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高一外研版英语必修4同步课件 Module 2 Traffic Jam 第4课时 Cultural corner


1.occur vi. 发生;出现 The accident occurred at five o'clock. 事故发生在5点钟。 知识拓展 occur to 被想到;被想起 [译]他突然想起他没有锁门。 [误]He suddenly occurred that he hadn't locked the door. [正]It suddenly occurr

ed to him that he hadn't locked the door. 注意:因为occur意为“come to one's mind”,所以 occur的主语通常为某事,只是为了保持句子的平衡,而将 该主语用it来表示,后置的that-clause是真正的主语。

辨析:happen, occur, take place 1)happen常用来表示“偶然;碰巧”,而且多指整个 情况,这时不能用occur与take place代替。 How did the accident happen? 事故是如何发生的? 2)occur多用来指具体事情的发生,虽然也可指偶然性, 但与happen相比程度较弱。 The accident occurred yesterday. 事故发生在昨天。 3)take place作“发生”解时,较为正式,不带有偶然 之意,并经常用来指事先安排的事情。 When will the wedding take place? 婚礼将何时举行?

链接:

It hit sb. that ? ? It strike sb. that?某人突然想到?? sb. hit upon sth.? ?
occurrent adj. 正在发生的;偶然发生的 occurrence n. 发生;出现;事件;发生的事情

高考直击
(2006·安徽)I________along the street looking for a place to park when the accident________. A.went; was occurring B.went; occurred C.was going; occurred D.was going; had occurred 解析:本题考查了一个重要句型be doing sth. when

sth. happened结构,此处指过去某个动作发生时另一个动
作发生了,从句要用过去时,所以选C。 答案:C

即学即用
(2009·黄冈模拟)—Why are you so late? —I was in half the way when it________to me that I had left my notebook home. So I had to fetch it. A.occurred C.happened 答案:A B.hit D.reminded

2.mind n.
1)[U]回忆;记忆

?bear/keep sth. in mind 记住某事 ? ?bring/call sth. to mind 回忆某事 常用搭配:? ?put sb. in mind of sth. 使某人想起某事 ?out of sight, out of mind 离久情疏 ?

2)[U,C]意见;意向;想法;心意

①So many men, so many minds. 各人有各人的想法。 ②Maybe you'll think it over and change your mind. 也许你愿意好好想想并改变主意。 ③Once he has made up his mind, nothing can be done to change his mind. 他一旦下定决心,就没有什么能使他改变主意。 ④I had no mind to do as you told me. 我无意照你吩咐的去做。 ⑤He offered me just what I dreamed about as if he could read my mind. 就像能看透我的心思一样,他给我提供的恰是我所需 要的。

vt. & vi.
1)留心;注意 When she was called to the phone, you should mind her kettle. 她去接电话的时候;你应该看好她的水壶。 2)介意;反对 ①He doesn't mind the cold weather at all. 他对寒冷的天气一点也不在乎。

②Do you mind if I smoke?
我能吸烟吗?

高考直击 (2008·辽宁)—My name is Jonathan. Shall I spell it for you? —________. A.If you don't mind B.Not at all

C.Take it easy

D.Nice to meet you

解析:考查交际用语。句意:——我的名字是Jonathan。 要我给你拼出来吗?——你不介意的话,(就拼一下)。Not at

all回答别人的道歉或感谢;Take it easy“别着急;沉住气;
放松”;Nice to meet you是两人第一次相见时用语。 答案:A

即学即用
He doesn't mind________. A.being played jokes on B.to be played jokes on C.playing jokes on D.being played jokes 答案:A

3.point
1)n. (空间或时间的)一点;地点;(特定的)地方;时刻; 情况;分数;得分 ①This is the point at which the river divides. 这是河流的分岔点。 ②Steve Jones is 15 points ahead. 史蒂夫·琼斯领先15分。

知识拓展
at all points 在各方面;充分地 at the point of 靠近;将近??的时候 beside the point 离题;不中肯 keep to the point 扣住主题 to the point of 到??阶段(地步,程度) to the point 切中主题;中肯的 The point is... 最重要的是??;问题是??

There is no point in doing sth. 做某事没有意义(用处)。

高考直击
(2008·辽宁)I like Mr. Miner's speech; it was clear and________the point. A.at C.to 答案:C B.on D.of

解析:to the point“中肯;切题”。

2)v. 指;指向
John leaned over her and pointed ahead. 约翰向她俯过身来,并且指向前方。 拓展 point to 指向;面几(远处的对象或目标) point at 指着??(近处的对象或目标) point...to/at 把??对着?? point out sth.(to sb.) (向某人)指出

point out that/wh-从句 指出说??
①She pointed to a house in the disetance. 她指向远处的一座房屋。

②He pointed at the book he wanted.
他指着他想要的那本书。 ③The hunter pointed his gun at the bear. 猎人把枪对准了那只熊。 ④Please point out my mistakes if any. 如果有什么错误的话,请给我指出来。

辨析:point, mark, score, grade, goal 1)point尤指比赛中的得分。 We won by 5 points. 我们赢了5分。 2)mark指考试中的得分,常用复数形式,也可以说a good mark(一个好分数)。 ①The teacher gave me only 60 marks for my story. 老师仅给了我的故事60分。 ②The score in the football game was 4 to 1. 那场足球比赛的比分是四比一。 ③He always gets high grades in school. 他在学校总是得高分。

高考直击
(2009·浙江)I have reached a point in my life ________ I am supposed to make decisions of my own. A.which C.how B.where D.why

解析:考查从句。本题考查定语从句引导词的选择。 先行词为point,在从句中充当地点状语,故用where引导。 答案:B

即学即用
(2006· 山 东 )We're A.where C.when 答案:A just B.that D.which trying to reach a point________both sides will sit down together and talk.

4.afford vt.(常与can, could, be able to连用)
1)买得起 He can afford an apartment. 他买得起一套住房。 2)经受得住;承担得起 Can you afford ? 120 for the recorder? 你花得起120美元买这台录音机吗? 3)提供;给予

The transaction afforded him a good profit.
这笔买卖使他赚了一大笔钱。

知识拓展
affordable adj. 买得起的 即学即用 I want to buy a car, but I can't________the money. A.afforded C.afford 答案:C B.afford to D.affording

1.be famous for, be famous as
这一对短语都表示“以??而出名/著名”,但含义与 用法有区别。试比较: ①He is famous for his great inventions. 因为他的伟大发明,他出名了。 ②He is famous as a great inventor. 他作为一个伟大的发明家而出名。 ③France is famous for its fine food and wine.

法国的美食和酒是出了名的。
④The town is famous as a wine-producing place. 这个镇是一个出名的产酒镇。

注意:be well-known for和be well-known as的用法
与上述两个短语基本相同。

即学即用
Kaifeng is known________an ancient city. A.for C.as 答案:C B.to D.be

2.be reduced by 被减少??
The temperature is reduced by 5℃. 温度被降低了5℃。 be reduced to 被减少到?? The temperature is reduced to 5℃. 温度被降低到5℃。

知识拓展
1)reduce vt. 减少;缩小 reduction n. 减少;缩小 2)reduce oneself into 陷入??地步 reduce to ashes 把??化为灰烬 be reduced to despair 陷入绝望 反义词为increase

辨析:reduce与decrease
1)reduce指“人为地减少、降低”。 reduce speed 减速 reduced adj. 减少的;简化的 2)decrease指“渐渐地减少”。 His temperature decreases. 他的烧退了。

即学即用
Life in the city was hard and many people were reduced to________on the streets. A.beg C.begging 答案:C B.begged D.being begged

1.The situation in central London, where drivers
spent fifty percent of their time in queues, became so bad that the local government decided to do something about it. 伦敦市中心,司机们要花近50%的时间排队。这种状 况如此严重,当地政府决定采取管制措施。 1)“where drivers spent fifty percent of their time in queues”。作非限制性定语从句。修饰先行词London。 2)本句中使用了became后接形容词这一系表结构。该

用法是考试的一个热点。如:
The travelers became/got thirsty. 旅客们渴了。

即学即用
(2004· 天 津 )Happy A.become C.grown 答案:B birthday, Alice! So you have________twenty-one already! B.turned D.passed

3)本句中还使用了so...that...结构引导结果状语从句,
意为“如此??以致于??”。
?adj./adv.+that从句 ? ?adj.+a/an+单数可数名词+that从句 ? so+?many/few+复数可数名词+that从句 ? ?much/little+不可数名词+that从句 ?分词+that从句 ?

①I was so sleepy that I could hardly keep my eyes
open. 我太困了,眼睛实在睁不开了。

②She is so lovely a girl that all of us like her very
much. 她那么可爱,我们都非常喜欢她。

高考直击 (2007·上海)Pop music is such an important part of

society________it has even influenced our language.
A.as C.which B.that D.where

解析:such...that“如此??以至于??”,引导结果
状语从句;而such...as引导定语从句。空格后面的句子不 缺少句子成分,所以不能用as。 答案:B

即学即用
________about wild plants that they decided to make a trip to Madagascar for further research. A.So curious the couple was B.So curious were the couple C.How curious the couple were D.The couple was such curious 答案:B

2.What's more, central London shops did not lose
business even though there were fewer cars. 而且,市中心的各家店铺也没有因为车辆变少影响生 意。 even though连词,引导让步状语从句,意为“即使; 尽管”,也可以用even if来代替,但要与as if/though“好 像”区别开来。 ①I will try it, even though I may fail.

即使可能失败,我也要试一下。
②He treated the boy as if he were his own son. 他待这个小男孩就像他是自己的亲儿子一样。

即学即用
(2009·南京金陵中学模拟)There was never any time for Kate to feel lonely,________she was an only child. A.ever since C.even though 答案:C B.now that D.even as

3.What's more, central London shops did not lose
business even though there were fewer cars. 并且,伦敦中心的商场即使在车辆较少的情况下也没 失去多少生意。 1)what's more(=besides)而且;另外(插入语) ①You are wrong, and what's more you know it. 你错了,并且是明知故犯。 ② They're going to get married, and what's more

they're setting up in business together.
他们就要结婚了,而且还要在一起做生意。

链接:
what's worse 更糟糕的是 in addition 并且 besides 还有 He missed the last bus. What was worse, he had no money to take a taxi. 他没赶上最后一班公共汽车,更糟的是,他没有钱坐 出租车。

即学即用
Maggie has been fortunate to find a job she loves and, ________, she gets well paid for it. A.sooner or later C.as a result 答案:B B.what's more D.more or less

2)even though=even if 即使;纵使
Even though I have to sell my house, I'll keep my business going. 即使要卖掉我的房子,我还是要继续我的事业。 辨析:though, even though与even if 三者都可以引导让步状语从句。 1)though的意思是“虽然”,引出的从句说的是事实, 用于句首时较庄重。

Though it seems to rain this morning, it has turned out
to be a fine day. 尽管上午看上去要下雨,可是现在是大晴天。

2)even if从句中含有强烈的假定性,而even though则
多以从句的内容为前提。 ①Even if he is poor, she loves him.(=He may be poor, yet she loves him.) 即使他很穷,她还是爱他。 ②Even though he is poor, she loves him.(=He is poor, yet she loves him.) 即使他很穷,她还是爱他。

高考直击
(1)(2010·安徽卷,29)The engineers are so busy that they have zero time for outdoor sports activities , ________they have the interest. A.wherever C.even if B.whenever D.as if

解析:句意:这些工程师太忙了,以至于即使他们有 兴趣,也没有时间参加户外活动。even if是“即使”的意

思,符合句意。
答案:C

(2)(2010·湖南卷,32)Tim is in good shape physically
________ he doesn't get much exercise. A.if C.unless B.even though D.as long as

解析:句意:即使Tim不大锻炼,他的体型也很好。 even though即使,引导让步状语从句;as long as只要,引 导条件状语从句。 答案:B

即学即用
—Will you go to Tom's birthday party tomorrow? —No, ________invited to. A.if C.when 答案:D B.until D.even if


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