ in _______ to ______ in _____. From the sharp/marked decline/ rise in the chart, it goes without saying that ________. There are at least two good reasons accounting for ______. On the one hand, ________. On the other hand, _______ is due to the fact that ________. In addition, ________ is responsible for _______. Maybe there are some other reasons to show ________. But it is generally believed that the above mentioned reasons are commonly convincing. As far as I am concerned, I hold the point of view that _______. I am sure my opinion is both sound and well-grounded. 实用性写作(申请信) Your address Month, Date, year
1.Practice makes perfect. 熟能生巧 。 2.God helps those who help themselves. 天助自助者。 3.Easier said than done. 说起来容易做起来难。 4.Where there is a will,there is a way. 有志者事竟成。 5.Slow and steady wins the race. 稳扎稳打无往而不胜。 6.A fall into the pit,a gain in your wit. 吃一堑，长一智。 7.Experience is the mother of wisdom. 实践出真知。 8.All work and no play makes jack a dull boy. 只工作不玩耍，聪明孩子也变傻。 9.Beauty without virtue is a rose without fragrance.无德之美犹如没有香味的玫瑰，徒有其表。 10..More hasty,less speed. 欲速则不达。 11.Its never too old to learn. 活到老，学到老。 12..All that glitters is not gold. 闪光的未必都是金子。 13.A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.千里之行始于足下。 14.Look before you leap. 三思而后行。 15.Ill news travels fast. 坏事传千里。 16.A friend in need is a friend indeed. 患难见真情。 17.live not to eat,but eat to live. 活着不是为了吃饭，吃饭为了活着。 18.Action speaks louder than words. 行动胜过语言。 19.To live is to learn,to learn is to better live.活着为了学习，学习为了更好的活着
良好的开端等于成功的一半．在写作文时，通常以最简单也最常用的方式---开门见山法。也就是说, 直截了当地提出你对这个问 题的看法或要求，点出文章的中心思想。 1．议论论文： A. Just as every coin has two sides, cars have both advantages and disadvantages．
B. Compared to/ In comparison with letters, e-mails are more convenient. C. When it comes to computers, some people think they have brought us a lot of convenience. However,... D. Opinions are divided on the advantages and disadvantages of living in the city and in the countryside. E. As is known to all/ As we all know, computers have played an important role/part in our daily life. F. Why do you go to university? Different people have different points of view. 2. 书信： A. I am writing to you to apply for admission to your university as a visiting scholar. B. I read an advertisement in today’s China Daily and I apply for the job... C. Thank you for your letter of May 5. D. How happy I am to receive your letter of January 9. E. How nice to hear from you again. 3. 口头通知或介绍情况： A. Ladies and gentlemen, May I have your attention, please. I have an announcement to make. B. Attention, please. I have something important to tell you. C. Mr. Green, Welcome to our school. To begin with, let me introduce Mr. Wang to you. 4. 演讲稿： A. Ladies and gentlemen, I feel very much honored to have a chance here to make a speech on the subject -- A Balance Diet and Health. B. Good morning everyone! Allow me, first of all, on behalf of all present here, to extend our warm welcome and cordial greeting to our distinguished guest. 二．并列用语： as well as, not only…but (also), including, A. Not only do computers play an important part in science and technology, but also play an informative role in our daily life. B. All of us, including the teachers / the teachers included, will attend the lecture. C. He speaks French as well as English.=He speaks English, and French as well.=He speaks not only English but also French. D. E-mail, as well as telephones, is playing an important part in daily communication.
三．对比用语： on one hand ,on the other hand, on the contrary/contrary to ..., though, for one thing ;for another, nevertheless A. I know the Internet can only be used at home or in the office, but on the other hand, it is becoming more and more popular for much information as well as clear and vivid pictures. B. It is hard work; I enjoy it though. C. Contrary to what I had originally thought, the trip turned out to be fun. 四. 递进用语： even, besides, what’s more, as for, so…that…, worse still, moreover, furthermore; but for, in addition, to make matters worse A. The house is too small for a family of four, and furthermore/besides/what’s more/moreover /in addition/worse still , it is in a bad location. 五. 例证用语： in one’s opinion, that is to say, for example, for instance, as a matter of fact, in fact, namely A. As a matter of fact, advertisement plays an informative role in our daily life． B. There is one more topic to discuss, namely/that is ( to say ), the question of education. 六. 时序用语： first/firstly, meanwhile, before long, ever since, while, at the same time in the meantime, shortly after, nowadays, A. They will be here soon. Meanwhile, let’s have coffee. B. Firstly, let me deal with the most important difficulty. 七. 强调用语： especially, indeed, at least, at the most, What in the world/on earth.. , not at all , A. Noise is unpleasant, especially when you are trying to sleep. B What in the world/on earth are you doing? 八. 因果用语： thanks to, because, as a result, because of/as a result of , without, with the help of..., owe ...to... A. The company has a successful year, thanks mainly to the improvement in export sales.
B. As a result, many of us succeeded in passing the College Entrance Examinations. 九. 总结用语： in short; briefly/ in brief ; generally speaking, in a word, as you know, as is known to all A. Generally speaking, sending an e-mail is more convenient than sending letters. B. In short, measures must be taken to prevent the environment being polluted. 常用句型 （一）段首句 1. 关于……人们有不同的观点。一些人认为…… There are different opinions among people as to……Some people suggest that …… 2. 俗话说（常言道）……，它是我们前辈的经历，但是，即使在今天，它在许多场合仍然适用。 There is an old saying……It's the experience of our forefathers，however，it is correct in many cases even today. 3. 现在，……，它们给我们的日常生活带来了许多危害。首先，……；其次，……。更为糟糕的是……。 Today, …… which have brought a lot of harms in our daily life. First, …… Second,……What makes things worse is that……. 4. 现在，……很普遍，许多人喜欢……，因为……，另外（而且）……。 Nowadays，it is common to ……. Many people like …… because …… Besides，…… 5. 任何事物都是有两面性，……也不例外。它既有有利的一面，也有不利的一面。 Everything has two sides and …… is not an exception，it has both advantages and disadvantages. 6. 关于……人们的观点各不相同，一些人认为（说）……，在他们看来，…… People’s opinions about …… vary from person to person. Some people say that ……To them ,…… 7. 人类正面临着一个严重的问题……，这个问题变得越来越严重。
Man is now facing a big problem …… which is becoming more and more serious. 8. ……已成为人的关注的热门话题，特别是在年青人当中，将引发激烈的辩论。 ……has become a hot topic among people，especially among the young and heated debates are right on their way. 9. ……在我们的日常生活中起着越来越重要的作用，它给我们带来了许多好处，但同时也引发一些严重的问题。 ……has been playing an increasingly important role in our day-to-day life.it has brought us a lot of benefits but has created some serious problems as well. 10. 根据图表/数字/统计数字/表格中的百分比/图表/条形图/成形图可以看出……。很显然……，但是为什么呢？ According to the figure/number/statistics/percentages in the /chart/bar graph/line/graph，it can be seen that……while. Obviously，……but why? （二）中间段落句 1. 相反，有一些人赞成……，他们相信……，而且，他们认为……。 On the contrary，there are some people in favor of……t the same time，they say…… 2. 但是，我认为这不是解决……的好方法，比如……。最糟糕的是……。 But I don't think it is a very good way to solve …….For example，……Worst of all，……. 3. ……对我们国家的发展和建设是必不可少的， （也是）非常重要的。首先，……。而且……，最重要的是…… ……is necessary and important to our country's development and construction. First，……What's more, ……Most important of all,…… 4. 有几个可供我们采纳的方法。首先，我们可以……。 There are several measures for us to adopt. First, we can…… 5. 面临……，我们应该采取一系列行之有效的方法来……。一方面……，另一方面， Confronted with……we should take a series of effective measures to……. For one thing，For another， 6. 早就应该拿出行动了。比如说……，另外……。所有这些方法肯定会……。
It is high time that something was done about it. For example. ……In addition.……All these measures will certainly……. 7. 为什么……？第一个原因是……；第二个原因是……；第三个原因是……。总的来说，……的主要原因是由于…… Why…… The first reason is that ……The second reason is ……The third is…….For all this, the main cause of ……use to ……. 8. 然而，正如任何事物都有好坏两个方面一样，……也有它的不利的一面，象……。 However, just like everything has both its good and bad sides, ……also has its own disadvantages, such as …… 9. 尽管如此，我相信……更有利。 Nonetheless, I believe that ……is more advantageous. 10. 完全同意……这种观点（陈述） ，主要理由如下： I fully agree with the statement that ……because…….
（三）结尾句 1. 至于我，在某种程度上我同意后面的观点，我认为…… As far as I am concerned, I agree with the latter opinion to some extent. I think that …… 2. 总而言之，整个社会应该密切关注……这个问题。只有这样，我们才能在将来……。 In a word, the whole society should pay close attention to the problem of ……Only in this way can ……in the future. 3. 但是，……和……都有它们各自的优势（好处） 。例如，……，而……。然而，把这两者相比较，我更倾向于（喜欢）…… But ……and……have heir own advantages. For example, …… while…… Comparing this with that, however, I prefer to…… 4. 就我个人而言，我相信……，因此，我坚信美好的未来正等着我们。因为…… Personally, I believe that…… Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us because…… 5. 随着社会的发展，……。因此，迫切需要……。如果每个人都愿为社会贡献自己的一份力量，这个社会将要变得越来越好。 With the development of society, ……So it's urgent and necessary to ……If every member is willing to contribute himself to the society, it will be better and better. 6. 至于我（对我来说，就我而言） ，我认为……更合理。只有这样，我们才能…… For my part, I think it reasonable to…… Only in this way can you……
7. 对我来说，我认为有必要……。原因如下：第一，……； 第二，……；最后……但同样重要的是…… In my opinion, I think it necessary to……The reasons are as follows. First……second …… Last but not least,…… 8. 在总体上很难说……是好还是坏，因为它在很大程度上取决于……的形势。然而，就我个人而言，我发现……。 It is difficult to say whether ……is good or not in general as it depends very much on the situation of…….however, from a personal point of view find…… 9. 综上所述，我们可以清楚地得出结论…… From what has been discussed above, we may reasonably arrive at the conclusion that…… 10. 如果我们不采取有效的方法，就可能控制不了这种趋势，就会出现一些意想不到的不良后果，所以，我们应该做的是…… If we can not take useful means, we may not control this trend, and some undesirable result may come out unexpectedly, so what we should do is 常用句型： 开头： When it comes to ..., some think ... There is a public debate today that ... A is a commen way of ..., but is it a wise one? Recentaly the problem has been brought into focus. 提出观点： Now there is a growing awareness that... It is time we explore the truth of ... Nowhere in history has the issue been more visible. 进一步提出观点： ... but that is only part of the history. Another equally important aspect is ... A is but one of the many effects. Another is ... Besides, other reasons are...
提出假想例子的方式： Suppose that... Just imagine what would be like if... It is reasonable to expect... It is not surprising that... 举普通例子： For example(instance),... ... such as A,B,C and so on (so forth) A good case in point is... A particular example for this is... 引用： One of the greatest early writers said ... "Knowledge is power", such is the remard of ... "......". That is how sb comment ( criticize/ praise...). "......". How often we hear such words like there. 讲故事 （先说故事主体） ，this story is not rare. ..., such delimma we often meet in daily life. ..., the story still has a realistic significance. 提出原因： There are many reasons for ... Why .... , for one thing,... The answer to this problem involves many factors. Any discussion about this problem would inevitably involves ... The first reason can be obiviously seen. Most people would agree that...
Some people may neglect that in fact ... Others suggest that... Part of the explanation is ... 进行对比： The advantages for A for outweigh the disadvantages of... Although A enjoys a distinct advantage ... Indeed , A carries much weight than B when sth is concerned. A maybe ... , but it suffers from the disadvantage that... 承上启下： To understand the truth of ..., it is also important to see... A study of ... will make this point clear 让步： Certainly, B has its own advantages, such as... I do not deny that A has its own merits. 结尾： From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that ... In summary, it is wiser ... In short... 英语名句（也可以适当用用） Seeing is believing. 眼见为实 draw worldwide attention 举世瞩目 good opportunity, favorable geographical location and support from the people 天时、地利、人和 enjoy popular support 深入人心 be true to one’s name 名副其实
deserve one’s reputation 名不虚传 change with each passing day 日星月异 More haste, less speed. 欲速则不达 Empty talks would lead the country astray, and hard work can rejuvenate the nation. 空谈误国、实干兴邦 Learn from others’ strong points and close the gap. 取长补短 Great minds think alike. 英雄所见略同 Be far-sighted 目光远大 Do as you would be done by. 已所不欲勿施于人 A good gain takes long pain. 好事多磨 It takes ten years to grow trees but a hundred years to educate people. 十年树木，百年树人 Troubles bake at home. 后顾之忧 Facts speak louder than words. 事实胜于雄辩 Tap new sources of revenue and husband existing resources 开源节流 Every little counts 积少成多 Learn to meet practical needs 学以致用 Seeking increasing perfection 精益求精 To have one’s wish fulfilled 如愿以偿 Assess the situation, go with the tide 审时度势，顺应潮流 This is beyond dispute. 毫无疑问 Make overall arrangements 统筹兼顾 Come straight to the point 开门见山 Second to none 首屈一指 An onlooker sees most of the game. 旁观者清