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§1 a bit/ a little 这两个词都意为“一点儿”有时可以互换,但有时不能。 Ⅰ.二者作程度副词修饰形容词、副词、动词或比较级时,意义

相同,为“一点儿” “有 些”。如: ① I am a bit / a little hungry. 我有点饿。 ② He walked a bit / a little slowly. 他走路有点慢。 Ⅱ.二者都可以作名词词组,充当主语或宾语。如: ① A little / bit is enough for me. 我有一点儿就够了。 ② I know only a little / a bit about her. 我对她的情况只了解一点。 Ⅲ。a little 可直接修饰名词;a bit 后须加 of 才可以。如: ①. There is a little water in the bottle. = There is a bit of water in the bottle. [注意] a little of 后的名词通常特指,表“……中的一些”,如: ①May I have a little of your tea? Ⅳ. 否定形式 not a little 作状语,相当于 very/ quite, “很”, “非常”;作定语和宾 语时,相当于 much, 意为 “许多”。而 not a bit 作状语时,相当于 not at all, 意为“一 点也不”,作宾语时则相当于 not much. Eg: ① He is not a little (=very) hungry. 他饿极了。 ② He is not a bit (=not at all) hungry.他一点也不饿。 ③ She ate not a little (=much). 她吃得很多。 Ⅴ. Not a bit 中的 not 可以分开使用;not a little 中的 not 则不能分开。Eg: ① He felt not a bit tired. = He didn’t feel a bit tired. 他觉得一点也不累。

② He felt not a little tired. 他觉得非常累。但不能说:He didn’t fell a little tired. §2 a few/ few/ a little/ little

Ⅰ. a few 和 few 修饰可数名词,a little 和 little 修饰不可数名词;a few 和 a little 表示肯 定意义,few 和 little 表示否定意义,可受 only 修饰。如: ① Few people will agree to the plan because it’s too dangerous. ②This text is easy to understand though there are a few new words in it. ③ There is little water left in glass. Will you please give me some ④ Don’t worry, we have a little time left. ⑤ §3 about/ on Ⅰ.about “关于”表示的内容较为普通或指人时用它。侧重于叙事,多用于叙述个人经历 和事迹,故事内容涉及一些较浅的问题。是非正式用语。 Ⅱ.on “关于”侧重于论述政治理论,国际形势,学术报告等。也就是说,当表示这本书, 这篇文章或演说是严肃的或学术性的可供专门研究这一问题的人阅读时用。eg: This is a text book on African history. 这是一本关于非州历史的教科书。[注]:它们有时 可通用。 §4 above/over/on/upon

Ⅰ. 方位介词, “在……之上” Ⅱ. above 着重指:在……上方,不一定含有垂直在上的意思。反义词为:below. ① The sun rose above the horizon. 太阳升到了地平线上。 ② The aero plane flew above the clouds.飞机在云层上飞行。 Ⅲ.over 表盖在……上面,或铺在……上面。此时不能用 above.代替。含有垂直在上的意思。 反义词为 under. ① Spread the tablecloth over the table.把桌布铺在桌子上。 Ⅳ. on 含有与表面相接触的意思。 ① The book is on the desk. ② There is an oil painting on the wall. 墙上有一幅油画。 Ⅴ.upon 也含有和表面相接触的意思。与 on 没有多大的区别,但较正式,口语中较少用。 ① He laid his hand upon the boy’s head. 他把手放在孩子的头上。 [注] up 与以上几个不同,它表示向上方或高处,含有由下而上,由低而高的意思。常和表 示运动的动词连用。作副词时,表示在上方或高处。 ① We run up a hill. 我们跑上山。 ② The plane was high up in the air.飞机在高空中。 §5 accident/incident “事故” Ⅰ. accident 可以表示事故,指不幸的意外事件。也表偶然的事件。

① Twenty people were killed in the railway accident ② He met with an accident. 这完全是偶然的事。 Ⅱ. Incident 的意思是事件,尤指与较重大的事件相比,显得不重要的事件。它还可以表引 起国际争端或战争的事件。 ① It is a quite common incident.这是很普通的事。 ② The Lugouqiao incident accrued on July 7th, 1937. 芦沟桥事件发生于 1937 年 7 月 7 日。 §6 accept/receive Ⅰ. accept “接受” ,表示其行为是由主观意愿决定的。 ① I accepted it without question. 我毫无疑问地接受了它。 ② We have accepted his proposal. 我已接受了他的建议。 Ⅱ. receive “接到、收到、受到”表示其行为与主观意愿无关。如: ① I received a letter from him. 我收到了他的来信。 ② He received the present, but he did not accept. 他收到了礼物,但没有接受下来。 ③ He received a good education.他受到了良好的教育。 [注] 在表示接待、接见时,通常用 receive, 而不用 accept. 如:We often receive foreign guests. 我们经常接待外宾。 §7 at hand/ in hand Ⅰ. at hand“在手边;在附近;即将到来”如: ① When he writes, he always keeps a dictionary at hand. 他写东西时,手边总有一 本字典。 ② Spring is at hand. 春天就要来了。 Ⅱ. in hand “在手中的;现有的”引申为: “在掌握中;在处理中” 。如: ① I have 100 yuan in hand. 我手头有 100 元钱。 ② The police immediately had the situation in hand. 警方立即控制了局势。 §8 accurate/exact/correct

Ⅰ. accurate “准确、精确” 不仅表无错误,且表细心,谨慎地做到符合标准,符合事实 或真象。如: ① Clocks in railway stations must be accurate. ② The figures are not accurate.这些数字不精确。 Ⅱ. exact “精确、确切”强调完全符合标准,符合事实或真象,丝毫没有差错。它这三个 中语意最强。如: ① His translation is exact to the letter. 他的翻译翻译确切。 ② Your description is not very exact.你的描述不很确切。 Ⅲ.correct. “正确”指按照一定的标准或规则,而没有错误。在这有一个词中,它的语意 最弱。 火车站的钟必须准确。

① His answer is correct. 他的回答是正确的。 ② The thing turned out to be correct. 事情结果是对的。 §9 ache/pain “痛” Ⅰ. ache 通常指一种持续的隐痛。 它可以与表身体某部分的词,组成复合词。如: ① Where is the ache? 哪里痛? ② I have a headache (stomachache, toothache atc). Ⅱ. pain 是普通用语。不含持续痛的意味,尤指一种突然的剧痛。除指肉体上的外,还指 精神的痛苦。如: ① I feel a great deal of pain. 我感到非常痛。 ② He cried with pain. 他痛得直叫。 ③ I have a pain in the arm. 我手臂痛。 ④ I have pains all over. 我浑身痛。 ⑤ It gave us much pain to learn of the sad news. 听到不幸的消息很悲痛。 §10 across/through/ over

Ⅰ. across “横过、穿过” ,指从……的一边到另一边。含义与 on 有关。如: ① I swam across the river. 我游过这条河(指从此岸到彼岸) ② Let’s help push the cart across the bridge. 过,含义与 in 有关。如: ① We walked through the forest. 我们穿过森林。 ② The river flows through the city from west to east. 这条河从西到东流过城市。 Ⅲ. over“横过、跨越”指横过道路、河流等“细长物”时,与 across 通用。Over 虽可指 从表面的接触及跳(飞)越,但指渡过则不能用。从房间、原野、海洋等“平面延伸”的一 端横越到另一端时也不能使用。而常用 across. ① She went across / over the bridge. ② He jumped across / over the stream 他跳过了小溪。 ③ She swam across the straight of Dover. 她游过了多佛尔海峡。 ④ They drove across the desert. 他们驶过沙漠。 另外,over 作介词还有“翻过……”的意思,如:climb the mountain 翻过那座山。 §11 affair/matter/business 我们帮着把车子推过桥吧。 Ⅱ. through “穿过、通过”指穿过两边。是从空间较狭窄的一头穿到另一头。是从内部穿

Ⅰ. affair “事、事情、事务”它的涵义最广,可指已经发生或必须做的任何事情, 也可泛 指事务(通常用算数,指重大或头绪较多的事务) 。如: ① The railway accident was a terrible affair. 那次火车事故是件可怕的事。 ② That’s my affair, not yours. 那是我的事, 不是你的。 ③ We should concern ourselves with state affairs. 我们要关心国家大事。 Ⅱ. matter“事、事情” 是普通用语,常指我们所写到或谈到的事情,要考虑和处理的事

情。如: ① This is a matter I know little about. 这件事我不大知道。 ② I’ll ask some one about the matter.关于这件事我将去问问人。 ③ There are several matters to be considered. 思。如: ① What’s the matter? 怎么啦? ② What’s the matter with you? 你怎么啦? Ⅲ. business“生意、商业”产普通用语。它表“事情、事务”时,往往指一种任务、责任 或必须去做的事。此外, 它有时还含有轻蔑的意味。如: ① We don’t do much business with them. 我们跟他们没有多少生意来往。 ② It is a teacher’s business to help his pupils. 自己的事。 ④ It’s not your business.这不是你的事。 [注] :这三个词有时可通用,但不能任意替换。如: Mind your own business.少管闲事。这里的 matters. §12 afraid/ fear/ frightened business 可用 affairs 替换,但不能用 帮助学生是教师的责任。 ③ He made it his business to fetch water for a granny. 他把为一位老大娘挑水当作 有几件事情要考虑。 [注] :在口语中,be the matter 相当于 be wrong, 表发生了失常的事或出了毛病等意

Ⅰ. afraid “害怕”是形容词,只能作表语,而不能作定语,后接 of 短语或不定式,构成 be afraid of sb. 和 be afraid to do sth ① She is afraid of a snake. 她害怕蛇。 ② The little girl is afraid to go out at night. afraid +that clause “恐怕” , 是婉转拒绝别人的一种表达方式。 如: ① I’m afraid (that) I can’t go to the party. My brother is sick. 聚会了。我弟弟病了。 Ⅱ. fear “害怕”是动词,与 be afraid 往往通用,但不如它常用(特别是在口语中) 。如: ① We fear no difficulty.我们不怕困难。 ② He feared to speak his mind.他不敢说出自己的想法。 ③ Fearing that he would catch cold, I went out to see him.因为怕他会受凉,我走去 看他。 Ⅲ. frightened adj “受惊吓的、害怕的”可做表语,也可作定语。如: ① She is too frightened to move.她太害怕了不能动弹。 ② A frightened girl is crying. 一个受惊的女孩正在哭。 §13 feel like / would like Ⅰ.feel like 与 would like 意思很相近, 但 feel like 后面常跟名词; 动名词。 构成: feel like 恐怕我不能去参加

(doing) sth. 而 would like 一般接名词;动词不定式。构成:would like (to do) sth.的 句式。如: ① I feel like (having) a drink. = I would like (to have) a drink. 我想喝一杯。 ② Do you feel like talking a walk. = Would you like to take a walk? 你要不要散步? ③ I don’t feel like eating. 我不想吃东西。 Ⅱ.feel like 还表示: “觉得好像,摸起来像” 。如: ① It feels like silk. 它摸起来像绸缎。 §14. after/behind “在……之后” Ⅰ. after “在……(时间)之后” ; “在……(地点)之后” ,指次序。如: ① He came after ten o’clock. 他十点以后来的。 ② Two days after his arrival, I called on him. 在他到达两天以后,我拜访了他。 ③ ‘Against’ comes after ‘again’ in this cictionary.在这本字典中 ‘against’ 排 在 ‘again’ 之后。 Ⅱ. behind 表地点时意为:在……后面、着重指位置的前后。偶尔也指时间,表按照一定的 时刻而迟了的意思。 ① The garden is behind the house. ② He stood behind me. ③ The train was behind time. 火车误点了。 ④ You are two hours behind. 你迟了两个小时。 §15. ago/before Ⅰ. ago adv. “……以前”指从此刻起,若干时间以前,通常与过去连用。如: ① It happened two days ago.这件事发生在两天以前。 ② I met him a few minutes ago.我在几分钟以前碰到他。 Ⅱ. before adv, prep & conj “……以前”指从那时起若干时间以前。通常与完成时、过去 时等连用。还可用作前置词或连接词表时间,而 ago 则不能这样用。 ① He said that he had seen her two days before.他说他两天前见到过她。 (表从她说 话那时起两天前) ② I had been fine the day before.(那天)前一天的天气很好。 ③ I’ve seen that film before. ④ I never met him before. §16. agree to/ agree with/ agree on(up on) Ⅰ. agree to “同意、应允”通常用于同意某件事情(我们可以同意我们自己有不同看法而 并不赞同的事情) 。如: ① Do you agree to this plan?

② He agreed to my proposal.他同意了我的提议。 ③ I agreed to his terms. 我同意了他的条件。 Ⅱ. agree with “同意、赞同”常常表示同某人意见一致,也可表赞同某件事情。还有“ (气 候、食物等)适合”之意。如: ① I quite agree with you.我很同意你。 ② Do you agree with me ? ③ I agree with all you say.我同意你所说的。 ④ His words do not agree with his actions.他言行不一致。 ⑤ Too much meat doesn’t agree with her. [注]:agree with 不能用于被动语态。 Ⅲ. agree on /upon “对……取得一致意见”指两方或多方就某个问题取得了一致的意见 或达成了某种协议。如: ① After discussion the two sides agreed on a cease-fire. 经过讨论, 双方就停火问题 达成了协议。 ② They all agree on the plan.他们对这个计划意见一致。 [注]:此句型可转换成 agree in doing sth.如: ① All of them agreed on / upon it. = All of them agreed in doing it. 他们对做这个问 题达成了共识。 §17 at times / at all times / all the time Ⅰ. at times “不时;偶尔”如: ① The tide is , at times, very high. 潮水有时涨得高。 ② I make mistakes at times when I speak English. 我说英语偶尔会出错。 Ⅱ. at all times.“随时;任何时候;总是” 如: He has a cool head at all times. 他随时都有清醒的头脑。 Ⅲ. all the time “一直;始终” 其中 time 用单数形式。如: The baby cries all the time. 那婴儿一直哭。 §18. aim/ purpose/ object Ⅰ. aim “目的”指抱有一种明确的目的,并意味着为之实现而竭尽全力。如: ① What’s your aim in life?你的人生目的是什么? ② The ultimate aim of the Party is the realization of communism.党的最终目的是实 现共产主义。 Ⅱ. purpose “目的”指心中有打算,并意味着对所作的打算有较大的决心。如: ① It was done with a definite purpose. 做这件事具有一个明确的目的。 ② For what 的何在? Ⅲ. object “目的” 含有比较具体的意味。往往指在我们的行为中,需要或希望直接达到 purpose (purposes) do you want to go to Canada? 你要去加拿大的目 吃太多肉对她身体不合适。

的目的。如: ① The object of my visit is to consult you. 我访问的目的是来和你商量。 ② What is your object in studying English? 你学英文的目的何在? [注]:以上这几个词的涵义虽有差别,但在语言实践中,常被毫无区别地使用着。 §19. alive/ living/ the living/ live/ dead Ⅰ. alive adj“活着的” “在世的” ,它既可修饰人也可修饰物。可作表语,定语。作定语时, 应放在被修饰的名词之后。如: ① They were alive and as happy as ever. 他们都还活着,并跟以前一样快活。 ② All the other comrades were killed in the battle. He was the only man alive. 所有的同志都还活着亡了,他是唯一的幸存者。 Ⅱ.living adj,“活着的”主要用着定语,常置于名词前,有时也可置于名词后。也可作表语。 如: ① Every living person has a name. 每个活着的人都有一个名字。 ② No man living could do better. Ⅲ. the living “活着的人”如: The living are more important to us than the dead. 人更重要。 Ⅳ. live adj. “活着的”读着[laiv],反义词为 dead, 可作定语,放在所修饰的名词之前,一 般不用来修饰人。 还可以作动词,读着[liv], 意为“生活” 、 “生存”如: ① The cat was playing with a live mouse. 中国的南部和东南部。 Ⅴ. lively adj. [‘laivli](livelier, liveliest) “生动的” ; “活泼的” ; “充满生气的”用作表语 或定语,可用来修饰人或物。如: The sports ground is lively with all sorts of ball games. 比赛,呈现出一派生气勃勃的景象。 §20. all/ every Ⅰ. all 和 every 意思十分相近,二者都可用来泛指人或物。但 all 可与算数的名词连用, 而 every 只能与单数的名词连用。如: ① All Mondays are horrible. 星期一总是可怕的。 ② Every Monday is horrible. 每个星期一都是可怕的。 Ⅱ. all 和 every 也可用来指某一类东西中的个体。但 all 后跟 the 或其它“限定词” ,而 every 后却不能。它往往强调无一例外的意思。 --She is eaten all the biscuits[‘biskit]. –What, every one? –Every single one! 她把 饼干都吃光了。怎么,把每一块都吃光了吗?每一块全都吃了! Ⅲ. all 还可和单数名词连用,表示 every past of 而 every 却不能有此义。如: 运动场上进行着各种球类 这只猫在玩弄一只活老鼠。 熊猫通常生活在 ② Pandas usually live in the south and the southeast of China. 对我们来说活着的人比死了的 当代人没有一个能做得比这更好。

She was here all day. 她在这呆了一整天。 §21. all/ whole Ⅰ. 二者意义( “全部、都、整个” )相同,然而词序不同。 Ⅱ. all 用于冠词,所有格或其它“限定词”之前。 whole 则用于冠词之后。如: ① all the time. ────→the whole time.全部时间 ② all my life ────→the whole life.我的一生 ③ all this confusion ─→ this whole confusion.整个混乱状况。 Ⅲ. 如果没有冠词,或其它限定词,whole 不能与单数名词连用。可以说: ① The whole city was burning.但不能说: ② Whole London was burning. Ⅳ.whole 和 all 与复数名词连用时意思不同。Whole 的意思为“全部” ,而 all 的意思则 近乎“每一个”如: ① All Indian tribes([traib]部首 ) suffered from white settlement in America. 所有印 第安人部首都因白人移民美洲而遭殃。 ② Whole Indian tribes were killed off. ① 可以说:all the money 或 all the wine ② 不可以说:the whole money 或 the whole wine. ③ The whole of = whole 与单数名词连用。它用于冠词、所有格之前。 the whole of the time. the whole of my life the whole of this confusion §22 如: ① We allowed him to depart.我们允许他离去。 ② Who allowed you to leave the camp?谁允许你离开营地的? ③ I can’t allow you to do that.我不能允许你做那件事。 allow 也可表客气的请求。如 ① Will you allow me to use your pen?我可以用你的钢笔吗? Ⅱ. permit “允许、许可”但是正式地许可,含有比较积极地同意某人去做什么的意味。 如: ① I will permit him to do so. 我准备同意他这样做。 ② The sentinel permitted the strangers to pass when they had given the countersign.当这群陌生人说出口令后,哨兵就允许他们通过了。 allow/ permit/ let/ promise 有些印第安人部落整个被杀光了。 Ⅴ. whole 一般不用来修饰不可数名词(包括物质名词)

Ⅰ. allow“允许、许可” ,一般指听任,或默许某人去做什么,含有消极地不反对的意味。

[注]:allow 与 permit 的涵义虽有差别,但在语言实践中,它们常常被通用着。如: ① Smoking is not allowed here.此处禁止吸烟。 ② Smoking is not permitted in this theatre. 本戏院里禁止吸烟 Ⅲ. let.“允许、让”它可以指积极地允许,但更多的是着重指不予反对和阻止其后所跟的宾 语要接不带 to 的不定式用以表示客气的请求时, 可与 allow 通用。 且更具有口语色彩。 如: ① Her father will not let her go.她父亲不会让她去。 ② Don’t let this happen again. 不要让这种事发生了。 ③ Please let me know what happens.请告诉我发生些什么事。 Ⅳ. promise “答应” “允诺” 。与以上三个词的意义不同,用于主体答应自己要作什么的场 合。如: ① He promised to begin at once.他答应立刻开始。 ② I promised (him) to attend to the matter promptly. 我答应(他)立即处理这件事。 ③ They promised an immediate reply.他们答应立即答复。 §23 almost/ nearly

Ⅰ. almost“差不多、几乎”有 very, nearly 的意思。如: ① He has almost finished his work. 他差不多完成了他的工作。 ② Almost no one took any rest. 几乎没有一个人休息一下。 Ⅱ. nearly “差不多、几乎、将近”指一差距一般比 almost 大。如: ① It’s nearly five o’clock.差不多五点钟了。 ② Nearly everyone knows it. 几乎每个人都知道这个。 ③ He’s nearly ready. 他快准备好了。 [注]:almost 有时可与 nearly 通用,但当其与 no, none, nothing, never 连用时,不用 nearly。如以上 almost 的例①可以互换,但例②则不能。 §24 alone/ lonely 我单身一人但我从不觉得孤独。

Ⅰ. alone adj. “单独的”只能作表语。如: ① I’m alone but I don’t fell lonely. ③ I’ll go there alone.我将独自去那儿。 Ⅱ. lonely adj. “孤独的” “寂寞的”有时还可表示“荒凉的” “无人烟的”意思,与 deserted 意思相同。含有较浓的情感色彩。既可作定语也可作表语。如: ① We’re together most of the time, so we never feel lonely. ② a lonely / deserted island §25 aloud/ loud/ loudly ② 此外 alone 还可作副词。相当于 by oneself,“单独地” “独自”

Ⅰ. aloud adv. “出声地”有使能听得到的意味。如: ① Please read the story aloud. 请朗读这个故事。

② They were shouting aloud.他们在高声地呼喊。 Ⅱ. loud. adv “高声地、大声地、响亮地”常指在说笑等方面。如: ① Don’t talk so loud. 不要如此高声地谈话。 ② Speak louder. 说得大声点。 Ⅲ. loudly adv. “高声地”有时与 loud 通用,但含有喧闹的意味。如: ① Someone knocked loudly at the door. 有人大声敲门。 ② Don’t talk so loudly(loud). 不要如此高声地谈话。 §26 already/ yet /still

Ⅰ. already. adv. “已经”多用于肯定句中,通常与动词的完成时或进行时连用。也可用于 疑问句,但不表真心的疑问,而表“惊奇” 。它多置于句中。有时为了强调而置于句末。如: ① I’ve seen the film already. ② The train has already left. 火车已经开走了。 ③ Have you already had breakfast? 难道你已经吃过早餐了? Ⅱ. yet adv “已经、仍然、还”一般只用于否定句或疑问句,且常常置于句末。如: ① He hasn’t found his bike yet 他还没有找到他的自行车。 Ⅲ. still adv “仍然、还”可用于各种句中,且一般只用于句中。如: ① Do you still teach in that school? 你还在那所学校教书? [注]:still 在句中的位置不同,其意义也不同。如: ① He is still(还)standing there. ② He is standing there still(adj.不动的、静止的)他站在那儿一动也不动。 §27 also/ as well/ too/ either “也”

Ⅰ. also 较正式,位置通常靠近动词,用于句中;且用于肯定句中。如: ① He also plays football. 他也踢足球。 ② I was also there.我也在那儿。 Ⅱ. too 多用于口语,通常置于句末,前边须用逗号隔开,也可用于句中,且前后均须用逗 号隔开, ;用于肯定句中。如: ① He is a worker, too. ② The two cows, too, are white.那两头奶牛也全都是白的。 Ⅲ. as well 是副词短语,多用于口语,只用于句末。如: ① She not only taught us English but taught us maths as well.她不但教过我们英语, 还教过我们数学。 ② He is a teacher and a writer as well.他是位教师,也是一位作家。 Ⅳ. either 用于否定句中,常置于句末。在肯定句变否定句时,其中的 also, too, as well 都要改为 either. ① Yesterday I didn’t watch TV and I didn’t see the film, either 看电视,也没有看电影。 . 昨天我没有

§28 for / from / since Ⅰ. 三者都能用来表示时间,但用法不同。 since “自从” ,所表示的是一个时间点。可用作介词,也可用作连词,后接时间名词或 短语,或引导时间状语从句;要求前面的谓语动词或主句的谓语动词必须用完成时态,要用 延续性动词。而 since 引导的从句中的谓语动词通常应是短暂性的动词。若接时间,则应为 点时间。如: ① He has worked there since1989. ② She has lived here since she moved here. Ⅱ. from “自从” 只用作介词,表一个事情的开始点,可用于过去、现在或将来的时态。 如: ① They worked from 7:00 to 12:00 this morning. ② We have been good friends from childhood. Ⅲ. for 作为介词,后面接段时间,用于完成时、现在时、过去时和将来时,句中要用延续 性动词。如: ① We’ll stay here for ten minutes.我们将在这儿呆 10 分钟。 ② They have studied English for three yeas. §29 although/ though

Ⅰ. although conj. “尽管、虽然”引导让步状语从句,相当于 though. 只是比 though 稍微正式些。多用于句首。though 用于非正式文体中,较普遍,但以下几种用法,不能用 although. 如: ① 表强调时,要用 even though,如: Even though I didn’t understand a word, I kept smiling.尽管我一字不识,我还是一直 微笑着。 ②. Though 可用在倒装句中,如: Young though he is, he is quite experienced. 他虽然年轻,但很有经验。 ③ though 可作副词,表示“然而”放在句末或其它位置。如:He said he would come, he didn’t though.他说他要来,结果他却没来。 [此外], although 不用着副词。 在英语中如果用了 although 或 though, 就不能再有 but, 但可以用 yet 或 still; 反之,如果用了 but , 就不能用 although 和 though. 如: ① Although he is in poor health, (yet) he works hard. = He is in poor health, but he works hard. 虽然他身体不好,但他工作仍努力。 ②Although it was so cold, he went out without an overcoat.虽然天气很冷,他未穿外 衣就出去了。 ③ He is quite strong, although very old. 他虽然很老了,但还是十分健壮。 Ⅱ. though 常用作连词, “虽然” 。在口语中还用着副词,一般放在句末,意为“可是、然 而”等。如:

① He didn’t light the fire, though it was cold. 天气虽很冷,他却还没生火。 ② Though it was very late, he went on working. 虽然很晚了,他还是继续工作。 ③ He said he would come, he didn’t, though. 他说他来,可是结果他没有来。 §30 always / yet Ⅰ. always “总是;一直”常与一般现在时连用。有时也与进行时连用, 但并不强调动作 正在进行,而是表示“赞叹、厌烦、不满”等情绪。常用于肯定句中,放在“三类词”(情 态动词、助动词、系动词本书称为“三类词”)之后,行为动词之前。如: ① We always get up before six o’clock. 我们总是六点前起床。 ② He is always thinking of others. 他总是想着别人。 Ⅱ. yet. “仍然;还”常与 not 连用。用于否定结构中。如: ①He hasn’t finished the work yet. 他还没完成这项工作。 §31 always/ often/ frequently/ often/

usually/ sometimes/ never Ⅰ. 这几个词都是表频度的副词,它们之间的区别可用百分比来区分: (0%)→(20%)→ 70%)→(75%)→(100%) 从不? —→ 有时 —→ 时常 —→ 通常 —→ 总是 即 : never(0%) → sometimes(20%) → often/frequently(70%) → usually(75%) → always(100%) Ⅱ always “永远、总是” 。与进行时连用时,表“再三地、老是”等意思。有时还表“生 气或不耐烦”等盛情色彩。如: ① The sun always rises in the east.太阳总是从东方升起。 ② I always get up at seven o’clock. 我总是在七点钟起身。 ③ The boy is always asking whys.这男孩老是问这问那没个完。 Ⅲ often “时常、常常”强调经常性。如: ① He often comes here to see me. 他时常到这儿来看我。 ② We have often been there. Ⅲ frequently “时常、屡次”常与 often 通用。但它强调次数频繁。如: ① Business frequently brings him to Shanghai.他时常因事到上海去。 ② He frequently comes here to see her.他时常到这儿来看她。 Ⅳ usually “经常”其动作频率仅次于 always.常常与一般过时,一般现在时连用。 ① I usually get up at six in the morning. Ⅴ never “从不”是否定副词。常常与完成时连用。 ① I have never been to the Great Wall. ② She said she had never gone there. §32 edge / side

Ⅰ.edge 侧重于指很窄的 “边缘”, 如刀刃或沿边的一部分.如: Put some salt on the edge of your plate. 在你的盘子边上放些盐. Ⅱ.side “边, 旁边” 有时与 edge 同义,有时指 “(东西的)侧面”, “(一个)方面”, “(身 体的)侧边”,如: §33 among/ between/ in the middle of

Ⅰ. among “在……之中/中间” 指三者或三者以上。通常表某个范围。如: ① Someone is wrong among us. 我们中间有人错了。 ② There is a small village among the mountains. 大山之间有座小村庄。 Ⅱ. between “在…之间”指在二者之间,有时与 and 连用。如: ① There is a river between us. 在我们两人之间有一条河。 ② I’m standing between a house and a big tree. 我站在一座房子和一棵大树中间。 Ⅲ. in the middle of “在……中间”指在某事物中间,强调事物的两端的中间。如: There is a bus stop in the middle of the road. 在这条公路中间有个车站。 §34 animal/ beast

Ⅰ. animal “动物” 是区别于植物而言,是动物的总称,通常指兽、鸟、虫、鱼等。如: ① It’s an animal of monkey kind. 这是一种属于猴类的动物。 ② The animal is hungry. 这个动物饿了。 Ⅱ. beast “四足动物”通常指不包括爬行动物的较大的四足动物。如: ① The camel is a beast of burden. 骆驼是负重的动物。 ② The tiger is a beast of prey. 老虎是猛兽。 §35 another/ other/ more

Ⅰ. 名词前表示具有增加意义的“还、再” ,一般用 more 和 another. more 放在数词之 后,而 another 放在数词之前;有时也可以用 other, 但 other 具有“不同”之意。保留 它本意“别的” 。如: ① one more thing, one other thing, another thing 都表示“还有一件事”之意,如: ② I want three more / other books. = I want another three books.我还要三本书。 ③ I stayed there three more days. = I stayed there another three days. 我在那儿又 呆了三天。 (这里不用 other, 因 day 与 day 没有不同之意。 ④ We need three more / another three hands to do the job.我们还需要三个人做这 项工作。 (这里不用 other , 因不强调人与人的不同。 ) ⑤ He works on the Great Green Wall with many other people. 他与别的许多人一块 在绿色长城上工作。 ( other 没有增加之意,表除自己以外的别的人。 ) §36 another/ the other/ other/ others/ the others

Ⅰ. another 指不定数目中的“另一个、又一个” (三个以上)用来代替或修饰可数名词。

如: I don’t think the coat is good enough. Can you show me another? Ⅱ. other 泛指“另外的”修饰复数名词。如: We study Chinese, maths, English and other subjects. Ⅲ. others 泛指“另外的人或物” , 但不指其余的人或物的全部。如: Some like swimming, others like boating. Ⅳ. the other 指两个中的“另一个”如: He has two sons, one is in Shanghai, the other is in Beijing. Ⅴ. the others 特指某一范围内的“其余全部的人或物”如: There are thirty books on the bookshelf. Five are mine, the others are my father’s. §37 answer/ reply

Ⅰ. answer “回答、答复” 。是最普通的用语,包括用口头、书面或行动回答。它可以用作 及物动词或不及物动词。如: ① He answered my question. ② It is a difficult question to answer. 这是一个难以回答的问题。 ③ Please answer my letter as soon as possible. ④ They left a boy to answer the bell. 他们留下一个孩子应门。 Ⅱ.reply “回答、答复” 。 但比 answer 正式些。它指用口头或书面回答。严格地讲,是 指有针对性地详细地回答。 它也指用行动回答。 Reply 常用作不及物动词,回答某人或 某事。后接 to; 当它与直接引语或从句连用时,才用作及物动词。如: ① I didn’t reply to him.我没有答复他。 ② He replied that he might go. 他回答说他可能去。 §38 any/ either

二者所指的相关名词或代词的数量不同。 Ⅰ. any 指二个以上的“任意一个”人/物。如: When can you go with me to the city? Any day of this week will do. 什么时候你能 陪我去城里? 这个星期的哪天都行。 Ⅱ. either 一般指两个中的“任意一个”且其后不能接不可数名词。如: Can you come on Friday or Saturday? Either will do .你能在星期五还是星期六来吗? 哪天都行。 §39 any/ some

Ⅰ.any “一些、一点、 (有时不宜译出) ” 一般用于疑问句、否定句。 如: ① Have you any new books? 你有 (什么) 新书吗?No, I have not any new books. 我 没什么新书。 ② Have you any money with you? 你身边带了一些钱吗?

Ⅱ.some “一些、一点” 一般用于肯定句。如: ① I have some new books. 我有一些新书。 [注]: ① any 用于肯定句中时, 表 “任何……、 随便……” 等意思。 如 You may come at any time. 你随便什么时候来都可以。 ②some 用于疑问句时,表“期望得到肯定的回答”或“邀请”或“请求”等意思。 通常用在带情态动词的问句是。如: 1. 2. §40 Aren’t there some envelops in that drawer? 那个抽屉不是有些信封吗? Would you have some tea?您喝点茶吗? anyone/ any one

Ⅰ. anyone “任何人”其后不跟 of 短语。如: Is there anyone at home.? Ⅱ. any one “任何人/物”其后可跟 of 短语。如: I’ll send you any one of these pens. [注]:类似的用法还有:everyone & every one. §41 arise/ rise Ⅰ. rise “升起、起来”它表“起床”的意义时比 get up 正式 ,但不如 get up 常用。如: ① The sun rises in the east. 太阳从东方升起。 ② The Chinese people have risen to their feet. ③ He rises very early. 他起床很早。 Ⅱ. arise “出现、发生” 。它虽然可表“升起、起来、起床等意思,但现在一般不用于此义, 特别是在口语中。如: ① A new problem has arisen. 出现了一个新的问题。 ② How did the quarrel arise? 争吵是怎样发生的? §42 arms/ weapon 中国人民站起来了。

Ⅰ. arms (pl) “武器”着重指用于战争的具体的武器,如枪、炮等。 如: ① The black people there have taken up arms to defend themselves. 那里的黑人已 拿起武器自卫。 ② The soldiers had plenty of arms and ammunition! 士兵们有充足的武器和弹药。 ③ Lay down your arms! 放下(你们的)武器! Ⅰ. weapon “武器”单、复数形式都用。它意义比 arms 广泛,除指用于战争的各种武器 之外,还指虽然不是为战争而制造,但可以用作进攻或防守的器具。如:槌、石子等。此外, weapon 还可以用于借喻。如: ① The atom bomb is a weapon of mass slaughter. 原子弹是一种大规模屠杀的武器。 ② Look to your weapons. 当心你的武器。 ③ A foreign language is a weapon in the struggle of life. 一种武器。 外国语是人生斗争的


around/ round

Ⅰ. around 与 round 都可以用着前置词和副词。 Ⅱ. around “在……周围” “在周围” “循环地” 。表静止的位置。如: ① They sat around the table. 他们围绕桌子坐着。 ② I found nobody around.我发现周围没有一个人。 Ⅲ. round “环绕……周围、循环地”表一种活动的状况。如: ① The earth moves round the sun.地球绕着太阳转。 ② A wheel goes round. 轮子旋转着。 [注]:这两个词现在可以通用,只是 around 多用于美国,round 多用于英国。 §44 arrive/ reach/ get to

Ⅰ. arrive, reach, get to 均有 “到达” 之意, 意义基本相同, 但 arrive(in)/(at) 与 reach, 是 正式用语,get to 是通俗用词,常用于口语。 Ⅱ. arrive 是不及物动词,表到达什么地点时,后面应接前置词 in 或 at, 一般说,到达一个 大地方常用 in, 到达较小的地方常用 at, 但这不绝对的。 (与地点副词连用时当然不用任何 前置词)如: ① He arrived in Beijing yesterday. ② When he arrived at the stop, the bus had left. Ⅲ. reach 是及物动词,后面直接跟表地点的名词。如: When does the train reach London? Ⅳ. get to 只是较口语化。接地点副词时不用 to. 如: ① He got to the shop at 5:00 o’clock this afternoon. ② When I got there, the film had been on for 5 minutes. §45 article/ essay/ composition

Ⅰ. article “文章、论文”通常指记叙文或论文。如: ① The article explains how the machine works. 这篇文章说明了这部机器怎样开动的 道理。 ② There is an article on education in the paper. 报纸上有一篇论教育的文章。 Ⅱ. essay “文章、论文”通常指文学上散文、随笔、杂文等;也指学术性论文。如: ① We shall read Lu Xun’s essays . 我们将读鲁迅的杂文。 ② Can you write an essay in English? 你能用英文写一篇论文吗? Ⅲ. composition “写作、作文” 。 尤指学习语文者为练习写作而做的作文。如: ① He is learning composition. 他在学习写作。 ② The students were required to write a composition in English. 要学生写一篇英语 作文。


as soon as/ as early as/ as quickly as

Ⅰ. 这三个词都有“尽快、尽早”之意。 Ⅱ. as soon as 侧重于“极短时间内” 。还表示“一……就……”之意,引导状语从句。如: ① I’ll return it as soon as I can.我将尽快地把它还给你。 Ⅲ. as early as 侧重于一天中的早晨或在限定的时间内再早点, 以便能达到预期的目的。 如: ① You should arrive there as early as you can. 你应尽早到达那里。 Ⅳ. as quickly as 表做某事的速度非常之快或动作非常之敏捷。如: ① Please read the text as quickly as you can.请把课文尽快读一遍。 §47 as soon as/ hardly…when/ no sooner…than

Ⅰ. 三者在意义上基本相同,都有“一……就……” , “刚……就……” ,但它们各有其特点。 Ⅱ. as soon as 最为普通,位置灵活,可在主句前,也可在其后。且可用作多种时态。如: ① As soon as I went in , Kate let out a cry of surprise. 我一进去,凯特就惊讶地叫了 一声。 ② I’ll tell him as soon as he comes back. Ⅲ. hardly… when…的主句通常 用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时,when 有时还可换成 before.如: ① He had hardly finished his homework when the light went out. 他刚写完作业灯 就灭了。 ② Hardly had I come back when they began quarrelling.我一回来他们就开始吵了起 来。 (hardly 提前时,句子需要倒装。 ) Ⅳ. no sooner…than…句型中, no sooner 一般只置于句首,所以主句有倒装形式。如: No sooner had I known the news than I telephoned my mother. 我刚知道这个消息就 打电话告诉了妈妈。 §48 as well as/ as well 他不仅是我的医生,也是我的朋友。 小城市与大城市一样

Ⅰ. as well as “也” “不仅…而且”意同:not only … but also 具有连词性。 ① She is my friend as well as my doctor. 都在迅速实现工业化。 Ⅱ. as well “也”具有副词性。大致相当于 also 或 too . 如: He can speak Chinese as well. §49 as/ because/ for/ since ② Small towns as well as big cities are being industrialized.

Ⅰ. 这三个词都可以用作连词,表“原因、理由” 但有区别: Ⅱ. as “因为、既然”表示的原因或理由是明显的。语意不如 because 强。当理由是明显 的,或者被认为是已知的时,则以用 as 为好。如:

① As he was not well, I decided to go without him. 了。

因为他身体不好, 我决定独自去

② As it was getting very late, we soon turned back. 因为已很晚了, 我们很快就回 来了。 ③ As it is raining, you’d better take a taxi. 既然在下雨,你最好乘出租车。 Ⅲ. because “因为”表直接而明确的原因或理由。即必然的困果关系。在这几个词中,它 的语意最强。回答以 why 引导的特殊疑问句时,只能用 because . 注意:because 不可 以与 so 连用。如: ① He had to stay at home yesterday because he was ill.昨天他只得呆在家里,因为 他病了。 ② I did it because they asked me to do it. 我之所以做这件事,是因为他请我做的。 ③ ---Why can’t you do it now? --- Because I’m too busy. Ⅳ. since“既然”比 as 较为正式,说明为人所知的原因。语气比 because 稍弱。 ① Since light travels faster than sound, we see lightening before we hear the thunder.因为光比声音传播得快,所以我们先看到闪电,后听到雷声。 ② Since he can’t answer the question, you’d better ask someone.既然他回答不 了这个问题,你最好问别人吧。 ③ Since you are busy, I’ll do it for you.既然你忙,我替你做吧。 Ⅴ. for “因为”表原因或理由时,用以说明理由,只是解释性的。在这几个词中,它的语 意最弱。它少用于口语中,也不用于句首。如: ① I asked her to stay to tea, for I had something to tell her. 我请她留下来喝茶,因 为我有事要告诉她。 ② We must get rid of carelessness, for it often leads to errors. 我们一定克服粗枝大 叶的毛病,因为粗枝大叶常常差错。 ③ It must have rained, for the road is wet. [注] :这几个词按语意的强弱来排,其顺序为: because—→since—→(as)—→for §50 as/ when/ while 通用,但它着重指主句和从句的 一定下雨了,因为路是湿的。 ④ I must go now, for my sister is waiting for me. 现在我得走了,我姐姐在等我呢。

这三个词都可以用作连词,表时间关系, 但有区别: Ⅰ. as “当(在)……时候”往往可与 when 或 while 动作或事情相并发生。如: ① I saw him as he was getting off the bus. 当下公共汽车的时候,我看见了他。 ② As he walked on, he felt himself getting more and more tired.他继续往前走的时 候,感到越来越疲乏。 Ⅱ. when “当(在)……的时候”主句和从句的动作或事情可以同时发生,也可以先后发 生。

① It was raining when we arrived. 天都到图书馆去。


② When we were at school, we went to the library every day. 我们在求学的时候, 每 Ⅲ. while “当(在)……的时候”表主句的动作或事情发生在从句中的动作或事情的进展 过程之中。从句通常为进行时态。它有时可与 when 通用,但它只能指一段时间(a period of time),而不能指一点时间(a point of time)如上面的第一个例子。又如: ① Please don’t talk so loud while others are working. 大声讲话。 ② While I am washing the floor, you can be cleaning the windows.我洗地板时,你 可以擦窗户。 §51 ask / inquire/ question 别人在工作的时候,请勿

Ⅰ. ask “问、询问”是最普通的用语,通常表示只是为了获得回答或了解某事而提问。如: ① I asked him if he could come. 我问他能不能来。 ② I’ll ask him how to get there. 我要问他怎样去那儿。 Ⅱ. inquire “问、询问”表查究,调查的意思。如: ① I have inquired of him whether he could help me. 我已问过他是否能帮助我。 ② She came to inquire about her friend’s health. ③ He inquired of me about our work. 她来询问她朋友的健康情况。 他向我了解了我们的工作情况。

Ⅲ. question “询问、审问、提问”含有提出一连串问题的意味。如: ① I questioned him about the matter.我问过他这件事。 ② He was questioned by the police. 他受到警察的审问。 §52 ask/ ask for

Ⅰ. ask vt “问”后接一个宾语或双宾语。如: ① Don’t ask me, I don’t know.别问我,我不知道。 ② Then ask your friend the same questions.然后问你的朋友同样的问题。 Ⅱ. ask vi “要求” “邀请” 。后接不定式或复合句宾语。如: ① He asked to join the PLA. 他要求参加人民解放军。 ② The villagers always ask them to stay for lunch. 饭。 Ⅲ. ask for “要求找到某人或某物”在不同情况下有不同的译法。如: ① He sat down and asked for a cup of tea. 他坐下来要了一杯茶。 ② Last time Mum asked for some glasses in a shop. 上次妈妈在一家商店里要买几 只玻璃杯。 Ⅴ. ask sb for sth “向某人要某物”如: ① Now ask your partner for the answers.向你的搭档要答案去。 ② He came and asked me for his bike.他来向我要他的自行车。 乡亲们总是请他们留下来吃午


asleep/ sleep / sleepy

Ⅰ. asleep adj “睡着的” ;常作表语。如: ① The children have been asleep.孩子们已睡着了。 ② He was too tired and fell asleep at once. Ⅱ. sleep v & n “睡着” 。如: ① You have a good sleep. 你需要好好睡一觉。 ② Last night I sleep very well. 我昨天晚上睡得很好。 Ⅲ. sleepy adj “困乏的、想睡的” 。如: ① She is always sleepy. 她总是想睡觉。 ② I feel very sleepy now. 我现在昏昏欲睡。 §54 at Christmas/ on Christmas 他太累了,立刻就睡着了。

Ⅰ. at Christmas 表示“在圣诞节期间” ,既可以表示在圣诞节当天,也可以表示在圣诞节 前后不久。如: I’ll return at Christmas 我将在圣诞节期间回来。 Ⅱ. on Christmas 则指“在圣诞节” ,一般仅指在十二月二十五日当天。如: Children always get many presents on Christmas Day. 在圣诞节孩子们总是收到许多 圣诞节礼物。 [注]:on Christmas Eve 指的是“在圣诞节前夜”相当于中国的除夕。 §55 at first/ first

Ⅰ. at first “起初” ,多用来表示后来发生的事情或动作,与前面的不同,甚至相反。如: At first she knew nobody but now she has many good friends.起初她谁也不认识,但 现在她有很多朋友。 Ⅱ. first 用来表示一系列动作或事物的“开始” 。如: Be polite. First knock at the door and then go in. 要有礼貌。先敲门,再进去。 §56 at last/ finally/ in the end

Ⅰ. at last “最后”表经过一定曲折之后某事才发生,强调努力的结果,带有较强的感情色 彩。须用一般过去时。如: Did the man in the shop understand him at last? Ⅱ. finally 表动作的发生顺序是在 “最后” , 无感情色彩, 只用于过去时。 它居句首时较多。 ① Finally he went to see the famous man himself. Ⅲ. in the end 表事物发展的自然顺序的“终结” ,有时可与 finally 相互替换。但用于将来 的预测时,则只能用 in the end 如: ① I hope that everything will turn out all right in the end.


at school/ in school/ in a (the) school

Ⅰ. at school 表示“在学校、在上学”相对于在家里或在校外。如: ① My son is at school now. He is not at home or somewhere else. 我儿子现在在学 校,他不在家,也不在别的地方。 ② When my brother was at school, he studied very hard. 在学校时, 我兄弟学习很用 功。 Ⅱ. in school “在求学、在上学”相对于有工作。如: My daughter still in school She doesn’t work.。 我女儿还在上学,她不在工作。 [注]:①和②用 at school 强调所在场所或时间。③中的 in school 则强调主语的身份是学 生。因此,in school. 和 at school 的着重点不一样,通常不互换使用。 Ⅲ. In a / the school “在学校” ,不一定指上学。类似的还有: in hospital “生病住院” in a / the hospital 表“在医院” (工作或探视病人等) at table “在吃饭” at a / the table “在桌边”(有可能在聊天或看报) ① Is your friend in school? 你的朋友在上学吗? ① Your friend looked for you in the school just now. 刚才你的朋友在学校里找你。 ② Children are often in hospital when they are young. 孩子们小的时候经常生病住 院。 ③ She is a good doctor in the hospital .她是医院里的一名好大夫。 §58 at the beginning/ at the beginning of/ in the beginning

Ⅰ. at the beginning 和 in the beginning 都可表“起初、开始、原先”之意。两者间没 有明显的区别,通常可互换。如: ① You’ll find it difficult to learn Russian at the beginning. 难。 ② In the beginning I didn’t know this.开始我不知道这事。 Ⅱ. 若表当今世界的开头,则必须用 in the beginning eg: In the beginning there were no men nor animals nor plants. 没有人,也没有 动植物。 Ⅲ. at the beginning of “在……之初” , 其后通常 接表时间,事件或其它意义的名词, 其反义词组为 at the end of. 如: ① At the beginning of 1975 he came back to China. 1975 年初,他回到了中国。 。 ② This adverb can also be placed at the beginning of 放在句子的开头。 §59 at the top of/ on the top of the sentence.这副词也可以 在盘古开天辟地时, 既 起初, 你会觉得俄语很

Ⅰ. at the top of “在……顶点上、在……上” 。At 表示点,在句子中用作状语,反义短语

常为 at the bottom of “在……底部” ; on (the) top of 中的 on 表示部位上的接触,意思是“在……之上、在……上面” 。反义 短语常为 at the foot of “在……脚底下” 。如: ① He shouted at the top of his voice. 他高声地叫喊。 ② He is at the top of the class.他居全班之首位。 ③ Will you please put this box on (the) top of the books.请你这个盒子放在那些书的 上面好吗? §60 at/ beside/ by/ near

Ⅰ. at “靠近”往往动作联系,意味着有目的、有意识的靠近,而 by, beside, near 只意味 着就“靠近”而言。如: ① He sat at the desk. He wanted to read, 他坐到桌边,想看书。 Ⅱ. beside “在……旁边” ;by = just at the side of “就在旁边” 。两者一般可通用。但 by 比 beside 语势较强些,并多用于日常用语中。如: ① There is a hospital beside / by the river. 河边有一家医院。 [注]:指“在某人身边”时,常多用 beside. Eg: ① The little boy is standing beside his mother. Ⅲ. near “在……附近”或“离……不远” ,它表示的距离要比 by / beside 来得远些。如: ① We live near the sea.我们住在海边。 (表离海边有些距离) ② We live by / beside the sea.我们就住在海边。 (表海就在身边) 。 §61 at/ in

Ⅰ. at 和 in 都可用在地点名词前,用 at 时是把该地方视为一点,用 in 时则是把该地方看 成一个范围。如: ① Are your classmates playing in the park? 你的同学都在公园里玩吗? ② They are waiting for you at the park. 他们在公园附近(里面)等你。 Ⅱ. at; in & on 都可用在表时间的名词前。 在点时间前用 at; 在表某一天或某一天的某个段 时间(morning, evening, day, night atc)名词前,用 on; 在段时间名词前(星期;年; 月;周等)用 in. 如: ① I’ll meet you at eight. 我们 8:00 钟会面。 ② See you on Monday morning. 星期一早上见。 ③ The story happened in May.故事发生在 5 月份。 Ⅲ. 固定词组:如:in the morning ; at night. §62 at/ to

Ⅰ. at 多表目的或目标,而 to 则仅表方向。如: ① He threw the ball at me. 他对准我扔球。 ② He threw the ball to me. 他朝着我这个方向扔球。

③ My father shouted at me.我父亲对我吼叫。 ④ My father shouted to me. 我父亲朝着我喊叫。 §63 如: ① an hour and a half = one and a half hours. 一个半小时 ② two kilos and a half = two and a half kilos 两公斤半。 §64 awake/ wake/ waken a year and a half / one and a half years


Ⅰ. awake “弄醒、叫醒、唤醒、醒来”与 wake 同意。引申意义为“觉醒、清醒”时,与 awaken 同意。 ① The noise awoke me. 喧闹声吵醒了我。 ② But before long, the camel woke him. 不久,骆驼就把他弄醒了。 ③ I usually awake (wake) at six. 我通常六点钟醒来。 Ⅱ. wake 后往往跟 up, awake 则不能; 而 awake 可作形容词,意为“醒着的” 。 如: ① Has he waked (up) yet? 他醒来了没有? ② Is he awake or asleep? 他醒着还是睡着? Ⅲ. waken / awaken. 一般多用在被动语态中,意为“被叫醒、被弄醒” 。如: ① I was awakened by the cry of the baby. §65 bank/ shore/ beach/ coast 我被小孩的哭声惊醒了。

Ⅰ. bank “岸” , 大都指河岸。如: The twon is on the bank of the river. 那个城镇在河岸上。 Ⅱ. shore “岸” ,指海,湖, 大河等的岸,常含有与水相对的意味。如: The ship stopped a little way off the shore. 如: The children are playing on the beach.孩子们在海滩上玩。 Ⅳ. coast “海岸”仅指沿海之岸,尤指为水域边界。如: ① There are many harbours on the east coast of our land. 多港口。 §66 base on/ be based on 爱迪生的想法是建立在科学实 我国的东海岸上有许 这船停在离岸不远的地方。 Ⅲ. beach“海滩、湖滩”, 通常指涨潮时有水,退潮时无水的有沙子或卵石的海滩或湖滩。

Ⅰ. base on “以……为根据” ,如: ① Edison based his ideas on scientific experiment. 验的基础上的。 ② You should base your opinion on facts. 你的意见都要以事实为根据。

Ⅱ. be based on “以……为根据” ; “根据……” ; “基于……” ① What he said is based on fact. ② The story is based on real life. 他所说的话是以事实为根据的。 那故事是根据现实生活而写的。

③ Some modern languages are based on Latin. 在些现代语言是以拉丁文为基础的。 §67 be afraid of sb or sth/ be afraid of doing sth/

be afraid to do sth/ be afraid +that clause Ⅰ. be afraid of sb or sth. “害怕某人或某事”如 ① The man is afraid of nothing.这个人什么都不怕。 ② Jenny is afraid of her father, for he is very strict with her. 詹妮害怕她父亲,因为 他对她要求很严格。 Ⅱ. be afraid of doing sth. “害怕、担心某事(自己也无法左右的突发事情)发生”如: I am afraid of falling into the swimming pool.我担心掉进游泳池里去。 Ⅲ. be afraid to do sth. “害怕、不敢做某事”如: ① The bat was afraid to leave his home. 蝙蝠不敢离开家。 ② I am afraid to go out at night. 我害怕晚上出去。 Ⅳ. be afraid +that clause. “恐怕”表带歉意的回绝或告知不好的消息。that 常省去。 如: I am afraid (that) I can’t do that today. 恐怕今天我不能做那件事。 Ⅴ. 在日常用语中, I am afraid 常表示歉意或客气, 没有恐惧之意。 往往相当于 I am sorry , 引出不愿发生、可能使对方失望的情况。如: ① I am afraid I don’t agree with you. 恐怕我不会同意你的意见。 ② I am afraid (that) you are wrong. 恐怕你错了。 Ⅵ. 口语中,在 I am afraid 之后用 so / not,可省去上文提到的内容。如: ①---Has he gone to Guangzhou? 他去广州了吗? ---I’m afraid so. ②---Are we on time? 我们迟到了吗? ---I’m afraid not. 可能没迟到。 §68 be amazed at (by) / be amazed to do sth

Ⅰ. be amazed at / by “对……感到惊讶” 。如: ① He is amazed at the news. 他对这个消息感到惊讶。 Ⅱ. be amazed to do sth . “对……做某事感到惊讶”. 如: ① I am amazed to see such a bad accident. 讶。 Ⅲ. amaze sb. “使某人惊讶”如: ① The accident amazed me. 这事故使我很惊讶。 [联想]:amazing 形容词, “令人惊异的、了不起的” 看到这么严重的事故,我感到很惊

amazement 名词。 “惊讶” [注意]:amaze 指事件让人大为惊讶,强于 surprise; surprise §69 be angry/ get angry

Ⅰ. be / get angry “生某人的气”后面的介词要用 with; “因某事而生气”后面的介词要 用 about / at; be / get angry 后接不定式,这时不定式动词大多为 see 和 hear 其不定 式同样表生气的原因。 如: ① Miss Liu was / got angry with Li Ping because he was late for school today. 刘 老师生李平的气是因为他今天迟到了。 ② She was / got angry with my behaviour. ③ What are you angry about ? 你生什么气? ④ My father was angry at what I said. 我爸对我说的很生气。 Ⅱ. get angry 强调变化,强调由不生气变为生气这一过程;be angry 强调状态,表明正 在生气这一状态。 His mother got angry with him when he told her what he had done at school.当他告 诉他母亲,他在校的行为时,她生气了。 [联想]:类似的有: be / become interested in. “对……有兴趣” be / get married. “结婚” have / catch a cold “感冒” be / fall ill “生病” §70 be / fall asleep “入睡、睡着” be good at/ do well in 她对我的行为感到生气。

Ⅰ. be good at / in 意思接近于 do well in. “在(某方面)出色;擅长……” 。be good at / in 强调一种笼统情况,而 do well in 可表示一种情况,也可指在具体的一次活动中表现 出色。 be good at 的反义词组为:be poor (weak) at (in). do well in 的反义词组为:do badly in. 如: ① Mary is good at / in maths. = Mary does well in maths. 玛丽数学很好(指情况) 。 = 玛丽数学学得很好。 ② Tom did well in (不宜用 be good at.指具体一次)that English test / sports meeting. 汤姆在那次英语考试中(运动会中)考得很好(表现出色) 。 ③ Wu Dong does badly in his lessons. = Wu Dong is weak / poor / at / in his lessons.吴冬功课不好。 (指情况) ④ Mei Ying did badly in the high jump 梅英在跳高比赛中成绩不好。 (具体一次,不 宜替换。 ) ⑤ Mei Ying is weak / poor in / at high jump.梅英不善于跳高。 (指笼统情况) Ⅱ. do well 和 do badly 可单独使用,表一种情况;而 be good / weak / poor 一定要借 助于介词 in 或 at, 强调在某一个方面,才能表达一个完整的意思。如:

He does well / badly at school. 他在学校里功课很好/很差。 §71 be made of / be made from

Ⅰ. be made of “由……制成/造”成品看得出原料。如: The desk is made of wood. 这张桌子是木头制成的。 Ⅱ. be made from “由……制造/成”成品看不出原料。如; Paper is made from rags.纸是由破布做的。 (已看不出原料) §72 be pleased with/ at/ to 马克和他妈妈都有喜

Ⅰ. be pleased with “对……人/物,感到满意”介词 with 后接人或物。 如: ① Both Mark and her mother were pleased with the girl. 欢这个女孩。 ② I wasn’t very pleased with / at my exam results. 我对自己的考试成绩不太满意。 Ⅱ. be pleased at “对……某事/物,感到满意” 。介词 at 常与事物搭配使用。 He was very pleased at the news.他对这个消息感到很满意。 Ⅲ. be pleased to “乐意……; 因……而高兴” 。to 不是介词,而是小品词。后接动词原 形。如: ① I shall be pleased to go. 我将乐意去。 ② We are quite pleased to be working in this country. 十分高兴的。 §73 be sure of/ be sure to do/ be sure that 能在这个国家工作, 我们是

Ⅰ.be sure of “确信对……有把握”后接名词、代词或动词-ing 形式,表对客观事物有肯 定的认识和判断,主语必须是人。如: ① As David joined our team, we are sure of winning the game this time. 由于 David 参加了我们的球队,我们这次有把握取胜。 ② You may be sure of his honesty. 你可以确信他的诚实。 Ⅱ.be sure to “一定,肯定” ,后接不定式,往往表示局外人的推测,评论,主语不一定 是人,如: ① It is sure to rain tomorrow. 明天一定会下雨。 ② He is sure to win.他一定会赢的。 ▲ 用于祈使句时作“务必,切切”之意,如: ① Be sure to come tomorrow. 你明天一定要来 ② Be sure to forget it . 千万别忘了。 Ⅲ. be sure that 从句。 “认为……一定会”主语必须是人,连词 that 可省略。它后面还可 以接由 wheher, 或 where, when, who 等引导名词性从句。这时主句通常是否定式。如: ① He is wure that he will succeed. 他确信会成功 ② I am not sure where I left my notebook. 我不能确定我的笔记本丢在什么地方了。


be sure/ make sure

Ⅰ. be sure 指某人对某事或对某种情况有把握,常译为: “确信” ;make sure 指“务必、 务请、确保”将某事弄清楚。如: ① I am sure that he is honest. 我相信他是诚实的。 ② I have made sure that he is honest. 我已了解清楚他是诚实的。 Ⅱ. 二者后面均可接 of 或 about 引出的短语。如: ① I am sure of success = I am sure that I will succeed. 我深信会成功。 ② Will you make sure of his return? = Will you make sure that he returned? 请你 查明他是否真的回来了。好吗? Ⅲ. make sure 后面的 that 从句一般不用或很少用将来时; be sure 后面的 that 从句则可用将来时。如: ① Make sure that you come here before five. 你一定要在 5 点前来。 ② I am sure that he will come. 我相信他一定会来的。 Ⅳ. 两者后面接不定式,均表示“一定要做某事” ,但 make sure 通常只用于祈使句;而 be sure 则不受限制。如: ①to come to party on time. 一定要准时来参加晚会。 ② He is sure to call you up. 他准会给你打电话的。 §75 be surprised/ in surprise

Ⅰ. be surprised 为 “动词+形容词” 结构, 在句中作谓语, 意为: “感到吃惊” . be surprised at 表“对……感到吃惊” Ⅱ. in surprise 为“介词+名词”结构。在句中作状语。意为: “吃惊地” 。如: ① She was surprised. 她感到吃惊。 ② Everybody was surprised at you. 大家都对你感到吃惊。 ③ John turned round and looked at him in surprise. 约翰转过身去,吃惊地看着他。 §76 be used for/ be used as/ be used by

Ⅰ. be used for “ (被)用来做……” ,强调用途或作用。 Ⅱ. be used as “ (被)作为……而用” ,强调被当作工具或手段来用。 Ⅲ. be used by “被……使用” ,by 后跟人物,强调使用者。如: ① Keys are used for opening locks. 钥匙是用来开锁的。 ② “Swim” can be used as a noun. “Swim”可作名词用。 ③ Recorders are often used by English teachers. 英语教师经常使用录音机。 ④ Wood can be used for making paper. 木材能用来造纸。 §77 be worth+n/ be worth doing sth

Ⅰ. be worth +n(表“值” “价值”) “……值(钱,等) ” 。

① What is your car worth? 这辆车值多少钱? ② This house is worth £20,000. 这幢房子值两万磅。 ③ It might be worth a lot of money. 它可能值很多钱。 Ⅱ. be worth doing. ……值得干某事。表达的意义是被动意义。动词必须是及物动词或相 当于及物动词的动词短语,这个句子的主语在逻辑上是后面动词的宾语。如: ① That film is worth seeing. 那部片子值得一看。 ② The report is worth listening to . 这报告值得听。 [注]:表“很值得”要用 well worth. 如: ① The film is well worth seeing . 这电影很值得一看。 §78 beach/ bank/ coast/ shore

Ⅰ. beach “海滨、海滩、湖滩”指高水位与低水位之间的滩地。如: On the hot sunny summer’s day, on the beach you can feel how hot the sand gets. 在炎热而晴朗的夏天,在滩下会觉得沙子有多烫。 Ⅱ. bank 指河流或湖泊的“岸”或“堤” ,如: ① He swam to the bank. 他游向了岸边。 Ⅲ. coast “海岸、海滨”指海与陆地相接的线,是地理学上的用语。如: ② They sailed along the coast. 他们沿海岸航行。 Ⅳ. shore “岸”指海、洋、湖或大河之岸而言,有较强的与水相对的意思。如: His fisherman went to the shore before daybreak. 渔夫在天亮前就到海岸上去了。 §79 beat/ hit/ strike/ knock

Ⅰ. beat 着重“连续地击打”如殴打或体罚,也指在游戏、竞赛或战争中击败对方。如: ① Don’t beat the child 不要打孩子。 ② In the end their enemies were beaten. ③ He beat the world record in high jump. 击对方的某一点。如: ① The stone hit him on the head. 石头击中了他的头。 ② I hit the target. 我击中了目标。 Ⅲ. strike 是很普通的用词,通常表示“打一下、打若干下”等意思,不一定都是有意的。 Strike 还可以表示“擦着(火柴) ”的意思。如: ① He struck the man on the head. 他(一拳)打在那人的头上。 ② Immediately Holmes jumped up from the bed and struck a match. 福尔摩斯立 即从床上跳起来,划着一根火柴。 Ⅳ. knock “敲;撞击;打”常与 at/on, down 连用。如: You should knock on/ at the door before coming in the teacher’s office. 你应该在 进老师办公室时敲敲门。 最后他们把敌人打败了。 他打破了跳高世界纪录。

Ⅱ. hit 往往与 strike 通用,但严格地说,hit 指“打中”或“对准……来打” ,着重敲打或打


both/ either / neither

三者都是在谈到两个人或东西时用的。可用作代词、形容词、连词。 Ⅰ. 作代词时:both “两者都”. either “两者中任何一个”. neither “两者中任何一个 都不” 。 作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式,可作同位语。而 either 和 neither 则用单数形 式,不可作同位语。如: ① Both of us are teachers. ② Either of you can do it. ③ Neither of the answerws is right. 两个答案都不对。 ④ They both skate well. 他们两人都会滑冰。 Ⅱ. 作形容词时:both 修饰名词的复数形式。Neither 和 either 修饰名词的单数形式。 如: ① Neither film is very long.两部电影都不长。 ② You may use either pencil. 你可用这两支笔中的任何一支。 ③ Both pencils are blue. 两支铅笔都是蓝色的。 Ⅲ. 作连词时: neither 与 nor 连用, “既不……也不……” ; either 和 or 连用: “或是…… 或是……” “要么……要么……”连接两个主语时,谓语动词遵循就近原则。而 both 却与 and 相连。连接主语时谓语动词用复数。如: ① Neither Jack nor I have seen the film. 杰克和我都没看过这影片。 ② Either you or I am wrong.不是你错就是你错。 ③ Both John and Mike are good at swimming. §81 blind in / blind to 约翰和麦克都擅长游泳。

Ⅰ. (be) blind in 表示哪只眼睛瞎了(左眼或右眼) ;若表示一只眼睛瞎了,也可以用 blind of one/an eye.如: ① He is blind in the right eye. 他的右眼瞎了。 ② The old woman is blind of one eye. 那老妇人的一只眼瞎了。 Ⅱ. (be) blind to 表示“对……视而不见” 。如: Many people are blind to their own faults. §82 beat/ win/ defeat 李磊在百米赛跑中赢了所有的 许多人看不起自己的缺点。

Ⅰ. beat “打赢” “战胜” 。用于比赛时,后接宾语是战胜对手,表示“赢了某人” 。如: ① Li Lei beat all the runners in the 100-metre race. 对手。 ② We are sure to beat them.我们肯定会赢他们。 Ⅱ. win “赢得;获胜” , 用作及物动词,后接宾语是表示某种比赛的名词或战争,而不是 参加比赛的对手。如: ① We won the basketball game. 我们赢得了篮球赛。 ② Who won the race? 谁赢得了赛跑?

Ⅲ. defeat “战胜;赢得”与 win 一样,较正式,后接宾语时与 beat 一样,是表示人或 代表群体的名词或代词,间或接表事物的名词或代词。 如: Our class defeated / beat theirs in the basket-ball match yesterday. 昨天我们班在篮 球赛中赢了他们班。 §83 alike/like Ⅰalike 与 like 都有“相像”之意。但 alike 只能作表语,不能作定语,其前不能加 very , 只能用 much 或 very much 修饰,此外 alike 还可作副词。如: The two brothers are very much alike. 兄弟俩长得很相像。 Ⅱ like 可用作表语,也可作定语,还可作介词、连词用。作动词时,意为“喜欢”如: ① The two brothers are very like (very much alike) ② Like father, like son. [谚]有其父必有其子。 ③ I don’t like swimming. 我不喜欢游泳。 ④ Like causes tend to produce like results. 类似的原因往往会产生类似的结果。 §84 beautiful/ pretty/ fair/ lovely/

nice/ handsome/ good-looking Ⅰ.beautiful 是最常用的。 “美丽的、美好的” ,可指各种各样的美,如花鸟、风景、图画的 美,也可指天气、曲调、衣服的美。含有优美、和谐使人感觉快悦,并带有内在美面使他人 之心欢悦之意。它形容人时,一般用来指女子长得美丽、好看、动人。 ① She has a beautiful voice. 她的声音很好听。 ② Rose is a very beautiful girl. 露斯是一个很漂亮的女孩。 Ⅱ. pretty . 是普通用语。 “漂亮的、标致的” ,程度不如 beautiful. 用来修饰人时,常指年 轻的妇女和女孩。侧重指温柔的性格,表活泼和甜美; 也可修饰物,含“小巧玲珑”之意。 形容男青年时,含有贬义,意为“带女人气的” 。Beautiful 也同此义。 ① How pretty the child looks in her new dress! 那女孩穿着新衣服显得漂亮呀! ② The garden is small but extremely pretty. 花园虽小但很可爱。 Ⅲ.handsome. 多用于描写男人“英俊、健美” ,用于女性时,主要指五官端正,而不一定 秀丽。 如: He was a handsome boy with large, bright eyes and fair hair. 他是一个英俊的少年, 长着一双明亮的大眼睛和金黄色的头发。 Ⅳ.lovely 指外貌的“美、可爱” ,常指激情感,表说话人的赞赏和喜爱。如: ① What a lovely wife you have! 你有一个多么可爱的妻子! ② Mother bought me a lovely radio to listen in / at school. 亮的收音机,让我在学校收听。 ③ The lovely woman has a deep love for her country. 那个秀丽的妇女很热爱自己的 国家。 Ⅴ.nice 与 lovely 相似。主要强调取悦于人的感觉。指外表的美。如: 妈妈给我买了一个漂

It’s a nice day for a walk. Ⅵ.good-looking 是普通用语,没有 beautiful 强烈,男女均可用,如: Nearly all girls are good-looking, some are pretty, but only a few are beautiful.几乎 所有的姑娘都是好看的,有些是漂亮的,但只有少数是美丽的。 Ⅵ.fair 指白肤,金发的美女。 §85 because/ because of

Ⅰ. because 是连词,后接句子, 是主句的直接原因,常用来回答由 why 引导的特殊疑 问句。如: ① Because he is ill, he is not here today. 因为他病了,所以今天没来。 ② --Why are you in a hurry? --Because I want to catch the first bus. Ⅱ.because of 是复合介词,后接名词或代词,相当于名词词组。如: He can’t come because of illness. 他生病了,所以没来。 §86 become/ get/ go/ grow/ turn

Ⅰ. 这几个词都可作连系动词表“变化的” ,但用法有别: become 比较正式,常用于书面语中,表示由一个状态向另一个状态的变化。通常用于 过去完成的事,不表未来的事。如: ① I became a teacher three years ago.我是三年前当老师的。 (由学生或其他职业变成 老师) ② He has become a famous person. 他已成为名人了。 Ⅱ.get 多用于口语中,后常接形容词,表“变化”的过程,特别常接比较级形容词。如: ① The days are getting longer and longer. 白天变得越来越长了。 (含动作意识) ② Things are getting worse.情况变得更糟了。 Ⅲ.go 表示因某种原因而进入某种状态,说明“变”的结果。 ① After he heard the news, his face went white. 听到这个消息,他的脸变白了。 ② The sky went cloudy. 天娈阴了。 Ⅳ.grow 表“渐渐地变” ,强调逐渐变化的过程。 如: ① The smoke grew bigger and thicker. 烟变得越来越大,越来越浓了。 ② My younger brother is growing tall. 我弟弟渐渐长高了。 Ⅴ.turn 含有“变得和以前完全不同”之意,说明变的结果。 ① The trees turn green. 树变绿了。 ② His love turned into hate. 他由爱生恨。 §87 before long/ long before

Ⅰ. before long. “不久” , “不久以后” Ⅱ. long before “很早以前” , “好久以前”如:

① I hope to see you again before long. 我希望不久以后再见到你。 ② We finished our work long before. 我们早就把工作做完了 §88 begin/ start

Ⅰ. begin “开始” ,是很普通的用语,指开始某一行动或进程,与 end 相对。如: ① It’s time to begin work. 是开始工作的时候了。 ② She began to work in the factory at the age of fifteen. 她十五岁开始在工厂里工 作。 ③ The meeting will begin at eight o’clock. 会议将于八点钟开始。 Ⅱ. start “开始” ,往往与 begin 通用,但它着重于开始或着手这一点,与 stop 相对。如: ① When did you start work? 你什么时候开始工作的? ② He started to study English. 他开始学英语。 ③ The child started crying. 小孩哭起来了。 [注]:表示“动身;启程;开动(机器) ”等。如: ①I think we ought to start at 8. 我认为我们应该 8 点出发。 另外 commence 是三词中最正式的,其后接动词时只能接动词的-ing 形式。如: ②The Prime Minister commenced speaking 25 minutes ago. 发言的。 § 89 如: I don’t 吗? §90 below/ under/ beneath he can answer the question, can he? 我认为他回答不上这个问题, 是 belive/ think/ suppose 这三个词后面的宾语从句的否定往往转移到主句上来。其反意部份与从句 主谓保持一致。 首相是 25 分钟前开始

Ⅰ. below“在……下面” ,指处于比某物低的位置,不一定在某物的正下方。它的反义词是 over。如: ① Write your name below the line. 在线下写上你的名字。 ② We are below the moon. 我们在月下。 Ⅱ. under “在……的下面” ,相当于 below,有时可以通用,但它指处于某物的正下方, 其反义词是 over。如: ① He stood under a tree. 他站在树下。 ② The cat was under the table. 猫在桌子下面。 Ⅲ. Beneath“在……的下面”, 是旧用法的文学用语,现在很少用。相当于 below,尤其相 当于 under. 如: ① Children are playing beneath the window. 孩子们在窗子下面游戏。 [注]:down 是副词,指自上而下,由高而低,常与表运动的动词连用。其反义词是 up。

如: ② He fell down the stairs. 他从楼梯上跌了下来。 §91 forget to do / forget doing Ⅰ. forget 如: ① I forgot to tell him about it.我忘了把事告诉他。 ② I forgot telling him about it. 我忘了,我曾把这事告诉过他。 [注意]:类似的还有: ① try 如: 1. Let’s try knocking at the back door..让我们敲敲后门试试看。 2. We will try to go home tomorrow. 明天我们争取回家。 ② remember regret doing sth/to do sth 与此亦同。 ③ go on ④ need want doing sth / to do sth. 与此相同。 §92 besides/ but/ except/ beside/ except for/

except that/ but for/ but that Ⅰ.besides “除了……还有”指的是“已有……另加上”而 except 和 but “除了……之外 没有……” ,正好相反。如: ① I don’t care for anything besides this.除此之外,我别无所爱。 ② What have you done this morning, besides reading the paper and watching TV? 除了看报和看电视之外,你今天上午还做了些什么。 Ⅱ.beside prep. “在……旁边”意思如其它的大不相同。如: ① They are used to taking a walk on the path beside the the river.他们习惯于在河 边的小路上散步。 Ⅲ. but 作介词用时: “除……之外没有……”与 except 同意。但它着重在整体,且常用在 no, all, nobody, anything, everything, everybody, everywhere 以及 who, whose 等词 之后。后常接“名词、代词或不定式,接不定式时,如果其前含有实义动词 do (除作助动 词用外)的各种形式,则用动词原形(省略“to” ) 。如: ① He does nothing but laugh. 他只是大笑而已。 (前有 does,故用动词原形 laugh.) ② Nobody was late but you. 除你之外,没有人迟到。 Ⅳ.except 语气比 but 强且明显。着重在除去的部分。如: ① I like all the fruits except pears. 除了梨外,我喜欢所有的水果。 除了颜色外,这件衣服很漂亮。 ② The dress is quite nice except for the color. 可与 except 互换。如: ① Betty worked out all the problems except for / except the last one. 除了最后一

Ⅴ.except for “除了……以外”其中 for 表示理由或细节,对句子含义起修饰作用。有时

个问题外,其它的问题贝蒂都解决了。 ② Except for Sunday, all of us go to school every day. 除了周日外,我们每天都上学。 (此处不用 except). Ⅵ.except that 用作连词 “除……之外”后接从句。 ① The Swede stood still except that his lips moved slightly.那瑞典人除了嘴微动外, 站着一丝不动。 ② I know nothing about him except that he lives downstairs.除了他住在楼下这一点 外,关于别的我一无所知。 Ⅶ.but for “若不是……” , “ 倘若……”常和虚拟语气搭配,其后常跟名词或相当于名词的 词。跟代词常用其宾格。 ① But for you, I should have been late for school. Ⅷ.but that “要不是”后接从句。如: But that I saw the elephant, I couldn’t have believed it.要不是亲眼看见大象,我真不 能相信。 §93 give a message/ leave a message / take a message. 倘若不是你,我上学就迟到了。

Ⅰ. Leave a message.“留下个信儿”打电话的人常用。后与介词 for 搭配。构成 leave a message for sb. Ⅱ. take a message “捎个信儿”接电话的人常用 .后与介词 for 搭配。构成:take a message for sb. Ⅲ. give a message “给某人个信儿”后与 to 搭配,构成: give a message to sb. = give sb a message.如: ① Can I take a message for him? 我能给他捎个信吗? ② Can you leave a message for her? 你能给她留个口信吗? ③ I will give a message to her. 我将给她个信儿。 §94 big/ large/ great/ huge

Ⅰ. big 和 large 所修饰的一般是具体的事物。 big 侧重于表示一个物体的块头、重量,含有庞大、笨重的意思,其反义词是 little; large 侧重表示一个物体的宽度和数量,有广阔和众多的含义,其反义词是 small。 在现 代口语中两者常可互换,big 较口语化,large 比较正式。如: ① This is a big / large room. 这是一个大房间。 ② This coat is too big for her. 这上衣对她来说太大了。 ③ China is a large country. 中国是一个幅员辽阔的国家。 Ⅱ. big 还可作“长大了的”解,而 large 没有这个意思。如: ① She is big enough to ride a bike. 她长大了,足可以骑自行车了。 Ⅲ. great 常表示“伟大的” ,可修饰抽象名词,也可修饰具体的人或物,带有一定的感情色 彩。有时可能表达说话人的喜悦、赞扬等感情。如:

① We are going to visit the People’s Great Hall. 我们打算去参观人民大会堂。 ② Einstein was a great scientist. 爱因斯坦是位伟大的科学家。 ③ --How do you like my coat? --Great! ① How did they carry such huge stones? ② The Great Hall of the People is a 人民大会堂是座建筑物。 §95 bloom/ flower/ blossom 你觉得我这件外衣怎样? 好极了。 他们是如何搬运这些巨石的? Ⅳ. huge “巨大的;极大的” ,修饰具体事物,指规格数额超常。如: building.

Ⅰ. bloom 指观赏用的花。如:玫瑰;菊花;牡丹等。 Ⅱ. flower 是普通用语。 Ⅲ. blossom 指果树上的花。 §96 boat/ ship

Ⅰ. boat “船、艇, ”是普通用语。主要指用浆、篙、帆或引擎的小船、小艇,但有时也指 大轮船。如: ① We crossed the river by boat. 我们乘船过河。 ② They pulled the boat up on to the shore. 他们把这条船拖上了岸。 (指小船) ③ When does the boat leave for Shanghai?(指轮船) Ⅱ. ship “船、舰, ”多指大的航海船只。如: ① The ship is at sea. 船厂在航海。 ② They went to Guangahou by ship. 他们乘船去广州。 §97 bold/ brave/ courageous

Ⅰ. bold “大胆的、勇敢的”着重指大胆、勇敢的气质,表现出有胆量、敢闯或敢于对抗 而不畏缩。如: ① Be bold! 勇敢些! ② It’s very bold of us to venture to go to sea. 我们冒险航海是很勇敢的。 Ⅱ. brave “勇敢的” , 应用最广泛,通常指在危险、困难或可怕的情况下表现勇猛而畏缩。 如: ① Be brave! 勇敢些! ② It was brave of him to enter the burning building. 真是勇敢。 Ⅲ. courageous “勇敢的,无畏的”表示由于有勇敢的气质或不屈不挠的精神而能无畏地 自觉地对付某种事情,常常用于表示道义上的勇敢。如: ① He is courageous in telling the truth. 他敢于讲实话。 ② We hope that they will courageously shoulder their responsibilities and overcome all difficulties. 我们希望能够勇敢地负起责任,克服一切困难。 他敢进入那燃烧着的房屋,


borrow/ lend /keep

Ⅰ. borrow “借”指从别人那里借来东西(借入) 。指“向某人或某处借某事”时,用搭配: Borrow sth from sb / sw.如: ① Can I borrow your pen? 可以借用一下的笔吗? ② Do you often borrow books from the library? 你经常从图书馆借书吗? Ⅱ. lend “借” 指把东西供给别人 (借出) 。 指 “把某物借给某人” 时用: lend sth to sb. 如: ① Can you lend me your pen? 把钢笔供给我好吗? ② You mustn’t lend it to others.你一定不要把它供给别人。 Ⅲ. keep 表“借多长时间” , 时延续性动词。可用于完成时态。而 borrow 和 lend 是短 暂性动词。则不能用于完成时态,或与表段时间的状语连用。如: ① He has kept the books for two weeks.他借这书两天了。 ② ---How long can I keep the book? ---Two weeks. §99 both/ each

Ⅰ. both “两个都” 而 each 则强调“各个”如: ① Both of us won a prize. 我们两人共同赢得了一个奖。 ② Each of us won a prize. 我们每个人都赢得了奖。 Ⅱ. both 用作句子主语时,谓语总是复数,如: ① Both these books are mine. 而 each 常用单数。但在下列情况下用复数,即它在复数名词或代词之后。如: ①They each have beautiful stamps. §100 bring/ take/ fetch/ get/ carry

都有“拿”的意思,但用法差别很大,切勿混同。 Ⅰ.bring“拿来、带来”强调从别处带某人或某物来到说话人所在地。如: The teacher asked the students to bring their dictionaries to the class. Ⅱ.take “拿走、 带走” 强调人或事物离开说话人所在地, 与 bring 的关系相当于 go 与 come 的相对关系。如: May I take this magazine home? Ⅲ.fetch“去取来、去拿来” 指去取了东西又回来这一往返过程,相当于 go and bring, 但不同于 bring,如: Please fetch me some chalk. get 与 fetch 意思相似,多用于口语。如: Go and get/fetch some water. Ⅳ.carry“携带、搬运”强调某物从甲地移至乙地,带有物体随身移动但无固定方向。如: ① He carried the box upstairs. 另外空气、水、电携带物也用 carry.如:

① The boat was carried by ocean currents to a small island.这船被大洋的水流飘至一 小岛。 §101 broad/ wide

都是“宽”的意思。 Ⅰ. broad 指幅面的宽广,侧重表面上的广阔宏大,指人时多形容背、肩、胸等,在较正式 或文学性较强的文体中,也可用来描写河流、街道、田野、峡谷等和地形有关的其它东西。 如: The road is 8 metres broad. Ⅱ. wide 指一边到另一边的空间距离,侧重两端之间距离的宽大,指人时多形容眼睛、口 等。如: This skirt is too wide. broad 和 wide 的反义词都是 narrow. [语法]:度量表示法: “数词+名词(量)+wide(broad)/long 长/thick 厚/deep 深/high 高/tall 身高/around 周长” §102 build/ found/ put up/ set up

Ⅰ. build “建筑、建造”指施工建筑,如房屋、桥梁、道路等的建造,也可用于广义。如: We are building socialism with China’s style. 我们正在建设具有中国特色的社会主义。 Ⅱ. found “创立、成立、创办”批创立一个组织、机构、国家等。如: ① They founded(=built) a school for the blind. 他们创办了一亿盲人学校。 ② The People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949. 于是 1949 年。 Ⅲ. put up 和 set up 人含义很多,但他们在表示“搭起、竖起、挂起”以及表建筑物“建 起”的意思时,可以通用。只不过 put up 比 set up 要常见些。如: ① The boys put up (set up) their tents in the woods. 篷。 ② They have put up(set up) several cattle sheds for the team. 了几个牛棚。 但 set up 在表示“建起、成立”某一机构团体时,不能用 put up 替换。如: The factory set up a night school last month. 这个工厂上月成立了一所夜校。 §103 but/ however 他们为队里建造 孩子们在树林里搭起了帐 中华人民共和国成立

Ⅰ. 都有“然而,但是”的意思。However 比较正式,可以放在句首、句中或句尾;其前 面或后面要加逗号隔开,如在句中,其前后都要加逗号,不能与 but 连用;而 but 只放在 句首。如: ① I’d like to go swimming with you, but I have to tidy the garden now. 我 很 想 和你去游泳,但是我现在必须整理花园。

② It’s raining hard, however, they’re still working in the field. 雨下得很大,然而 他们仍然在地里干活。 ③ Later, however, she decided to buy it. 可是后来她决定去买下它。 ④ He said it was so, he was mistaken, however. §104 crowd / group / team

Ⅰ. group “小组、团体” ,与 team 是同义词。指因任何目的或原因而聚集在一起所形成 的群体。搭配范围较广; team 指工作、行为或游戏时在一起的群体,尤指体育比赛的“队” , 搭配范围较窄。如: ① a study group 学习小组; a discussion group 讨论小组 ② a basketball team 篮球队 a medical team 医疗队 Ⅱ. group 指“人群”时,与 crowd 同义。group 所指人数可多可少,但常指“较小”的 人群, 且表示有组织有秩序的一群人; crowd 有“密集” “拥挤”的含义,通常指未经组织、人数众多的人群。 §105 by oneself/ for oneself/ to oneself/ of oneself

这五个介词短语均属“介词+反身代词”结构,但意义各不相同: Ⅰ.by oneself“单独地;独立地” (=without help, alone).如: Did you do this by yourself or did someone help you? 是你自己做的, 还是别人帮你做 的? Ⅱ. “本身;本身的性质”如: ① Diamond is hard in itself. 钻石本来是硬的。 Ⅲ.for oneself “为自己(的利益而做某事) ;独自地(与 by oneself 同义) ” 。如: ② He has built a house for himself. 他为自己建造了一幢房子。 ③ You must find it out for yourself. 你必须自己把它找出来。 Ⅳ.of oneself “自然而然地;自动地”为不及物动词。如: ④ The fire died of oneself. 火自己熄灭了。 Ⅴ.to oneself“默默地” “暗自” ,常与 talk , say, think 等动词连用。如; ⑤ He said to himself that there was something wrong. 他想这其中有毛病。 [注]:say to oneself “在心里想” ,talk/ speak to oneself“自言自语”两者不可混淆。 §106 by train/ on(in)a the train

二者都有“乘车”之意。当使用介词 by 表方式时,其后交通工具名词前不用冠词。或其它 任何表限定的修饰词,如形容词性物主代词,批示代词等。反之则用介词 in (较小的工具如 car 等);on (较大的交通工具,如 train 等)。如:on the bus, in his car. §107 by/ at/ the end of ; in/to/ on the end

Ⅰ. by the end of “在……末以前” “到……末为止”后一般接时间名词。如年、月、周等。

也可接表活动的名词,如 strike. Ⅱ. at the end of “在……的尽头” , “在……的末端”如: ① At the end of the book there is an index. 书后附有索引。 ② We shall have an exam at the end of the month. 本月末我们将有次考试。 Ⅲ. in the end “最终;终于” ,后不接 of 短语。如: I hope everything will turn out all right in the end. §108 by/ near 我希望最终一切都顺利。

都有“靠近”的意思。 Ⅰ.by“就在… …旁边” ,表示距离更近。如: ① We have by the sea.(暗示我们可以看见大海) ② We live near the sea.(也许我们离海边还有几里远) Ⅱ.near 表示的距离稍远些。见上例。 §109 by/ till

Ⅰ.by“到… …之前” “不迟于”仅指动作发生在限定时间之内或到某一时间为止。如: ①Can you repair my watch by Friday? 你能在星期五之前把表修好吗?(句中时间最迟 到星期五,动词可以是瞬间的,也可以是持续的) Ⅱ.till/untill“直到”强调动作的持续状态,直到将来的某一时刻为止。如: I shall go on working till/untill next Monday. (此种情况只能用于肯定句中动词必须 是延续的) 当 untill 与 not 连用时,意为“直到… …才” ,主句谓语动词必须是非延续性的。如: I don’t go to bed untill/till you come. §110 call on/ visit/ go to see/ drop in

Ⅰ.四者都有“访问”的意思,但是 vist 较为正式,可用于访问人,也可用于访问地方。如: I visited my aunt in Bejing in the summer holidays. 暑假我探望了在北京的姨妈。 Ⅱ.call on 有时可代替 visit,但只限于人。访问某地方则用 call at。如: We called on Prefessor Liu a few days ago. Ⅲ.go to see 为普通用语,一般用于人。如: Tom is ill. Let’s go to see him after school.汤姆病了,我们放学后去看他吧。 Ⅳ.drop in 特指顺路探访,多用于口语。如: Would you like to drop in and have a cup of tea? 你顺便来喝杯茶,好吗? §111 calm/ quiet 前几天我们拜访了刘教授。

Ⅰ.calm 的意思是平静的、镇静的。用以指天气、海洋等时,表示一种无风无浪的平静状态; 用以指人时,表示镇静而不激动的心情。如: ① The sea is now calm. 海上现在风平浪静。

② He remained calm. 他保持镇静。 Ⅱ.quiet 的意思是安静的、寂静的,指没有什么动态,没有什么声音,尤指没有骚乱的一种 安静状态。如: ① Everything was quiet. 万籁俱寂。 ② Ask them to keep quiet. 叫他们保持安静。 §112 can/ be able to

Ⅰ. can “能”表过去或现在“能力所及”时,与 be able to 通用。如: ① He can / is able to speak German. 他会说德语。 ② He could / was able to run very fast when I was a boy. 种意义。如: He started late, but he was able to catch the eight o’clock train. 他出发晚了,但他 还是赶上了八点钟的火车。 Ⅲ.can 通常只用于上述两种时态,而 be able to 则可用于各种时态。如: He has not been able to come since he got hurt. 自从受伤以后,他就一直未能前来。 Ⅳ. 在表猜测时,只能用 can,而不能用 be able to ,如: That can’t be your bag. 那不可能是你的书包。 §113 can/ may 我小时候就跑得很快。 Ⅱ. be able to 的过去时还可表一种“经过努力做到了”的意思。而 can 的过去时则没有这

Ⅰ.can 的意思是能、会;可能。在正式用语中 can 通常是指能力而言。它也可以表示可能 性。在非正式用语和口语中 can 经常用以表示“允许”的意思,特别在疑问句和否定句中。 如: ① Can you swim across the Yangzi River? 你能横渡扬子江吗? ② He can speak English. 他会说英语。 ③ I can’t come at that time. 我不能在那个时候来。 ④ Can the news be true? 这消息会是真的吗? ⑤ -----Can’t I go? 我可不可以走? -----You cannot! 你不可以走。 Ⅱ.may 的意思是可以、可能,在正式用语中它通常是指可能性或允许而言。如: ① That may or may not be ture. ② He may be right. 他可能是对的。 ③ You may take this book, I don’t need it. 你可以拿走这本书,我不需要了。 ④ May I go now? 我现在可以走了吗? §114 cap/ hat 那可能是真的,也可能不是真的。

Ⅰ.cap 的意思是帽子,通常指无边的帽子,包括便帽、制服帽、军帽等。如: ① He always wears a blue cap. 他总是戴着一顶蓝帽子。

② How I wished I could have a cap, a real soldier’s cap! 一顶真正的军帽! Ⅱ.hat 的意思也是帽子,指有边的帽子,也是帽子的总称。如:


① Hat in hand , he came towards me. 他手拿着帽子,向我走来。 ② These hats are in fashion. 这些帽子很时髦。 §115 care (about) / take care of/ care for Ⅰ.take care of“照料=look after,即指喂饭照看等。如: ① Nurses take care of patients in hospital. [注]:它还可表所负的责任,如: ① Mr Savage takes care of marketing and publicity. 萨维奇先生负责销售和宣传。 Ⅱ.care about 表你是否认为某件事是重要的,某件事是否引起了你的兴趣或使你忧虑,常 用于疑问句或否定句中,后接从句时,about 一般都要省略。如: I don’t care whether it rains, I’m happy. 我才不在乎下不下雨呢,我快活着呢。 Ⅲ.care for 有以下几种意思 1) “照料” (特别是多用在正式的或较文的文体中)如: She spent the best years of her life caring for her sick father. 她把一生中最好的岁 月都用来照料她那有病的父亲了。 2) “关怀” “关心”如:care for the younger generation ① Would you care for a cup of tea? 你喜欢喝一杯茶吗? ② I don’t/shouldn’t care for him to read this letter. §116 carry on/ carry out/ carry through 我想用英语进行 Ⅰ.carry on 的意思是“进行、继续” ,如: ① I tried to carry on a conversation in English, but could not. 谈话,但是力不从心。 ② He told them to carry on. 他叫他们继续进行。 ③ Carry on (with) your work. 继续你的工作。 Ⅱ.carry out 的意思是“贯彻、执行;完成、实现” ,如: ① Sometimes it’s easy to make plans but difficult to carry them out. 有时候作计 划容易而执行计划却很难。 ② Our plan was carried out successfully. 地完成。 Ⅲ.carry through 的意思是“完成-----,将-----进行到底;使(人)战胜困难,渡过难关。 如: ① Carry the revolution through to the end. 将革命进行到底。 ② His courage will carry him through. §117 cause/ reason 他的勇气使他战胜困难,渡过难关。 我们的计划胜利 我不愿让他看这封信。 关怀年轻的一代 3) “喜欢、愿意” (多用在疑问句或否定句中)[care for sb. to do sth.] 如:

Ⅰ.cause 表示“原因、缘故、理由”等意思时,着重指产生某种结果的原因。如: ① The cause of the fire was carelessness. 起火的原因是不小心。 ② What was the cause of it? 发生这事是原因何在? ③ There’s no cause for anxiety. 没有理由要焦虑(不必焦虑) 。 Ⅱ.reason 的意思是“理由、原因、缘故” ,着重指产生某种行为或想法的理由。如: ① I have no reason for it. 我没有理由这样做。 ② Give your reason for changing the plan. §118 centre/ middle 把你改变计划的理由讲一下。

Ⅰ.centre 的意思是“中心” ,通常用于空间方面,强调指正中心。它还可用于借喩,表示某 一事物的中心。如: ① Draw a circle round a given centre. 就指定的中心画一圆圈。 ② We live in the centre of London. 我们住在伦敦市中心。 ③ Beijing is the political, economic and cultural centre of China. 北京是中国的政治、 经济和文化中心。 Ⅱ.middle 的意思是“中间、当中” ,指跟两边或各边、两端或各端等距离的部分。它可以 用于空间、时间等方面,如: ① In the middle of the room stands a table. 房间当中摆着一张桌子。 ② He was standing in the middle of the road. 他站在路中间。 ③ It will be coming into bloom about the middle of next month. 它大约将在下月中 开花。 §119 certain/ sure

二者的基本用法一样 1) Be certain 如:Manchester are certain/sure to win.(The other team haven’t got a chance.)曼 彻斯特队肯定会赢。 (另一队连一点希望都没有) 2) Before the game stared, Alan felt quite sure/certain of winning, but after the first five minutes he began to lose confidence. 赢,但比赛了 5 分钟后他开始失去信心了。 §120 certainly/ surely 比赛开始前, 艾伦感到很有把握

二者含义大不相同。 surely 表相信,但又感到惊奇或难以相信。如: ① Surely that’ s a plain-clothes policeman. 那一定是一个便衣警察。 =Can that really be a plain-policeman. ② Surely that’s Henry over there? I thought he was in Scotland. 那边谅必是亨利 ?,我还以为他在苏格兰呢?

[注]:当 surely 与否定词连用时,常表示怀疑, (不愿意相信)如: Surely, you aren’t going out in that hat? Ⅱ. certainly 表所了解的情况. 如: That’s certainly a plain-clothes policeman. 那肯定是个便衣警察。 (说话者认出了他 是个便衣,因为很有信心,肯定地说出了这句话。 ) §121 chicken/ cock/ hen 你决不会戴那顶帽子去吧。

Ⅰ.chicken 的意思是小鸡、鸡(泛指) 、鸡肉。如: ① Chickens pip. 小鸡吱吱叫。 ② He feeds 10,000 chickens on his farm. ③ We had chicken for lunch. Ⅱ.cock 的意思是公鸡、雄鸡。如: ① Cocks crow at dawn. 天亮时公鸡喔喔叫。 Ⅲ.hen 的意思是母鸡。如: A hen cackles when she lays an egg. 母鸡生蛋时咯咯地叫。 [注] 鸡窝译为 hen coop,鸡舍译为 hen house。这里的 hen 笼统地代表鸡。 §122 如: ① You may choose from among them the one you like best. 你可以从它们中间挑 选最喜欢的一个。 ② Let me choose a book from among these. I didn’t choose to go. 我不愿意去。 Ⅱ.select 的意思是“选择、挑选” ,通常指从很多对象中精心地进行挑选,往往指根据被选 择对象的优劣进行选择。如: ① The finest products were selected and sent to the exhibition. 选择了最好的产品 送到展览会去。 ② They were selected from among many applicants. 他们是从许多报名者当中挑选 出来的。 Ⅲ.elect 的意思是“选、选举” ,常指通过正式手续(如投票等)进行选举。如: They elected him chairman. 他们选举他当主席。 这里如果改用 choose/select, 那就着重于选择的意义, 不一定是正式选举, 整个句子应为: They chose him as their chairman. [注] pick 一词也可以表示挑选、选择的意思,含有仔细挑选的意味,有时也表示任意挑选 的意思。如: Pick the best one. 挑选最好的吧。 让我从这些书中选一本。 [注]choose 后面可以接不定式,表示愿意、决定等意思。如: choose/ select/ elect

Ⅰ.choose 的意思是“选择、挑选” ,通常指在所提供的对象中,凭个人的判断力进行选择。


city/ town

Ⅰ.city 的意思是“城市、都市” ,一般指大的和重要的城市(但在美国,每一个城市都可以 称为 city) 。如: ① Shanghai is a big city. 上海是一个大城市。 ② Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world. 北京是世界上最古老的城市之一。 Ⅱ.town 的意思是“市镇、城市” ,一般指规模较小的城市,常作 country(乡下)的相对 用语。如: ① The town is on the bank of a river. 那个城市位于河边。 ② Whould you rather live in a town or in the country?你喜欢住在城市还是农村? §124 pleasant / please / pleased /pleasing / pleasure Ⅰ. pleasant 为形容词, “令人愉快的” “令人舒适的” 主要指使人心满意足,将快乐给予 他人的性格、活动氛围、状态或场合,也可用于事物。如 ① She has a pleasant voice. 她的声音悦耳。 ② The weather there is not very pleasant. with sth 或 that 从句。 ① We are very pleased to see you here. 我们很高兴在这儿见到你。 ② I am pleased that they have dedided to come. 我很高兴他们决定来。 ③ He was pleased with my progress.他对我的进步感到满意。 Ⅲ. pleasing “令人喜欢的;令人愉快的”主语一般是物。如①She has got a pleasing voice.. 她的声音很悦耳。 Ⅳ. Pleasure 是名词,大多用于客套语中。如: ① I have had the pleasure of meeting your father before. 我以前有幸见过令尊。 ② --Will you lend me a hand? --With pleasure. 请你帮一下忙好吗? 好的。 Ⅴ. please 是及物动词,常用于祈使句语气,意为“请” Please give me a cup of tea. 请给我一杯茶。 [注]:口语中,Yes, please! 好的,谢谢!对应 No, thanks.不用了,谢谢! §125 clever/ wise/ bright/ smar 那儿的天气不太宜人。 Ⅱ. pleased 为形容词, “感到高兴” ,相当于 glad 或 happy,后面可接不定式、at doing,

都有“聪明”的意思,其区别在于: Ⅰ.clever“聪明的、伶俐的、巧妙的、机敏的”用以指人或动物时,通常指脑子灵活,指做 成的事物时,常含有巧妙的意思,如: ① He is a clever boy. ② That’a a clever plan. Ⅱ.wise“聪明的、英明的、明智的”指由于知识、经验的丰富及良好的判断能力而正确地 对待或处理人和事,通常用于正式的、客气的场合。如:

① a wise saying 至理名言 ② a wise leader 英明的领袖 Ⅲ.bright“聪明的、伶俐的”通常指年青人或小孩,常用于口语中。如: the bright boy is reading English in the bright room. Ⅲ.smart“机敏的、精明的”与 clever 同义。但强调顽皮的一面,为随便的说法。如: You can’t cheat him, because he is a smart boy. 你骗不了他,因为他是个聪明的孩 子。 §126 climate/ weather

Ⅰ.climate 的意思是“气候” ,指某地的一般天气情况,包括气温、降雨量、刮风等的状况; 也指长时间如一季度的天气状况。如: ① The climate here is bad. 这儿气候恶劣。 ② The climate of China is very enjoyable spring. ① What is the weather like today? 今天天气整样? ② I will come if I can, but it depends on the weather. 如果可能我一定来,但要看天 气如何。 §127 close/ near/ nearby/ next to 中国春天的气候很宜人。 Ⅱ.weather 的意思是“天气” ,指某地某时寒暖、晴雨、刮风等的变化状况。如:

Ⅰ. close “接近的,靠近” ;还有“亲密的,密切的”含义,用法与 near 类似,可指距离 上、时间上或次序上紧接。也可用于引申含义,表关系或感情上的“亲近的” ,可用作形容 词或副词。如: ① Mother’s Day is close (=near) . 母亲节快到了。 ② They are sitting quite close(=near) to each other. 他们坐得很靠近。 ③ She and I are close friends.她和我是亲密的朋友。 [注]:near 当作形容词时,与 close 含义和用法相同,表距离近,都用 be near / close to +地点。 但 close 只能作形容词,而 near 还可作介词使用,此时 near 不可再与 to 搭配。 如: ①I live near (=close to) the factory. Ⅱ. nearby 主要指空间上的附近,一般指较大范围。可用作形容词、副词或介词。如: ① They live in the nearby village. 他们住在附近的村庄。 ② There was a traffic accident nearby. 在附近发生了一起车祸。 Ⅲ. next to 意思是“与……相邻,紧靠着”与 be close to 很接近,但 next to 强调距离 上“紧邻” 。 ① Our school is next to a supermarket. 我们学校紧挨着一家超市。 ② Our school is close to a supermarket. §128 close/ shut 我们学校距离一家超市很近。

Ⅰ.close 用作动词表示“关、闭”的意思时,通常仅指把开着的东西关闭起来。它还往往是 较为正式的用语。如: ① Did you close all the doors and windows? ② Close your eyes. 把眼睛闭上。 ③ Do you mind if I close this window? 我把这窗子关起来好吗? Ⅱ.shut 的意思是 “关、 关闭” , 常常可与 close 通用, 但它比 close 意味较强。 比如说 to close a door or gate 时,仅指把门关上;而说 to shut a door or gate 时,则可以进而指用门 闩、插销或其它东西把门关住。此外,shut 还往往不如 close 正式。如: ① They shut the doors and windows. 他们关住了门窗。 ② Shut the box. 把箱子关起来。 ③ Shut the door after you. 随手关门。 §129 Chinese / of China 你把所有的门窗都关了吗?

Ⅰ. Chinese “中国式的,具有中国特色的”作形容词时只能作前置定语。主要从物与物的 角度看待事物。如: I like Chinese food. 我喜欢中国风味的食品。 Ⅱ. of China “中国的;属于中国的”为所有格式,表所属关系。作后置定语。 Please show me a map of China. 请给我拿幅中国地图。 §130 colth/clothes/ clothing/ dress/suit

Ⅰ. cloth 指做衣服等用的布料,如“布;毛料”等,是不可数名词。表达“一块布料”应 说 a piece of cloth,如: ① Different kinds of cloth are produced in that factory. 布料。 ② My aunt bought me two pieces of cloth yesterday. 我姑妈昨天给我买两块布。 ③ 但是,用于表达特殊用途的布时,如“台布;揩布”等,cloth 是可数名词。如:Pass me a table cloth, please. 请递给我一块台布。 Ⅱ. clothes “衣服” , 没有单数形式, 不能单独与数词直接搭配。 如不能说 hour clothes, 但 可以说 many/ these/ a few clothes,它总是以复数形式出现,因此只能说: The clothes are… 如: ① All of her clothes were made by her mother. 她所有的衣服都是她母亲做的。 ② There are many new clothes on sale. 有许多新衣服出售。 Ⅲ. clothing 意思也是“衣服” , 但它与 clothes 不同,不是指具体的和件件的衣服,而 是指衣着的整体而言。如: ① They were all in their summer clothing. 他们都穿夏天的服装。 ② Each child has ample clothing. 每个孩子都有足够的衣服。 Ⅳ. dress 通常指外面穿的衣服。一般指妇女和儿童服装,还指礼服或某种特殊的服装。是 可数名词。如: 那家工厂生产各种各样的

① Who’s that girl in red dress? 穿红衣服的那位姑娘是谁? ② What size dress do you wear? 你穿几号衣服? ③ He doesn’t care much about dress? 他不太讲究衣着。 (他不讲穿) 。 ④ He is in full dress. 他穿着礼服。 Ⅴ. suit 通常指用同样布料或衣料做成的一套衣服。如: ① She was wearing a red suit. 她穿着一套红西装。 ② He wanted very much to get a new suit and throw off his old clothes. 他很想买 一套新衣服,好赶快脱掉他的旧衣服。 §131 collect/ gather

Ⅰ.gather 的意思是“收集、聚集” ,它是表示收集或聚集的一般用语,不仅可以用于人和 物,还可以用于抽象的东西。如: ① He gathered his books and notebooks. ② She gathered the children round her. ③ A crowd soon gathered round him. 他把书和笔记本收集在一起。 她把孩子们聚集在她的周围。 一群人很快就聚集在他的周围。

④ He is gathering information. 他在搜集情报。 Ⅱ.collect 的意思是“收集、搜集、聚集” ,通常指有计划和选择进行收集。当它表示一般 的收集或聚集时,可与 gather 通用。如: ① He is collecting material for a book. 他正在聚集写书的资料。 ② I have collected some famous pictures. 我收集了一些名画。 ③ A crowd soon collected when there was a car accident. 发生了车祸的时候,立即 就有一群人聚拢起来。 §132 college/ institute/ university

Ⅰ.college 的意思是“学院” ,一般指大学内部的学院或独立的学院,如: ① There are many colleges at Oxford and Cambridge. 牛津大学和剑桥大学有很多学 院。 ② There are several teachers’ colleges in Jiangsu Province. 江苏省有几所师范学 院。 Ⅱ .institute 也可以表示学院的意思,但它通常指专科性(专门的)学院,如外语学院 ( institute of foreign languages ) 、体育学院 (physical culture institute) 、航空学院 (aeronautical engineering institute)等,如: ① He graduated from an institute of foreign trade. 他是外贸学院毕业的。 ② She is a student of a chemical engineering institute.她是化工学院的学生。 Ⅲ.university 的意思是“大学” ,通常指由多个学院组织而成的综合性大学。如: He graduated from Yale in 1915.他 1915 年从耶鲁大学毕业。 §133 competition/ game/ match

Ⅰ. competition “比赛、竞争” ,指体能、技术、能力的竞争。 He won a drawing competition. 他在图画比赛中获胜。 Ⅱ. game “比赛”指有一定规则,且决定胜负的脑力和体力劳动的“竞技” 。如: There is going to be a football game tomorrow afternoon. Ⅲ. match 多指网球、足球、高尔夫球等运动项目的“比赛” 。 The golf match will he held tomorrow morning. §134 complete/ finish

Ⅰ.complete 用作动词表示完成的意思时,是指把已开始但尚未完成的事情完成。如: ① He has completed his task. 他已完成他的工作。 ② The railway is not completed yet. 铁路尚未完工。 Ⅱ.finish 的意思是“完成、结束” ,着重指圆满结束已着手的事情,尤指完成精心之作的最 后一步。如: ① Have you finished your work yet? 你的工作做完了没有? ② I finished reading the book last night. 我昨晚看完了这本书。 ③ The picture is finished. 这幅画画好了。 §135 conceal/ hide

Ⅰ. conceal “隐藏、隐瞒”常与 hide 通用;但比 hide 正式些,多指有意将某事物隐藏起 来或不予以泄漏。它只用作及物动词。如: ① The box was concealed under the bed.箱子是藏在床底下的。 ② He concealed his moteves. 他隐瞒了他的动机。 Ⅱ. hide “隐藏、掩盖、躲藏”为普通用语。指有意或无意地将某物(或人)藏(躲)在 人们不易看到或发现的地方。可作及物动词和不及物动词。如: ① Where did you hide it? 你把它藏到哪里了? ② He cannot hide the truth. 他不能掩盖真相。 ③ The moon was hideen by the clouds. 月亮被云彩遮住了。 §136 cost/ spend/ pay/ take

Ⅰ.cost 指某东西“值……钱” ; “需要花费……钱/ 精力”等,它的主语一般为表示东西的 名词,不能为表示人的名词,作及物动词和名词。可接双宾语,无被动语态。如: ① I’ll bet that dress cost a thousand dollars.我敢说那件衣服得花 1000 美元。 ② The chair cost me thirty yuan.这把椅子花了我 30 元。 ③ The building of the dam cost many lives. 修建这个水坝使许多人丧生。 (使花(某 种代价) ;使损失) ④ Bad driving may cost you your life.开车技术不行可能使你丢掉性命。 ⑤ 作名词时意为“花费;成本”→The cost of the house was too high for me.这房子 的价钱太高,我买不起。

[常用搭配]: ① at all costs 不惜一切代价,?????—→The officer told the soldiers that they must defend the town at all costs. ② at the cost of 以……为代价。 →1). He finished the work at the cost of his health. 他完成了这项工作,但失去了健 康。 →2). She saved him from fire, but at the cost of her own life. 她从火中把他救出,但 她自己却牺牲了。 ③ cost of living 生活费用。 —→As the cost of living goes up my standard of living goes down. 生活费用越上涨, 我的生活水准越降低。 Ⅱ.spend 的主语经常是人 , 用来表示人花钱买东西或花时间做某事, 常用的句型有: 如: ① I spend 5 yuan on the book.我买这书花五元钱。 ② The boy spent 10 minutes drawing a dog.那个男孩花了 10 分钟画一只狗。 Ⅲ.pay “支付,花费” ,主语只能是人 且只用于花费金钱,其结构是: pay + sb + some money + for sth. “为……付给某人多少钱” 其中的人、钱、事,可以根据具体情况取舍。 如: ① I paid (him)5 yuan. 我付(给他)5 元钱。 ② I paid him 5 yuan for the book. 我买那本书付给了他五元钱。 ③ I paid him for the book. 我买那本书付给了他钱。 ④ I paid for the book. 我付了那本书的钱。 Ⅳ.take 也可表“花费时间和金钱” , (一般只指花费时间) 其常用结构为:It +take(各种时态)+time/money+to do sth. 如 It took me three hours to finish the work. §137 country/ state/ nation 军官对士兵们说要不惜一切代价保卫这座城市。

Ⅰ. country “国家”着重指疆土而言。 “乡下、农村”相当于 countryside, 但它指风景而 言。如: ① This country is in the south of Europe. 这个国家在欧洲南部。 ② Germany and France are European countries. 德国和法国是欧洲国家。 ③ The countryside around Nanjing is beautiful at this time of the year. Ⅱ. state “国家”着重指政权而言。如: ① I’d like to borrow a copy of “The State and Revolution”.我想借一本《国家与 革命》 。 ② The state is an organ of violence at service of class rule. 的暴力机器。 Ⅲ. nation “国家”着重指人民而言。如: 国家是阶级统治

Two friendly nations support each other. 两个友好国家互相支持。 §138 crazy/ mad

Ⅰ. crazy “发狂的、糊涂的、狂热的”常指由于忧虑、悲伤、欣喜、渴望、激动等某种强 烈的情绪而引起的一种心神错乱、失去控制的精神状态。如: ① He was crazy with joy. 他欣喜若狂。 ② You are crazy to do such a thing. 你干这样的事真糊涂。 ③ The boy is crazy on (or about) skating. 那孩子对溜冰着了迷。 Ⅱ. mad “发狂的、发疯的”通常指精神狂乱完全不能自我控制的一种病态。在口语中它 也表示由于某种强烈的情绪而失常。如: ① The poor fellow is mad. 这个可怜的人是疯子。 ② The dog has gone mad. 这条狗疯了。 ③ This worry is enough to drive me mad. 这烦恼足以使我发狂。 ④ He is mad about the stage. 他迷恋于舞台生活。 §139 crop/ harvest

Ⅰ. crop “收成”指谷物、水果、蔬菜等一年或一季的收成 它表示“农作物、庄稼”的意 思。如: ① The rice crop was very good this year. 今年稻子的收成很好。 ② The rice bears two crops every year. 稻子一年收两次。 ③ It is harmful to growing crops. 这对于正在生长的农作物有害。 Ⅱ. harvest “收成、收获”多指谷物的收成,也指水果、蔬菜等的收成;有时指收割行为。 也可用于借喻,指行动或行为的结果。如: ① Rich harvests have been gathered in for several years running. 连续几年获得了 丰收。 (可用 crops 代替) ② The summer harvest is about to start. 夏收即将开始。 ③ He reaped the harvest of his hard work. 他获得了辛勤劳动的成果。 §140 crossing/ turning

Ⅰ. crossing “交叉点、十字路口” Ⅱ. turning “路的拐弯处”如: Take the second crossing / turning on the left. 在第二个十字路口/ 拐弯处向左拐。 §141 cry/ shout/ exclaim

Ⅰ. cry “叫、喊” ,常指因痛、痛苦、恐惧等而叫喊,仅表示某种感情而不表达思想。它有 时也指用言语高声叫喊,如表祈求。如: ① He cried with pain. 他痛得叫了起来。 ② “Help! Help!” he cried. “救命啊!救命啊! ”他高声地叫喊。

Ⅱ. shout “叫喊” ,指表达思想的高声叫喊或说话。有时是用以表示高兴、痛、痛苦或惊 恐等,有时是用于发出命令、提出警告或要别人注意。如: ① I shouted to him, but he was out of hearing. 听不到。 ② He shouted with pain. 他大声叫痛。 Ⅲ. exclaim “叫喊”指因高兴、痛苦、愤怒、惊讶等而突然地、感情激烈地高声叫喊。如: ① “What!” he exclaimed “Are you leaving without me?” “什么?” 他喊道, “你 要丢下我离去吗? ②They exclaimed with one voice. 他们齐声呼喊。 §142 cup/ glass 我对他呼喊, 但他

Ⅰ. cup “杯子”通常指带柄的瓷杯,用以喝茶、牛奶、咖啡或可乐等等。如: ① The cup stands on the table.杯子放在桌子上。 ② Will you have another cup of tea? 你要再喝一杯茶吗? Ⅱ. glass “杯子”用以饮酒、或喝等。如: ① The glass is broken to pieces. 这只玻璃杯打碎了。 ② He drank two gasses of milk. 他喝了两杯牛奶。 §143 dear/ expensive/ high/;cheap/low

Ⅰ. dear 表示“贵”的意思时和 cheap 相对,指索价过高。主语是物。如: ① It is too dear. 这太贵了。 ② The flowers were not dear. 这些花我贵。 Ⅱ. expensive “昂贵的” ,指超过物品的价值或购买者的购买力。主语是物。如: ① It is too expensive for me to buy. 这东西太贵了我买不起。 ② This is an expensive hat. 这是一顶价钱昂贵的帽子。 Ⅲ. high 与 low 相对,主语是价格(the price), 如: ① The price of the pen is not low for him. §144 这支钢笔对于他来说不便宜。

decide/ determine/ make up one's mind

Ⅰ.decide 着重指经过考虑、商谈或研究之后作出“决定” , “下决心” 。结束踌躇、疑惑、 争论等状况。后跟名词、代词、动词不定式或从句,可用于被动语态中。如: ① Nothing has been decided yet.什么都没有决定下来。 ② They decided to accept the invetation. 他们决定接受邀请 Ⅱ.determine 表示“决定、决心”指经过认真考虑后下定决心。与 decide 一般可换用。 后接名词、代词动词不定式。如: ① We determined on an early start.我们决定尽早出发。 ② He has determined to learn English. 他已下决心学英语。 ③ We are determined to get the work done before May Day. 我们决心要在五

一节前完成这项工作。 Ⅲ.make up ine’s mind “决定、决心” ,是和犹豫不决等相对应的用语。意即:打定主 意。如: ① He made up his mind to go there at once. 他决定立刻到那儿去。 ② He has made up his mind to be a dotctor. 他决心当医生。 §145 deep/ deeply

Ⅰ.作副词用时, 都有 “深深地” 之意, 但 deep 用于具体的深度, 包括时间和空间。 而 deeply 用于抽象的、比喻的意义;再者 deeply 可以修饰形容词和过去分词,deep 则不能。如: ① They lived deep in the sea.他们深潜海里。 ② I’m deeply sory for your uncle’s death. §146 defend/ protect 为你叔叔的去世我深表遗憾。

Ⅰ. defend “保卫、保护、捍卫”指采取积极措施以抵御或击退外来的威胁或攻击。它还 可以表示“为……辩护” 。如: ① It is the duty of every citizen to defend his country.保卫祖国是每一个公民的职责。 ② He defended his comrades from harm. 们捍卫了马克思列宁主义的基本原则。 ④ He made a long speech definding his ideas. 他发表长篇演说为他的见解辩护。 Ⅱ. protect “保护”指采取措施,使之不受伤害或损害。如: ① The government protects the people’s interests. 政府保护人民的利益。 ② He built a fence to protect his garden. §147 department store/ shop/ store 他围起了篱笆以保护园子。 他保护同志使其不受伤害。 他 ③ They defended the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism.

Ⅰ. department store “百货公司”原是美国用法,现在英也用了。不过英也把百货公司 叫 stores.如: ① I’m going to the department store. 我要到百货公司去。 ② I get most things at the stores. 大部分东西我是在百货公司买的。 [注]:在美国,杂货商店(铺)叫 grocery 或 drugstore. Ⅱ. shop “商店、店铺” ,在英国,零售商店一般都叫 shop.如: ① The shop opens at eight o’clock. 商店八点钟开门。 ② The shop sells embroideries.那家商店出售刺绣品。 Ⅲ. store“商店、店铺” ,在美国,零售店一般叫 store. 如: ① He keeps a store in New Youk. 他在纽约开了一个商店。 ② The wares in that store are dear. 那家店里的东西很贵。 §148 desire/ wish/ want/ hope/ expect Ⅰ. desire 表“想、希望”等意。着重表强烈的愿望,热切的心情。如:

① I desired to see you. 我很想见见你。 ② He desired success. 他渴望成功。 Ⅱ. wish 语气不如 desire 强,且可以表示一种不能实现的愿望, (从句动词有虚拟语气形 式) ;后接“不定式”或“代词/名词+不定式”结构。所表示的“希望”大体是可以实现的; 此外,还可以接双宾语,表“祝愿”或表委婉的语气。如: ① I wish I could fly to the moon in a spaceship one day. 但愿有一天我能坐宇宙飞船 飞向月球。 ② I wish I were you.但愿我是你就好了。 ③ We wish to visit Yanan. 我希望能参观延安。 ④ We wish you to be happy. 我希望你幸福。 ⑤ I wish you a long life. 祝你长寿。 ⑥ I wish you success. 祝你成功。 ⑦ We can begin to work at once now if you wish(不及物动词)要是你愿意,我们 现在可以立刻开始工作。 Ⅲ. want “想”其搭配关系为:want to do sth. Or want sb to do sth. 比较口语化,没 有 wish 那样正式。如: She wants me to do with her. Ⅳ. hope 表对愿望的实现抱有一定的信心。 后接 “不定式; that 从句。 ” 但不能接 双宾语。 ① I hope to be a doctor. 我希望当一名医生。 ② I hope she will be well again. 我希望她会痊愈。 Ⅴ.expect “期待、盼望、预料”等,指对某一特定的事件的发生抱有颇大的信心。如: ① We are expecting a letter from her. 我们当时正期待着她的来信。 §149 desk/ table Ⅰ. Desk “课桌、书桌、写字台”指读书、写字或办公用的桌子。如: There are fifty desks in the classroom. 教室里有 50 张课桌。 Ⅱ. table “桌子、台” ,指供吃饭、游戏、工作或安放其他各种东西的桌子或台子。它的广 义包括 desk 在内。如: We all sat at the same table. 我们同桌吃饭。 §150 develop/ developing/ developed Ⅰ.develop 既是及物动词,又是不及物动词,意为“发展” , “开发” 。如: The child is developing well. 这孩子发育很好。 Ⅱ.developing 为现在分词,起形容词的作用,表示主动意义,意思是“发展中的” 。如: ① China is a developing country. 中国是一个发展中国家。 Ⅲ.developed 为过去分词,起形容词作用,表示被动含意,意思是“发达的” 。如: Japan ia a developed country. 日本是一个发达国家。 §151 die/ dead/ death Ⅰ.die 是不及物动词,一般指因生病,负伤等原因而死。且是非延续性动词(瞬间动词) , 不能和表示一段时间的状语(for+段时间短语;或 since……)连用。如:

① He was born in 1847 and died in 1913. 他生于 1847 年,死于 1913 年。 ② His grandfather has been dead for two years. = His grandfather died two years ago. 他爷爷去世两年了。 ③ He died ten years ago.他是 10 年前死的。 (不可说:He has died for ten years. 或 应说:It is 10 years since he died) Ⅱ.dead 是形容词,表状态,可在句中作表语和定语。但不可作谓语。如: ① He is dead, but his name sill live for ever in our hearts.他虽然死了但他的名字将永 远活在我们心中。 ② It doesn’t look like a dead fox.看来不像一只死狐狸。 Ⅲ.death 是抽象名词,只能在句中作主语或宾语。如: ① The murderer was sentenced to death. 杀人犯被宣判死刑。 ② I heard of his death when I got to his house. 我一到他家就得知他已经去世了。 [注]:①die /dye 此两词本来意义是完全不同的(die “死” dye “染,染上” ),只时二 者的现在分词形式常易混淆。die—→dying dye—→dyeing ② die for / die from / die of/die away/die down/ die off/ die out 1. die for 表“为某一目的、事业等而死” ; “渴望、极想” 。 为人民而死,虽死犹荣。 1).To die for the people is a glorious death..

2).I’m dying for a cup of coffee. 我很想喝杯咖啡。 2. die from. 表“死于(创伤、劳累、忧愁等) ” 。(除疾病或情感以外的原因)。如: 1).He died from a wound. 他死于创伤。 2).She died from overwork. 她过度操劳而死。 3. die of 表“死于(疾病、情感、饥饿、年老等) ” 。 1).The old man died of cancer.那老人患癌症死的。 2).His father died of starvation in Germany.他的父亲饿死在德国。 3). The old woman died of grief soon after her husband’s deth. 那位老太太在 失去丈夫后不久就因悲伤而死。 4. die away “消失;停息”如: 1).The sound of the car died away in the distance. 汽车的响声在远处消失了。 2).The wind has died away. 风已经停息。 5. die down 指灯火等慢慢地“熄灭” ;指骚动等渐渐地“平息下来”如: 1).They waited till the storm died down. 2).The fire died down. 火慢慢地熄灭了。 3).The fighting has died down. 战斗渐渐停止。 6. die off 指一个个相继“死掉”如: 1).They had to watch their young children died off through lack of food. 他们不 得不眼睁睁地看着孩子们因为没有东西吃而一个个地死掉。 7. die out. “死光;绝种”如: 1).These animals have already died out. 这类动物已经绝种。 他们一直等到风暴停息。


difficult/ hard

Ⅰ. difficult “困难”多指智力上的困难。一般可与 hard 代换。但比它程度要大。如: ① The question is difficult to answer. Ⅱ. hard “困难”多指体力上的困难。如: ①Some of the apples are hard to reach. §153 litter / rubbish

litter 和 rubbish 都可指“垃圾” ,用作不可数名词。Litter 常指“ (室内或公共场所)乱 扔的废物(纸屑、不要的包装纸、废瓶等) ”还可回收; rubbish 则指“没用的东西(被扔或将要丢弃的无用的东西) ”不可回收。如: ① Throw the rubbish out. 把垃圾扔出去。 ② The room is full of rubbish. 房间里堆满了垃圾。 ③ Pick up your litter after a picnic. 野餐后将废弃物收拾好。 §154 discover/ invent/ find / find out

Ⅰ. discover “发现”发现的事物是本来存在的或是有人知道的。如: ① Columbus discovered America. 哥伦布发现了美洲。 ② He discovered a box hidden under the floor. 他发现了一只藏在地板下箱子。 Ⅱ. invent “发明” , 发明的东西是从前没有的。如: ① Who invented the steam engine?谁发明了蒸汽机? ② He has invented a new way of making silk. 他发明了一种造丝的新方法。 Ⅲ. find “找到”指寻找的结果。是非延续性动词。如: I am looking for my bike, but I may not find it. 我正在找我的自行车,可是不一定能找 到。 Ⅳ. find out “找出、查明”指经过观察、调查把某事、某物查出来,搞清楚,弄明白。如: When he was a child, he liked to find out how things worked. 他孩提时代时,就爱弄 明白各种事物的来龙去脉。 §155 dollar/ pound

Ⅰ. dollar “美元”其货币符号为:$ 如: ①$12.5 = 12.5 dollars 12 美元 5 美分。 Ⅱ. pound “英磅” ,英国货币单位。符号为:£。如: ②£12.5 = 12.5pounds. 12 英磅 5 便士。 [注]人民币为 yuan, 符号为:¥。 §156 door/ gate 门开了,一个人走了出来。

Ⅰ. door“门”指进出房屋的门或屋内的门,也指车辆或橱柜等的门。如: ① The door opened and a man came out.

② There are sliding doors between rooms. 房间之间有滑门。 Ⅱ. gate “门、大门” ,指出入某一场所的门,如城门以及围墙、围栏、篱笆等的门。如: ① We’ll gather at the school gate at 6:30. 我们六点半在校门口集合。 ② Who is the man at the garden gate? 谁在花园门口? §157 drag/ draw/ pull

Ⅰ. drag“拖、拉” 指慢慢地拖着笨重的东西,意味着所拖的东西阻力很大。如: ① The horse was dragging a heavy load. 马拖着很重的东西。 ② The escaped prisoner was dragged out of hiding place. 那逃犯被人从隐藏的地方 拖了出来。 Ⅱ. draw “拖、拉”与 pull 相比,它通常指较平稳地,也往往是比较从容地拉。如: ① Draw your chair up to the table. 把你的椅子拉到桌子旁边来。 ② He drew the book towards him. 他把书拉/拖到他面前。 Ⅲ. pull “拖、拉”是普通用语,指用力拉,与 push 相对。如: ①Pull the door open. Don’t push it. 把门拉开,别推。 §158 put down/ put up/ put on/ put away / put off /put one’s heart into… Ⅰ. 如: ① Don’t put down your hands. Put them up. 不要放下手,举起来。 他把旧画拿了下来, 挂 ② A new notice has been put up. 已经贴出来一张新的通告。 ③ He took down the old picture and put up the new one. 上了一幅新画。 ④ A big building has been put up (= set up / build)in our school. 我们学校又盖起 了一座大楼。 ⑤ He put on his coat and hat and went out. 他穿上大衣,戴上帽子出去了。 ⑥ Has the play been put on at this theater? 这个剧院上演过那部戏剧吗? ⑦ Let’s put our Christmas gifts away and keep them a while. 我们还时把圣诞礼物 暂时保存起来吧。 ⑧ Put away your coats in summer. 夏天时把大衣收起来。 ⑨ The meeting has been put off because of the rain. 么事都能做好。 ? He put his heart into his work and didn’t notice me. dress/ put on/ wear/ in/ try on 大会因大雨而延期举行。 ⑩ You can do anything well if you put your heart into it. 如果你全心身地投入,你什


Ⅰ. dress “穿”指穿的动作,也指其状态。如: ① His mother dressed him in new clothes. 他的母亲给他穿上了新衣服。

② Get up and dress quickly. 快起床穿衣。 ③ She dresses neatly. 他穿着整齐。 [注]:作 vt,直接对象是人,而不是穿的衣服;作 vi 时,不能表穿什么衣服。 Ⅱ. put on “穿;戴”强调其动作。如: ① Put on your coat. 穿上大衣。 ② He put on his hat and went out. 他戴上帽子出去了。 Ⅲ. wear “穿;戴” 强调其状态。如: ① He wears a coat. 他穿着大衣。 ② The teacher wears glasses.老师戴着眼镜。 Ⅳ. in “穿;戴” 是介词。它构成的短语作定语或表语表其状态。其后还可接表颜色的词。 如: ① She is in a coat . 她穿着大衣。 ② The boy in blue is my brother. Ⅴ. try on “试穿/ 戴”如: Please go to the tailor’s to have a suit tried on. 请到裁缝店去试穿一套衣服。 §160 drill/ exercise/ practice Ⅰ. drill “练习” 指有组织,有指导地反复进行的练习。尤指在课堂上或军队里进行的教 练。如: Question-and –answer drills are important when yu are learning a foreign language. Ⅱ. exercise 指为发展智力或锻炼身体而进行的练习。如: ① He is doing an exercise in English grammar. ② We do morning exercises every day. Ⅲ. practice 是不可数名词,指为了达到熟练或完善的程度 而反复进行的练习。尤指在艺 术、手艺或技巧方面。如: Piano playing needs a lot of practice.弹钢琴需要多练。 §161 drop/ fall 那个穿蓝色衣服的男孩是我的弟弟。

Ⅰ. drop 可用作不及物动词或及物动词,意为“下降,丢下,放下” 。fall 只用作不及物动 词,意为“落下,下降” 。 如: ① The boy fell off the tree. 这男孩从树上掉了下来。 ② The temperature is dropping. 温度在下降。 ③ Can you drop me? 你能让我中途下车吗? ④ I dropped the box on my foot. 我失手让盒子砸了我的脚。 ⑤ I’ll drop off at the next stop. 我要在下一站下车。 §162 maybe / perhaps / probably Ⅰ. maybe, perhaps. & probably,都是副词,有“或许、可能”之意。用法略有不同。

Ⅱ. maybe 和 perhabs 意思基本相同。如: ① Maybe / perhaps the weather will get better. 可能天气会变得好一些。 ② Maybe / perhaps you put it in your basket. 或许你把它放在蓝子里了。 Ⅲ. Probably “很可能”比 maybe. perhaps 的可能性都大。如: They will probably refuse to speak at the meeting.他们很可能会拒绝在会上发言。 Ⅳ. maybe 可用于句首或句尾。perhaps 可用于句首或句中; probably 一般用于句中, 不用于句首。如: ① Maybe they will come.他们可能来(也可能不来) 。 ② They will perhaps come. 他们可能来(也可能不来) 。 ③ They will probably come. 他们很有可能来。 §163 during/ in/ for

Ⅰ.during 和 in 二者都表示某事的发生贯穿于某段时间中, 或发生在某段时间 中的某一点 上或几点时间上。 在多数情况下,当我们不强调对比或某一段时间时,in 和 during 都可 以用,意思上并没有什么区别。当我们要表达某事具体发生的时间时, 多用 in.当我们指一 项活动而不是一段时间时,只能用 during, 另外 during 还用来强调某动作持续了一段时 间。如: ① I woke up three times in / during the night. 夜里我醒了三次。 ② He had some amazing experience in / during his childhood. 他童年时有一些惊 人的经历。 ③ We usually go on holiday in July. (不能用 during) 我们通常七月份度假。 Ⅱ.during 和 for. 两者都是表示一段时间的介词。 1. during 意为: “在……(时间) 内”的行为或状态,与一段时间的整体连用。 如: during the spring, during last year, during 1980 等也可以和表示延续性事件的名词连用,如: during my childhood, during our stay, during his visit 等,一般不用于现在完成时的句 子里。如: ① During the winter we play fotball. 冬季我们踢足球。 ② Many comrades went to see him during his illness. 在他生病期间许多同志去看望 了他。 2. for 引导一段时间,强调时间由始至终,可译为“ (时间)长达……”一般与有长度的时 间短语连用,如 for three weeks. For a long time 等,可用于现在(过去)完成时或过去 时句子等。 如: ① He studied English for three years. 他学了三年英语。 ② The French teacher has been in China for about a month. §164 each/ every “每个” Ⅰ. each 和 every 常可通用, 后跟单数名词。 但也有一些区别: 1) 着重强调个体, 而 every 着重强调整体。如: ① Each student has got a new dictionary. 每个学生各有一本字典。

② Every student has got a new dictionary. 每个学生都有一本字典。 (every student = all the students) Ⅱ. each 用于指两个或两 个以上的人或事物, 而 every 则用于指三个或三个以上的人或 事物。 如: ① There are some ads on each side of the road. 公路的每一侧都有一些广告。 (each side – both sides.这个句子中的 each 不能用 every 代替。 ) ② You look more beautiful each / every time I see you. 漂亮。 Ⅲ. each 可用作代词,后跟“of+复数名词 / 代词” 。动词仍然用单数,every 则不能这样 用,因 every 是形容词。如: ① Each of students has got a new book. = Every one of the students has got a new book. = The students each have got a new book.(The students have got a new book each.)每个学生各有一本新书。 ② Each of them likes light music. = Every one of them likes light music. = They each like light music. (They like light music each.) 他们人人都喜欢轻音乐。 §165 earth/ ground/floor/field/ land/ soil Ⅰ.earth “地;地球;泥土” 。它着重批“大地” ,以别于“天空” ;也可以指区别于坚硬岩 石的泥土。如: ① The earth moves round the sun. 地球围绕太阳转。 ② Snakes creep on the earth.蛇在地上爬行。 Ⅱ.ground. “地;地面”主要指大地表面。不论是呢地,沙地或水泥地,均可用这个词表 示;也可用来指运动场地。如: ① The ground is covered with leaves in the woods.树林的地面上落满了树叶。 ② There is a football ground in our school.我们学校有个足球场。 Ⅲ.foor.用于指建筑物内的“地板” ,其前面通常加 the;此外,还可以表示楼房的“层” 。 如: ① The cat is on the floor. 猫在地板上。 ② the first floor(美:)一楼 / (英: )二楼。 Ⅲ.field. 表“田;地”常用于指种植农作物的“农田、土地”有时也可指研究、活动的“范 围;流域”如: ① They are working in the fields.他们正在田里劳动。 ② What’s your field of study? 你的研究领域是什么? Ⅳ.land. “陆地”与河流和海洋相对;也可指“土地” ,可耕种的田地就叫做 land;它还可 以表示“国土;国家”如: ① We travelled by land until we reached the sea.我们从陆路去一直旅行到大海。 ② All the waste land in this area has veen opened up.这个地方的荒地全被开垦了。 Ⅴ.soil“土地;土壤”尤指生长植物的土地。如: 每次见到你, 你都看起来更

① The soil is very thin in the forest. 森林里土层非常薄。 ② The peasants are preparing the soil for seed.农民们正在平整土地。 §166 elder/ older Ⅰ.elder 的意思是年长的,指家庭里两个成员中年龄较长的,或者指明的两个人中年龄较长 的。例如: ① He is my elder brother. 他是我的哥哥。 ② My elder sister works at a factory. ③ Which is the elder of the two? 长者、长辈的意思,例如: We respect our elders. 我们尊重长辈。 Ⅱ.older 是形容词 old 的比较级形式,指年龄较大、较老,也指较旧。例如: ① Comrade Zhang is two years older than Comrade Wang. 张同志比王同志大两岁。 ② This tree is older than that one. 这棵树比那棵树。 §167 else/ other“别的、其它的” 我姐姐在工厂里工作。 这两个人中哪一个年龄较大?

[注] elder 用作形容词时,通常放在名词前面作定语。它也可以用作名词,其复数形式表示

Ⅰ. else adj.& adv 作形容词时, 主要用在 who, whose , what , 等疑问代词, 或, nobody, nothing, somebody, something, anybody, anything, 等不定代词之后作宾语;作副词 用时,用在 where,when 等词后作状语。如: ① He said what else you would like? 他问你还想要什么? ② Where else are you going to stay? Ⅱ. else 可带’s。读作:[′elsiz] . 如: I took someone else’s book by mistake. 我错拿了别人的书 Ⅲ. other 是形容词,有来修饰名词时,须放在名词之前。如: Where are the other boys? 其它的男孩在哪里? Ⅳ. 还可以修饰代词 one, 或 ones. 如: This story is more interesting than the other one. 这个故事比那个故事更有趣。 §168 end/ finish/ stop Ⅰ. ▲ end 指动作过程终止。 ▲ finish 指动作已完成,再没有动作做。 ▲ stop 侧重动作的停止,即由“动”到“不动” 。如: ① Everything ended. 一切都结束了。 ② Have you finished your work? 你的工作做完了吗? ③ He stoppedreading to have a rest. 会儿。 §169 enjoy/ like/ love/ prefer 这四个词都有喜欢之意,但用法不同。 Ⅰ.like 意为“喜欢、爱好” ,语气较弱,其后可跟名词、代词、不定式、动名词等作宾语。 他停止阅读, 休息了一 你们还要在别的什么地停留?

like 也跟复合宾语, 宾语补足语常用动词不定式, 即 like sb. to do sth. “喜欢某人做某事” 。 如: ① In England many people like fish and chips. 条。 ② He likes playing volleyball. 他爱打排球。 ③ I don’t like to eat pears now. 现在我不想吃梨。 Ⅱ.love 意为“爱,爱好” ,在感情上比 like 强烈,经常用于爱祖国、爱父母这一类程度比 较深的情况,在口语中它往往仅指一般的喜爱,这样用时和 like 的意思相近,可以互换, 后面可以跟名词、动名词或动词不定式。如: ④ We love our Party. 我们热爱我们的党。 ⑤ I love to skate. 我喜欢滑冰。 (可用 like 替换) ⑥ They love playing table tennis. 他们爱打乒乓球。 (可用 like 替换) Ⅲ.enjoy 意为“喜欢、欣赏”之意;有“乐于;享受。 。 。 。 。 。之乐趣”的意思,其后跟名词、 代词、动名词作宾语,不接不定式形式。另外 enjoy oneself 是“玩得愉快”之意,相当 于 have a good time,如: ① Many old people enjoy living in a village. 许多老年人喜欢在乡村居住。 ② Did you injoy yourself in the park yesterday? 昨天你在公园玩得痛快吗? Ⅳ.prefer 为“更喜欢、宁愿”之意。常用于两者之间的选择,其后可跟名词、代词、动名 词和不定式,也可跟宾语从句,但宾语从句要用虚拟语气。prefer 还可以与介词 to 连用, 表示 “喜欢。 。 。 。 。 。 。 , 而不喜欢。 。 。 。 。 。 ” 。 其中 to 为介词, 后跟名词或动名词。 Prefer to do… rather then do…意为“喜欢。 。 。 。 。 。 ,不喜欢。 。 。 。 。 。 ” 。如: ① Li Lei likes Chinese , but I prefer English. 李雷喜欢语文,而我更喜欢英语。 ② Mr Green prefers walking to riding a bike. 格林先生喜欢步行而不愿骑车。 ③ Which would you prefer, tea or coffee? 你比较喜欢喝茶,还是咖啡? ④ He prefers to write her some letters rather then telephone her. 他喜欢给她写信, 不愿给她打电话。 ▲ 总结:rather than“宁可;是。 。 。 。 。 。而不是。 。 。 。 。 。 ” ,连接各种并列成份,在语气上 肯定前面否定后面。也可写成 would…rather than;rather than…would…,相当于 instead of,如: ① He ran rather than walked. 他跑步而不是步行。 ② They lost fame rather than wealth. 他们失去的不是财富,而是名誉。 ③ He would die rather than give in.=Rather than give in he would die. 他宁死不 屈。 ④ These shose are comfortable rather than pretty. ⑤ She would rather be poor than do that. §170 enter/ enter into 这双鞋不好看但穿起来很舒服。 她宁愿受穷也不愿那样做。 在英国,许多人喜欢鱼和油煎土豆

Ⅰ.enter. “进入”表进入一个具体处所,如房间、场所等,后面无需加介词; 也可表“进 入”某个时期或阶段;当表示加入某个组织而成为其成员时, enter 相当于 join.如:

① She entered the house.她走进那间屋子。 (不用 into) ② China is entering a new stage of development.中国正在进入一个新的发展阶段。 Ⅱ.enter into. “进入、参加、开始从事” ,后加抽象名词,主要表示“进入”某种状态。 一般用于表抽象和借喻的意义。 Tom’s accident didn’t enter into our plan. Tom 的事故是我们的计划中没有预料到的。 §171 error/ mistake/ fault Ⅰ.error 的意思是错误、过失,指背离某种准则的偏差,表示精确、不正确、不对。在本组 词中,这个词用得最广泛。例如: ① This is an error in grammar. 这是一个语法上的错误。 ② He made an error in opinion. 你的意见有错误。 Ⅱ. mistake “错误” , 指由于粗心、疏忽、缺乏正确的理解等原因而造成的“错误” 。与 error 可通用,但在某些固定词组中不能换用。如: by mistake. In error 等。如: ① You have made a mistake in your spelling. 你在拼写上弄错了。 ② I took his umbrella by mistake. 我拿错了他的伞。 Ⅲ. fault“缺点、毛病”也可表“过失、过错”含有当事人对造成的过错有责任的意味。如: ① With all his faults , he is still a good comrade. 尽管他有缺点,分还是一个好同志。 §172 even if / even though/ though 三者都可以引导让步状语从句。Even if 与 even though 一般可以换用,意为“即使、纵 然” ,引出的从句叙述的是假设或把握我大的事情,有时动词可用虚拟语气;though 意思 是“虽然” ,引出的从句叙述的是事实。如: ① He won’t tell me about it though he knows the news 虽然他知道这个消息但他 不愿意告诉我。 (他是肯定知道的) ② He won’t tell me about it even if / though he knows the news 即使他知道这个 消息,但他不愿意告诉我。 (他对消息或知或我知,句子含有一定的推测意味) ③ I will try even if I may fail. 即使失败,我也要尝试一下。 ④ Though it was very late, he went on working. 虽然很晚了,他还继续工作。 [注] though 和 but 不能同时出现在句中。 §173 evening/ night 我至迟到明天傍晚必须动身。 Ⅰ.evening 的意思是“傍晚、晚上” ,指从晚餐至就寝这段时间,如: ① I must start by tomorrow evening. ② We have a film every Saturday evening. 我们每星期六晚上都有电影。 Ⅱ.night 的意思是“夜、夜里、晚上” ,指从日落到日出或从黄昏到拂晓这段时间。如: ① They spent the night in the forest. 他们在森林里过夜。 ② We sleep during the night and work during the day. 我们夜里睡觉,白天工作。 ③ We saw the play on the first night. 这戏第一晚上演我们就看了。 §174 every day/ everyday Ⅰ.every day 连写和分开,不但在句中的作用不同,意义也不同。 every day 是副词词组,

意为“每天、天天” ,在句中作状语。如: We go to school every day. Ⅱ.everyday 是形容词,意为“日常的、普通的” ,在句中作定语。如: I study everyday English every day. §175 every one/ everyone Ⅰ.every one 是“每个”的意思,通常指物,后面常跟 of 短语。但跟 of 短语的 every one 既可指人,也可指物。具体指什么要看 of 短语的内容。如: ① He ate up every one of those apples. 他把那些苹果一个个都吃完了。 ② Every one of us went there. 我们每个人都去了那儿。 Ⅱ.everyone 是代词(=everybody),意思是“每个人、人人” ,但一般不指具体哪个人, 后接单数动词。如果需要跟物主代词,应用 their 或 his,其后不跟 of 引起的介词短语。如: ① Is everyone here? ② Everyone can do it. [注]every one 后不与 of 连用时,即可指人又可指物,指人时与 everyone 相同。如: Everyone (every one) can do it. every one 与 of 连用必须分开写。 everyone 与 not 连用,只表示部分否定,并不是每个人的意思。 §176 如: ① We have an examination in English today.我们今天考英语。 ② The students did very well in the terminal examination. 很好。 (这里指多门课程的考试,故 examination 用复数形式) ③ They’ve passed the entrance examination for Nanjing Teachers’ College. 他 们通过南京师范学院的入学考试。 Ⅱ.test 表示考试的意思时,指小考或考查。如: ① We are going to have a midterm test next week.。我们下周进行期中考试。 ② The teacher gave us a test in grammer. 老师对我们进行了语法考查。 Ⅲ.quiz 表示小考测验的意思时,指事先无准备,随时进行的短促的测验。如: ① The teacher gave us a five-minute quiz.老师对我们进行了一次五分钟的测验。 ② How ofter do you have your quiz? 你们多长时间测验一次? §177 exciting/ excited Ⅰ. exciting 与 excited 都含有“激动”的意思,在句中可作定语或表语。 exciting 指某事物“令人兴奋、激动” ,主语常是物。如: ① Skiing is more exditing than skating. 滑雪比滑冰更令人兴奋。 ② It was an exciting match. 那是一场激动人心的比赛。 Ⅱ. excited 表示某人对某事物“感到兴奋、激动” ,主语常是人。如: ① The boys were excited when they saw their team was winning 男孩们看到自己的 学生们学期考试成绩 examination/ test/ quiz Ⅰ.examination 表示考试的意思时,通常指比较正式的考试,如学期考试、入学考试等。

球队要赢了,都十分激动。 ② The excited children were opening their Christmas presents.兴奋的孩子们正在打 开各自的圣诞礼物。 [注意]英语中与它有类似用法的词常见的还有: interested 感兴趣的 worried 感到着急的 tired bored 感到疲倦 觉得厌烦的 interesting 令人感兴趣的 worrying tiring boring 令人着急的 令人疲倦的 令人厌烦的

frightened 感到害怕的

frightening 令人害怕的

§178 excuse …for/ excuse … from Ⅰ. excuse … for “原谅某事” 。如: ① He excused me for being late. 他原谅我迟到了。 ② Please excuse me for using your telephone without asking permission. 请原谅 我没经你允许就用了你的电话。 Ⅱ. excuse … from “使免于……,允许不……”如: ① The teacher excused him from the examination. 教师同意他免试。 ② The boy was excused from doing housework. 允许这男孩不做家务事。 §179 expect/ wait Ⅰ.expect 是及物动词,作“期待,预料,指望”解,表“期待某人会来或某事会发生”的 意思,后接名词、代词、动词不定式或从句。如: ① We expected you yesterday. 我们昨天就盼你来。 ② We expect to meet you again next year. 后不可接介词 for. 如: ③ Mr Brown was anxious. He was expecting you.布朗先生很焦急,他在等着你来呢? Ⅱ. wait 是不及物动词,常常与 for 连用,主要指“等候”的具体行为。如: ① Xiao Hu is waiting to have a word with you. 小胡等着和你说几句话。 ② I have a month to wait yet. 我还得等一个月。 ③ We are waiting for a bus. 我们在等公共汽车。 §180 family/ home/ house 这三个词都可以作“家”讲。 Ⅰ.house 指供一家人住的房子,侧重于具体的建筑物。如: There are four rooms in the house. Ⅱ.family 指由父母、子女所组成的家庭,是集体名词,既可把它看成单数(指整体概念) , 以可视为复数名词(指家庭成员) 。如: ① His family is a large one. 他的家是一个大家庭。 ② My family are all watching TV. 我们家的人在看电视。 Ⅲ.home 指一个人出生或居住的地方,具有抽象的含义。如: 我们期待明年再见到你。 ▲ expect 可引申为汉语的“等待” ,多用于进行时态,主要指“期盼”的心理状态,其

Hise is home near the station. 他的家在火车站附近。 另外,home 还可作副词。如:Let’s go home. §181 faraway/ far away Ⅰ.faraway 指时间、距离、程度等, “遥远的”如: the faraway guests 远方的客人 它还可表“心不在焉的” 。如: a faraway look 恍惚的神色 Ⅱ.far away 是副词词组,只表距离远,在句中作状语还常作后置定语。如: ① He’s standing far away. ② He lived in a small village far away. §182 on。 Ⅱ.field 是“田地” ,或生长草木的原野,多用复数形式,但一块稻田可以说:a rice field, 其前常用介词 in。如: ① There several kinds of animals on the farm. ② They’re working in the rice field. §1 83 farmer/ peasant Ⅰ.farmer 指经营农庄的人。 Ⅱ.peasant 包括雇农、小佃农或小耕农。在我国将农民都译为 peasant。 §184 farther/ further father, further 都可以是 far 的比较级, 意为 “较远、 更远” , 但 further 除此之外, 还有 “更 进一步,此外的”等意思,既可以作形容词,也可以作副词。如: ① They made further arrangement. 他们作了进一步的安排。 ② I may be able to give you some further information about it. 关于这件事,我可 以提供另外一些信息。 ③ She didn’t argue further about it. 她对此不再争论了。 §185 fast/ rapid/ swift/ quick Ⅰ. fast “快”一般指物体的运动速度(speed)快,常用来形容交通工具跑得快,钟表走 得快,人的动作快等。如: ① A car goes faster than a truck. 小汽车比卡车跑得快。 ② How fast the horse runs! 这匹马跑得多快呀! Ⅱ. quick 指较短的时间或较近的将来即可发生或完成某事,常用来形容动作敏捷、反应迅 速。如: ① Come quick! 快来呀! ② Please give me a quick reply. 请迅速给我答复。 Ⅲ. rapid 表速度之快,往往可与 fast 通用,但它多指运动本身。如: ① The boy is making rapid progress. 这孩子进步很快。 farm / field Ⅰ.farm 是“农场” ,它的范围大,包括田地、树木、家畜、家禽、房屋等,其前常用介词

② Rapid speech is usually indistinct. 急促的语言往往不清晰。 ③ The current was rapid. 水流得很急。 Ⅳ. swift 表速度很快而又常指运动平稳而不费力。如: ① Eagles are swift in flight. 鹰飞得很快。 ② The curent was very swift. 水流得很快。 §186 feed/ keep Ⅰ. feed “喂养” ,强调具体的动作,意为: “给……喂食、给……东西吃”常用句型为:feed sb. / sth.(on sth); feed sth. to sb./ sth. 给(人或动物)某物作为食物。如: ① Mr King has a large family to feed. 金先生要养活一大家人。 ② What do you feedyour dog on?你用什么喂狗? ③ Feed some stewed(炖的)apple to the baby. 给婴儿多喂些炖苹果。 Ⅱ. keep “饲养” ,指总体情况,不涉及具体动作。如: ① The old woman kept many dogs. 那位老太太养了许多狗。 §187 festival/ holiday/ red-letter day/ vacation Ⅰ.festival“节日”其特点是同欢乐,如:外国的圣诞节,我国的春节等。 ① Christmas and Easter are Church festival.圣诞节和复活节都是教会的节日。 ② A number of new films were shown during the Spring Festival. Ⅱ.red-letter day “纪念、节日、大喜日子” ,指日历是用红字标明的日子,如: There aare many red-letter day round the year. Ⅲ.vacation 通常指按规定停下工作或学习等活动而休息的一段时间,一般较长,如学校里 的寒暑假。如: The summer vacation is over. 暑假已经过去了。 §188 few/ a few/ little/ a little few 和 a few 修饰可数名词,little 和 a little 修饰不可数名词;few 和 little 表否定意义, 可受 very 修饰。a few 和 a little 表肯定意义,可受 only 修饰。如: ① Few people will agree to the plan because it’s too dangerous. ② This text is easy to understand though there are a few new words in it. ③ -------There is little water left in my glass. -------Will you please give me some? ④ Don’t worry, we have a little time left. §189 fairly /quite / rather Ⅰ. fairly 多用于褒义,语气最弱,表“适度、尚可”等意思。 ① It’s fairly cold out; wear a jacket. 外面颇冷,穿件外套。 ② This is a fairly easy book. 这是一本相当浅易的书。 Ⅱ. Quite 与 fairly 用法相似,但语气较强。如: ① It is quite cold out; wear a coat. 外面很冷,穿件外套。 ② You are not quite happy this morning. 你今天早上我太高兴。 Ⅲ. rather 多用于贬义。语气在这三个词中最强。如:

It is rather cold out; wear a warm coat. 外面相当冷,穿件暖和人大衣。 §190 fight/ struggle/battle Ⅰ.fight 意为“战斗” ,指人与人,动物与动物,用武器或不用武器的战斗,也可以引伸其 义,如: They fought their enemies bravely. 他们勇敢斗敌。 Ⅱ.struggle 意为“斗争” ,指那些费力、很艰苦、时间长的斗争,如: His life was a hard struggle with sickness. 他一生与疾病作了艰苦的斗争。 Ⅲ.battle“作战” ,一般指有组织的武装部队之间的斗争。如: They were wounded in battle. 他们都在战斗中受了伤。 作为名词时,fight 和 battle 都有“战斗”的意思,有时可以通用。如: The fight/battle lasted a long time. 这次战斗持续了很长时间。 1) fight 的意义比较广泛,还可指人对自然界的斗争,有时也指人们之间的斗争。如: We have starded a fight against pollution. 我们已开始了一场消除污染的斗争。 2) struggle 相当于 a hard fight(奋斗) ,如: The slaves won their struggle for freedom. §191 fill/ full 奴隶们为自由而进行的斗争胜利了。

Ⅰ.fill 为及物动词,表“使……满” ,常与介词 with 搭配,表达“被……充满”时用 be filled with 结构。如: ① The bottle is filled with water. 这只瓶子装满了水。 ② He was filled with joy at the news. 听到这个消息,他内心充满了喜悦。 Ⅱ.full 是形容词,多作表语,表示主语所处的状态,常见于 be full of 结构中。如: ① The schoolbag is full of books. 书包里装满了书。 ② He drew in an old badsket full of sand. 他捞上来一个灌满泥沙的旧蓝子。 [注]:be filled with = be full of .可以互换。但介词 with 与 of 不能混淆。如: The room is full of people. = The room is filled with people. §192 final/ last 今天是本学期的最后一天。 Ⅰ.final 表终止或结束之意,有时带有决定性或结论性等意味。如: ① Today is the final day of this term. 最后结果。 Ⅱ.last “最后的、末尾的”指按次序的前后或时间的先后居于最后,并意味着后面不再有 了。如: ① My house stands in the last row. ② He was the last one to enter. §193 finally/ at last/ in the end 这三个都可以作“最后”讲,但用法不同。 Ⅰ.finally 表动作的发生顺序是在“最后” ,无感情色彩,只用于过去时,它居句首时较多。 Ⅱ.at last 表经过一定曲折之后某事才发生,强调努力的结果,带有较强的感情色彩,须用 ② We shall know the final results of the elections tomorrow. 明天我们将知道选举的

一般过去时。 Ⅲ.in the end 表事物发展的自然顺序的“终结” ,有时或与 finally 相互替换,但用于对将 来的预测,则只能用 in the end。如: ① Did the man in the shop understand him at last? ② Finally he went to see the famous man himself. ③ I hope that everything will turn out all right in the end. §194 如: ① She is famous as a poet. 他以一名诗人而著名。 ② The town is famous as a car-making place. 般为主语人从属内容。如: ① China has been famous for its silk. 中国素以丝绸闻名。 ② This city is famous for its big gambling resort. 该市因其大赌场而驰名。 §195 fix/ mend/ repair Ⅰ. 这三个词都可译为“修理” ,但 fix 一词在美语中应用更广泛。fix 和 repair 一样,都 表示使受到一定损坏或失灵的东西恢复其性状或机能,如“修理、安装”钟表、收音机、照 相机、电视机、汽车和机床等大型物体。repair 还可以用于修筑堤坝、道路和建筑等。如: a Ⅱ mend 一般用于“修补”破损的东西使其恢复原样,一般指较小之物。如衣服、鞋袜、 伞和桌椅等。如: mend §196foolish/ silly / stupid Ⅰ.foolish 的意思是“愚蠢的、傻的” ,指显得缺乏判断力或普通常识的人或言行等。如: ① How foolish of you to condent! 你竟会同意,多么愚蠢啊! ② Don’t be so foolish. 别那么傻。 ③ He is a foolish man to throw away such a chance. 他放弃这样的机会真是个傻瓜。 Ⅱ.silly 的意思是“愚蠢的、傻的” ,表示愚蠢到了极点,以致令人发笑或轻视,它还常常表 示没有意思、无聊等意义。如: ① How silly of you to do that! 你竟做那件事,多么愚蠢啊! ② That is a silly story. 那是一个无聊的故事。 Ⅲ.stupid 的意思是“愚蠢的、笨的” ,指智力差,觉察理解力、学习能力等差。它有时可与 foolish 或 silly 通用,但其意味最强。如: ① He is a stupid person. 他是个蠢人。 ② How stupid of him to overlook such an obvious mistake. 如此明显的错误他居然 都没有看出来,多么愚蠢呀! §197for short/ short for 该城镇以制造汽车而闻名。 Ⅱ. (be) famouse for “困……而闻名(驰名) ”表示由于某种特征而出名,for 后的宾语一 famous as / famous for Ⅰ. (be) famous as “以(某种身份)……出名(著名) ”as 后跟人宾语往往与主语同位。

Ⅰ.for short 意为“简称” 、 “缩写” ,是介词词组,常用作状语,如: ① The teacher told Tom to write the text for short. 老师要汤姆缩写课文。 Ⅱ.short for 意为“是。 。 。 。 。 。的缩写”与 be 动词连用,构成系表结构作谓语,如: ① “There’re” is short for “there are”. §198 from now on/ from then on from now on “从现在起” , 是以现在为起点延续下去, 谓语通常用将来时态。 from then on“从那时起” ,是以过去为起点延续下来,谓语通常用过去时态和完成时态。如: ① She is going to live with you from now on. §199 game/ match/ race/ sport Ⅰ. game 主要指决定胜负的游戏,通常有一套规则,凡参加者均须遵守。如: ① After a game on the wports field they often become good friends. 他们在运动 场上进行一场比赛之后,常常变成了好朋友。 [注]:说“比赛” , 在英国通常用 match,在美国通常用 game.另外 game 的复数形式一般 指大型的国际比赛或综合性体育运动会。如:the Olympic Games 奥林匹克运动会。 Ⅱ.match 表示相互间正式的体育比赛、球类比赛,英国人常用。 ① They are going to have a volleyball match. Ⅲ. race 主要用于赛跑、赛车等速度比赛。如: ① Who can win the relay race, Class 3 or Class 4? 班? Ⅳ. sport 多指户外的游戏或娱乐活动,如打球,跳高,游泳,钓鱼,打猎,赛马和拳术等。 如: ① Swimming is his favourite sport. ② Skating is one of the winter sports. [注]复数形式 sports 可指运动会。如: ③ He created a new record in high-jump at our school sports. 动会上,他创造了跳高新纪录。 §200gift/ present Ⅰ.gift“礼物”指较正式的礼物。如: The watch was a gift from his father. Ⅱ.present 往往与 gift 通用,但不如 gift 正式。如: ① I’m buying it for a present, so please wrap it up nicely. 我买这东西是作礼物送人 的,请你包扎得好一点。 ② He gave me the book as a present. 他给我这本书作为礼物。 §201grow / keep / raise / plant Ⅰ. grow & plant 都可表示“种植”如种植草、树、苗、花卉粮食等植物。grow 着重指 种植以后的栽培、管理过程。 plant 着重指“种植”这一行为。某人 plant a tree 之后,树是死是活,不一定管,但 在我们学校的运 游泳是他最喜欢的运动项目。 滑冰是一个冬季运动项目。 谁能赢这场接力赛, 三班还是四 他们将进行一场排球赛。 从现在起我将刻苦学习。 ② From then on, he hasn’ t seen his uncle again. 从那以后他再也没有看见他叔叔了。

某人 grow a tree 则包括培育管理,使其生长的过程。如: ① The students are planting trees on the hill. grow) ② The farmer grows wheat in this field.那位农民在这块田里种植小麦。 (不用 plant) ③ People grow bananas in Hainan. 海南种植香蕉。 (不用 plant) Ⅱ. keep 表“赡养”后可接表人或动物的名词,不用来代替 plant 或 grow. 如: ① He has a wife and three children to keep. 他要养活妻子和三个孩子。 ② My grandma keeps pigs and hens. 我奶奶养猪养鸡。 ③ My uncle has a large family to keep. 我叔叔要养活一大家人。 Ⅲ. raise 除表“饲养(动物) ”以外,还可表示“教育(子女) ” ; “培育(植物) ” 。如: ① We raised a good crop of tomatoes this year.今年我们种的西红柿长得很好。 ② My grandma raised a family of five. 我祖母养育了五口之家。 他在后园里种了一些花。 ③ Where were you raised ? 你在哪儿长大? ④ He raised some flowers in the back garden. [注]:raise 强调从小精心培养到大,通常指培养花卉以及较难管理的植物。如: ① Let’s grow / raise some flowers in the garden.咱们在园子里种些花吧。 ② We grow rice, wheat and cotton in my hometown. 在家乡, 我们种植水稻、 小麦和 棉花。 (不宜用 raise) §202 glad/ happy/merry/ pleased 这组形容词都有: “高兴、快乐”之意。 Ⅰ.glad 多用在与人见面时的客套语中,指使人感到:情绪上有短暂的喜悦,常用作表语, 一般情况下不作定语。如: ① I’m glad to help you with your English. 我很高兴帮你学英语。 Ⅱ.happy 指使人感到内心的满足、幸福和愉快,祝贺新年或庆贺生日时常用到它,可用作 表语和定语。如: ① Happy New Year! 新年好! ② I’ll be happy to meet him. 我将高兴地与他见面。 Ⅲ.pleased 意为: “对……感到满意/高兴”常与 be 连用,后面接介词 with(sb), at(sth) 等引起的短语,或不定式;pleased 通常不作定语。如: ① He is pleased with his new job. 他对他的新工作很满意。 ② She was very much pleased at the news. 她听到这个消息非常满意。 [注意]:以下结构可互换: be Ⅳ.merry 除“高兴”之外,还有耳目可以感到的“热闹” ,一般只作定语。如: Merry Christmas!祝 §203 go / walk Ⅰ. go 指朝着一定地点的方向运动。如: ① We go to school at seven in the morning. 学生们正在山坡上栽树。 (不用

② Please go downstairs to have lunch. ③ 此外,go 的主语还可以是动物、交通工具和机械等。如: My watch goes fast.我的表走快了。 The train goes to Beijing. 火车开往北京。 Ⅱ. walk 指朝着一定地点或无目的地“走” ,常译为“步行、散步”如: ① He often walks after supper. 饭后他经常散步。 ② They are walking along the river. 他们正沿着河岸走。 ③ Let’s go out for a walk. 我們出去散步吧。 §204 go on with sth/ go on doing sth/ go on to do sth Ⅰ. go on doing sth,“ (停顿以后)继续做某事” ; “不停地做某事”即做原来在做的事情。 如: ① Now let’s go on writing. 我们继续往下写。 ② It’s raining, but the farmers went on working( = kept on working) in the fields. 天在下雨,然而农民們还在地里我停地干活。 Ⅱ. go on with sth 表示: “间断后做原来没有做完的事”后面跟名词,不能接动词-ing 形 式。如: ① After a rest, they went on with the work. 休息以后,他们继续劳动。 Ⅲ. go on to do sth. 指“接着做另一件事” ,即接下来做与原来不同人事情。如: ① That’s all for the text. Now let’s go on to learn the grammer. 课文就到这里, 现在我们接着学语法。 ② He went on to show us how to translate the sentence in a different way. 他接着 教我们如何用另一种方法翻译这个句子。 §205 go to bed/ go to sleep/ sleep/ be(fall) asleep

Ⅰ. go to bed 指“就寝” , 只表示“上床去睡”这一动作,无“睡着”之意。是终止性动 词。它的对应词 是 get up “起床” Ⅱ.in bed 表示一种状态, 在句中常作表语, 意为 “躺在床上, 睡着” 。 其中 in 不能用 on 替 换。 Ⅲ. go to sleep 与 get to sleep 意义相近,也是终止性动词。即: “入睡、睡着” ,强调进 入梦乡的过程。 “开始睡觉” ,即:being to sleep.如: ① I don’t know when I went to sleep / got sleep last night. 我不知道我昨晚什么时 候睡着的。 Ⅳ. fall asleep 意为“睡着”表示一个动作的过程,侧重于“自然而然地入睡” ,有时也含 有“不想入睡而入睡”之意;be asleep“熟睡” ,强调睡眠的状态,该短语在句中作谓语。 Ⅴ. sleep 可动词和名词,表“睡着” “睡眠” ,是可持续性的动词。 Ⅵ. asleep 是表语形容词,不能作定语 如: ① The children are all asleep. 孩子们都睡着了。

② Are you asleep? 你睡着了吗? §206 good/ fine/ nice/ well Ⅰ. good 是含义最广的形容词,表“好的质量” , “好的品质” 。等意思。如: ① Lucy is a good girl. ② These eggs are good ( 指鲜人品质)。 Ⅱ. fine 侧重于“质量的精细” , “身体健康” ,还可以表示“天气晴朗”等。如: ① This is a fine house. ② How are you? I’m fine, thank you. ③ It’s a fine day for walk. 这是一个散步的好天气。 Ⅲ. nice 指从外表上的“好看、漂亮” 。取悦于人的感觉。也可指“ (对人)友好和蔼”如: ① It’s a nice watch, but it’s not a good/fine one. 这块表看上去不错,但却不是一 块好表。 ② It’s very nice of you. 你真太好了。 ③ They are nice mooncakes. 这都是美味的月饼。 Ⅳ. well 是副词。表干/做得“好” ,修饰动词。也可作表语,指身体好。如: ① Well done! 干得好! ② I’m well. 我好了。 §207 grow/ increase

Ⅰ.作不及物动词,两者有相同的含意“增长” 。如: ① The population of the world is growing/increasing faster and faster. 世界人口增 长越来越来快。 Ⅱ.grow 还有“生长,发育”的意思。如: ① The rice is growing fine. 水稻长势不错。 Ⅲ.作及物动词,用法各异。 grow 种植,栽 increase 增加、增长 如: 如: ① Wheat is grown in north of China. 中国北方种植小麦。 ① They are working hard to increase production. 他们正在努力工作以增加产量。 Ⅳ.increase 可作名词,意为“增加、增长” 。如: ①We are trying our vest to slow down the population increase in China. 在中国我们 正在尽全力降低人口数量的增长。 §208 hand in/ turn in Ⅰ. hand in “传递、交给” 。指交作业等。如: The teacher told them to hand in their exercise-books. 老师要他们交作业本。 Ⅱ. turn in “上交、交出” 。指将某物归公。或交给上级或组织以便找到失主。一般也可与 hand in 互换。如: ① You should turn in the money. 你应该把那钱上缴。

② You should turn in / hand in your finished homework.你们应该把完成的作业交上 来。 §209 hands up/ put up one's hand Ⅰ. hands up 是一句祈使语气的口语,相当于 Put up your arms over your head! “举 起手来! ”如: ① “Hands up, or I’ll shoot.” The policeman demanded the robber. “举起手来, 不然我开枪了。 ”警察命令抢劫犯。 Ⅱ. put up one’s hand 意思与 hands up 相同。但语气要弱得多。如: ① Who knows the answer? Hands up / Put up your hands, please. 谁知道这个答 案?请举手。 ② Put up your hands if you have any question.如有问题请举手。 §210 happen/ take place/ occur 都有“发生”之意 Ⅰ. happen 是普通用语,应用广泛,指事情的发生有直接原因或带有偶然性。即: “ (某人) 发生了什么事——happen to sb” ,或 “ (某物)发生了什么情况——happen to sth” 。 其主语通常由 accident 或 类似 it, what this , that , thing, something 等代词担任。还 可表示“碰巧发生某事,——happen to do sth.”如: ① What has happened? 发生什么事了???????–––? ② What happened to you? 你发生什么事了? ③ It happened through your negligence. ⑤ 这事的发生是由于你的疏忽。 ④ He happened to be working. 他恰好正在工作。 I think it’s because I happened to like English. 我想这是因为我碰巧喜欢英语。 Ⅱ. take place 常指经过安排的事,无偶然之意。其主语常是表: “运动、活动、会议等” 的名词。如: ① The Olympic Games take place every four years. 次。 ② The May 4th Movement took place in 1919. 生了巨大的变化。 Ⅲ. occur[?`k?:] 常与 happen 通用。但,是较为正式的用语。指在一定的时间内发生一 定的事情。 ① When did the accident occur? 那事故是什么时候发生的? ② Don’t let the mistake occur again? 不要让这样的错误再次发生。 §211 hare/ rabbit Ⅰ. hare “野兔”比 rabbit 大,不打洞栖身。如: ① That is a hare. 那是只野兔。 Ⅱ. rabbit 指“野兔”时,比 hare 小,不打洞栖身。它也可指家兔。如 ① I saw a rabbit hole. 我看到一个野兔洞。 五四运动发生于一九一九年。 ③ Great changes have taken place in our country since liberation. 解放来,我国发 奥林匹克运动会每四年举行一

② He came back with a couple of rabbits and a hare. 他带了一对家兔和一只野兔回 来。 §212 harm/ hurt Ⅰ. harm 与 hurt 均有“伤害”之意,但二者有区别: harm 用面较广,往往暗示“不良的后果” , 所指伤害往往是抽象、笼统的。 hurt 往往暗示“肉体上疼痛或精神上的不快”其宾语常常是身体上一部分的名词,所指 的伤害是具体的。可见的。 ① The nose of machines harmed their hearing. 机器的噪声伤害了他们的听力。 ② He hurt his back when he fell. 他跌倒时伤了背。 §213 have been to / have been in / have gone to Ⅰ. have been to … 表示: “曾经到过某处”但目前人未在那儿。如: ① Where have you been? 你到哪儿去了?(现在已回来)I have been to Beijing. 我 去北京了。 (现不在北京) ② I have never been there before, have I? 我以前从未去过那儿,是吗? Ⅱ. have been in 表示: “去了某地,并曾在那儿(一段时间) ,或现在仍在那儿。 ① She has been in Shanghai for a few weeks. Ⅲ. have gone to … 表示: “去了”指人已经走了, (至少目前不在说话的地点,在去的途 中或已经到目的地) 。如: ① Kate isn’t at home, She has gome to school. 路上或已经在学校了) 。 ② She isn’t here, she has gone to Nanjing. 她不在这儿,她去南京了。 §214 have sth done/ have sb done/have sb do sth/ have sb(sth) doing/ have sb(sth) +prep Ⅰ. have sth done “让某事被做”如: I’ll have my hair cut tomorrow. 明天我要去理发。 (让别人理) 。 Ⅱ. have sh done。 “让某人被……”如: He had me whipped. 他叫人用鞭子打我。 (让别人打) Ⅲ. have sb do sth. “让某人做某事”如: I will have Uncle Wang repair my TV. 我要让王叔叔修理我的电视机。 Ⅳ. have sb./ sth. doing “让某人/ 某物处于某种状态。如: ① Don’t have the students studying all day. 别整天让学生們学习。 ② They had the machine working all day and all night. 他们让这机器整日整夜地工 作。 Ⅴ. have sb./ sth. +介词短语或副词,如: ① The teacher had her students in the classroom.老师让学生留在教室里。 ② Have her here! 让她到这儿来。 §215 have to / must 凯特不在家,她上学去了。 (在

Ⅰ. have to “必须”往往着重于客观的需要,含有不得不的意味。如: ① Do you have to see a doctor today? 你今天要去看医生吗? ② It was late and we have to stay at home. 时间已晚,我们只得呆在家里。 Ⅱ. must “必须 ”往往着重于主观上认为有义务,有必要。如: ① We must work hard. 我们必须努力工作。 ② We must go. 我必须去。 §216 have/ own Ⅰ. have “有”表人与物/人,物与物之间存在的“所有;所属”的关系。有时人不一定是 物/人的主人。如: ① I have an English book here. 我这儿有一本英语书。 ② Do you have any money with you? 你带有钱吗? Ⅱ. own 用于较正式场合,强调“ (合法地)拥有”某物的所有权,主语一定是该物的主人。 如: ① I own a bike. 我有一辆自行车。 ② Who owns the car? 这辆小汽车是谁的? §217 head/ brains Ⅰ. head 指外表看得见的,有形的“头” 。如: Don’t hit the boy on the head. 别打那孩子的头。 Ⅱ. brains 指抽象的,无形的“脑力、智力” 。 [注]use one’s head 和 use one’s brains 含义基本相同。brains 常作单数看。 §218 hear/ hear of/ hear from Ⅰ. hear “听见”指听力,强调听的结果。如: ① I often hear Lucy sing in the next room. Ⅱ. hear of “听说”强调间接听到有关某人的情况或得到消息。有时可用 about 代替 of, 意义无多大的区别。如: ① We are all glad to hear of your success. 听到你成功的消息,我们都很高兴。 ② Have you heard of her lately? 你最近听到她什么情况吗? Ⅲ. hear from “接到……的来信(电话等) ”如: ① Hope to hear from you soon. 希望你早点来信。 ② We have not heard from him since he left. 自从他离开后,我们一直没有收到他的 来信。 §219 hear/ listen Ⅰ. hear “听到”强调听的结果。不一定是有意识的。如: ① Can you hear me? 你能听见我说话吗? ② I heard her voice but I didn’t bother to listen to what he was saying. 我听到了 她的声音,但并不用心去听她说的是什么。 Ⅱ. listen “听”强调倾听的动作,当然未必能听到什么。是不及物动词,接宾语时常与介 词 to 连用。如:

① Listen! What do you hear what she is saying? 听!你听见她在说些什么? ② We listened attentively for a long time but heard nothing. 我们仔细地听了半天, 但什么也没听到。 §220 heaven/ sky Ⅰ. heaven “天、天国、天堂”与 earth 和 hell(地狱)相对。在文学语言中,它也可以 指天空,常用算数形式。如: ① The commune members are fighting heaven and earth. 社员们在战天斗地。 ② He looked at the starry heavens = He is looking at starry sky. 他瞧着布满星星的 天空。 Ⅱ. sky “天、天空” ,一般用作单数。但在文学语言中,有时也用算数形式(skies).如: ① There were no clouds in the sky. 天上没有云。 ② Bitter sacrifice strengtnens bold resolve .Which dares to make sun and moon shine in new skies. 为有牺牲多斗志,敢教日月换新天。 §221 high/ tall (毛泽东)

Ⅰ. high “高(的) ” ,普通用语。与 low 相对。指块状物体的高度。主要指本身比一般同 类东西较高,或指所处位置较高。如: ① That’s a very high mountain. 那是一座很高的山。 ② He looked at the high ceiling. 他望着高高的天花板。 Ⅱ. tall “高的” ,常与 short 相对,也指同类中较高的,尤其是表示高度远远超过宽度或直 径。即指细长物体的高度。因此可以指人,也可指物。当指物时,往往可与 high 通用。但 不可指山,或大型建筑物。如: ① She is rather tall. 她相当高。 ② We can see the tall (high) tower. 我们可以看到那个高塔。 §222 hill/ mountain Ⅰ. hill “小山”通常比 mountain 小。如: ① I went down the hill. 我从山上走下来。 ② The house stands on the top of a hill. 房子在山顶上。 Ⅱ. mountain “高山” ,比 hill 大。如: ① We made our way up the mountain. 我们登山。 ② He was brought up in the mountain. 他在山里长大的。 §223 help with / help…with. Ⅰ. help with “帮助”后面直接跟名词。如: ① Jones will help with the concert. 琼斯将帮助搞音乐会。 ② The children are helping with the housework. 孩子们正在帮助做家务。 Ⅱ. help …with. “帮助某人做某事”即 help st with sth. 如: ① May I help you with your luggage? 我帮你拿行李好吗? ② My father used to help me with my lessons. 父亲过去常常帮助我做功课。


human being/ man / person/ people

Ⅰ. human being “人类” ,可数名词,算数为 human beings. 意义较具体,以区别于动 物、鬼神之类。如: There were no sight of human beings on the island although there were monkeys, wild goats and snakes. 那个岛上虽然有猴子,野羊和蛇,但没有人居住过的痕迹。 Ⅱ. man “人类” ,单数或复数均可。其前不用限定词。如: Man must make the earth support more people. 人类必须使地球养活更多的人。 Ⅲ. person. “人”着重指个别而言。与 animal 相对。指男,女,老,少均可。如: There are only three persons in the room. person 代换。其复数形式为“民族”之意。如: ① Most people think so 大多数人这样想。 ② There are more than 50 peoples in our country. 我国有 50 多个民族。 §225 hanged / hung 这两个词都是 hang 的过去分词。 Ⅰ. hanged 是 hang 用作“上吊;绞死”时的过去时和过去分词。 ① The murderer was hanged this morning. 那个杀人犯今天上午被绞死。 ② He hanged himself from a beam in the attic. 他在阁楼上悬梁自尽了。 Ⅱ. hung 是 hang 用作“悬挂;下垂”等 意思时过去时和过去分词。如: ① She hung the Christmas decorations on the tree. 她把圣诞节的装饰品挂在树上。 ② He hung his head in shame. 他羞耻得垂下脑袋。 §226 hurry up/ hurry off(away) / hurry to Ⅰ. hurry up 中的 up 是副词。 “赶快、快点、加紧”之意。含有催促、命令之意。且常用 于肯定结构,偶而用于否定结构时,up 可省。如: ① Hurry up! There is not enough time. 赶快!时间不够了。 ② Don’t hurry. There is enough time. 别着急。还有时间。 Ⅱ.hurry off / away 中的 away 是副词。 “匆匆离去”无催促之意。如: ① Li Lei hurried off /away without a word. 李雷一句话不说就匆匆走了。 ② With this, the woman hurried away / off. = With this, the woman went away in a hurry.说完这话,那妇人匆匆离去。 Ⅲ. hurry to 是短语动词。to 介词。 “匆匆去某地”如: ① He hurried to his office. = He went to his office in a hurry. Ⅳ. in a hurry. 介词短语。 “匆忙地(地) ” , “慌忙地(的) ” ① She dressed herself for the party in a hurry. ② You are always in a hurry. 你总是匆匆忙忙地。 §227 hurt/ injure/ wound Ⅰ.hurt 的意思是“使受伤、使疼痛、使伤心、伤害” ,它是普通用语,可以表示使肉体受伤 她为参加联欢会而匆忙地换穿衣服。 房间里只有三个人。

Ⅳ. people “人”是集合名词。与 enemy 相对,有较强的感情色彩。指普通人时,可与

或疼痛,也可以表示使感情受到伤害。如: ① He hurt his back when he fell. 他跌到时伤了背部。 ② My shoe is too tight, it hurts (me). 我的鞋太紧,使我的脚感到痛。 ③ That’ll hurt her feelings. 那会伤她的感情。 Ⅱ.injure 的意思是“伤害、损害” ,指损害一个人的外表、健康、完好的东西(如自尊心、 名誉、成就)等。如: ① He injured an arm in a car accident. 他在一次车祸中伤了一只手臂。 ② You will injure your health by smoking too much. 你吸烟太多,有伤身体。 ③ This injured his pride. 这伤了他的自尊心。 Ⅲ.wound 的意思是“受伤、伤害” ,通常指因外来的暴力使身体受伤,尤指在战争中或遭 袭击受伤。它也可以指精神上受创伤。如: ① Ten soldiers were killed and thirty wounded. 十名士兵阵亡,三十名受伤。 ② The bullet wounded him in the shoulder. 枪弹打伤了他的肩膀。 ③ He felt wounded in his honour. 他觉得他的名誉受到了伤害。 §228 if/ whether Ⅰ.都有“是否”之意。在某种情况下右互换。如: ⑤ I don’t know if / whether he’ll come tomorrow. 我不知道明天他是否来。 Ⅱ. 但在下列 6 种情况下 if 不能替换 whether: 1. 正式文体中,句中有 or not 时。如: 2.引导主语、表语、同位语从句时。如: Whether it is true(or not) is still a question. 它是不是真的还是一个问题。 3. 作介词宾语时,如: I haven’t decided the quwstion of whether I’ll go back home. 我还未决定是否要 回家去。 4. 放在不定式前,与不定式组成词组。如: Li Lei hasn’t decided whether to go or not. 5. 作 discuss 等词的宾语时,如: They discuss whether they should close the shop. 他们讲座是否该关闭那家商店。 6. 引导的从句放在句首时。如: Whether this is true or not, I cannot say.这件事是否真实我说不上。 Ⅲ. if 还有连词的功能,意为“如果”引导条件状语从句;而 whether 另有“不管,无论” 之意,引导让步状语从句。如: ① I will be happy if you call me. 如果你打电话给我,我将很高兴。 ② Whether you like it or not, you’ll have to do it. 不管你喜欢不喜欢,你必须做这 件事。 §229 ill/ sick Ⅰ. ill “病” ,常用作表语,一般不作名词的前置定语用;而 sick 可直接作前置定语用。如: 李雷还未决定去还是不去。 I wonder whether it is big enough or not. 我不知道它是否够大。

① She is looking after her sick mother. (不能用 ill) 她在照顾她生病的母亲。 ② He was ill yesterday. 昨天他病了。 Ⅱ. ill 可放在被修饰的名词后面。如: ① He is a man ill with TB. 他是一个患肺结核的人。 Ⅲ. ill 的比较级和最高级分别是 worse 和 worst. 表病重时,一般不说 heavily ill/ sick. 而 应说:seriously sick/ ill. 如: ① He caught a cold and soon got worse. 他得了伤风,不久就更厉害了。 ② His uncle is seriously ill. 他的叔叔病得很重。 §230 in / after/ later 都有“在……之后”的意思,区别在于: Ⅰ.in 是介词,用来表示从现在算起的“过一段时间以后” ,常于将来时态的肯定句中,一般 与 go, come, start, arrive, return ( be back), finish 等表示瞬间动作的终止性动词连用。 如:I’ll come and see you in two days. 两天之后我再来看你。 Ⅱ.after 是介词,用来表示在某一具体时间或某一具体事件以后,谓语动词可用于过去时, 也可用将来时。如: ① He will arrive after four o’clock. 他将在四点以后到达。 ② She said she would be back after five o’clock. [注] 此情况下时间名词应为点时间。 after 还可以表示从过去某时起若干时间之后, 谓语动词用过去时, 不能用将来时。 如: Lucy started after two days. [注]



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