Unit 1 Living well
Learning about Language
1 Fill in the table below. You can use the dictionary to help you. Noun
ambition absence suitability benefit
ambitious absent suitable beneficial annoyed/annoying
Noun clumsiness firmness
Adjective clumsy firm noisy psychological encouraging
2 Answer each question by using a correct new word in this unit. 1. How do you measure the length of a race round a racetrack? lap 2. How would you feel if someone kept talking when you were trying to read?
3. In what way can a teacher check if you have learned the new words by heart? dictation 4. What do you call an item written in a diary or in a dictionary? entry 5. What kind of instrument does a doctor need to examine viruses in blood? microscope
6. How do you describe someone who is happy to meet new people? outgoing 7. What do you call students in the same year group and the same situation as you? fellow 8. What do you call the behaviour of one student to others? conduct
3 Complete this passage using the words below.
adapt to out of breath make fun of
cut out sit around all in all
in other words in many ways
There was a time when children with mental
disabilities were prevented from living a normal
life _____________. in many ways They used to __________ sit around in their own homes after being educated in special
schools. make fun of them. But Other people sometimes ___________ now things are changing. There are training programmes for young people with mental disabilities, which have proved very beneficial. Students like Xie Li, mentally disabled from birth, now have a chance to become athletes. But adapt to it is a challenge. She has to __________ training programmes as well as mixing with other able-bodied athletes.
“Xie Li’s confidence has grown,‖ said her father.
―She looks much better and is not so often out of breath after her training. ________ ___________ All in all her mother and I are very happy with her progress.‖ So, instead of ___________ cutting out mainstream activities, mentally disabled students can become part of the mainstream. ______________ In other words they can lead a
more fulfilling life.
Grammar: the Infinitive
“to+动词原形” 构成，没有人称和 数的变化，在句中不能独立作谓语。 但不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特 征，在句中可以作主语、宾语、宾语 补足语、表语、定语、状语等。
1. It is good to help others. subject
2. It is my ambition to make sure that the
disabled people in our neighborhood have access to all public buildings. subject
3. My ambition is to work in the computer
industry when I grow up. Predicative (表语)
4. I don’t have time to sit around feeling sorry for myself. attribute 5. I am the only student in my class to have a pet snake. attribute 6. A big company has decided to buy it from me. object 7. My fellow students have begun to accept me for who I am. object
8. I have had to work hard to live a normal life. Adverbial (状语)
9. Some days I am too tired to get out of bed.
10. We must call on local government to give financial assistance to disabled people. object complement
To act like that is childish.
e.g. It is not easy to learn English well.
2. 作宾语 她喜欢谈论这件事情。 e.g. She loves to talk about the matter. 他希望不久能找到工作。 He hopes to find a job soon. 他答应不把这事告诉任何人。 He promised not to tell anyone about it.
常接不定式做宾语的动词有： afford, agree, aim, arrange, ask, attempt, begin, bother, care, choose, continue, dare,
decide, demand, expect, fail, hate, hope, learn,
long, manage, mean, need, offer, plan, prefer, prepare, promise, prove, refuse, want, wish等.
1) 不定式有时和连接代词/副词构成宾语。 你记得哪一条路到那儿吗？ Do you remember which way to get there? 下一步干什么你决定了吗? Have you decided what to do next? 我来问他怎么样开这机器。 I’ll ask him how to operate the machine.
2) 有时不定式由whether引起。 I didn’t know whether to laugh or cry
3) feel, find, judge, make, think, believe,
I find it difficult to work with him.
?动词+宾语+带to的不定式 She asked me to stay there. Please allow me to introduce Mr. White to you. Father will not allow us to play on the street.
My brother asked me to clean the room
常带 to 的不定式做宾语补足语的动词有: ask, beg, prefer, help, promise, wish, want, expect, permit, request, allow, command,
tell, invite, cause, encourage, warn, advise,
persuade, force, order, remind, teach, 等.
在主动结构中, 下列动词后作宾补的动词不定式应 省略to: ―五看”(see, watch, notice, observe, look at) ―三使”(make, let, have) ―两听”(hear, listen to) ―一感觉”(feel)。 e.g. Who made him work all night long? The policeman saw a child play in the street. Don’t make the children do such heavy work. Shall I have him come here?
但是, 改为被动结构后, 应补出省略的to。 e.g. He was seen to break the window.
The policeman saw a child play in the street.
A child was seen to play in the street by
My work is to clean the room every day.
His dream is to be a doctor.
My job is to help the patient
5. 作定语 不定式放在被修饰的名词、代词后面，往往 表示未发生的动作。 I have a lot of work to do. She is the first student to come to school. I have some books for you to read. She is looking for a room to live in. There is nothing to worry about.
6. 作状语 目的状语: 常用的结构—to do; in order to do, so as to do, so/ such …as to do, etc.
I come here to say good-bye to you.
结果状语: 常与only , enough 或too连用。
He studied hard only to fail the exam.
He is old enough to go to school.
I’m glad to see you.
She wept to see the sight.
否定副词 not, never, seldom, hardly 等要置于
Please tell your child not to play in the street.
She checked the names so as not to make mistakes.
三. 不定式的时态： 1. 一般时表示的动作, 有时与谓语动词表示的 动作同时发生, 有时发生在谓语动词表示的 动作之后。 He seems to know this.他似乎知道这事。 I hope to see you again. 我希望再见到你。 2. 完成时表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的 动作之前。 很抱歉给了你这么多麻烦。 I’m sorry to have given you so much trouble.
3. 一般进行时表示的动作正在进行, 与谓语 动词表示的动作同时发生。 他好象正在吃什么东西。 He seems to be eating something. 4. 完成进行时表示的动作从过去开始并延续 至说话的时候。 据说她研究这问题有好多年了。 She is said to have been working on the problem for many years.
1. She reached the top of the hill and stopped C on a big rock by the side of the path. ______ A. to have rested B. resting
C. to rest
A 2. We’re planning ______ a party next week. A. to have B. have C. having D. had
3. ---Which do you prefer ____ B your weekends, fishing or watching TV?
A. Spending B. to spend
C. being spent A. When to take
C. have taken
D. spend B. to take
D. being taken
A the pie out of the oven? 4. Did you find out _____
5. _____ B get a complete picture, further
information is needed.
A. In order that
B. In order to
D. To have
A some English grammar. 6. It’s necessary ____
A. for students to learn B. for students learning C. of students to learn D. of students learning
C him the news, but I forgot to 7. I ought to ____ do so. A. remember to tell B. remember telling C. have remembered to tell
D. have remembered telling
D you the exciting news, but you 8. I ____ were not at home. A. meant telling
B. meant to telling
C. meant to having told
D. meant to tell
1. I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good ______. (2008全国I卷) B A. to be breathed B. to breathe C. breathing D. being breathed
2. – Did the book give the information you needed? A it, I had to read the – Yes. But _____ entire book. (2008北京卷) A. to find B. find C. to finding D. finding 3. I feel greatly honored ____ C into their society. (2008北京卷) A. to welcome B. welcoming C. to be welcomed D. welcomed
4. _____ D the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day. (2008湖南卷) A. Completing B. Complete C. Completed D. To complete 5. If there is a lot of work _____, I’m happy to A just keep on until it is finished. (2008上海卷) A. to do B. to be doing C. done D. doing
6. When asked why he went there, he said he was sent there _______ for a D space flight. (07江西卷) A. training B. being trained C. to have trained D. to be trained 7. The children talked so loudly at dinner table that I had to struggle _______. A (07浙江卷) A. to be heard B. to have heard C. hearing D. being heard
Homework 1. Summarize the rules of infinitive
in your own way. 2. Finish the exercises of the textbook on Page 5.