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云南昆明中学英语词法句法全解


新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!





第一篇 词法..........................................................................................................................

.......... 2 一、 名词............................................................................................................................. 2 二、 冠词 ....................................................................................................................... 11 三、 代词 ....................................................................................................................... 17 四、 形容词、副词 ....................................................................................................... 28 五、 连 词......................................................................................................................... 46 六、 介 词 ..................................................................................................................... 54 七、 数 词......................................................................................................................... 69 八、 动 词......................................................................................................................... 74 第二篇 句法.................................................................................................................................. 97 一、 主 要 句 式............................................................................................................. 97 二、 定 语 从 句........................................................................................................... 110 三、 常见习惯用语......................................................................................................... 115 四、 完形填空与阅读..................................................................................................... 129 附 录 ........................................................................................................................................ 144 中学生英语学习常见错误一览表 ............................................................................... 144 A .......................................................................................................................... 144 B .......................................................................................................................... 152 C.............................................................................................................................. 158 D ..........................................................................................................................164 E.............................................................................................................................. 168 F .......................................................................................................................... 171 G ..........................................................................................................................176 H ..........................................................................................................................178 I............................................................................................................................... 183 J ...........................................................................................................................185 K .........................................................................................................................186 L...............................................................................................................................187 M .........................................................................................................................192 N .........................................................................................................................196 O .........................................................................................................................199 P .........................................................................................................................201 R.............................................................................................................................204 S.............................................................................................................................207 T .........................................................................................................................212 U.............................................................................................................................215 V.............................................................................................................................217 W .........................................................................................................................218 Y .........................................................................................................................221

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

第一篇 词法
一、 名词
(一) 知识概要 名词的概念在不同的语法教课书中有不同的解释和分类方法, 但 就实际应用来讲还是不要过分地追求其理论概念, 而更多的要把注意 力放在其应用上来。 我们不妨把它分为两大类: 专有名词与普通名词。 顾名思义,专有名词是指:个人、事物、机关等所专有的名称,如, the Great Wall, America…它们是不能随意变动的。而普通名词中则 包括个体名词,如 pen, worker…它表示单一的个体人或事物;集体名 词,如:family,class, team,它表示的是由若干个个体组成的集合体; 物质名词,如:water,paper…它表示的是一种物质,原材料;而后一 种是抽象名词,如:work, time…它表示着一种在实际生活中看不见、 摸不到,但却与实际生活紧密相关的某些动作、状态、品质的抽象概 念。见下表。 名词一览表 种类 专有名词 London, John, the Communist Party of China 普 通 名 词 类名词 nurse, boy, worker, pencil, dog, table 集体名词 class, family, army, police, team, people

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

物质名词 water, steel, glass, cotton, wood, sand 抽象名词 happiness, love, work, life, courage, honest 功用 主语 My family is now in New York. 表语 His father is a scientist. 宾语 We love our great motherland. 宾语补足语 He made London the base for his work. 定语 The girls are making paper flowesrs. 状语 The car cost him 1000 dollars. 同位语 Mr Brown, a famous scientist, will come here. 名词在使用中的难点在于名词的数, 即可数名词与不可数名词的实际 应用。不可数名词不能用数字计算,所以它通常只有单数形式。它包 含 有 专 有 名 词 、 物 质 名 词 、 抽 象 名 词 等 , 如 : English,air,water,cotton,work …可数名词是可以用数量加以计算的名 词,所以它具有单数形式和复数形式两种。可数名词复数形式的构成 规律是: 1. 一般情况加 s,如:pen—pens, doctor—doctors,boy—boys,其读

音规则是在清辅音后读 [s] , 在元音和浊辅音后读 [z] 。 如:map—map , boy—boys. 2. 在以 s,sh,ch,x 结尾的名词后面加 es, bus—buses,class—classes, 如: 其读音为[iz] 。

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

3. 以 ce,se,ze,(d)ge 结尾的名词加 s,其读音为[iz] 。 4. 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的名词,要将 y 变为 i 再加 es,读作[z] ,如: factory — factories,country — countries, family — families. 但要注意的是 以元音字母加 y 结尾的名词的复数形式只加 s,如:boy—boys,day— days。 5. 以 o 结尾的名词的复数形式一般要加 es,但如果 o 前面是元音字 母或外来词,缩写词以 o 结尾的则只加 s,如:tomato—tomatoes,hero —heroes;photo—photos,radio—radios,piano—pianos 6. 以 f 或 fe 结尾的名词的复数形式要将 f 或 fe 变为 v 再加 es,如: knife — knives, leaf — leaves, 但有些例外的词如 roof 的复数形式是 roofs。 7. 不规则名词的复数形式是要单个记忆的, 它没有规律可循, 如:man —men,woman—women, child—children, foot—feet,tooth—teeth, mouse —mice 8. 单复同形的名词有:fish, sheep,deer… 9. 单数形式但其意为复数的名词有:people,police 等。 名词还有格的 变化,其主格可作主语,宾格可作宾语。还有所有格,用来表示人或 物的所有,以及领属关系。表示有生命的名词的所有格其单数形式是 a student's 加's 其复数形式是 s', 如其结尾不是 s 的复数形式仍加's, 如: room, students' rooms, Children's Day. 在表示时间、距离、世界、国 家……名词的所有格要用's,如:a twenty minutes' walk.但无生命名词

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

的所有格则必须用 of 结构,如:the capital of our country, the colour of the flowers (二) 正误辨析 [误]Please give me a paper. [正]Please give me a piece of paper. [析]不要认为可以数的名词就是可数名词,这种原因是对英语中可 数与不可数名词的概念与中文中的能数与不能数相混淆了, 所以造成 了这样的错误,因 paper 在英语中是属于物质名词一类,是不可数名 词。而不可数名词要表达数量时,要用与之相关的量词来表达,如: two pieces of paper. [误]Please give me two letter papers. [正]Please give me two pieces of letter paper. [析]paper 作为纸讲是不可数名词,而作为报纸、考卷、文章讲时 则是可数名词,如: Each student should write a paper on what he has learnt. [误]My glasses is broken. [正]My glasses are broken. [误]I want to buy two shoes. [正]I want to buy two pairs of shoes. [析]英语中 glasses—眼镜,shoes—鞋,trousers—裤子等由两部分 组成的名词一般要用复数形式。如果要表示一副眼镜应用 a pair of

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

glasses 而这时的谓语动词应与量词相一致。如:This pair of glasses is very good. [误]May I borrow two radioes? [正]May I borrow two radios? [析]以 o 结尾的名词大都是用加 es 来表示其复数形式,但如果 o 前面是一个元音字母或外来语时则只加 s 就可以了。这样的词有 zoo —zoos,piano—pianos. [误]This is a Mary's dictionary. [正]This is Mary's dictionary. [ 析 ] 如 名 词 前 有 指 示 代 词 this, that, these those, 及 其 他 修 饰 词 our,some, every, which, 或所有格时,则不要再加冠词。 [误]There are much people in the garden. [正]There are many people in the garden. [析]可数名词前应用 many, few, a few, a lot of 来修饰,而 people 是 可数名词,而且是复数名词,如:The people are planting trees here. [误]I want a few water. [正]I want a little water. [析]不可数名词前可以用 a little, little, a lot of, some 来修饰,但不 可用 many,few 来修饰。 [误]Thank you very much. Your family is very kind to me. [正]Thank you very much. Your family are very kind to me.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[误]Tom's and Mary's family are waiting for us. [正]Tom's and Mary's families are waiting for us. [误]I'm sorry. I have to go. Tom's families are waiting for me. [正]I'm sorry. I have to go. Tom's family are waiting for me. [析]集合名词如果指某个集合的整体,则应视为单数,如指某个集 合体中的个体则应视为复数。如 :My family is a big family. When I came in, Tom's family were watching TV. 即汤姆一家人正在看电视。 这 样的集合名词有:family class, team 等。 [误]Don't eat too much meats. [正]Don't eat too much meat. [误]Food in that restaurant is very good. [正]The food in that restaurant is very good. [析]物质名词是不可数名词,在使用中不可以加 s,即它没有复数 形式。 也不可加不定冠词。 但如果用于特指某一物质时可以加定冠词。 如:I don't like drinking coffee, but the coffee in that cup is really good. [误]Please give me two waters. [正]Please give me two glasses of water. [正]Please give me two coffees. [析]物质名词如要加计量时,一定要加量词, tea,two glasses of water,a glass of milk,a loaf of bread, a piece of bread,a box of sugar, 如: two cups of

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

a bowl of rice,a bottle of orange, a bag of earth 例: I'll tell you a piece of good news. 但只有 coffee 可以用 coffees 来取代 many cups of coffee. [误]Can you give me the newspaper of today? [正]Can you give me today's newspaper? [析]加's 构成所有格的名词一般应指有生命的人或物。如:Mary's hair,但在英文的习惯用法中对时间、距离等名词的所有格多用's 来 构成而不用 of 结构。如:a five minutes' walk. [误]Please make a room for the lady in the school bus. [正]Please make room for the lady in the school bus. [析]英语中更多的名词是含有多种用法和多种含意的, 如: room 为可数名词时为“房间” ,如:I live in Room 5.而 room 为 抽象名词时为空间上面一句话应译为“请给老妇人在校车上留个地 方。 ”这样的词还有:glass 玻璃 glasses 眼镜 stone 石头 a stone 一块 石头 time 时间 two times 两次 wood 木头 woods 树林 [误]There is a flowers garden behind my house. [正]There is a flower garden behind my house. [析]名词除了在句中作主语、宾语、表语外,还可以用来修饰另一 shoe factory (鞋 个名词, 这时作修饰词的名词一般要用单数形式, 如: 厂 ),post office( 邮 局 ),evening paper ( 晚 报 ),night school ( 夜 校 ),head

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

master (校长),a law school (法律学院)。 但也有例外, 如:a goods train(货 车),sports meeting (运动会)。 [误]My mother bought two fishes for supper this morning. [正]My mother bought two fish for supper this morning. [析]英语中有些名词单复同形,如:fish, deer, sheep, Chinese (中国 人 ), means ( 方 法 ) 。 所 以 应 讲 one fish, two fish, one Chinese, two Chinese. 如果讲 There are five fishes in the pool.应译为池中有五种鱼 而不是五条鱼。 [误]Mary expressed her thank to her boy friend. [正]Mary expressed her thanks to her boy friend. [析]英语中有些名词只有复数形式,如: thanks, greens, 而有些 词单数形式与复数形式有不同的词意。如:clothes 为衣服,而 cloth 则是布, sand 沙子,而 sands 是沙滩。 [误]I offered my son my congratulation on his success. [正]I offered my son my congratulations on his success. [析]英语中表示祝贺的词虽有单数形式,但一般要用其复数形式。 如握手为 shake hands. [误]We have five German in this meeting. [正]We have five Germans in this meeting. [析]英国人 Englishman 的复数形式为 Englishmen,而 German 则 要加 s,因为它不是由国名与 man 的组合词。

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[误]There are two As in this word. [正]There are two A's in this word. [析]在大写字母缩写形式的复数表达法中应加 s,但如字母是 A、 I 时,为了防止与 As 和 Is 相混,则要用's 即 A's,I's [误]There are three 6s and two 3s in my telephone number. [正]There are three 6's and two 3's in my telephone number. [析]在小写字母与数字的复数形式表达法中要用's [误]We have many woman teachers in our school. [正]We have many women teachers in our school. [析]一般组合名词变为复数形式时只将词中心词变为复数如: half brother—half brothers(同父异母或同母异父的兄弟)daughter in law —daughtersin law,(儿媳)但要注意的是:man driver—men drivers(男司 机) woman doctor—women doctors(女大夫)grown up—grown ups(成年 人) 但是 boy student—则变为 boy students [误]Physics are very difficult to learn. [正]Physics is very difficult to learn. [析]虽以 s 结尾但只能用作单数名词有:科学,学科名字:Physics. Mathematics politics 游戏名称: bowls 专有名称: Niagara Falls( 尼亚 加拉瀑布) 其他名词:news(消息,新闻) [误]There is a people in the room. [正]There is a person in the room.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[正]There is a man in the room. [析]people 是复数名词,不可用作单数,如要用来讲一个人时应用 a person, a man, a woman。 同样的词有 police.要讲一个警察时则要用 a policeman, a policewoman。 [误]Where is my shoe? [正]Where are my shoes? [析 ]常 常只用 作复 数形 式的词 有 trousers, pants, shorts( 短裤 ) , socks(袜子),shoes, gloves(手套)。但如果只找其中的一个则要指明, 这 Where's my left glove?(我左手的手套在哪?) 时还是应用单数形式。 如: [误]I paid five pennies for the sweet. [正]I paid five pence for the sweet. [析]英语中便士有两个复数形式 pence 用来表达一定数量的钱。 而 pennies 是指一个个的硬币,如:I want to change this note for pennies. 我想把这纸币换成硬币。(即一便士一个的硬币)。 [误]There are many fruit in the shop. [正]There are many fruits in the shop. [析]物质名词为不可数名词,但是用来表示种类时则可以用作可数 名词,这里应译为各种各样的水果。 [误]There is a new car. It is Jone's and Mary's. [正]There is a new car. It is Jone and Mary's. [析]有生命名词的所有格,如果是单数名词则加's 如:Mary's car.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

如果是以 s 结尾的复数名词则只在 s 后面加’如:teachers' offices.如 果是复数名词但不是以 s 结尾,则只加’s,如:children's palace 组 合名词的所有格是在最后一个词尾加's 如:girl friend — girl friend's someone else—someone else's a week or three—a week or three's 如名词 后有同位语时,则应加在同位语的词尾上,如: It is my girl friend, Mary's car.要注意的是当两个名词并列时,如表示归两人共同所有, 则在最后一个名词后面加's,如果表示分别所有则在两个名词后分别 加's,如:This is Mary and Jone's home.即 Mary 与 Jone 是一家人。这 是他们共同的家。而 These are Mary's and Jone's homes.则应译为这里 是 Mary 的家与 Jone 的家。 [误]It is really beautiful. It is a work of nature. [正]It is really beautiful. It is a Nature's work. [析] 无生命名词的所有格应用 of 结构。 但是's 形式的所有格可用于 以 下 无 生 命 的 名 词 : 表 示 时 间 的 词 : today's newspaper, a twenty minutes' walk, an hour's, rest 表示长度的词: three metres' distance, a boat's length , twenty miles' journey 表示重量的名词: two pounds' weight 价 格名 词 : two dollars'worth 拟 人化 的 名 词: Nature's work, nature's lesson(大自然的教训)及国家、机关、团体、城市等机构性

名词:the university's library [误]He is an old friend of my father. [正]He is an old friend of my father's.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[析]这是英语中的一种习惯用法而不要根据语法去推理。如:This pen is Tom's. [误]My father is a good cooker. [正]My father is a good cook. [析] 一般动词加上 er 后则转意为执行该动作的执行者, 如:teach(教) — teacher( 老 师 ),think( 想 ) — thinker( 思 想 家 ),drive( 开 车 ) — driver( 司 机),sell(卖)—seller(卖物者)……但不能总是以此类推, 比如 cook 是动 词“做饭” 。而 cook 也可作为名词“厨师”讲,而 cooker 则为厨具, 餐具,即锅、碗、勺等做饭用具。 [误]The young is dancing there. [正]The young are dancing there. [析]英文中用定冠词加上形容词表示一类人时应按复数名词,如: the rich 富人,the poor(穷人),the wise 聪明人,但如果用定冠词加形 容词来表示事物则要用作单数名词,如:The beautiful is still here.美 丽的风景依旧。 [误]The stories of the book was written many years ago. [正]The stories of the book were written many years ago. [析]这句话的真正主语应是 stories,所以应用复数谓语动词。 [误]This is one of the English Chinese dictionary. [正]This is one of the English Chinese dictionaries. [析]one of 意为“……之一” ,of 后面的名词要用复数形式。

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[误]Let's go to uncle Wang for supper. [正]Let's go to uncle Wang's for supper. [析]uncle Wang's 意为“王叔叔家” ,doctor's 意为“医院或私人诊 所” 。 [误]I think we will make a friend with each other. [正]I think we will make friends with each other. [析]make friends 为习惯用法,即交朋友。 [误]I want to tell you much pieces of good news. [正]I want to tell you many pieces of good news. news 为不可数名词, [析] 但加了量词之后则要用 many 来修饰量词, 因量词是可数名词,或可以说 I want to tell you some good news. 因 some 即可用在可数名词前,也可用在不可数名词前作形容词,如: I want to tell you some pieces of good news. [误]The teacher with five students are coming here. [正]The teacher with five students is coming here. [析]要注意由 with 引出的介词短语不是本句的主语,这与连词 and The teacher and five students are coming here. 这里 有很大的区别, 如: 由介词引出的短语仅仅是 teacher 的修饰语。 [误]There are a lot of information here, but we don't need them. [正]There is a lot of information here, but we don't need it. [析]information 为不可数名词,而用作代替它的词要用 it 而不能用

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

them. [误]Many a student make the same mistake in the exam. [正]Many a student makes the same mistake in the exam. [析]many a 加可数名词单数,作主语时其谓语动词应用单数形式, 但其意为许多学生。 [误]The children wear very good cloth to go to school today. [正]The children wear very good clothes to go to school today. [析]英文中 cloth,clothes,clothing 是易混之词:cloth 是物质名词, 意为“布” ,没有复数形式,而 clothing 是指衣物的总称,也没有复 clothes 是指衣服, This clothing is needed 数形式。 但没有单数形式, 如: in warm countries. Her clothes are made of fine cloth. 英文中的 dress 则 指较正规的服装,如:a school dress 校服,an evening dress 晚礼服。 [误]I like to study the English. [正]I like to study English. [析]作为一种学科名词前不要用冠词,而作为某一特指学科则要加 冠词,如:I like to study history. I like to study the history of America. [误]The Browns is going to visit China. [正]The Browns are going to visit China. [析]定冠词加姓加 s,则意为“Brown 先生一家人” 。所以应用复数 谓语动词。此句应译为:Brown 先生一家将要访问中国。 (三) 例题解析

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

1. Lucy and Lily___in the same class. A. am B. is C. are D. be

[答案]C. [析] 由 and 连接两个单数名词作主语时应按复数名词来搭配谓语动 词。 2. Which is the ___to the bus stop, please? A road B way C street D address [答案]B. [析]这是考察同意词辨析,road 是指较宽阔的大道,意为“乡间公 路” ,而 street 意为道路两边的建筑物较高,可视为街道之意,而 way 则多为要到达某地所要经过的途径, 还可引深为方式、 方法。 而 address There is a car running along the country road. 则为 “地址” 。 如: I live

at 105 Park street. Can you show me the way to the National Museum? 3. Hurry up!There is___ time left. A little B a little C few D a few [答案]A. [析]因 time 作为时间讲为不可数名词,所以不可用 few,a few 来 修饰。另外,英文的表达法与中文不同,中文讲,快点,时间不多了, 而英文要讲,快点,没时间了。因此,要用 little 而不用 a little. 4. How many ___can you see in the picture? A tomatos B tomatoes C tomato D the tomato

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[答案]B. [析]用 How many 提问时,其名词要用复数形式,而 tomato 的复 数要加 es. 5. — ___is the meat. Please? — Ten yuan a kilo. A How much B How many C How old [答案]A. [析]由对话的答语可看出其问句问的是价格。钱数作为整体、价格 讲时,不论其值是多少都是不可数名词,要用 how much 提问。 6 The boy's name is James Allen Green. So his given name is___. A James Allen B Allen Green C James Green D Mr. Green [答案]A. [析]英文的习惯与中文不同,中文是姓在前名字在后,而英文则是 姓在最后,其第一个名字是由父母所起的,中间的名字可能是父母、 教父所起的,但都可称作 given name,而姓在英文中是 family name. 7 Shanghai is one of the biggest___in our country. A city B city's C citys D cities D How long

[答案]D. one [析] 复音字母以 y 结尾的单词的复数形式要把 y 变成 i 再加 es。 of 加名词的结构中的名词应用复数。 8 Would you please pass me___?

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

A two paper

B two papers

C two pieces of paper D two pieces of papers [答案]C. [析]paper 是不可数名词,如讲一张、两张纸时,要用量词 piece. 9 September 10th is ___Day. A Teacher B Teachers C Teacher's D Teachers' [答案]D. 10 I only have___ bread for lunch today. A a bit B a bit of C little D few

[答案]B. 11 “What would you like, Ann? ” “I'd like two___.” A glass of milk B glasses of milk

C glass of milks D glasses of milks [答案]B. 12 There isn't ___ paper in the box. Will you go and get ___ for me? A any, some [答案]A. [析]any 用于否定句与疑问句,但如果要表达说话者真心实意希望 得到肯定答复时,问句中要用 some 而不要按一般语法规律用 any. 13 June 1st is___. B any, any C some, some D some, any

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

A Children's day C Children's Day [答案]C.

B children's Day D children's day

14 These foreign friends are___. A German [答案]D. 15 All the students are busy, so___ of them will go to the cinema. A many [答案]D. [析]student 是可数名词,而 few 用于可数名词,意为:几乎没有学 生去电影院。 16 There are three___and seven___in the picture. A deers, sheeps C deer, sheep [答案]C. [析]deer 与 sheep 均是单复同形的名词。 17 Whose room is this? It's___. A my C our [答案]D. [析]因为 room 为单数,所以不可能是 Kike 的一间与 John 的一间, B Kike's and John's D Kike and John's B deers, sheep B little C a few D few B Germen C Germany D Germans

Ddeer, sheeps

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

应为二者共用的一间房子。

二、 冠词
(一) 知识概要 冠词在英语中只有 3 个词,分为两类:不定冠词 a 与 an,定冠词 the。 a 用在以辅音开始的单数名词前,an 用于以元音开始的单词前。不定 冠词用来表示一类事物中泛指的某一事物, 而定冠词则用于特指的某 一个或某些事物,可用于不可数名词、可数名词单数及可数名词复数 前。 (二) 正误辨析 [误]This building is an university. [正]This building is a university. [析] a 用于以辅音音素开始的单词前, 而 an 用于以元音音素开始的 单词前,而不是元音字母开头的单词前。university 的第一个音素是 [j] ,所以用 a 而不要用 an。又如:There is a “n” in the word.是错 句,应为:There is an “n”in the word.因字母 n 的发音的第一个音 素是元音。要注意的还有 hour 因其第一个字母 h 不发音,所以应该 用 an hour。例如: I need an hour to finish the work. It is a useful dictionary. It is a European country. I bought a used car.
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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[误]I need a umbrella because it looks like raining. [正]I need an umbrella because it looks like raining. [析]因 umbrella 的第一个音素是元音,所以应用 an.常用的情况有: an old man, an English teacher, an elephant, an idea, an hour ago, an honest boy…。 [误] “Can you help me” “Sorry, I'm in hurry.” [正] “Can you help me” “Sorry. I'm in a hurry.” [析]不定冠词的主要用法如下: 1. 用来表示一类人或事物,如:She is a teacher. 2. 指某一类人或事物中的一个, An elephant is bigger than a horse. 如: 3. 泛指某一人或事物,如:A man is waiting for you at the school gate. 4. 相当于“one”的概念,如:I just bought a new dictionary. 5. 其主要的难点是用在固定词组中: 如:have a walk/a rest /a look 又如:in a hurry 匆匆忙忙 make a face 作鬼脸 do somebody a favour 帮某人忙 a number of =many 又如:have a good time (玩得好) have a cold (感冒) have a headache (头痛)

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

have a break=have a rest [误]I bought the dictionary yesterday. A dictionary is very good. [正]I bought a dictionary yesterday. The dictionary is very good. [析]在文章中第一次提到某物时用不定冠词,而第二次提到时用定 冠词。 [误]Please turn off lights before you leave. [正]Please turn off the lights before you leave. [析] 虽然是第一次提到某物但说话双方均知其所指, 也应用定冠词。

[误]There are nine planets around a sun. [正]There are nine planets around the sun. [析]世上独一无二的天体等名词前应加定冠词,如:the earth, the moon, the sun, the sky, the sea. [误]I live on a second floor of this building. [正]I live on the second floor of this building. [析]在序数词,形容词最高级前要用定冠词。如:He is the oldest in the family. [误]I want to learn the second language this term. [正]I want to learn a second language this term. [析] 在序数词的含意不是顺序中的第一第二, 而其意在于再学一个, 再来一个时,应用 a,本句的意思应为:这学期我要学一门第二外语。

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[误]Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world. [正]The Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world. [析]在河流名称前应加定冠词,如:the Yellow River(黄河)。 [误]Look, there are Alp. [误]Look, there are the Alp. [正]Look, there are the Alps. [析]具体的某一座山不加定冠词,如:Mountain Tai.但在山名称前 加定冠词后,其山名要加 s,来表示山脉。the Alps 即为阿尔卑斯山 脉。如:The Alps are in the center of Europe. [误]Times is one of the oldest newspapers in the world. [正]The Times is one of the oldest newspapers in the world. [析]报刊名称前应加定冠词。 [误]Rich are not always happy. [正]The rich are not always happy. [析]在形容词前加定冠词表示一类人,而在姓的前面加定冠词, 姓 后加 s 表示某一家,如:The turners are going to move to New York. [ 误 ] I like to eat bread for breakfast. Bread sells in this shop is very good. [正]I like to eat bread for breakfast. The bread sells in this shop is very good. [析]物质名词特指时也应加定冠词。

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[误]The sun rises in east. [正]The sun rises in the east. [析]在方向、方位前应用定冠词,如:in the east, in the west, in the north, in the south, in the direction 及 in the past, in the future [误]Do you know who invented telephone [正]Do you know who invented the telephone [析]在特定和专有事物或名称前要加定冠词, 如:the English Channel 英吉利海峡 the Panama Canal 巴拿马运河 the Suez Canal 苏伊士运河 [误]Would you please buy some food for the supper [正]Would you please buy some food for supper [析]泛指一日三餐前无定冠词。 [误]I like to climb the mountain in the autumn. [正]I like to climb the mountain in autumn. [析]一年四季前不用定冠词,如:Spring is the best season in a year. [误]Sometimes my parents come to school to see me. [正]Sometimes my parents come to the school to see me. [析]有些名词被用作其本身原来所含目的时不加冠词,如:go to school 上学,leave school(辍学),after school(放学),但如果当建筑物 讲时应加冠词,如例句中其父母来校不是上学,而是看望孩子,则要

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

加定冠词。又如,He was in hospital for two days.(他在医院住院两天 了。)而:He went to the hospital to see his mother.他去医院看望他的母 亲。 [误]I bought a same dictionary as she bought. [正]I bought the same dictionary as she bought. [析]在惯用法 the same, the only, the very 前的定冠词不可换为不定 冠词。 [误]The police caught the thief by his arm. [正]The police caught the thief by the arm. [析]这是英文表达法与中文的明显不同之处,也是初学者极易忽视 catch(抓), take(拿), strike (打),pat(拍), 之处。 在英语中的某些动词, 如: hit(击), hold(握), pull(拉)…动词后应加人, 再加介词 on, by, in, with… 之后要加定冠词,再加人体的某一部位。这时的定冠词千万不要换作 his, her, their, 等词。 [误]He was paid by hour. [正]He was paid by the hour. [析]by 和计量单位之间要有定冠词。这句话应译为:他的工资是 按小时计算的。 [误]I went to New York by his car. [正]I went to New York by car. [正]I went to New York in his car.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[析]by 仅仅与交通工具相连表示应用某种工具,而加了别的修饰 词后其前面的介词也应作相应的转换。如:by car (坐小汽车)by taxi (坐出租车)by bike (骑自行车)by water (乘船)by air (乘飞机)by sea (乘 船) [误]Mary began to learn how to play piano when she was three. [正]Mary began to learn how to play the piano when she was three. [析]在乐器前要加定冠词,而在球类游戏之前则不要加冠词,如: They like to play bridge when they are free. (他们空闲时爱打桥牌) [误]The little boy wanted to go to cinema. [正]The little boy wanted to go to the cinema. [析]英语中虽有一些名词与 go to 连用时不加定冠词,以表示该名 词的内涵,如:go to school (上学),go to bed(睡觉)等,但去看电影 则例外,要用 go to the cinema.这也是语言的一个特点。 [误]I live at 105 the Lake street. [正]I live at 105 Lake Street. [析]街道名称前不用冠词。 [误]Next summer holiday I will go to country to live on a farm. [正]Next summer holiday I will go to the country to live on a farm. [析]country 既作国家讲也作乡村讲。作乡村讲时,一定要加定冠 词,而且只有单数形式,作国家讲时则可有复数形式。如:Japan is a country .Japan, China, India are Asian countries.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[误]The picture looks better at the distance. [正]The picture looks better at a distance. at a distance 意为“离开一定距离” [析] 。而 in the distance 为 “远方, 远处” 。这样常用的词组有: as a rule (照例) in a hurry (匆忙) in the morning/afternoon (上/下午) in the sun (在阳光下) in the rain (雨中) in the same way (同样) in the shade (在阴凉处) in the day time (白天) in the end (最终) on the other hand (换句话说) on the contrary (相反) [误]The little boy and girl walk along the street a hand in a hand. [正]The little boy and girl walk along the street hand in hand. [析]这是英语中的习惯用法,如: bit by bit (逐渐) day after (by) day (一天又一天) day and night (日日夜夜)

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

face to face (面对面) from A to Z (自始至终) from time to time (再三) hand in hand (手拉手) shoulder by shoulder (肩并肩) (三) 例题解析 1 Mr Li is___ old worker. D /

A a B an C some [答案]B.

[析]an 用于元音音素开始的单词前。 2 English is___ useful language in ___ world. B a, the C the, / D /,the

A an, the [答案]B.

[析]因 useful 的第一个音素是[j] ,它是辅音音素。 3 Aa What ___ B an interesting book it is? D /

C the

[答案]B. [析]这是感叹句,因为移到原一般句前面的强调部分中有可数名词 book,所以应加冠词,而 interesting 的第一音素是元音所以要加 an。 4 He will be back in ___ hour. an

A / B the C a D

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[答案]D. [析]因 hour 的首字母 h 不发音。 5 wall. A a, A [答案]C. [析]在文章中首次提到某人或某物时用不定冠词,而第二次再提到 该物或人时应用定冠词。 6 Look at___ picture! There's___ house in it. B the, the C a, the D the, a B the, The C a, The D the ,A There is ___ map in the classroom. ___ map is on the

A a ,a

[答案]D. [析]虽然是第一次提到,但在句中的语言是让对方看某一特定的图 画,所以应选择 D。 7 There is ___ orange in the bottle. B an C the D /

A a

[答案]D. [析]这里的 orange 是指桔汁而不是一个个的桔子。 8 Beijing is ___ capital of our country. B an C / D a

A the

[答案]A. [析]capital 之后有 of 结构则要用定冠词。

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

9 If you work hard at English, you'll get ___ “A” in the test. A an B / C the D a

[答案]A. [析]因字母 A 的第一音素是元音。 10 A a He usually goes to school on ___ foot. B an C the D /

[答案]D. [析]on foot 意为走路上学,是习惯用法。

三、 代词
(一) 知识概要 英语中代词可以分为人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、指示代词、 疑 问代词、不定代词。 人称代词主要有主格和宾格之别。请看下表 人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们 主格 i you he she it we you they 宾格 me you him her it us you them 物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词两种。请看下表 人称 我的 你的 他的 她的 它的 我们的 你们的 他们的 形容词性 my your his her its ours your they 名词性 mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs
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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

反身代词可见下表 人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们 反身代词 themselves 指示代词主要有 this, that, these, those 疑问代词有:who, whom whose, what, which, 还有疑问副词 when, how, where, why。 不定代词在初中课本中主要有 some, any, many, much, each, neither, other, another, all, both, one, none, either… (二) 正误辨析 [误]Tom's mother is taller than my. [正]Tom's mother is taller than mine. [析]形容词性物主代词可以作定语,也就是讲它可以作形容词,如: my book,而这句话的意思是:汤姆的妈妈比我的妈妈高。比较的对 象是 my mother,也就是 mine。 [误] We have a lot of homework to do today. So we need two or three hours to finish them. [正] We have a lot of homework to do today. So we need two or three hours to finish it. [析]在应用代词时,要注意人称,格与数的一致性。这里 it 所代替 的是不可数名词 homework, 所以应用 it。 myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourself

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[误]He and you should go to the library to return the books. [正]You and he should go to the library to return the books. [析]这主要是英语习惯上的用法。当两个以上的人称代词并列时其 排列顺序一般为 you, he, she, I,而复数时为 we, you, they:如男女并列 时,应先男后女,如:He and she …如果在表示不好意思,承担责任 I, he, she, you, 复数时用 They, you, we, 如: Tom and 时, 单数时用, I are good friends. You, he and I must go to play the game for our team this afternoon. We, you and they have been there before. I, he and you have to pay for it. [误]He or his brother is doing their homework. [正]He or his brother is doing his homework. [析]由 either…or, neither…nor, or 连接两个主语时,如果两主语是 单数时,用单数代词,如两主语是复数时,用复数代词,如:Either teachers or students want to do their best to help the old man.如是一单一 复两名词时,一般将单数名词放在前,复数名词放在后,要用复数代 词,如:The teacher or his students will clean their classroom together. [误]His brother is taller than him. [正]His brother is taller than he. [析]than 是连词,其后应视为省略句,than he is.所以要注意区分其 主格与宾格的用法。

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

I like you as much as she. [正]I like you as much as her. [析]as…as 其后也应看作是省略句。应为 as I like her.所以应用宾 格。而第一句应译为我像她那样喜欢你。两句语法都是对的但含义不 同。 [误]Myself did it yesterday. [正]I myself did it yesterday. [正]I did it myself yesterday. [析]反身代词不可作主语,但可以用作主语的同位语。 [误]Take care of ourselves. [正]Take care of yourselves .(yourself) [析]祈始句的主语应看作第二人称 you. [误]Please bring your daughter with yourself. [正]Please bring your daughter with you. [析]反身代词不能作介词宾语,除非是由不及物动词与介词组成的 动词短语,如: The old woman spoke to herself. [误]Make yourself home. [正]Make yourself at home. [析]这是英语中的习惯用法,意为“像在家里一样” 。这样的用法 还有: enjoy oneself 玩得开心 make yourself at home 像在家中一样

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

help yourself to something 自己拿某物 lost oneself 迷路 seat oneself 就坐 dress oneself 穿衣 [误]— Who's this speaking.— That's Mary. [正]— Who's that speaking.— This is Mary. [析]在电话用语中,this 指讲话人自己,而 that 指对方。 [误]The days in summer are longer than this in winter. [正]The days in summer are longer than those in winter. [析]在比较句中往往为了避免重复,可以用 that 或 those 取代前面 提到的事物,如是单数时用 that,复数时用 those,如:The weather in Beijing is hotter than that in Chang Chun. [误]It is so a good book that everyone likes to read. [正]It is such a good book that everyone likes to read. [正]It is so good a book that everyone likes to read. [析]在可数名词单数时可用 so+形容词+不定冠词+名词+that 从句, 也可用 such+不定冠词+形容词+that 从句。在不可数名词或可数名词 复 数 时 , 只 用 such, 如 : It is such good weather that I want to go swimming. They are such good books that I want to buy them all.在 many, much, few, little 这 4 个词前仅能用 so,如: She has so much money that she can buy everything she wants.而在 so 与 that 之间仅存形容词时, 则 不能用 such,如:She is so sweet that everyone likes her. [误]I want to buy a same dictionary as yours.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[正]I want to buy the same dictionary as yours. same 与定冠词 the 是固定搭配不可更改。 [析] 这样的用法还有 all the same(仍然)。 [误]— I hope she might pass the exam.— I don't hope so. [正]— I hope she might pass the exam.— I hope not. [析]在作肯定回答时,I think so. I hope so. I believe so.但作否定回 答时为:I don't think so. I hope/believe not. [误]— He studied very hard this term.— So she did. [正]— He studied very hard this term.— So did she. [误]— English is difficult to learn.— So is it. [正]— English is difficult to learn.— So it is. [析]在对话中如果某一动作同时适用于两个主语,这时在答语中要 用缩写且要用倒装句。如第一组句,即 studied hard 既适用于 he,也适 用于 she.但答语仅仅是对前句的重复,即仅仅是第一句的缩写时则不 要用倒装句。如第二组句子为:英语难学。答语为:是的,难学。 这 时缩写的答语不要用倒装句。 [误]Everyone should do one's best. [正]Everyone should do his best. [析]one 作代词时,它的复数形式是 ones,所有格形式是 one's,反 身代词为 oneself.如果讲 One should do one's best.则是对句。如果 one 与别的词组成其他词, 如: someone, anyone, everyone 或 only one 则

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

要用 his/her,来作其所有格形式。 [误]— Who won the game?— None. [正]— Who won the game?— No one. [析] 由 who 提问的句子的否定回答中的简略说法是 no one,而由 How many 提问的句子的否定回答中的简略语是 None.如: How many books are there? None. [误]There are many trees on either sides of the street. [正]There are many trees on either side of the street. [正]There are many trees on both sides of the street. [析]either 作代词时由两个含意,其一是两者中随便哪一个,如: You can take either.其二是两者中的每一个。但要注意的是 either 后要 加单数名词,如果作主语则谓语动词也要用单数形式。 [误]Either you or I are right. [正]Either you or I am right. [析]在 either…or,或 neither…nor 连接两个主语时,其谓语动词要 与和其相近的那个主语相配。 [误]I have three sisters. Neither of them is a doctor. [正]I have three sisters. None of them is a doctor. [析]neither 用于两者中无一是,而 none 则用于多于两者中的人或 事物无一是。 [误]He doesn't like Beijing opera. I don't like too.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[正]He doesn't like Beijing opera, I don't like either. [析]either 作为“也”讲时,要用于否定句中,而 too 则用于肯定 句中。 [误]We like both this little boy. [正]We both like this little boy. [析]both 作同位语时,它在句中的位置有:在 be 动词之后,如: We are both students.在实意动词之前,如:The parents both want to go to the cinema. 用 于 第 一 助 动 词 之 后 , 如 : We have both read these English novels.使用时要注意以下句子的实际含意:Both of us are not right.应译为:我们俩不都对。Neither of us is right.才应译为:我俩都 不对。又如:I can't give you both of the books.意为:两本书我不能全 给你,而 I can't give you either of the books.才为:两本书我全不能给 你。 [误]We each has a ticket for the concert. [正]We each have a ticket for the concert. [析]each 作句子主语时其谓语动词要用单数形式,如:Each of us wants to learn English well,但 each 作同位语时,则应以原名词的数 为准。 [误]Every of us has to pass the exam. [正]Each of us has to pass the exam. [析]every 只可作形容词,不可作代词,而 each 既可作形容词,又

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

可作代词,在作形容词时 each 侧重强调个体,而 every 则侧重于全 体。 [误]Everyone of us should do housework two hours a day. [正]Every one of us should do housework two hours a day. [析]everyone 不可与 of 结构相连接使用,而 every one 则可以这样 用。 [误]I should read English everyday. [正]I should read English every day. [析] 要注意的是 every day 是 “每天” , 而 everyday 则是形容词为 “日 常的” 。如:everyday English 日常英语,everyday life 日常生活。 [误]There are trees on every sides of the street. [正]There are trees on each side of the street. [析]every 用于三者或三者以上的每一个,而 each 用于二者或二者 以上的每一个。因为街道只有两侧,所以只能用 each 而不能用 every. [误]All my parents are engineers. [正]Both my parents are engineers. [析]all 用于三者或三者以上的全部,而 both 则用于两者的全部。 [误]All of students might make some mistakes. [正]All of the students might make some mistakes. [正]All students might make some mistakes. [析]非特指的名词前可用 all 但不可用 all of 结构,也就是讲 all of

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

结构后面的名词前一定要有定冠词。 其他与 all 有关的习惯用法还有: all the year round, all week, all day, all winter [误]The all village was flooded. [正]All the village was flooded. [析]all 作修饰语时要用在所有修饰词之前。 [误]The post office is on other side of the street. [正]The post office is on the other side of the street. [析] 单数可数名词如在泛指某一个时用 another,而特指时则要用 the other,因街道只有两边,而不在这边必定是在另一边,所以要用特指。 请参考下表的用法以便于记忆。 单数 复数 泛指 another 形容词 作定语 作名词 another 代词 other others 特指 the other 形容词 the other 代词 the other the others [误]There are ten students here Where are the others students? [正]There are ten students here.Where are the others? [正]There are ten students here Where are the other students? [析]the others=the other students. [误]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, another is a doctor.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[正]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, the other is a doctor. [析]another 用于泛指,如:Is it far from here to the station?I'm sorry. I have no idea. One may say it is quite near; another may say it is far from here.但在特指时则要用 the other.它可以用作定语,the other one,也可 以用作代词 the other,但 the other 用作代词时它的含意一定是单数。 如 果指三者或者三者以上的情况时,则要用 one…another…the other.或 者 one…a second…the third… [误]Some people like sports. The others like reading. [正]Some people like sports. Others like reading. [析]在泛指的复数名词前用 some … others … others …来表示某些 人……某些人……某些人……。 [误]Please remember to water the flowers each other day. [正]Please remember to water the flowers every other day. [析]every other day 为每隔一天。是习惯用法,不要随意改动。又 如:on the other hand 另一方面。 [误]Many know him, but few likes him. [正]Many know him, but few like him. [析]few 用于可数名词,意为几乎没有,但 few 作主语时谓语动词 则要用复数形式,而 a few 为有一些。 [误]You have few friends, haven't you? [正]You have few friends, have you?

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[析]little 与 few 用于句中时,均要按否定句看待。 [误]Much of what you said are true. [正]Much of what you said is true. [析]much 用于不可数名词,作主语时用单数谓语动词。而 many 用于可数名词,它作主语时用复数形式的谓语动词。 [误]This room is enough large for the students to live in. [正]This room is large enough for the students to live in. [析]enough 可以用作代词,如:There is enough of the food. 又如: Enough has been done for the work, 但 enough 还可以作形容词来修饰 money 名词, 这时 enough 可以放在名词之前, 也可放在名词之后, 如: enough 与 enough money 都是对的。但当 enough 作副词修饰形容词 时,则只能置于形容词之后了。 [误]I want any books to read. Do you have any? [正]I want some books to read. Do you have any? [析]按照语法 any 用于疑问句和否定句,而 some 用于肯定句。 [误]Would you like any thing to drink? [正]Would you like something to drink? [析]在由 would you like 发出的问句中,表达了说话者真心实意要 为对方提供些饮料,或在说话者想得到对方的肯定答复时,在疑问句 中要用 some 而不用 any。 [误]Someone want to meet you.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[正]Someone wants to meet you. [析]不定代词应被看作单数,即使用 and 连接两个不定代词,也要 看作单数,如: Anyone and everyone has the right. 任何人,每一个 人都有这样的权力。 [误]New York is much colder in winter than before. [正]It is much colder in New York in winter than before. [析]it 常常用在英文的句子中来代表时间、距离、天气、自然现象, 或用在句中作形式主语或宾语,如: It is ten o'clock now. (代时间) It is far from here to the airport. (代距离) It is very hot.(代天气) It is very difficult to learn English well. (作形式主语) We found it very difficult to answer the question. (作形式宾语) [误]Be careful. Don't drink too many. [正]Be careful. Don't drink too much. [析]这里 much 所代的应是饮料或水,所以应为不可数名词。 (三) 例题解析 1 These are ___books. Yours are over there. AI B my C me D mine

[答案]B. [析]这里应用形容词性物主代词。

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

2 —___ is she? — She is a teacher. A What B How C Who D Where

[答案]A. [析]这里的四个疑问词放在问句中全都成立,但其意义不同。What is she?应译为 “她的工作是什么?” 或 “她是做什么的?” 而 How is she? 应译为“她身体如何?”而 Who is she?应译为“她是谁?”其答语应为 “她叫什么名字。 ”而 Where is she?应为“她在什么地方?”由答语决 定了这道题的选择。 3___ is wrong with my watch. It has stopped___. A Something, working C Any thing, working B Something, to work D Anything, to work

[答案]A. [析]因为是肯定句所以应用 Something,其后由于表停止工作了, 则 stop 后要用动名词。 4 Mary, help ___to the bananas, please. A you B your C yourself D yourselves

[答案]C. [析]help oneself to something 为“自己拿某物” 。yourself 为“你一 个人” ,而 yourselves 为“你们” 。 5 —___ do you go to school every day?

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

— By bus. A How B Why [答案]A. [析]这题的答案是由问句决定的。 6 My skirt is___ popular than___. A hers [答案]D. [析]因句中有 than,所以应选用比较级,而 than 后要选用名词性物 主代词。 7 — Can you speak English? — Yes, but only___. A few [答案]D. [析]因会讲某种语言的多少要用 a little,把它看作不可数名词对待, 此答语为:是的,但仅仅会讲一点。 8 A I [答案]D. [析]这里应选名词性物主代词,这也是英语的一种习惯用法,而不 要选择 my。 Mr. Smith is an old friend of___. B me C my D mine B a few C little D a little much, her B much, hers C more, her D more, C When D Where

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

9 “ ___do you hear from your parents?” “About once a month.” A How long B How many How much

C How often D [答案]C.

[析]How often 问的是某一动作发生的频率,即在单位时间内发生 多少次。 10 Mr Green wouldn't say ___at the meeting. A everything [答案]C. [析]在否定句中应用 anything 11 “Mum, Ann's coming tonight. Let's give her ___to eat.” “Good idea!” A C anything nice B nice anything B nothing C anything D something

something nice D nice something

[答案]C. [析]肯定句中用 something 而不用 anything,不定代词的修饰词应放 其后而不要放在其前面。 12 — When shall we meet, this evening or tomorrow evening? — I don't mind. ___time is OK. A Some B Neither C Either D Both

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[答案]C. [析]因如选用 both 则名词要用复数名词,也要用复数谓语动词, 由于答语前有 I don't mind 则决定不能选择 neither. 13 This is not her kite, but___. A he's B [答案]D. [析] 要注意 “他的” 名词性物主代词与形容词性物主代词是同形的。 him C he D his

14 Don't worry, Mum! ___ news is good news. I'm sure daddy will come back soon. A No B Many C Those D Two

[答案]A. [析]这是一条谚语,即没有消息就是好消息。 15 Mary has six apples. Her brother has three. She has _ _ _ apples than he. A few B many C more [答案]C. [析]由于是比较级,根据题意应选“多于”而不是“少于” 。 16 There isn't ___in today's newspaper. A anything interesting B something interesting D fewer

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

C nothing interesting D interesting anything [答案]A. [析]由于句子是否定句,应选择 anything,而且不定代词的修饰语 应放在其后面。 17 September 10th is___ Day? A Teacher [答案]D. [析]教师节 Teachers' Day,儿童节 Children's Day, 妇女节 Women's Day 18 — In England, people eat a lot of “ takeaway ” food. What about people in your country? —___ A So we do. B We do so. C So do we. [答案]C. [析] 在答语中用简略方式表达上文的一个动作同样适用于另一个主 语时,则要采用倒装句,但如果仅仅是对上句的重复则不要倒装。 19 — Shall we go into that shop and have a look? — Sorry. I won't. I have ___to do there. A everything [答案]D. B anything C something D nothing D We so do. B Teachers C Teacher's D Teachers'

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[析]这个答案的选择应由上下两句对话内容作出决定。 20— Oh, dear! Who broke the glass? —___ Sam ___Bruce. It was the cat. A Both, and [答案]C. [析]neither…nor 意为既不……也不…… 21 The students are having a good time in the park. Some are drawing by the lake.___are climbing the hill. A Others B Other C Another D The other B Not, but C Neither, nor D Either, or

[答案]A. [析]这里因为是代替复数名词,所以应用名词性的复数代名词。 22 She is not a nurse. I'm not___. A also B either C neither [答案]B. [析]在否定句中该用 either,而不用 too 和 also. 23 I have two pencils. One is red,___ is blue. A the other [答案]A. [析]两者中的另一个应为特指。而且应为单数形式的代名词。而 another 是泛指单数代名词。others 是泛指复数代名词,而 the others B another C others D the others D too

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

是特指复数代名词。 24 Sorry, I can't answer your question. I know ___about the subject. A little B a little C few D a few

[答案]A. [析]中文讲我对此知道的不多,而英文中要用 little。其含意为否定 句。 25 My sister doesn't like skating___. A So do I B So I don't

C Neither I don't D Neither do I [答案]D. [析]这是表达上面否定句中的动作,也同样不适合 于第二个人。所以要用 neither,并要采用倒装句。 26 Yesterday morning there were only three boys in our room,___. A you, he and I C he, I and you [答案]A. [析]这是若干人称代词并列时的顺序问题。请参看辨析中的例子。 B I, you and he D you, I and he

27 All the students are busy, so___of A many B little C a few D few

them will go to the concert.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[答案]D. [析]student 为可数名词。 28 The teacher gave ___student a new book. A nobody [答案]C. [析]both 其后的名词应为复数,而 any 用于疑问句和否定句中只有 each 可以修饰单数可数名词。 29 Black is neither a teacher ___a worker. A or B either C nor D and B both C each D any

[答案]C. [析]neither…nor 为“既不……也不……”的固定搭配。 30 Our teacher gave us___on studying. A many advices C an advice [答案]D. [析]advice 为不可数名词。some 可用于可数或不可数名词之前。 31 There are two foreign friends in the park. One ___ is from Japan, is from America. A other [答案]C. [析]因为是两者中的一个,所以另一个应用单数特指代词。 B others C the other D the others B some advices D some advice

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

32 Are there ___on the table? A some cups B any cup C some cup D any cups

[答案]D. [析]此句是疑问句,应用 any cups, 因提问时的 be 动词用的是 are。 33 I've just bought five stamps. One is a German stamp, _ _ _ are American stamps. A the other [答案]B. [析]此空应填入主语。又因其范围已定,所以应选特指的代名词。 the other 只能用作单数,而 others 是泛指复数代名词,故只能选 B。 34 It was___ fine day that they went to the park. A a so B so a C such a D a such B the others C other D others

[答案]C. [析]在单数可数名词前可以有两种表达法,即 such+不定冠词+形 容词+可数名词单数形式,如:such a good day,或者用 so 加形容词+ 不定冠词+可数名词单数,如:so good a day. 35 At that time the train was slow and noisy. So _ _ _ people liked taking trains. A little B a little C few D a few

[答案]C.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[析]这是英文的表达法与中文不同之处。中文讲只有少数人喜欢坐 火车,英文要选用“few” 。 36 We must help and understand each___. A other B another [答案]A. [析]each other 意为“互相” ,是习惯用语。 37 ___is difficult to walk on the moon. A Man [答案]D. [析]这里的真正主语应为不定式 to walk on the moon.而形式主语只 能用 it. 38 Jane has sent several letters, but ___of them have been answered. A all B both C either D none B One C That D It C others D the other

[答案]D. [析]several letters 意为“若干信件” ,应看作多于两者,则在 A、 D 中作选择,仅 D 符合句意。 39 I don't know ___about the new headmaster. A something [答案]D. [析]否定句中应用 anything. 40 _ _ _ of the students in the whole class could do this physics B everything C nothing D anything

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

question. A No B None C Not D Neither

[答案]B.

四、 形容词、副词
(一) 知识概要 形容词的用法很活跃,在英语中用处也很多,但英语中修饰可数名词 和不可数名词的修饰语和词组有时不同,要特别加以注意。下面将初 中学习阶段中遇到的修饰可数名词的词和词组归纳如下:many, no, several, some, a few, a lot, lots, plenty, plenty of, a lot of, a large number of, enough。 而修饰不可数名词的词或词组如下: much, no, some, a lot, a great deal, lots, plenty, a lot of, plenty of 。 其中 some, no, a lot of,

plenty of 既可修饰可数名词又可修饰不可数名词。 英语中形容词与 副词有原级、比较级、最高级之分,其规则如下: 构词法 原 级 比较级 最高级 Tall young younger tallest youngest taller 加 er, 或 est

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

只加 r 或 st nice large nicer larger nicest largest

重读闭音节末尾只有一个辅音 字母时双写该字母加 er、est big fat hot bigger fatter hotter

biggest fattest hottest

不规则变化的形容词或副词: 原 级 比较级 最高级 good better best

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

Well better best bad worse worst badly worse worst many more most most more most little less lest far farther further farthest furthest

old older elder oldest eldest

要注意的是许多形容词同时又是副词,如:back, all, alone, either, far, high, slow 等。而有些形容词则要经过一定变化才能转为副词,其规 律如下: 构词法 形容词 副 词 一般加 ly Careful

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

kind carefully kindly

尾是 y 时将 y 变成 i 加 ly Happy busy easy Happily busily easily

其 他 true terrible full possible shy whole truly terribly fully possibly

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

shyly wholly

在学习过程中要注意其变化。 此外并不是所有副词都可以修饰比较级和最高级形容词。 能修饰比较 much, yet, far, still, a great deal, even 和 a little. 能修饰最高级 级的有: 的有:the very, much the, far 等。 (二) 正误辨析 [误] The young likes playing football very much. [正] The young like playing football very much. [析] 定冠词加形容词表示一类人,应作复数看待。而定冠词加形 容词表示抽象事物时则要看作单数,如: The beautiful is not always kindness.美丽并不总代表善良。 [误] The danger has gone, so the worst are over. [正] The danger has gone, so the worst is over. [析] 意为:"危险已经过去,最困难的状况已结束。"用定冠词加 最高级形容词作主语时应看作单数形式。 [误] It is the gold age of the young. [正] It is the golden age of the young. golden hair 金发, gulden voice [析] golden 在英语中多用于比喻, 如: 金嗓子。而 gold 多用于表达金质的,如:a gold bar 金条,a gold coin

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

金币,但 gold fish 金鱼例外。 [误] She is a warm heart woman. [正] She is a warm hearted woman. [析] 英语形容词的构词法很多,其中之一是由形容词,或数词, white haired 白 加名词加 ed 构成, 如: warm hoarted 热心肠的, 毛的 [误] There is an alive fish in the pool. [正] There is a living fish in the pool. [析] 在初中范围内所学到的以 a 字母开头的形容词一般不能作定 语,只能作表语。如:The fish is alive.(鱼还活着)这样的形容词有: alive, alike, alone, asleep, afraid, awake 等。 [误] The ill man nearly died. [正] The sick man nearly died. [析] ill 一般不作定语来形容某人有病,而要用 sick,但作表语时 则都可以。如:He is ill sick, ill 作定语时则另有他意,如:ill luck (厄 运),ill nature(天性恶劣),ill temper(心绪不好) [误] I have important something to tell you. [正] I have something important to tell you. [析] 不定代词 something, anyone, somebody…在用形容词修饰时, 形容词应放其后。 但要注意 thing 则不是不定代词,不符合上述规律。 如:I have an important thing to tell you.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[误] I'll be free on next Sunday. [正] I'll be free next Sunday. next Sunday, next week, next year 或 last [析] 在表达将来时的时候: Sunday last week, last year 前都不加介词。 [误] The girl is two year old. [正] The girl is two years old. [正] She is a two year old girl [析] 由连字符连接若干名词、数词……组成的形容词,在学习时 要记住两点,其一是这些词中的名词都不要用复数形式,如:two thousand word report(两千字的报告); 其二是这样构成的形容词只能 作定语,即用于名词之前,而不能作表语。 [误] The foreigners like those little beautiful Chinese paintings. [正] The foreigners like those beautiful little Chinese paintings. [析] 在名词前若有几个形容词作修饰语时,其顺序如下。 1. 指示代词, 定冠词 2. 数量词 3. 性质词 4. 大小 少,新旧 7. 颜色 8. 材料 但要注意的是英语的习惯是一个名词前的形容词一般不要多于三个。 5. 形状 6. 老

如: What a pretty little white horse! Those first few short English stories were not difficult to understand. [误] The best way to learn English good is to speak with Englishman

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

every day. [正] The best way to learn English well is to speak with Englishman every day. [析] good 是形容词, 这里是修饰动词 speak 的, 所以应用副词 well, He is 但 well 作形容词讲时只作身体好。如:He is well.(他身体很好)。 good.(他是个好人)。 [误] The children play on the grass nappyly. [正] The children play on the grass happily [析] 多音节 y 结尾的形容词变为副词时应将 y 变为 i 再加 ly. [误] The teacher looked angry at the students. [正] The teacher looked angrily at the students. [析] 英语中感观动词后面要接形容词,这时它是修饰主语的,如: The food smells good.食物闻起来很香。The teacher looked angry 老师 看起来很生气。 应用副词形式。 [误] He worked with me friendly. [正] He was friendly to me. [析] 不是所有结尾是 ly 的词都是副词,但 friendly 是形容词,这 样的词还有 lovely, lonely, costly, lively…monthly weekly…。但其中有 些词既是副词,又是形容词,如:early, hourly, monthly… [误] You can speak free in front of your friends. 而此句的意思为:"老师生气地看着学生",所以

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[正] You can speak freely in front of your friends. [析] free 作为形容词意为"自由的,有空闲的,免费的"。作为副词 讲则是"免费"之意。而 freely 作为副词则是"自由的,随便的"。这些 要注意的词还有: hard 努力,艰苦 hardly 几乎不 late 迟,晚

lately 最近的,最新的 near 近 nearly 几乎 like 像 likely 几乎 [误] They must have arrived till now. [正] They must have arrived by now. [析] by now 是用于表达到目前为止某一动作已经发生,所以应用 瞬间动词。而 till now 是强调某一动作一直持续到现在,所以一定要 用持续性动词。 must have+过去分词是对过去某一事情所作的肯定 推测。 [误] Someone called you right now. [正] Someone called you just now. [析] just now 有两个意思,其一是"刚才",其二是"现在",而 right now 只能用于现在的状态。 just 则用于完成时态,如: I have just finished my homework. [误] My father will be back from America at present. [正] My father will be back from America presently. [析] presently 有两个意思:其一是最近,不久,其二在美语中是 现在之意,与 at present 相同。而 for the present 为暂时,如: I teach English in the school for the present.

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[误] I'll be back at the moment. [正] I'll be back in a moment. [析] at the moment 其意为"现在,当时",而 in a moment 意为"马 上过一会",与 in a minute 意思相近。 [误] The train from Shanghai will arrive here in time. [正] The train from Shanghai will arrive here on time. [析] on time 为"准时",而 in time 有两个含意。其一是"及时",如: The doctor arrived in time。其二是"将来,终究"。 [误] I met an old friend sometimes last month. [正] I met an old friend sometime last month. [析] Sometime 过去,或者将来某时。 Sometimes 有时 如: Sometimes I go to school by bus. Some time 一些时间 如: I need sometime to do my homework. Some times 几次

如: I went to Shanghai sometimes this month. at times 有时,偶尔 at all times 经常 some other time 改天 [误] I had met an old friend three days ago. [正] I had met an old friend three days before. [正] I met an old friend three days ago. * ago 用在时间状语中时,主句中谓语动词一般用过去时,而 before

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用于时间状语时则主句的谓语动词宜用完成时态。 [误] He studied very hard. and at the end he passed the exam. [正] He studied very hard, and in the end he passed the exam. [析] in the end=at last 意为"最终,终于",表达经过若干努力而达 At the end of 到的结果。 而 at the end 是在某事的结束时如何如何, 如: class, the teacher gave us some story books。 [误] I will come here to help you each three days. [正] I will come here to help you every three days. [析] every three days 为"每三天",即每隔二天,而 every other day 为每隔一天。 [误] He didn't go to the cinema yesterday. and I didn't go, too. [正] He didn't go to the cinema yesterday and I didn't go either. [析] 英语中表示"也",有 4 个字,also, as well, too, either,但 either 用于否定句中,而前 3 个用于肯定句中。在肯定句中 too 与 as well She went to the party and 一般要用在句尾, 而 also 则可用于句中。 如: her boy friend went there too. 又如: I've also read her other novels. [误] We should help the poor girl in anyway. [正] We should help the poor girl in any way. [析] anyway 为 " 不管怎么 " 讲, " 无论如何 " ,如: What a terrible accident, anyway no one was hurt. any way 为"任何方式"。 这种常见的错误还发生在以下几组词中, 如:

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everyday 日常的 every day 每天 faraway 遥远的 far away 远离 altogether 总计 all together 一块,大家一起 already 已经 all ready 全准备好了 [误] You can come to the doctor's at anytime. [正] You can come to the doctor's at any time. [析] anytime 是副词 而 any time 中的 time 是名词。 [误] She said nearly nothing. [正] She said almost nothing. [析] nearly 与 almost 的含意相近,在很多场合可以互换,但在否 定词前用 almost。 [误] There are too much mistakes in your homework. [正] There are too many mistakes in your homework. There is too much water for the [析] too much 后接不可数名词, 如: flowers. 而 too many 后加可数名词,much too 后面加形容词,如: It is much too difficult to learn English well. [误] It is late enough that we can go home now. [正] It is late enough for us to go home now. [析] 要注意的是 enough 后面一般不接从句而接不定式,或不定式 的复合结构:for somebody to do something。

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[误] The twins are very alike. [正] The twins are much alike. [析] 用 a 为首字母的形容词不能用 very 修饰,一般要用 much 来 修饰。 [误] - How long does he write to his parents? - Once a week. [正] - How often does he write to his parents? - Once a week. [析] 英文与中文表达法不同,隔多长时间办一次某事,实际上问 的是该事发生的频率,所以要用 how often。 [误] As soon as I arrive in New York, I'll call up you. [正] As soon as I arrive in New York, I'll call you up. [析] 当动词词组的宾语是人称代词时则一定要放于动词之后,如 果是名词则可以放在词组其后。 如:I want to watch TV. Please turn

on the TV. 也可以讲: Please turn the TV on. [误] He drove quickly his new car. [正] He drove his new car quickly. [析] 副词在句中的位置很活,但主要有以下几种用法:①实意动 词之前,如:He quickly give me the answer. ② 在 be 动词之后,如: The little boy is often late for class. ③ 第一助动词之后, This book 如: has almost been finished. ④ 在单独使用的 be 动词和助动词之前, 如:

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Can you help me this afternoon?

I certainly can.

但是无论如何也不

能将副词置于动词与宾语之间,如果是宾语从句或是很长的名词 词组作宾语则才可以这样用: He heard clearly what the teacher said. [误] The children came late yesterday to the cinema. [正] The children came late to the cinema yesterday. [析] 表示一定长度的时间的副词不应放于句中,可放于句尾。如 果表示强调则可放于句首。 [误] You have few new books, haven't you? [正] you have few new books, have you? [析] 英语中的数量形容词有两组。修饰可数名词的有 few(很少, 几乎没有),a few(有一些,几个);修饰不可数名词的有 little (很少, 几乎没有),a little(有一点,有一些)。要注意的是当 few 和 little 用于 句中时应看作否定句,而 a few 和 a little 用于句中时则应看作是肯 定句。

[误] He spent quite little money on his food. [正] He spent quite a little money on his food. [析] quite a 为一固定用法,其意为"十分,相当,所以"。 quite a few=many, quite a little=much 而 only a little=little, only a few=few.

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[误] Do you want to have many bread? [正] Do you want to have some bread? [析] some 与 any 都可以用作形容词、 副词或代词, 在一般情况下, some 用于肯定句,any 用于疑问句和否定句,但在希望得到肯定答复 时, 应用 some。 其次是 some 可以用来修饰可数名词和不可数名词。

[误] Please tell me where the shoes shop is? [正] Please tell me where the shoe shop is. [析] 在用名词作修饰词来修饰另一名词时,这个作修饰词的名词 应用单数形式,如: a shoe shop 鞋店 a fruit shop 水果店 a book shop 书店 a post office 邮局 a police station 警察局 a bus stop 汽车站 [误] He is weak at physics. [正] He is weak in physics. [析]在表达擅长于作某事时用 be good at something, 而其反意词为 be bad at something, 但 be weak in something。 [误] This dictionary is worth to buy.

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[正] This dictionary is worth buying. [析] be worth 后可接动、名词表达值得作某事,又可接价格、金 钱表示值多少钱。 [误] Don't afraid of that. [正] Don't be afraid of that. [析] afraid 在英文中是形容词而不是动词。这样的词组还有: be afraid of 害怕 be careful of 小心 be certain of 有把握,确定 be sure of 确信 be glad of 高兴 be sick of 厌恶 be fond of 喜欢 [误] The work has already been done well. [正] The work has already been well done. [析] well 与 badly 作副词时,表示好坏,如果句子是被动语态, This machine has been badly damaged. 如 则应放在过去分词之前, 如: 果句子是主动语态,则应放于句末,如:I did my homework well. [误] We are yet in the classroom now. [正] We are already in the classroom now. [析] already 主要用于肯定句,而 yet 多用于否定句和疑问句中, 如: Did you finish it? No. not yet. [误] Look. Here comes he!

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[正] Look! Here he comes! [误] Look! Here the bus comes! [正] Look! Here comes the bus! [析] 在句子开头用 Here 时, 如主语是人称代词则不要用倒装语序, 如果主语是名词则要用倒装语序。 [误] She is my older sister. [正] She is my elder sister. [析] elder 和 eldest 是用来指家庭中兄弟姐妹的长幼关系, 而 older, oldest 则是指岁数大多少,如:She is three years older than I. [误] I'm tired. I can't go further. [正] I'm tired. I can't go farther. [析] far 有两个比较级 farther 较远的,further 进一步的,如:Do you need any further explanation? 你需要进一步的解释吗?当然它也有 两个最高级。farthest 和 furthest. [误] I went to Beijing University five years before. [正] I went to Beijing University five years ago. [析] ago 常与过去时连用,而 before 则多与完成时连用。 [误] - Have you finished your homework? - No, not already. [正] - Have you finished your homework? - No, not yet.

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[析] 仍然有三个英文字可以表达它们是 already, yet 与 still。 要 注意的是 already 经常用于肯定句中, 如 The bus has already gone。而 yet 多用于疑问句和否定句中,如:Have you finished your homework yet? 而 still 则常用于主语与谓语动词之间,如:We still can't decide what to do. 但也有时用于 be 动词之后,如:He is still here. [误] He is very higher than I am. [正] He is much higher than I am. [析] much 可以用来修饰比较级,而 very 则用来修饰形容词原级, 如:I'm very tired. [误] - Can I walk to the station? - You'd better not. It is very far. [正] - Can I walk to the station? - You'd better not, It is a long way. [析] for 一般用在疑问句与否定句中,如:How far is it from here to the station? 又如:It isn't far. [误] I've ever been to America. [正] I've been to America once. [析] once 多用于肯定句,而 ever 则用于疑问句,否定句,及条件 状语从句中,如:Have you ever been to London? [误] - Could you pass the exam this time? - No, I am not afraid so. [正] - Could you pass the exam this time?

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- No, I'm afraid not. [析] 在肯定的答语中我们可以用 so 来代替上句所讲的事件,如: Do you think she is a good student? Yes I think so, /I hope so, /I believe so/ I'm afraid so. 但在否定的答语中,英语口语的习惯用法则有所不 I don't think so 而在 hope, belive 与 afraid 后则常用 not, 如: 同, 如, I hope not. [误] She didn't work enough hard, so she couldn't pass the exam. [正] She didn't work hard enough, so she couldn't pass the exam. [析] enough 可以作名词用,如: Enough has been said for how to learn English well. (对于如何学好英语已经讲的足够多了。) 另外它

可以作为形容词,如:I have enough money (or money enough) to buy this dictionary. 注意 enough 作为形容词时即可放于名词前又可放于 名词后,在初中范围的考题中多用于名词之前。如果 enough 作为副 词用,那么它一定要放在被修饰的形容词或副词之后。 [误] You can't be very careful. [正] You can't be too careful. [析] 此句话的含意是你如何小心也不过分。 too … to 的用法是 " 太……以至于不能作某事"。 但在实际应用时也常常将后面的 to 省去, 如:It is too expensive for me.那对我来讲是太贵了。 [误] He is good past fifty. [正] He is well past fifty.

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[析] well 作为副词用时除用于"好"之外还有"大大地、远远地", 等意。往往有人对下面两句的对或错有争议; He is well. He is good. 其实这两句都是正确的表达法,只不过其含意不同。He is well 是"他 身体不错",而 He is good 则为"他是个好人"。 [误] She is not as half clever as her brother. [正] She is not half as clever as her brother. [析]在 as…as 结构中要将修饰形容词的数量词倍数及 nearly, almost, exactly… 等置 于第一 个 as 之前。 [误] He is same age as Tom. [正] He is the same age as Tom. [析] the same…as 是固定的用法,其中定冠词 the 是不可省也不能 换成别的词的。 [误] Mother and her daughter are exactly like. [正] Mother and her daughter are exactly alike. * like 作为介词, 其意为"像", 应用于 look like, be like, sound like, 其 后要加宾语。 而 alike 是形容词, 或副词, 如: You and I think alike.

The twins are dressed alike。 但 alike 仅作表语而不能用于名词前作 定语。 [误] Who is taller of the two?

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[正] Who is the taller of the two? [析] 两者的比较级之前要加定冠词。 [误] I have less books than Tom. [正] I have fewer books than Tom. [析] less 是 little 的比较级,而 fewer 是 few 的比较级。less 后应 加不可数名词而 fewer 后是可数名词。 [误] There are three girls in my group. The cleverer is Mary. [正] There are three girls in my group. The cleverest is Mary. [析] 在两者之间应用比较级,在三者之间或三者以上的范围内应 用最高级。 [误] The boy sat there as quiet as his sister. [正] The boy sat there as quietly as his sister. [析] as…as 的用法要注意的是:①在其中间应加形容词或副词的 原级,而不可加比较级,也有的语法书中称为同级比较。②要根据句 意决定是加形容词还是副词,这要看它具体是修饰动词还是名词而 定,如:He is as good as his friend. [误] The harder you study, and you can learn more. [正] The harder you study, the more you can learn. [析] 英文中如果要表达越来越怎样,在初中范围有两种表达法: ①比较级 +and+ 比较级。②定冠词 + 比较级……,如: The nights are getting longer and longer。 要注意的是多音节形容词的比较级前要加

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more, more and more 加形容词, The girl is growing 这样的用法是: 如: more and more beautiful. [误] Studying physics is not so interesting as to learn English. [正] Studying physics is not so interesting as learning English. [析] 在作比较时,英语一般要求对比的两部分结构应一致。如用 动名词,应都用动名词,用不定式时则都用不定式。但有时在后一个 不定式前的符号 to 可以省略。如: To repair the old one is as much expensive as (to) buy a new one. [误] The girl is more cleverer than the boy. [正] The girl is much more clever (much cleverer) than the boy. [析] clever 有两个比较级:cleverer 和 more clever,要注意的是不能 用比较级来修饰比较级。 clever 的两个比较级也各有不同之处,如 He is more clever than 用在两种不同性质的比较时多用 more clever,如: honest. (他的聪明要远远超过其诚实。) [析] The boy is the tallest to the three. [正] The boy is the tallest of the three. [析] 最高级的范围要用 of 加复数形式或加集合名词。 [误] This book is one of the most useful dictionary. [正] This book is one of the most useful dictionaries. [析] 在 one of 后面最高级形容词后要加可数名词复数。 [ 误 ] This dictionary is the much best one of the English Chinese

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dictionaries. [ 正 ] This dictionary is much the best one of the English dictionaries. [析]在修饰最高级时应用 far/by far/much 加 the 加最高级。 但 very 例外,如:He is the very best player in the team. [误] Shanghai is bigger than any other cities in China. [正] Shanghai is bigger than any other city in China. [析] 在比较级中表示比较对象时如用 any other 其后一般要加单数 名词。 [误] Most of stories in this book are written in English. [正] Most of the stories in this book are written in English. [正] Most stories in this book are written in English. [析] "大多数"一词的表达法有 most of the +名词,或 most+名词。 当用前一种结构时,其后面的定冠词不可少。 [误] The temperature of that room is higher than this room. [正] The temperature of that room is higher than that of this room. [析] 比较级用于两句话之间时,比较的部分不可省略掉,但为了 避免重复,一般都要用 that 代替前面的单数名词,而用 those 代替前 面的复数名词,如:The books in that box are bigger than those in this box。 [误] He is no more here. Maybe he is at home. Chinese

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[正] He is no longer here. Maybe he is at home. "从此再也不会了", His voice [析]no more 在现代英语中多译为: 如: is no more here. 他已经去世了,他的声音不可能再出现了。而用 no longer 表达目前的状态。要注意下面几组句子的实际含意: This

room is no cleaner than that one.即两间屋子都不干净。(两者都不干净) This room is not cleaner than that one,即这屋子不如那间干净。(前者不 如后者干净。即一间干净,一间不干净。) (三) 例题解析 1 I think Chinese is ___ than maths. more interesting

A. interesting B

C. most interesting D. the most interesting [答案] B. [析] 在有 than 作比较的句子中应用形容词的比较级。 2 - What does Lucy like better, singing or dancing?

- Singing. of course. She's known to ___ it. A. be good at B. be good for C. be bad at D. be bad for [答案] A. [析] be good at 为固定搭配,意为"擅长作某事"。初中英语中有些 这样的固定用法应记牢, 而不能似是而非。 如: be good at, be bad at, be poor in, be week in, be fit for

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3

The Huang He River is one of ___ in China.

A. The long river B. the longest river C. the longest rivers D. the longer river [答案] C. [析] 在 one of + 定冠词+最高级之后的名词应用复数形式。 4 The girl was ___ afraid ___ she threw her bag away.

A. so, that B. too, to C. too, that D. enough, to [答案] A. [析] so…that 为"如此怎样以至于如何",此句意思是:小女孩如此 害怕以至于扔下包跑掉了。而 too…to 的意思为"如何如何,以至于不 能作某事"。但 to 的后面是动词原形,而不是从句。 5 It was ___ yesterday than today.

A. hot B. hoter C. hotter D. the hottest [答案] C. [析] 用 than 表达比较的句中应用比较级 。 6 Which subject do you like ___ , English Chinese or maths?

A. best B. well C. better D. good [答案] A. [析] 在两者之间应用比较级,而在三者之间或三者以上用最高级。

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7

None of the students watched it ___ .

A. careful enough B. enough carefully C. carefully enough D. enough careful [答案] C. [析] 首先应判定是选用用来修饰名词的形容词还是用来修饰动词 的副词。这里是修饰 watch 这一动词,应选用副词。当 enough 用来 修饰副词或形容词时应放于被修饰的形容词或副词之后。 8 ___ she eats, ___ she'll be.

A. More…fat B. The more…fatter C. More…the fatter D. The more…the fatter [答案] D. [析] the+比较级表示"越来越……"本句应译为:她吃得越多,她就 会越胖。 9 I don't think English is ___ Chinese.

A. as important as B. not important as C. not so important D. important as [答案] A. [析] think+宾语从句时,应采用否定主句的形式,如:中文讲," "我不认为你对"。 I don't think you are right. 我认为你不对", 英文应为: 所以不能选答案 B。而 C、D 均为不正确的表达法。

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10

Miss Gao is a good English teacher. The students in her class __

_ English. A. are interested in B. are interesting in C. are interested at D. are interesting to [答案] A. [析] 过去分词常用来修饰人,而现在分词常用来修饰物,如:an interesting book, 实际上过去分词含有被动之意,如:interested 其 含意是"被……所吸引,感动"。而 interesting 则为"使人感兴趣的", 如:an interesting man 一个有趣、风趣的人。 11 _ . A. alone B. lonely C. happily D. friendly [答案] B. [析] alone 意为"独自的,一个人的",它只能作表语不能作定语。 I am not alone in doing such a thing.而 lonely 意为"寂寞的,孤单的", 如:The old man felt lonely. 要体会两个词的区别,如:The old man lived alone, but he didn't feel lonely. 12 What a ___ cough! You seem ___ ill. The twins are together most of the time. So they never feel __

A. terrible, terribly B. terribly, terrible C. terrible, terrible D. terribly, terribly [答案] A.

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[析] terrible 是形容词, 而 terribly 是副词, 第一个空是修饰名词的, 所以应填入形容词。第二个空 ill 是形容词,这里 terribly 是用来修饰 ill 的。 13 The two friends were ___ pleased to see each other that they A. so B. too

forgot everything. C. very D. much [答案] A.

[析] 这里用的是 so…that 的固定搭配。 14 Which is ___ , Li Lei's box or Han Meimei's box?

A. heavy B. heavier C. more heavier D. the heaviest [答案] B. [析] 两者之间用比较级,三者或以上用最高级。 15 You don't like the same colours and I don't like them, ___ .

A. too B. also C. either D. neither [答案] C. [析]在否定句中也应用 either, 而不要用 too, 因 too 用于肯定句中。

16

Jim is ___ at all his lessons. And I'm sure he'll do very __

_ in the exams.

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A. well, good B. good, well C. well, well D. good, good [答案] B. [析] good 为形容词,如:He is good. 他是个好人。而 well 作为身 体状况的好坏讲时是形容词,如:He is well 为他身体不错,而作为 其他意思时为副词,如:He speaks English well. 17 You look ___ than before, why?

A. more thin B. more thinner C. much more thin D. much thinner [答案] D. [析] 多音节形容词才用 more 或 most 加形容词来表示其比较级或 最高级,而 thin 的比较级为 thinner。 18 Let's go out for supper now. I'm very ___ .

A. hungry B. angry C. tired D. thirsty [答案] A. [析] hungry-饿,angry-生气,tired-紧,疲劳,thirsty-口渴。要注 意名词的词义。 19 - Can you understand me?

- Sorry, I can ___ understand you. A. hardly B. almost

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C. even D. ever [答案] A. [析] hardly 为一否定词,用在句中时应被看作是否定句。在答语 中 Sorry 决定了其意为"听不明白",所以只能选 hardly。 20 "___ do you write to your penfriend?"

"About twice a month." A. How often B. How soon C. How much D. How long [答案] A. [析] how often 用来提问某一动作经多久就要发生一次,也就是提 问发生的频率。how soon 是问从现在起还有多久。 21 Changjiang River is ___ river in China

A. long B. longer C. longest D. the longest [答案] D. 22 I'll work ___ I can.

A. so hardly as B. so hard as C. as hardly as D. as hard as [答案] D. The desk was made of hard wood [析] hard 可用作形容词和副词, 如: 又如:It is raining hard。 而 hardly 是副词,其词义是"几乎不",

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如:Hardly did I sleep last night. 我昨晚几乎没有睡觉。而且 hardly 用 于句首时要采用倒装语序。as…as 即可以用于肯定句,也可以用于否 定句,但 so…as 则只能用于否定句中。 23 It is very ___ to listen to him.

A. interested B. interesting C. interested in D. interest [答案] B. [析] interest 作为名词有两个词义,①兴趣,②银行中所讲的利息。 而其形容词 interesting 是"使人感兴趣的", 而 interested 是"感兴趣的" 如:He is interested in English. 24 Things are ___ worse than I thought.

A. more B. few C. very D. much [答案] D. [析] 只有 much 可以修饰比较级。 25 It is one o'clock, but her father hasn't come back ___ .

A. already B. still C. too D. yet [答案] D. [析] 完成时的否定句尾要用 yet, 而 already 则用于肯定句。 26 Comrade Chen is ___ older than I.

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A. very B. more C. much D. quite [答案] C. [析] 只有 much 可以修饰比较级。可以修饰比较级的词还有 much, far, even a little, by far 等。 27 She did her homework ___ .

A. carefully B. careful C. care D. careless [答案] A. less [析] 这里应填入副词, 而 careless 是由 care 加 less 后辍得来的, 意为"没有",是否定之意,如:careless-不小心,homeless-无家可归。 而 carefully 为副词。 28 They can't answer the question in Japanese; we can't answer it, _

__ . A. also B. too C. either D. neither [答案] C. 29 - How are your parents?

- They are very ___ , thank you. A. good B. kind C. well D. happy [答案] C.

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[析] 由问句得知其询问的是身体如何,所以 well 作为身体状况不 错时应视为形容词。 30 A. the fast B. faster C. fastest D. most fast [答案] C. [析] 副词的最高级前可以加定冠词,也可以不加定冠词。 31 We were all ___ glad that we sang and danced. Peter runs ___ in our class.

A. such B. so C. very D. quite [答案] B. [析] 在 so 与 that 之间只有形容词时不可用 such。 32 Kate sings ___ Joan.

A. as well as B. as good as C. so good as D. as better as [答案] A. [析] 这里 well 为副词,意为"唱得好"。 33 This egg smells ___ , though it looks all right.

A. good B. well C. bad D badly

[答案] C. [析] smell 为系动词,其后应加形容词,而不是副词。同样的词,

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become(变成)等等, Ice feels cold in winter. 还有 sound, feel, seem、 如:

34

Wait a minute, I have ___ to tell you.

A. something interested B. something interesting C. interesting something D. anything interesting [答案] B. [析] 修饰不定代词的修饰词要放在不定代词之后。 35 I shall visit you ___ next year.

A. sometimes B. sometime C. some time D. some times [答案] B. [析] sometimes 有时,sometime 某一时刻,some time 一段时间, some times 若干次 36 My sister said she would try to speak ___ English every day.

A. a little B. a few C. litttle D. few [答案] A. [析] little 修饰不可数名词,而 a little 意为"一些,一点"。 37 I have ___ friends here and I often visit them.

A. few B. little

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C. a few D. a little [答案] C. [析] a few 意为"有些",few 后面要加可数名词复数。 38 Of all these books, do you think, which one is ___ ?

A. interesting B. much interesting C. more interesting D. the most interesting [答案] D. [析] Of all these books 是用来表示最高级的范围

五、 连 词

(一) 知识概要 连词是一种在句子与句子之间, 短语之间以及名词等其他词语之间起 连接作用的虚词,它不能单独作句子的成份。按其意义可分为并列连 词和从属连词两大类。 并列连词连接的双方是对等的。常有的并列 连词有 and, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, as well as 等。但如果连接的两部分意义不趋向一致,意义有转折的并列 连词有:but, however, while (而),only (只不过)。还有表示选择关系 的并列连词,如:or, or else, otherwise… 再有的是连接双方,互为因 果,或表示前因后果的连词有:for, so, therefore (因此),then 等。 从属连词在初中范围内常常用来连接名词性从句, 如: that, if, whether,
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其次用来连接状语从句。其中有原因状语从句,常用的连接词有: when while, as, since, before, after, once, as soon as, until, till 连接条件 状语的连词有: if, unless, as long as 等,而原因状语的连接词有 because, since, as, now that (既然)。目的、结果、方式、比较、地点等 状 语 从 句 的 连 接 词 有 : so that, so … that, such … that, as … as, than, where… 它们在句子与文章中几乎无处不见。 具体用法见下表。 连词用法一览表 种类 功用 例句 并列连词 French. 短语 Are you going by bus or on foot? 分句 Mary was a good girl, but she had one shortcoming. 从属连词 引导: 状语从句 I'll do it as you told me. You will be late unless you hurry. 连接代词和连接副词 主语从句 What he said proved true. When we'll start has not been decided yet. 表语从句 This is why he didn't come yesterday. That is where he lives. 宾语从句 The man asked me which I liked best. I can't understand why she is so late. 关系代词和关系副词 定语从句 Nicotine is a drug that gets one into 连接具有并列关系的 词 He knows neither English nor

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the habit of smoking. He came last night when I was out.

(二) 正误辨析 [误] Both my parents are not here. They went to the concert just now.

[正] Neither of my parents is here. They went to the concert just now.

[析] 在英语中 both 一般用于肯定句中,如用于否定句中,其意义 也不同于汉语,如:Both of us are not right. 在英语中应被理解为"我 们俩不都对。"而 Neither of us is right。 才能被理解为"我们俩无一正 确"。 [误] He or his parents has some tickets for the film. [正] He or his parents have some tickets for the film. [析] 由 or 连接两主语时, 谓语动词应与相临近的那一个主语保持 一致。 [误] You should study hard, and you won't pass the exam. [正] You should study hard, or you won't pass the exam. [析] or 作为连词,这里的意思为"否则"。又如:Hurry up, or you'll be late for school. [误] Though he is poor, but he is ready to help others.

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[正] Though he is poor, he is ready to help others. [正] He is poor, but he is ready to help others. [析] "虽然……但是"是中文中的常用结构,但在英文中用了"虽然 "则不要用"但是",用了"但是"则不能再用"虽然",二者只可用其一。

[误] Either you or I are on duty. [正] Either you or I am on duty. [析] either…or 连接两个主语时, 其谓语动词与相临近的一个主语 相呼应,这也叫作就近原则。类似的用法还有 or, neither… nor, not only…but also 等。 [误] Tom is our English teacher and teaching English in our school now. [正] Tom is our English teacher and is teaching English in our school now. [析] 并列句中常常在后面的句子中作一些省略,以免重复,但不 是所有词都可作任意的省略的。当你连接的是两个系动词时,后面的 那个系动词不可省略,也就是讲连接的部分不可省略。 [误] My father likes swimming and to collect stamps. [正] My father likes swimming and collecting stamps. [析] 由并列连词连接的两个部分要保持相等的语法结构。如是动 名词则都用动名词,如用不定式则都应用不定式,这是初学者要注意

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的一点。 [误] My father is reading a newspaper, I am doing my homework. [正] My father is reading a newspaper while I am doing my homework.

[析] 两个并列句中间不可用逗号连接,要用并列连词来连接。 [误] My father asked me that if I wanted to learn how to drive. [正] My father asked me if I wanted to learn how to drive. [析] 宾语从句的连接词只能有一个不能重复使用。 [误] We will go both to Beijing and Shanghai. [正] We will go to both Beijing and Shanghai. [析] 用 both…and…作连接词时,其相连接的部分结构也要相同。

[误] Not only Mary but also her brothers is going to dance. [正] Not only Mary but also her brothers are going to dance. [析] 由 not only… but also…连接两个主语时,其重点在其后面的 那一个主语,所以谓语形式应采用就近原则。 [误] The teacher as well as his students are coming. [正] The teacher as well as his students is coming. [析] 由 as well as 连接两个主语时,谓语动词与 as well as 后面的 名词无关,而与前面的名词相一致。 [误] Tom does not swim nor play football.

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[正] Tom does not swim or play football. [析] nor 主要用于连接句子的对等连词, 如在否定句中连接某一部 This animal does not like a cow 分时要用 or, 但要注意句子的含意, 如: or a horse. 这个动物既不像牛也不像马。 This animal does not like a cow but a horse. 这个动物不像牛而像马。 [ 误 ] For there is no light in the classroom. The students must have gone home. [正] The students must have gone home, for there is no light in the classroom. [析]由 for 引出的原因状语从句在使用时要注意不能将该从句置于 句 首,而应置于主句之后,并在主句与从句之间加一逗号。更要注 意的是 because, as, since 与 for 4 个表示原因的连词中 because 是因果 关系,是最强的一个,而 for 是最弱的一个。有些语法书中干脆把 for 叫做并列连词 [误] My brother will pass the English exam is no question. [正] That my brother will pass the English exam is no question. [析] 主语从句的引导词 that 是不可省略的。这一点不要和宾语从 句的引导词相提并论。 [误] This map will show you how will you get to the hotel. [正] This map will show you how you will get to the hotel. [析] 名词性从句作宾语从句使用时,最重要的一点是要用陈述语

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句。特别要注意的是那些使用双宾语的动词,如:tell, ask, show… [误] While the clock struch ten, all the lights went out. [正] When the clock struck ten, all the lights went out. [析] while 是强调两个动作在同时进行中,如:While I am doing myhomework, my father is reading a newspaper. 而这里的 when 是 " 正 当某某时刻","就在这一时间点上",其重点强调在某一特定时刻某 动作的发生。 [误] While I was walking along the street yesterday, I met an old friend.

[正] When I was walking along the street yesterday, I met an old friend.

[析] 这里用 when 表达在一个动作的进行中, 另一个动作突然发生 了。正在进行的动作用一进行时态,而突然发生的动作用一般时态。

[误] While I heard the bad news I felt sad. [正] When I heard the bad news, I felt sad. [析] while 不能表达一点儿的时间,即瞬时某一时间点。 [ 误 ] After school some students play football, or others go to the library. [正] After school some students play football, while others go to the library.

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[析] while 在此处意为"而,然而"。 [误] She sang when she walked along the dark street. [正] She sang as she walked along the dark street. [析] as 用于句中时,其要点是强调两个动作的同时进行。这里用 when 虽然不能讲是语法上的错误,但则看不出来小女孩因独自走黑 暗的街道因害怕而唱歌的心情。 [误] I finished my homework until twelve o'clock last night. [正] I didn't finished my homework until twelve o'clock last night. [正] I did my homework until twelve o'clock last night. [析] until 用在句中时其含义是某一动作一直持续到某时结束,那 么句中的动词则一定要用持续性动词,如果要用瞬间,或截止性动词 时一定要用否定句式。因截止性动作的否定式应看作是持续性的动 作。如离开 leave 是瞬间动作,因一出门即为离开了,而不离开则是 长时间的。 [误] I have studied English when I was twelve. [正] I have studied English since I was twelve. [析] since 引出的时间状语从句是表达了一个时间点,而这个时间 点是主句动作的启始点,所以主句一般要用完成时态。 [误] Because he didn't study hard, so he didn't pass the exam. [正] He didn't pass the exam because he didn't study hard. [析] because 与 so 在英文中两者不能并用的, 只能在句中用其一。

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[误] He was such excited that he could not speak. [正] He was so excited that he could not speak. [析] so 与 such 的用法可以分为四种情况,①用于单数可数名词之 前,其格式是 such+不定冠词+形容词+单数可数名词,如:It is such a beautiful book that every child likes it. 也可以用 so, 其格式是 so+形容 词+不定冠词+单数可数名词,如:It was so beautiful a book that every child likes it. ②在不可数名词前或可数名词复数前这时只能用 such, 如:It is such good weather that we want to swim. 又如:They are such good students that they can pass the exam easily. ③在 few, little, much, many 这 4 个字前只能用 so 而不能用 such, 如: I have so much money that I can buy everything I want. ④当 that 前只有形容词或副词时,这 时只能用 so, 如:She is so beautiful that every one likes her. He ran so fast that I couldn't keep up with him. [误] He got up earlier this morning so as to that he could catch the first bus. [正] He got up earlier this morning so as to catch the first bus. [正] He got up so earlier that he could catch the first bus. [析] so…that 与 so that 的用法有相同之处,那就是其后接从句, 而 so as to 其后要接不定式,即动词原形。这样的词组还有:in order to。

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[误] I want to buy same stamp that you have. [正] I want to buy the same stamp as you have. [析] the same…as (that)这是个固定用法,在 same 前的定冠词是不 能少的。而 the same…that 意为"我要的就是那一个"。而 the same…as 为"要的是和……一样的东西"。 [误] Before I do not give you the answer, I'll ask you some questions.

[正] Before I give you the answer, I'll ask you some questions. [析] 这种错误是由于受中文的影响。在中文中可以讲"我没给你答 案前"。而英文用了 before 就不要再用否定句了。 (三) 例题解析 1 We bought Granny a present, ___ she didn't like it.

A. but B. and C. or D. so [答案] A. [析] 由于句意的原因,应选择转折连词。 2 Run quickly, ___ we'll miss the early train.

A. and B. but C. so D. or [答案] D. [析] or 这里应译为:否则。

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3

I'll give the book to him ___ he comes back.

A. since B. as soon as C. before D. until [答案] B. [析] as soon as 引出的时间状语从句应用一般现在时表示将来要发 生的动作。 4 Don't cross the road ___ the light turns green.

A. when B. while C. until D. as [答案] C. [析] until 应译为"直到……才",因为前面的祈使句为否定句。又 She did not go to bed until her mother came back. 应译为"直到她妈 如: 妈回来她才睡觉"。 5 Miss Gao has been a teacher ___ 1990.

A. before B. after C. since D. in [答案] C. [析] 因为主句为完成时,所以应用 since 表示该动作的启始点。

6

- Which would you like better, tea ___ milk?

- Tea, please.

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A. but B. and C. or D. with [答案] C. [析] 在疑问句与否定句中应用 or 来表示一种选择。 7 We love spring ___ there's beautiful flowers every where.

A. though B. but C. or D. because [答案] D. [析] 因为这里表示的是因果关系。 8 Please leave ___ 7 ∶00 , then you'll be able to get ___

there earlier. A. till, in B. from, / C. before, / D. behind, to [答案] C. [析] before 为在7∶00之前离开。 9 The teacher didn't begin the lesson ___ all the students stopped

talking. A. until B. after C. if D. because [答案] A. [析] 这句应译为"直到所有的学生都停止讲话老师才开始上课"。

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因 begin 为瞬间动词,所以应用否定句。 10 Betty didn't go to see the film yesterday ___ she was ill.

A. but B. until C. if D. because [答案] D. [析] 这里是表示因果关系,所以应用 because。因为她病了所以未 去看电影。 11 You must start right now, ___ you'll miss the train.

A. for B. and C. so D. or [答案] D. [析] or 译为"否则"。本句句意为:你必须马上走了,否则要赶不 上火车了。 12 ___ he is a child of six, he can read and write.

A. Whose B. If C. Though D. Because [答案] C. [析] 这种状语从句在英语中称为让步状语从句,应译为:虽然他 才是个 6 岁的孩子,他却可以读书和写字。 13 I like fish, ___ chicken, ___ eggs.

A. and, and B. and, with

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C. /, and D. and, / [答案] C. [析] 在有若干个名词或动词出现时,每一个词之间只用逗号连接, 只在最后两个词之间加 and 。如:The old man passed the street, went into a shop and bought some food。 14 Take this dictionary with you ___ you may use it in class.

A. when B. in order to C. but D. so that [答案] D. [析] so that 应译为"为的是"。本句句义为:带上字典,为的是在 上课时可能有用。而 in order to 其后应接动词不定式,如:Take this dictionary with you in order to use it in class。 15 I hope ___ will be fine tomorrow.

A. it B. what C. whether D. when [答案] A. [析] hope 后接的是宾语从句,而且宾语从句中少主语,应用 it 来 代替天气。 16 ___ she was not well, I decided to go without her.

A. Though B. As C. When D. Because of

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[答案] B. [析] as 这里应译为"由于"。全句意为:由于她不舒服,我决定不 带她去了。而 because of 其后不能接从句只能接宾语。如: Because of the heavy rain, we decided not to go。 17 My aunt bought me ___ many story books that I spent a lot of

time them. A. such…on B. such…in C. too…in D [答案] D. [析]因 many 前只能用 so 来修饰, 所以只能选择 D 选项。 而 spend… on something 为在某事上花费时间或钱。如:She spent a lot of money on her clothes。 18 Mother was cooking ___ she ___ a knock at the door. so…on

A. when, listen to B. while, listened to C. while, heard D. when, heard [答案] D. [析] when 在这里应译为:就在那时,那一刻,那一瞬间。 19 Speak slowly, ___ we can understand you.

A. and B. or C. if D. because [答案] A.

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[析] and 这里是并列连词,应译为:请讲慢些这样我们就会明白 你的意思。 20 You'll learn English well ___ you put your heart into it.

A. if B. so C. until D. or [答案] A. [析] 本句译为:如果你将心放在学习上,你就会将英语学好。这 里的语法现象是从句中用一般现在时表示将来。 21 I won't let you in ___ you show me your pass.

A. until B. for C. since D. because [答案] A. 22 She didn't go to school ___ she was ill.

A. why B. because C. where D. but [答案] B.

六、 介 词
(一) 知识概要 介词在英语中用法很活,也无一定规律可循。在初中范围内还应学一 个记住一个,特别是那些和动词的特殊搭配。这样长期下去不断学习
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自然会总结出一套自己的规律来。下面是一般的规律,可帮助学习时 参考,千万不要作为定律去背诵,照搬。 介词 表示时间 表示地点方位 表示原因方式 其 他 about 大约在……时间 five kilometres talk about you about five o'clock 在周围,大约多远 about

关于、涉及

above

高出某一平面

above sea level

across

横过 walk across the street 对面 across the street

after 在……之后 after supper 跟……后面 one after another 追赶 run after you

against

背靠逆风

against the wall, against the wind 反对

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be against you

among

三者以上的中间

among the trees

at 在某时刻 at ten 在小地点 at the school gate 表示速度 at high speed 向着,对着 at me

before 在……之前 before lunch 位于……之前 sit before me

behind

位于……之后

behind the tree

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below

低于……水平

below zero 不合格 below the standard

by 到……时刻,在……时刻之前 by five o'clock 紧挨着 site by site 乘坐交通工具 by air, by bick 被由 was made by us

during 在……期间 during the holidays for 延续多长时间 for five years 向……去 leave for Shanghai be good for you 为了,对于

from 从某时到……某时 from morning till night 来自何方

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from New York 由某原料制成 be made from 来自何处 where are you from

in 在年、月、周较长时间内 in a week 在里面 in the room 用某种语言 in English 穿着 in red

into

进入……里面

walk into 除 分 divide into 变动 turn into water

near 接近某时 near five years 在……附近 near the park of 用某种原料制成

be made of 属于……性质

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a map of U. S .A

on 某日、某日的上下午 on Sunday afternoon 在……上面 on the desk 靠吃……为生 live on rice 关于 a book on Physics over 渡过一整段时间 work over night 在上方 over the desk 超过, 高于 over five pairs past 超过某一时刻 ten past five 经过某地 walk past the park

since 从某时以来 since 1980 原因 Since you were ill

through 经过某一时期 through his life 通过、穿过某地 through the forest till until 直到某时为止 till five o'clock to 差多少时间

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five to ten 问,到,去往 to Shanghai 面对面 face to face 给予 give a book to me under 在……下面

under the desk 少于 under ten 在……管制之 下 under the rule with with me 用某种工具 with a pen 带着,具有

without without air

没有

(二) 正误辨析 [误] We got to the top of the mountain in daybreak. [正] We got to the top of the mountain at day break. [ 析 ] at 用 于 具 体 时 刻 之 前 , 如 : sunrise, midday, noon, sunset,

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midnight, night。 [误] Don't sleep at daytime [正] Don't sleep in daytime. in the morning / afternoon, [析] in 要用于较长的一段时间之内, 如: 或 in the week / month / year. 或 in spring / supper /autumn / winter 等 等。 [误] We visited the old man in Sunday afternoon. [正] We visited the old man on Sunday afternoon. [析] in the morning, in the afternoon 如果在这两个短语中加入任何 修 饰 词 其 前 面 的 介 词 都 要 改 为 on, 如 : on a cold morning, on the morning of July 14th [误] He became a writter at his twenties [正] He became a writter in his twenties [析] 这句话应译为:他在 20 多岁时就成了作家。在某人的一段生 活时间段中要用介词 in 来表示,而在具体岁数时用 at 来表示。 [误] He went to New York to find a job in sixteen years old. [正] He went to New York to find a job at sixteen. [析] 在具体年岁前用 at, 如:at the age of 12, at your age, 等等。

[误] We went to swim in the river in a very hot day. [正] We went to swim in the river on a very hot day.

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[析] 具体某一天要用介词 on, 又如:on New Year's Day [误] I'm looking forward to seeing you on Christmas. [正] I'm looking for ward to seeing you at Christmas. [析] 在节日的当天用 on,而全部节日期间用 at,Christmas 是圣诞 节期间,一般要有两周或更长的时间。 [误] I haven't see you during the summer holidays. [正] I haven't seen you since the beginning of the summer holidays. [析] during 表示在某一段时间之内,所以一般不与完成时搭配, 如:I visited a lot of museums during the holiday. 而 for 表示一段时间, 可以用于完成时,如:I haven't see you for a long time. 而 through 用 It rained through the night. 来表示时间时则为"整整, 全部的时间"。 如: 而 since 则是表达主句动作的起始时间,一般要与完成时连用。 [误] At entering the classroom, I heard the good news. [正] On entering the classroom, I heard the good news. [析] On 加动名词表示"一……就"。本句的译文应是:我一进入教 室就听见这个好消息了。又如:on hearing… 一听见, on arrival 一 到达就……(on 表示动作的名词) [误] In the beginning of the book, there are some interesting stories. [正] At the beginning of the book, there are some interesting stories.

[析] at the begining 与 at the end 都是指某事物的开始与结束部分,

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in the end 均不指时间范围, 而 in the beginning 则是指开始一段时间。 =at last 是指"最终,终于"之意。 [误] Till the end of next week. I will have finished this work. [正] By the end of next week. I will have finished this work. [析] by 引起的时间状语表示了动作的截止点,其意思为"不迟于 某一时刻将工作做完",所以主句一般是完成时态。当然可以有将来 时态,如:I'll be there by five o'clock.而 till 则表达其一动作一直持续 到某一时刻,但句中的动词一定要用持续性动词,而瞬间的截止性动 I won't finish this work till(until) next weekend. 词应用其否定句式, 如:

[误] He came to London before last weekend. [正] He had come to London before last weekend. [正] He came to London two weeks ago. [析] before 一般要与完成时连用,而 ago 则与一般过去时连用。

[误] I have studied English for three years gince I had come here. [正] I have studied English for three years since I came here. [析] since 用来表达主句动作的开始时间,所以其引出的从句中应 为过去时,而不能用完成时态 [误] I can help you repair this bike. You will get it after two hours. [正] I can help you repair this bike. You will get it in two hours.

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[析] 中文经常讲两小时之后来取,两天内会修好,而这个介词在 英文中要用 in 而不要用 after。其原因有二,①after 多用于过去时, 如:I arrived in New York. After three days, I found a job in the bank. ② after 加时间是表达一个不确定的时间范围,如:after three days, 即 三天之后的哪一天都可以。所以在许诺若干时间内会完成某事时, 一 定要用介词 in。 [误] Three days after he died. [正] After three days he died. [正] Three days later he died. [析] after 与 later 都可以用来表达一段时间之后,但它们所处的 位置不同,after 在时间词前,而 later 在时间词后。 [误] She hid herself after the tree. [正] She hid herself behind the tree. [析] after 多用来表达某动作之后,所以有的语法书中称它为动态 介词,如:I run after him. After finishing my homework, I went to see a film. 而 behind 则多用于静态事物之后。 [误] There is a beautiful bird on the tree. [正] There is a beautiful bird in the tree. [析] 树上长出的果实,树叶要用 on, 而其他外来的人、物体均要 用 in the tree. [误] Shanghai is on the east of China.

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[正] Shanghai is in the east of China. [析] 在表达地理位置时有 3 个介词:in, on, to。 in 表示在某范围 to 则表示不相接。 Japan is to the east 之内; on 表示与某地区接壤; 如: of China. [误] I arrived at New York on July 2nd. [正] I arrived in New York on July 2nd. [析] at 用来表达较小的地方,而 in 用来表达较大的地方。at 常用 于 at the school gate, at home, at a bus stop, at the station, at the cinema, at a small village。 [误] He lived in No. 3 Beijing Road. [正] He lived at No. 3 Beijing Road. [析] 在门牌号码前要用 at, 并要注意它的惯用法:at the end of the street, at the foot of the mountain, at the top of the page。 [误] There is a colour TV set at the corner of the hall. [正] There is a colour TV set in the corner of the hall. [析] 在屋内的角落应用 in,而墙的外角用 at,如:There is a tree at the corner of the street. [误] This weekend I'll stay in Uncle Wang's. [正] This weekend I'll stay at Uncle Wang's. at a tailor's shop (裁缝店)=at a [析] 要注意英文的特殊表达法, 如: tailor's, at the doctor's ( 去看病 ) at the bookseller's ( 在书店 ) at uncle

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Wang's (在王叔叔家) [误] Do you know there is some good news on today's newspaper? [正] Do you know there is some good news in today's newspaper? [析] 在报纸上的新闻要用 in, 而在具体某一版上,或某一页上则 要用 on。 [误] The school will begin on September 1st. [正] School will begin on September 1st. [析] 这里的 school 应看作不可数名词泛指学校的课程,即开学之 意。要注意,有些活动场所当表达正在从事该种活动时不要加冠词, at table (吃饭), When I came to Tom's home, they were at table. 还 如: 有: at desk (学习),at work (工作) at school (上学), in hospital (住 医院) at church 作礼拜 如加上定冠词则另有他意,如:at the school in the hospital 即在医院工作或去看望病人。 即在学校工作或办事, [误] In my way to the station, I bought a newspaper to kill time. [正] On my way to the station, I bought a newspaper to kill time. [析] 译文为:在去车站的路上我买了份报纸,为的是消磨时光 " 在……的路上"应用 on one's way…。而 in the way 有挡道之意,如: Please move the chair it is in the way。 [误] Look, the door is open, Maybe someone broke into. [正] Look, the door is open, Maybe someone broke in. [正] Look, the door is open, Maybe someone broke into the office.

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[析] in 是表达一个静止状态,在与 break 连用时其后不加介词宾 语,而 into 则是动态介词,与 break 连用时要加介词宾语。 [误] I'll leave Beijing to Shanghai tomorrow. [正] I'll leave Beijing for Shanghai. [正] I'll leave for Shanghai. [析] leave for 是离开某地去某处的固定搭配,不可将 for 改为别 start for 动身前往某处, set out for, sail for。 的介词。 这样的搭配还有:

[误] I'm sorry. I have to get out the bus at next stop. [正] I'm sorry. I have to get out of the bus at next stop. get in 为上车, [析] get in, 与 get out 是两个相反的词组。 而 get out 为下车, 但语法家认为这里的 in 与 out 为副词, 所以其后不能接名词, 我们可以讲 We'd better get in. 或 We'd better get out. 还有一组词组有 关上下车: get on / off(a train, a ship, a struck) get into / out of (a car, taxi…) [误] Be careful zero. [正] Be careful. The temperature of the water is ninety degrees above zero. [析] over 与 above 在作为比某物高的意思时有时可以互换。 但在 垂直方向上的高矮时, 即正上方时则要用 above.而泛指上方时用 over. The temperature of the water is ninety degrees over

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[误] There is an old stone bridge above the river. [正] There is an old stone bridge over the river. [析] over 还有一意为"跨越,横跨"。 [误] The Dead Sea is under the sea level. [正] The Dead Sea is below the sea level. [析] 在垂直下方要用 below. 词,over 与 under 也是反意词。 [误] There is a big tree in the front of the house. [正] There is a big tree in front of the house. [析] in front of 是在物体外部的前面,而 in the front of 是在物体 内部的前面,如:The driver sits in the front of the bus. [误] It took them two days to walk across the forest. [正] It took them two days to walk through the forest. I want to walk [析] across 作为介词有两个主要意思: ① 横过, 如: across the street.② 对面,如:There is a post office across the street,而 through 多用于三维空间中的穿越。across 则多用于平面上的横过。 如:The little girl ran across the room to meet her mother. [误] The sun sets toward the west. [正] The sun sets in the west. [析] towards 也可用作 toward,它主要表达朝向某方向运动,但不 也就是讲 above 与 below 互为反意

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一定到达,如:He ran toward(s) the mountain.而在表示方位 east, west, north, south 时,其前面要用 in。要注意的是这 4 个词可以用作副词, 如:I went south. 也可用作名词,如:I went to the south.也可用作形 容词,如:I went to the south part of China. [误] Do you have no other clothes except those? [正] Do you have no other clothes besides those? [析] beside 是 " 在……旁边 " ,如: The students stood beside their teachers.而 besides 是"除……之外,不仅……而且……,除了……以 外还有…… " , 如: I studied English besides French, when I was in college. 而 except 则是从同一类物体中去掉某一部分, I come here 如: every day except Sunday. 而 except for 是指去掉不同种类的事物, 如: The room is clean except for two chairs. 而 except that 则要加从句。 [误] Can I write the exam paper with ink? [正] Can I write the exam paper with a pen? [正] Can I write the exam paper in ink? [析] with 后要加拿得起来放得下的工具,而墨水、颜料等原料则 要用 in。 [误] I'm earlier today. I came here by his car. [正] I'm earlier today. I came here in his car. [析] 在交通工具前加介词 by,但不能再有任何指示代词或冠词, 否则要改换相应的介词。 by taxi=in a taxi

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by train=in a train by bicycle=on a bicycle by ship=on a ship by boat=in a boat by bus=on a bus by plane=on a plane by air 空运 by land 陆运 by sea 海运 on foot on horseback by phone by letter by radio by air mail by hand [误] A lot of French wines are made of grape. [正] A lot of French wines are made from grape. [析] made of 是指由原材料到成品过程中原材料未发生质地的变 化,而发生了某种变化则要用 from, 如: The desk was made of hard wood. [误] This is a good dictionary in English grammar. [正] This is a good dictionary on English grammar. [析] 关于某方面的书籍、报告等有两个介词,其中 on 表示某专业 用书,about 则为某方面的普通读物,如:This is a book about physics.

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即物理科普知识。 [误] Do you have the key of the door. [正] Do you have the key to the door. [析] key to the door 门的钥匙。 相同用法还有 answer to the question, entrance to the highway, danger to health.千万不要用 of。 [误] Today a lot of Chinese people have interest of collecting stamps.

[正] Today a lot of Chinese people have interest in collecting stamps.

[析] have interest in 是在某方面有兴趣。 [误] I didn't do my homework, so the teacher was angry to me. [正] I didn't do my homework, so the teacher was angry with me. [析] be angry with 其后接人,而 be angry at 其后接事。如:He was angry at what she said. [误] He was good for skating. [正] He was good at skating. [析] be good at 为"擅长某事",而 be good for somebody 为对某人 很好。 [误] It was good to you to help my little boy. [正] It was good of you to help my little boy. [析] 这句话应译为:你真太好了,帮助了我的小孩。而 be good to

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somebody 是对某人态度好。如:Her mother is good to everyone. [误] My parents were very pleased at me. [正] My parents were very pleased with me. [正] My parents were very pleased at my studying. [析]be pleased with 后加 somebody, 而 be pleased at 后加 something。

[误] He is agree with me. [正] He agrees with me. [误] He againsts me. [正] He is against me. [析] 同意 agree 为动词,而反对 against 则为介词。在使用中一定 要注意。 [误] I haven't heard letters from him. [正] I haven't heard from him. [析] hear from 即为:从某人处得到信件。不要再加 letter 了。 [误] Teacher. May I call at you this weekend? [正] Teacher. May I call on you this weekend? [析] 作为"拜访"讲 call at 其后接地点,如:May I call at your home this weekend?而 call on 其后接人。 [误] Do you know the girl on white? [正] Do you know the girl in white?

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[析] in white 为穿一身白。与 in 有关的词组有:in bed(睡觉),in hospital(住院),in a hurry(匆匆忙忙),in danger(危险中),in joy (高兴), in good health(身体好),in love(恋爱),in trouble(困境),与之相反的 是 out of ,如:out of trouble (摆脱困境),out of date(过时了), out of order(出故障) [误] He looked at me at surprise. [正] He looked at me in surprise. To one's surprise, 如: [析] surprise 的用法一般有三种。 ①用于句首, To my surprise he succeeded. ② be surprised at, 如:I was surprised at the news. ③用于句尾 in surprise. [误] She didn't come to school because of she was ill. [正] She didn't come to school because she was ill. [析] because of 后接名词,如:The game was put off because of the rain. (三) 例题解析 1 - Thank you ___ the beautiful flowers!

- Not at all. A in B on C at D for

[答案] D. [析] 由于某事向某人道谢应用 for。 2 Can you answer this question ___ English?

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A

by B

in C

with D

from

[答案] B. [析] in 表示用语言、声音、或材料,如:He answered the question in a low voice. 3 A C Look ___ the map ___ China ___ the wall, please. after, of, in B after, in, on D at, of, in at, of, on

[答案] D. [析] look at 为"看", 而 on the wall 为"在墙表面挂着", 而 in the wall 则是"在墙内",如:There is hole in the wall.墙上有个洞。 4 - When did Mr Green arrive in London?

- He arrived there ___ the evening of December 6th. A at B in C on D to

[答案] C. [析] in the evening / afternoon 这两个词组不论是在其前或后加上任 何 修 饰 词 都 应 将 介 词 换 为 on, 如 : on a cold morning, on a spring morning 等。 5 We won the relay race. And there was a big smile _ _ _ our

teacher's face. A off B near C on D between

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[答案] C. 6 A The twins got on well ___ their classmates. to B in C with D about

[答案] C. [析] get on well with 与人相处很好。 7 - Please remember to come to my birthday party.

- I see. I'll come ___ Saturday evening. A in B at C on D for

[答案] C. 8 A Let's hurry, or we'll be late ___ school to B at C with D for

[答案] D. [析] be late for, 而 come late to, 如: Don't come late to school

9 A

They will have a maths test ___ two days for B at C in D after

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[答案] C. [析] 三天之内应用 in, 而不要受中文影响用 after, after three days 是个不定的时间范围,即没有一个准确的时间。5 天、6 天、10 天全 是 after three days。 10 A C My brother joined the army ___ 1989, March B March, 1989 D in March, 1989 1989, in March

[答案] B. [析] 在月份、年、前用介词 in,而日子前用 on。 11 A He couldn't work out the maths problem ___ your help without B under C for D with

[答案] A. [析] 在某人帮助下应用 with, 如: With the help of the teacher I passed the exam easily help 12 A Granny took one look at us ___ her glasses by B through C on D in 而 要是 没有 你的 帮助 则用 without your

[答案] B. [析] through 为穿过……。

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13 A

We had our breakfast ___ a quarter ___ seven /, to B in, to C at, to D on, to

[答案] C. [析] 具体时间点前用 at,而差几分几点用 to,这里应译为:我在 差一刻七点吃的早饭。 14 A I learn French ___ the radio every day on B in C from D at

[答案] A. [析] 从收音机中听到某事应用词组 on the radio。 15 A It's good manners to wait ___ line in B on C at D with

[答案] A. [析] in line 为排队。 16 A C How many English words had you learnt ___ last term? by the end of B to the end of D at the end of till the end of

[答案] A. [析] by the end of 为动作的截止时间,与完成时态相配合

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17 A

The manager was very satisfied ___ his work in B on C about D with

[答案] D. [析] be satisfied with 为固定搭配。 18 A John hit Jack ___ face on the B in the C on his D in his

[答案] B. [析] 英文中的某些动词其后要接人, 然后加介词+the+身体部位, 如:He caught the boy by the arm。 19 A I was born ___ the night ___ September 15, 1978 in, on B at, on C at, in D on, of

[答案] D. [析] 在时间前加介词时应以最小的时间单位为准。 20 It's a bad manner to laugh ___ people when they are __

_ trouble A over, in B at, in C in, at D at, for

[答案] B. [析] laugh at 嘲笑某人, laugh over 笑着谈论某人或某事, in

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trouble 陷入困境。 21 A I can't do this work well ___ Tom's help under B for C without D from

[答案] C. 22 Don't shout ___ the old woman 。 You should be more

polite ___ her A to, at B at, to C in, for D from, for

[答案] B. [析] shout at 为"冲某人喊叫",而 be polite to somebody 为"对某 人和气。" 23 A We must be strict ___ our selves ___ everything with, in B in, with C with, to D to, of

[答案] A. [析] be strict with 对某人严格要求。 24 A He went to the football match ___ lunch last Sunday to B without C behind D between

[答案] B.

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[析] without lunch 未吃午饭。 25 A The people's Republic of China was founded ___ 1949 with B on C since D in

[答案] D. [析] 在年代前用 in。因句子是过去时而不是完成时,所以不能用 since。 26 A Mr Black got to Hangzhou ___ a few days in B after C on D at

[答案] B. [析] 这句话应译为:几天之后 Mr 在几天之内一定要做完某事,所以选 B。 27 study? - Yes, he has A from B with C on D in - Has the teacher given you any advice ___ your English Black 到达了杭州。而不是

[答案] C. [析] 给予某一方面问题的忠告其介词用 on。 28 You may depend ___ him He is ___ honest man

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A

on, a B

in, an C

on, an D

at, the

[答案] C. [析] depend on 为"依靠某人或某事", 而 honest 的首字母 h 不发 音。 29 A ___ my joy, I can answer this question With B To C By D For

[答案] B. [析] To one's joy 意为"使我高兴的是。" 30 The teacher asked the students to look ___ the word in the

dictionary A for B at C up D after

[答案] C. [析] look for 寻找, look at 看, look after 照顾, look up 查字 典。 31 A little monkey is playing ___ a tree and there are a lot of

bananas ___ it A on, on B in, on C on, in D in, in

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[答案] B. [析] 树上长出的果实为 on the tree tree, 表达在树上。 32 I go to school ___ bus every morning. 而其他外来之物要用 in the

A. in B. by C. on D. at [答案] B. [析] by 后直接加交通工具,表示乘某种交通工具去某地。 33 No one likes a person ___ bad manners.

A. without B. on C. out of D. with [答案] D. [析] with bad manners 有不良习惯的人。 34 The policeman was surprised ___ the news.

A. into B. for C. at D. out of [答案] C. [析] be surprised at 对某事吃惊。 35 He had to sell newspapers ___ seven.

A. at an age of B. at the ages of C. at the age of D. at age of [答案] C. [析] at the age of 在几岁时。 36 The little girl couldn't help ___ when she saw a large dog.

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A. cried B. to cry C. crying D. cries [答案] C. [析] couldn't help+动名词表示情不自禁地去做某事,或禁不住 做某事。 37 Jack was born ___ March 1st, 1978.

A. on B. in C. at D. of [答案] A. [析] 日期,时间前的介词按其表达语中的最小单位计算。 38 Edison was very interested ___ science when he was a boy.

A. to B. on C. in D. about [答案] C. [析] be interested in something 对某事感兴趣。 39 The teacher was very satisfied ___ her answer.

A. in B. on C. for D. with [答案] D. 40 The story happened ___ Beijing.

A. in B. with C. for D. on [答案] A.

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七、 数 词
(一) 知识概要 数词用来表示人或物的数目多少和顺序。所以数词主要有两种: 基 数词,用于计数,如:one, two…而序数词用于表示位置先后或次序, 台:first second…其构成法如下:

阿拉伯数字 基数词 序数词 简写序数词 1 one first 1st 2 two second 2nd 3 three third 3rd 4 four fourth 4th 5 five fifth 5th 6 six sixth 6th 7 seven seventh 7th 8 eight eighth 8th 9 nine ninth 9th 10 ten tenth 10th 11 eleven eleventh 11th 12 twelve twelfth 12th 13 thirteen thirteenth 13th 14 fourteen fourteenth 14th 15 fifteen fifteenth 15th
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16 sixteen sixteenth 16th 17 seventeen seventeenth 17th 18 eighteen eighteenth 18yh 19 nineteen nineteenth 19th 20 twenty twentieth 20th 21 twenty-one twenty-first 21st 30 thirty thirtieth 30th 40 forty fortieth 40th 50 fifty fiftieth 50th 60 sixty sixtieth 60th 70 seventy seventieth 70th 80 eighty eightieth 80th 90 ninety ninetieth 90th 100 a(one)hundred hundredth 100th 104 one hundred and four hundred and fourth 104th 1000 a(one) thounsand thounsandth 1000th 10000 ten thounsand ten thounsandth 10000th 1000000 one million millionth 1000000th 基数词与序数词都有一定的构成方法,但都有特殊例外的几个字, 所 以除了要学会一般构成法之外,还要特别记熟一些例外。因它们在考 试中出现的频率很高。

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1

基数词构成结构

21 ~ 99 的 两 位 数 字 , 在 10 位 和 个 位 之 间 加 连 字 符 构 成 , 如 89-eighty-nine. 101~999的三位数字,由 hundred 加 and 再

加二位数或未位数字,如: 101-one hundred and one, 223-two hundred and twenty-three. 四位以上数字,应从个位起向前数三位加逗号, 读 作 thousand,再数三位加第二个逗号,读作 million,再数三位加逗号, 读作 billion,其读法如下: 1001-one thousand and one 5386 -five thousand, three hundred

and eighty-six 要注意的是 hundred, thousand, million 与 billion 的用 法。①前面有别的基数词时,即若干个百、千、百万、十亿时,其本 身都不要加 s,如:three hundred students。 ② 若表示成百,成千或 数百, 数千时, 前面不能有基数词, 但其本身要用复数形式, 然后+of+ 名词复数。如:thousands and thousands of。 (成千上万) 2 序数词的构成法

序数词除 first, second, third 以外,其余一般在词尾加 th 构成,除 一般略有差异的各别数词外,很容易掌握。其二位数或多位数只将后 面的个位数字改为序数词,其前面各位数字均不改变,都用基数词。 3 其他数字表示法 u]或 zero,小数点后面的

小数的小数点读作 point,零读作 o[

数字按个位基数词依次读出。 分数分子用基数词,分母用序数词, 当分子大于 1 时, 分数要在序数词上加 s, 但1/2用 one half, 1 4 用

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a quarter. 1 3 读作 one third 而 2 3 读作 two thirds。

百分数

(%),读作 per cent (percent),但不论是多少均用作单数形式不能加 s。 表示日期有两种说法和四种写法,如:2 月 1 号英语表达法为:the first of February 而美语为 February (the) first,但其书写上可有四种写法 ① February 1 ② February 1st ③ 1st February ④ 1/2。 倍数的讲 法有所不同。两倍用 twice,而三倍以上用序数词加 times,如:He has three times as many books as I have. (二) 正误辨析 [误] 1107 should be read as a thousand a hundred as seven. [正] 1107 should be read as one thousand one hundred and seven. and 前只有百或千时, [析] 在读数字时, 如: 用 one hundred/ one thousand 还是 a hundred /a thousand 全是可以的。但如果文有百又有 千时,则只能用 one 不要用 a。 如果没有 and 时,如:1100 也只能 读作 one thousand one hundred 或 eleven hundred. [误] I drove about half mile. [正] I drove about half a mile. [析]半小时为 half an hour, 半天为 half a day, 半镑为 half a pound, 尽量避免用 half a year, half a month, 要用 six months, two weeks 或 fifteen days 要注意的是 Half of the work is done Half of the books

are sold. 当 Half 作名词时,其谓语动词要看 of 后面的名词而定。如 名词是不可数名词则用单数谓语动词,如是复数名词时,则要用复数

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One and a half apples is left 谓语动词。 要注意的是一个半的表达法, 如: on the table.其名词要用复数,但谓语动词则要用单数。 [误] 60 students are playing on the ground. [正] Sixty students are playing on the ground. [析] 在句首的数字要用文字而不要用阿拉伯数字,如数字过大 则应放于句中,用阿拉伯数字。如: There are 166 students playing on the ground. [误] He became famous around fifty years old. [正] He became famous in his fifties. [析] in his fifties 50 多岁时,而 in the fiflies 在 50 年代。 [误] There are about two thousands workers in our factory. [正] There are about two thousand workers in our factory [析] 几千,几百的表达法是基数词加 thousand 或加 hundred, 而且均不要加 s。这样的单位还有 dozen(打), score (20 年)等。 [误] In the morning there are hundred of old people walking in the park. [正] In the morning there are hundreds of old people walking in the park. [析] 当表达数百,数千时,要用 hundreds of 和 thousands of 这 一结构。 [误] The class begins at eight a. m.

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[正] The class begins at 8 a. m. [析] 与符号或与缩写的字母连用时一定要用数字,如:43%, 67 , No.2… [误] Two fifth of the books are sold out. [正] Two fifths of the books are sold out. [析] 分数表示法,分子用基数词,分母用序数词,但分子大于 1 时,分母要在序数词后 加 s。 [误] Tom was born on July eighteen. [正] Tom was born on July eighteenth. [析] 月日的表达法有美语和英语两种。 July eighteenth 美语 July 18 读作

英语 July 18th 读作 July the eighteenth

[误] I'll go to school at 7∶30 a. m. in the morning. [正] I'll go to school at 7∶30 a. m/ at 7∶30 in the morning. [析] a. m 即表达在早上之意,不要再用 in the morning. [误] The film will begin at three quarters past one. [正] The film will begin at one quarter to two. [析] 大于 30 分钟时不要使用 past,而要用差多少不到几点的 to 来表达。 [误] Three time three is nine. [正] Three times three is nine. [析] times 此处作为"乘"讲一定要加 s。 英语中乘除法表达

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式如下: 算法 种类 例 句 加法 一般 Five and six is eleven. 正式 Five plus six is (equals) eleven. 减法 一般 Eight take away four leaves (is) four. Four from Eight leaves (is) four. 正式 Eight minus four equals (is) four. 乘法 一般 Three fours are twelve 3×4=12 正式 Three times four equals (is) twelve. 一般 Two in to four is two. 正式 Four divided by two equals two. (三) 例题解析 1 - How many students are there in your school, Mike?

- There are over ___ students in our school. A. two thousands B. two thousands of C. two thousand D. two thousand of [答案] C. [析] 有基数词在前面时 thousand, hundred 等词不能加 s,也 不能加 of 结构,只有在 thousands of 时才可以使用。

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2 down.

John lives on ___ floor. He doesn't use a lift to go up and

A. nine B. the ninth C. ninth D. a ninth [答案] B. [析] 序数词前加定冠词,nine 与 ninth 的拼写上有一个 e 字 母相差别。 3 Wu Dong won the girls' ___ race in the school sports meeting

last week. A. 100 metres B. 100 metres C. 100 metre D. 100 metre [答案] D. [析] 数词、名词、形容词等词用连字符连接成的形容词中, 名 词都不要加 s,如: I have to write a two thousand word report.而且

由连字符组成的形容词只能放于名词前,不能放于名词后,作后置定 语,或用在 be 动词后作表语。 4 There are ___ students in our school.

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A. four hundred twenty B. four hundred and twenty C. four hundreds twenty D. four hundreds and twenty [答案] B. 5 - How many days are there in a year?

- There are ___ . A. three hundreds and sixty five B. three hundreds sixty five C. three hundred and sixty five D. three hundred sixty five [答案] C. 6 We have learned about ___ English words.

A. nine hundreds B. nine hundred C. nine hundred of D. nine hundreds of [答案] B. 7 Autumn is ___ season of the year.

A. third B. the three

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C. thirds D. the third [答案] D. 8 They are learning ___ now.

A. Lesson Eight B. the eight lesson C. Lesson Eithth D. Eighth lesson [答案] A. [析] 第几课,第几个门……,在英语中有两种说法,①Lesson Two, Gate Two 但要注意每一单词的首字母要大写。② the second lesson, the second gate 首字母不要大写,并要注意有些缩写的读法。 如: p. 8-第 8 页(page eight) $ 8.50-8.5 美元(five dollars and fifty) 电话号码 66164532-(six, six, one, six, four five, three, two) 9 The boy was so hungry that he ate ___ .

A. three bowls of rices B. three bowl of rice C. three bowl of rices D. three bowls of rice

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[答案] D. [析] rice 是不可数物质名词,而 bowl 是可数名词。 10 There are ___ months in a year.

A. twelve B. twelf C. twelveth D. twelfth [答案] A.

八、 动 词
(一) 知识概要 动词在语言中是必不可少的一部分。它的语法现象也较多,但在初 中范围主要有以下几方面问题。① 时态:初中范围主要有一般现在 时,一般过去时,现在完成时,过去完成时,将来时与过去将来时六 种时态。② 语态:主动语态与被动语态。③ 助动词和情态动词。 ④ 非谓语动词,也就是不定式,动名词及现在分词的用法。 时态主要 掌握以下几种时态的应用要点和习惯用法。 1 一般现在时:主要有以下三方面,① 用来表示状态,特征或

不受时间限制的客观存在和真理。如:Matter exists in three states 物 质有三态。又如:The earth moves around the sun 性和经常发生的动作,如:I often go to bed at 9∶30
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② 表 示习惯 ③ 在时间、

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条件等状语从句中表示将来要发生的动作,如:As soon as I get there I'll telephone you. 2 一般过去时: ① 主要用于表达过去时间内发生的动作或存在 ② 过去经常发生的动作或习惯性

的状态,如:I was ill last week 动作,如:I used to get up at six. 3

一般将来时:用于表示将要发生的动作,其构成方式① 用w

ill (shall)+动词原形来表达将来在某一时间内要发生,或经常、将要 发生的动作或状态,如:School will begin on Sepember 1st ② 用

be going to+动词原形, 用来表示不久将要发生或打算去作的动作。 如: I'm going to swim this afternoon ③ be+现在分词,也就是用某 coming。这些动词只限

些动词的现在进行时表示将来,如: I'm

go, come, leave, start, move, sail, arrive, reach, get to 等动词。 于: ④ 在 状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来。 4 What are you 现在进行时: 用于表示现在正在进行的动作, 如:

doing now?要注意的是表示状态,情感的某些词没有现在进行时,这 like, have (有), love, know, understand, remember, forget, see, 些动词有: hear, smell, taste, feel, wish hope, expect… 5 过去将来时:用来表达从过去某时间点上看将要发生的动作,

如: He told me he would come to my party 6 现在完成时与过去完成时:现在完成时的两个用处是:① 用

I've studied English for two 来表达在过去开始的动作持续到现在, 如:

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years

I haven't had ② 用来表达过去发生的事但它影响到现在, 如: 现在完成时与过去完成时的区别

my breakfast. so I'm hungry now

在于动作的截止时间,现在完成时所表达的动作截止于现在,而过去 完成时所表达的动作截止于过去。如:I haven't seen my old teacher for a long time 我好久未见到我过去的老师了。是指到目前截止。如果

Yesterday I saw my old teacher. 加上一句话, 则将变为过去完成时, 如: I hadn't seen him for a long time. 因为我好久未见他这一情况截止于 昨天。还要注意的一个问题是截止性动词可以有完成时,但不能与表 示一段时间的状语连用,如:When I got to school, the class had begun 如果一定要讲开始几分钟了则要换用表示状态,或延续性动词, 如: When I got to school, the class had been on for five minutes 语

态:英语中只有主动语态与被动语态之分。主动语态,句子中的主语 是动作的执行者,如:I broke the window 而被动语态句子中的主 被

The window was broken by me 语是主动语态句子中的宾语, 如:

The 动语态主要用于, 动作的执行者不明确, 或没有必要说出来, 如: New building was built last week 关键要注意的是在主动语态中有

省略不定式符号 to 的动词, 在被动语态要还原, 如: 主动语态 I saw him come in. 被动语态 He was seen to come in. 助动词和情态动

词:助动词本身没有词义,它只不过与实义动词一起构成谓语动词, 形成了时态、语态、构成了疑问句,否定句,以及用来加强语气。 而 情态动词则表达一种可能、必要、允许、愿望、猜测……的意图、 倾

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can, could, may, 向。 也用来表示语气的委婉和祝愿。 初中阶段主要有: might, will, would, must (have to), shall, should。 最后要谈论的是非

谓语动词,非谓语动词分为不定式,和动词的 ing 形式,(即现在分词 和动名词)。虽然在初中范围,这一项不是语法重点,但还是要花一 定时间去学习,为的是打下良好的基础。为进一步学习提供良好的条 To see is to believe.(百 件。 不定式在句中可以作主语、 宾语、 表语。 如: 闻不如一见) He want to see a film 还可以作补足语,如:He wants 动名词

me to leave.也可以作状语,如:I come here to learn English.

也可以起到上述作用,如: Seeing is believing. I like swimming very much. 而现在分词多用于作定语、 补足语、 状语, 如: The girl driving a car is her sister.(定语) Did you notice his hand shaking?(宾语补足语) Hearing the noise, we stopped talking.(状语) (二) 正误辨析 [误] She laid down and soon fell asleep. [正] She lay down and soon fell asleep. [析] 考试中常出现的是易混动词 lay 放,lie 躺,lie 说谎。它 们的过去时、过去分词和现在分词变化如下: lay (放) laid, laid, laying (及物动词) lie (躺) lay, lain, lying (不及物动词) lie (说谎) lied, lied, lying [误] Please rise your hand.

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[正] Please raise your hand. [析] rise 是不及物动词,其后不能接宾语,如:The sun rises in the east.而 raise 是及物动词。 [ 误 ] I like to swim very much, but I don't like swimming this afternoon. [ 正 ] I like swimming very much, but I don't like to swim this afternoon. [析] like 作为"喜欢"讲时,可以接动名词也可以接不定式,但 接动名词时多表达一种习惯性动作。而接不定式则侧重于表达一次 性、特殊性的动作。 但要注意的是 like 与 would 连用时则一定要 再有一点要注意的是,

Would you like to go with me? 接不定式, 如:

like 作为介词"像"讲时,只能用分词作其宾语。 [误] Stop! Did you listen to a strange voice? [正] Stop! Did you hear a strange voice? [析] hear 的侧重点是听到、听见什么,而 listen to 的侧重点为 听的倾向,如:listen! Do you hear someone calling help?这样的词还有 look 与 see。它们的侧重点也不同,look 重于"看"的倾向,而 see 重 于看见没看见。 [误] Did you watch some film recently? [正] Did you see some film recently? [析] 英语中 see 与 watch 各有不同的用处,see 用于看电影、

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剧目,而 watch 用作看电视和看球赛。 [误] Look. A beautiful lamp hanged from the ceiling. [正] Look. A beautiful lamp hung from the ceiling. [析] hang 有两个含义, ① "挂", 它的过去时与过去分词是 hung, hung; ② " 绞刑 " ,这时它是规则动词,其过去式与过去分词则为 hanged, hanged。 [误] How long can I borrow this book? [正] How long can I keep this book? May I borrow [析]"借"在英文中有三个词, ① 借入, 即 borrow,如: some books from the library?② 借出,如:I can lend my bike to you.③ 借多久要用 keep, 因为 borrow 与 lend 都是截止性动词, 而 keep 是延 续性动词。如 How long can I keep it? [误] We have won your class. [正] We have beaten your class. [析] win 是及物动词,其后面的宾语应是比赛、战争、奖品、 奖金。而 beat 的宾语,应是人、队、班级等等,如:We won the game. [误] I left my key. [正] I forgot my key. [正] I left my key at home. [析] leave 是"丢下",其后一定要接地点状语,而 forget 其后不 要接地点状语。

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[误] Oh! It's raining outside. Please bring the rain coat with you. [正] Oh! It's raining outside. Please take this rain coat with you. [析] bring 为"带来"如:Next time bring your little sister here.而 take 为"带走 ",fetch 为 "去某处取什么回来",如:Please fetch some coffee for us 要熟记的是在初中课文中与 take 有关的词组,如: take off 脱下

take away 拿走 take back 收回 take down 取下 take … out 拿出 take place 发生 加 take a seat 坐 下 one's turn 轮流

take hold of 拿住 take part in 参

take one's place 替 代 take a look 看 看 take

take a message 捎信 take care of 照看 take it easy

别着急 take one's time 慢慢来 take one's temperature 测量体温 [误] The policeman reached his gun. [正] The policeman reached for his gun. I reached the hotel at 8∶ [析] reach 作"到达"讲时是及物动词, 如: 30 但作"伸手去拿",则要用 reach for something。作为"到达"讲时还 有 arrive (in+大地方)(at+较小的地方)和 get to.要注意的是与 get 有关 的词组有: get back 回来 get in 收割 get into 进入 get off 下车 get ready

get on 上车 get out 出去 get up 起床 get to 到达 for=be ready for get on well with 与人相处融洽 get colder and colder.

get 加比较级

为变得如何,例如:

[误] This dictionary spent me five dollars. [正] This dictionary cost me five dollars.

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[析] 英文中的"花费"有 4 个 spend, cost, take 和 pay,其中 spend 与 pay 所在句中的主语应为人,如: I spent two hours in doing my homework. I paid five dallars for the book.而 cost 与 take 的主语则是事 物,如:It takes me two years to finish this book. [误] In summer I always sleep with the windows opened. [正] In summer I always sleep with the windows open. [正] I always sleep with the windows closed. [析] 要注意 open 是动词也是形容词,而 close 则要用其过去分 词作形容词。 [误] Please wait a minute. I'm having on my clothes. [正] Please wait a minute. I'm putting on my clothes. [析] 英语中的穿衣服要分状态,是什么样的穿着打扮,还是穿 衣服的动作两类动词。表示穿着状态的词有 have on, wear,在用法上 have on 不宜用进行时态, She has on a new school 它多用一般时态, 如: dress. 而 wear 则多用进行时来表示状态,如: She is wearing a new sweater.在表示动作的词中 put on 是常用的一词。dress 用作动词当" My children were very 穿衣"讲时其后宾语不应接衣物, 而要接人, 如: young they couldn't dress themselves.在表示穿着状态时用其过去分词 当形容词,如:He is dressed in white. [误] My computer can't begin. Could you find someone to help me? [正] My computer can't start. Could you find someone to help me?

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School [析] begin 与 start 均可指"开始", 而且常常可以互换, 如: begins (starts) at 8 a. m. 但是在两种情况下不宜用 begin 而要用 start, ① 当作机 器开动、发 动讲,如: My car can't start. There must be something wrong with it.② 作为"旅途开始"讲,如:We should have to start early. There was a lot of traffic on the road. [误] I'm very glad because I have founded my lost key. [正] I'm very glad because I have found my lost key. [析] find 是不规则动词, 它的过去式和过去分词是 found, found, 而 found 又是另外一词"建立",它是规则动词,其过去式与过去分词 是 founded founded, 如:The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949. [误] Please. Let's speak in English. [正] Please. Let's speak English. [正] Please. Let's talk in English. [误] Can you speak it English? [正] Can you say it in English? [析] 英文中"说"有 4 个常用词 say, tell, speak, talk.其中不及物动 词有 speak 和 talk,如:I want to talk with you.We are talking about the new film.而 speak 其后接语言时是及物动词, 其他情况是不及物动词。 say 与 tell 是及物动词,其中 tell 常用双宾语,如:Tell us a story.但 用于讲实话或谎话时也用单宾语。如: Tell the truth.

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[误] Can you say Japanese from Chinese? [正] Can you tell Japanese from Chinese? [析] tell…from 为固定词组,即分辨两者的不同。 [误] Excuse me, did I step on your foot? [正] Oh, sorry, did I step on your foot? [析] excuse me 用于未打扰对方前,以提醒对方注意的用语, 而 sorry 则是由于自己已做的事向对方道歉。 [误] Would you care for to swim with us? [正] Would you care to swim with us? Would [析] care for 后接不定式时, 要省略 for,或换用名词, 如: you care for a cup of tea. care for 作"照顾"讲时与 look after 相同。 在初 中阶段学习与 for 有关的词组有: ask for 请求 call for 接人,请人 care for 关心 go in for 从事 answer for 负责 look for 寻找 wait for 等待 send for 请人 pay for 付款 search for 寻找 leave for 去某地 prepare for 准备 thank somebody for something 为某事向某人道谢。 [误] Are you understanding it? Yes, I got to it. [正] Do you understand it? Yes, I got it. hate… [析] understand 这一词没有进行时态, 如同感观动词 love、 I got it 是美语,即 I understood it。要记住 get 作为"到达"讲时是不及

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物动词,如:I'll get to the school at 8 a. m. 的动词词组如下:

初中范围常用与 to 有关

belong to 属于 come to 苏醒 point to (at) 指着 lead to 导致 turn to 翻到

get to 到达 refer to 谈到 stick to 坚持 look forward to 期望 agree to 同意 [误] The meat has gone badly. [正] The meat has gone bad.

[析] 英语中 go, get, become, turn 作为转变时,其后接形容词, 这时这些动词应被看作系动词。 [误] The teacher said the earth moved around the sun. [正] The teacher said the earth moves around the sun. [析] 如果主句的谓语动词是现在时,其宾语从句可以是任何时 态。如果是过去时,则宾语从句中的时态应与之呼应。但地球围绕太 阳转是不随时间而变化的客观事实,所以还应用一般现在时态来表 达。 [误] I'll come to see you as soon as I'll be back. [正] I'll come to see you as soon as I am back. I should tell him [析] 在状语从句中要用一般时来表示将来, 如: when he came back. [误] I want to know whether you come to my party tomorrow or not. [正]I want to know whether you will come to my party tomorrow or not.

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[析] 在宾语从句中则要用将来时表示将来的动作。要注意的是 如果宾语从句中仍有状语从句时, 依然要用一般现在时表示将来, 如: I want to know if it rains tomorrow you'll come here or not. [误] What did you do at eight last night? [正] What were you doing at eight last night? [析] 在描述过去某一具体时刻的动作或从某时到某时一段时间 内正在进行的动作要用过去进行时,如:I was washing clothes from eight till noon last Sunday [误] My classmates came to see a film yesterday. I didn't go with them, because I have seen it before. [正] My classmates came to see a film yesterday. I didn't go with them because I had seen it before. [析] 现在完成时与过去完成时的相同之处是其动作均开始于过 去的某一点,它的差别在于该动作是截止到什么时候。如动作截止到 现在用现在完成时;如动作截止到过去,用过去完成时。例如:I've learnt English for three years.( 到 现 在 为 止 ) 又 如 : Before I went to college, I had learnt English for three years. (动作截止到上大学那时, 即 截止于过去) [误] I'm feeling well now. [正] I feel well now. [析] 瞬间动词有些无进行时态, 它们是: 表示思维状态的词:

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believe, feel, forget, imagine, know, mean, need, prefer, remember, understand, want hate, fear smell, taste [误] When have you done this work? [正] When did you do this work? [析] when 提问的是一个时间点不可用于完成时态的问句中。 [误] This is our new English teacher. He has gone to many foreign countries. [正] This is our new English teacher. He has been to many foreign countries. have been [析] have gone to 是到某地去了, 此人现在不在这里。 to 是到过某地,现在此人在说话现场。 [误] I have borrowed this book for two weeks. [正] I have kept this book for two weeks. [析] 截止性动词有完成时态,但不可和与表达一段时间的时间 状语连用。如:When I got to the cinema the film had begun. 但要讲 表示感情的动词: care, like, do like, love, mind, 感观动词: feel, hear, see,

belong, own 表示状态的词:

When I got to the cinema the film had be on for five minutes 这样的用 法还有 buy, join, die, 如:I bought this book yesterday.我昨天买的这本 书。 I have had this book for two days. 这本书我已买了两天了。

I joined the club two years ago.两年前我加入了这个俱乐部。

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I have been in this club for two years. 我加入这个俱乐部已两年了。 My father died five years ago. 我父亲是 5 年前去世的。 My father has been dead for five years. 我父亲已去世 5 年了。 [误] Have you understood the lessons? [正] Do you understand the lessons? [析] 有些动词不易用完成时态, 它们是 understand, think, believe, know (知道) [误] It was said that the Second World War had broken out in 1939. [误] It was said that the Second World War was broken out in 1939. [析] 在讲述过去的历史事件时, 总要用过去时而不要用完成时, 而且 happen, break out, take place 作为发生讲时均没有被动语态。 [误] When I walked along the street. I happened to meet an old friend. [正] When I was walking along the street I happened to meet an old friend. [析] 在一个长动作发生或进行的过程中,某一突然事件发生, 这时长动作应用进行时(现在进行时或过去进行时),而突发性动作用 一般时(一般现在时或一般过去时),如:When my father is reading a newspaper the telephone rings. [误] Please buy a book for me. [正] Please buy me a book.

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[正] Please buy a book to me. [析] 在接双宾语的动词后面的两个宾语,一个是直接宾语, 一 个是间接宾语,如:Buy me a book 中 me 是间接宾语,而 a book 是 直接宾语。 如果将直接宾语前置, 其后应加 to, 如: Tell me a story. Tell a story to me. Give me a book. Give a book to me. [误] He was seen come into the book store. [正] He was seen to come into the book store. [析] 在主动语态中,有时可以加不带 to 的不定式作宾语,如: I saw him come into the book store.但如果变为被动语态时,则要将省 略的 to 还原。当然这些动词还可以加动名词作宾语,如: I saw him coming into the book store, 如变为被动语态时,则没有变化。如:He was seen coming into the book store. [误] How nice the book is! Is it sold well? [正] How nice the book is! Does it sell well? [析] 有些动词可以表示一种动作, 但也可以用来表示某种性质, 表示动作时可用被动语态,在表示性质时则不可用被动语态。如: This book sells well. 这本书畅销。 This car drives easily. 这车容易驾驶。 These clothes wash easily. 这些衣服好洗。 在作上述表达时,不要用被动语态。而要讲: This kind of book was sold out. (这种书卖完了)

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These clothes were washed by the washing machine. 这时要用被动 语态,因为它描述的是具体动作。 [误] Must I do it now? No. you mustn't. [正] Must I do it now? No, you needn't.

[析] need 用在疑问句和否定句中常用作情态动词,其后接不带 to 的不定式。由 must 提问的问句作答语时,如是肯定的要用 must, 否定的要用 needn't,即为没有必要。在肯定句中常用作实意动词,如: I need to wait for my boy. [误] Is this book yours? Yes, It's. [正] Is this book yours? Yes, It is. [析] 在肯定的回答中不要用缩写形式,而在否定的回答中可以 用缩写形式,如:No. It isn't. [误] I'll have my bike repair tomorrow. [正] I'll have my bike repaired tomorrow. [析] have+人+动词原形或现在分词意为:让某人作某事,如: My father had me to learn how to drive, 或 My father had me doing my homework from morning till might have+物+动词的过去分词为某

件事被别人完成。如:I have my hair cut.我去理发。而不是自己理发。

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如果讲我想自己作某事,则用 I want to repair my bike myself. [误] I'll get my brother repair the bike for you. [正] I'll get my brother to repair the bike for you. [析] have 与 get 的用法有相同之处,也有不同之处。相同之处, 如 : have something done, 也 可 用 get something done, 或 have (get) somebody doing something 但 不 同 之 处 在 于 have somebody do something 在用 get 时则要用 get somebody to do something。 [误] I have to study on Saturday but I haven't to study a full day [正] I have to study on Saturday, but I don't have to study a full day. [析] have to 不得不,而 don't have to 为其否定式。 [误] Is Tom in the classroom? No. He mustn't be in the classroom, because I saw him talking with our teacher in the office just now. [正] Is Tom in the classroom? No. He can't be in the classroom because I saw him talking with our teacher in the office just now. [析] must 加动词原形表达一种比较肯定的推测,而表示否定 的推测则要用 can't。 [ 误 ] My grandpa is over eighty but he is able to read without glasses. [正] My grandpa is over eighty, but he can read without glasses. [析] can (could) 多用于表达客观的事实,主观能力,而 be able

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to 则多用于表达主观的意愿。 [误] She doesn't answer the doorbell. [正] She doesn't answer the doorbell. She should be asleep. She must be asleep

You should [析]should 用于现在时态的句子中应译为"应该", 如: do your homework right away. 而 must 加动词原形表示一种推测。 [误] Do you like to go with us? [正] Would you like to go with us? [析] Do you like…问的是习惯,如:Do you like swimming? 而 would you like 是一次性的邀请。 [误] I am used to get up early in the morning. [正] I am used to getting up early in the morning. [析] used to 共有三种用法,① 表示过去的习惯,如:I used to live with my parents. ② 表示 过去的习惯延续到现在,如:I am Oil is

used to swimming in the river. ③ 用于被动语态,如: used to cook [误] To play with the children are very interesting. [正] To play with the children is very interesting.

[析] 不定式作主语时,应视为单数主语,特别是两个不定式用 and 作连词作主语时,如指的是一件事也应用单数谓语动词。如:To get up early and to go to sleep early is good for your health. [误] He asked me do my homework alone.

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[正] He asked me to do my homework alone. [析] 某些动词要求不定式作其宾语或宾语补足语,它们是:ask somebody to do something 要 求 某 人 做 某 事 。 tell somebody to do something 告 诉 某 人 做 某 事 还 有 prepare 准 备 , decide 决 定 , happen to 碰巧, seem 似乎。 [误] he told me to drive a car. [正] He told me how to drive a car. [析] 要学会疑问词加不定式的用法,特别要注意的是 what 是 疑问代词,而 how 是疑问副词。如:I want to know what to do. (我想 知道干什么)。 I want to know how to do it. (我想知道如何去作)。 要 注意的是 how to do it 中的 it 是不可少的,因 how 是疑问副词,不能 作及物动词的宾语,而 what 是疑问代词,可做 do 的宾语,所以 what to do 后不要加 it。 [误] I am very glad meeting you. [正] I am very glad to meet you. [析] 许多形容词后加不定式,这样用时形容词多是用来描述人 glad, happy, pleased, lucky, sorry, sad, upset, ready, 物的感情、 态度, 如: careful, surprised。 [误] I'm too glad for seeing you. [正] I'm too glad to see you. [析] 这句话不能按照 too…to 的句型翻译为:我太高兴了以至

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

于不想见你。而应译为:见到你太高兴了。又如:She is too honest to tell the truth 应译为:她很诚实,不会不讲实话。

[误] Tom is too young not to join the army. [正] Tom is too young to join the army. [析] 这是 too…to 的正常用法,太如何如何以至于不能如何。 [误] I went to the hospital for seeing my old friend. He was ill in hospital. [ 正 ] I went to the hospital to see my old friend. He was ill in hospital. [析] 在句中表示某动作的目的时,要用不定式而不能用 for 加 动名词。 [误] Could you help me to find a chair to sit. [正] Could you help me to find a chair to sit on. [析] 当不定式作后置定语时,将不定式放于名词之后。如果不 定式中的动词是不及物动词,则其后面的介词不要省略。如:I sat on the chair. 这样的用法还有: I want to find a room to live in. I want to find a pen to write with. [误] When mother was about leaving the baby cried suddenly. [正] When mother was about to leave the baby cried suddenly. [析] be about to 是表达较近的即将发生的动作,可用来表示将 来时,或按计划、安排的事。

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[误] This work is difficult to be done. [正] This work is difficult to do. [析] 在不定式作宾语时,下列情况常用主动语态表示被动。 ① I have a lot of letters to write. 句子的主语即是不定式动作的执行者, 如: Could you find me a job ② 句中的宾语是不定式中动作的执行者, 如: to do? ③ 在形容词之后的不定式,如:English is difficult to learn. [误] Would you like to see a film with us? [正] Would you like to see a film with us? Yes, I'd love. Yes, I'd love to. I had to (不 I'd love to (喜

[析] 在口语简答语中要将不定式符号保留,如: 得不作) I'm going to (打算作) I used to (过去习惯作) 欢作) I hope to (希望作某事) I'll be glad to (高兴作) [误] Did you see someone to do this work for me? [正] Did you see someone do this work for me?

[析] 在感观动词之后常接不带 to 的不定式。这些词是 see, look at, watch, hear, listen to, feel, notice。 [误] He was seen prepare this car. [正] He was seen to prepare this car. [析] 在被动语态中要将主动语态句中省去的不定式还原回来。 [误] Please [正] Please Let my child to try it again. Let my child try it again.

[析] 在 make, have, let 后加不带 to 的不定式作宾语补足语。

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[误] Why not to do it again? [正] Why not do it again? You'd better [析] Why not, you'd better 后接不带 to 的不定式, 如: go.但要注意的是它的否定式是 You'd better not go. [误] When he heard the news he couldn't help to cry. [正] When he heard the news he couldn't help crying. [析] can't help+现在分词表示情不自禁作某事。 [误] In autumn, the street is always covered with falling leaves. [正] In autumn, the street is always covered with fallen leaves. [析] 现在分词作定语有正在的含义,如:falling leave 正下落 的叶子。而过去分词作定语 fallen leaves 是落地的叶子。过去分词含 有已经完成的意思。 [误] Do you hear someone sing in the office? [正] Do you hear someone singing in the office? [析] 感观动词可用不带 to 的不定式来作宾语补足语,表达一 个动作的全过程或已结束的动作, 而用现在分词表示一个正在进行中 的动作。 [误] I want to shop some food for supper. [正] I want to buy some food for supper. [正] I want to go shopping. [析] shop 作买东西讲时,要用 go shopping,其后不要加所购买

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

的东西。这样的用法还有: skating 滑冰

go boating 划船 go sailing 航海 go

go shooting 射击 go dancing 去跳舞 go fishing 钓鱼

go swimming 去游泳…… 不要用错,也不要改为其他式,因为这 是习惯用法。 [误] When the teacher came into the classroom, the students stopped to talk. [正] When the teacher came into the classroom. the students stopped talking. [析] stop to do something 是停下来去做某事,而 stop doing something 则是停止做某事。 [误] I didn't remember closing the door, so the thief came into the room directly. [正] I didn't remember to close the door, so the thief came into the room directly. [析] remember 后接不定式是记着去做某事,即该动作并没有 完成。而 remember 后接动名词则表明该动作已经作完了。如: Do remember to turn off the light, before you leave. 即在你离开前记着去 I remember meeting you somewhere. 我 关灯。 而关灯的动作并没有做。 记得在某处见过你。而相见一事已经作完了。相同用法还有 forget。 [误] When I finished to do this work I would go to play football. [正] When I finished doing this work I would go to play football.

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新思考教育------永远提供超出家长预期的服务!

[析] 在英语中有些动词后要接动名词作宾语。在初中范围主要 有两个动词 finish 和 enjoy, 千万不要与 like 相比。因为 like 作动词" 喜欢"用时,其后接动名词表示习惯性动作,接不定式表示一次性特 殊的动作,而 would you like 后面则一定要用不定式。 [ 误 ] When he finished his homework, he went o

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