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2013-2014学年高二英语课件: Unit 2 Poems-Grammar(新人教版选修6)


高二 选修6 Unit 2

Subjunctive Mood

虚拟语气

1. 英语动词有三种语气, 陈述语气, 祈 使语气和虚拟语气。 2. 定义: 用来表示说的话不是事实, 或 者是不可能发生的情况, 而是一种愿

望, 建议, 假设的语气叫虚拟语气。

3. 在条件

句中的应用
条件句可分为两类, 一类为真实条

件句, 一类为非真实条件句。非真
实条件句表示的是假设的或实际 可能性不大的情况, 故采用虚拟语 气。

1) 真实条件句 真实条件句用于陈述语气, 假设的情 况可能发生, 其中if是如果的意思。

2) 非真实条件句

非真实条件句用语虚拟语气, 假设的
情况不可能发生, 或者可能性很小, 其 中if 是“要是、如果”的意思。 即:“要是……就好了”; “如 果……, ……就会……”

1. If I had enough money, I would

travel around the world.
2. If I were you, I would give AIDS

patient a hug.
与现在事实相反

3. If I had taken your advice, I
wouldn’t have made a mistake.

4. If he had been there, it wouldn’t
have happened. 与过去事实相反

5. If it should rain tomorrow, they

wouldn’t go for an outing.
6. I think we could do it, if we planed it properly and could borrow the tools. 7. If we were to have three days off, we would enjoy a very happy life. 与将来事实相反

3) The meaning of the sentence of

subjunctive mood.
If he had come yesterday, I should/ would have told him about it. 含义: He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it.

If he had not been ill and missed many

classes, he would have made greater
progress.

含义: He was ill and missed many
lessons, so he did not make greater

progress.

一. 虚拟语气在条件状语从句中的用法。
条件 If 从句的谓语形 从句 式 主句的谓语形式 would/could/should/ might +V (原) would/could/should/ might+have+p.p.

现在
过去

V. + ed (were) had done

1.V.+ ed. would/could/should 将来 2. should+ V.(原) /might +V. (原) 3. were to do

二. 虚拟语气特殊句型: 1. wish 现在: 过去时(were) 的宾语
过去: 过去完成时

从句

将来: would/could/might +V. should

1. I wish I were a bird. (现在)
2. I wish I hadn’t made such a mistake. (过去) 3. We wish our parents wouldn’t punish us. (将来)

I wish I were as tall as you.

我希望和你一样高。
He wished he hadn’t said that.

他希望他没讲那样的话。
I wish it would rain tomorrow.

我希望明天下雨就好了。

2) wish to do 表达法 wish sb. / sth. to do

I wish to see the manager.
= I want to see the manager.

I wish the manager to be informed at
once.

= I want the manager to be informed
at once.

现在: 过去时

2. would rather that

过去: 过去完成时
将来: 过去时

I would rather you paid me now. I would rather you had gone, too. Don’t come. I would rather you came tomorrow.

3. as if /though + Clause

现在: 过去时

过去: 过去完成时 She loves the baby as if it were her
own son.

It seems that it were spring.
I remember the whole thing as if it

had happened yesterday.

They talked as if they had been

friends for years.
He looks as if he were drunk.

4. It’s (about/high) time +that

过去时
should +V.

It’s high time that you went.

你该走了。 high time that you were going. It’s
It’s high time that you should go.

我们该去
睡觉了。

It’s time that we went to bed.

It’s time that we should go to
bed.

5. 表示要求,命令,建议的虚拟语气。 宾语从句中常见动词: 一个坚持, 两个 命令, 三个建议, 四个要求。

1) insist
2) order, command

3) advise, suggest, propose
4) demand, require, request, desire

这些动词后面的宾语从句要使用虚拟

语气用法。即从句中的动词使用should
+动词原形, 或者将should省略。

我们建议Tom 去休息一下。

We suggested that Tom have a rest.
他坚决要求我到场。

He insisted that I (should) be present.

国王命令囚犯明天要实施死刑。 The king ordered that the prisoners be killed the next day. 他们要求我们派他们去那儿工作。

They requested that we (should) send
them to work there.

I suggest that we (should) hold a

meeting next week.
He insisted that he (should) be sent there. 注意: 如suggest, insist不表示“建议”

或“坚持要某人做某事时”, 即它们用
于其本意“暗示、表明”、“坚持认

为”时, 宾语从句用陈述语气。

1. The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey (obey) the rules. ____ 2. He insisted that she was (be)seriously ___ ill and that ______ (send) to be sent

hospitals at once.

3. He suggested that we ____ (have) a have

meeting at once.
4. His pale face suggested that he was ___

(be) ill.

以上动词相应的名词构成的名词性从句 包括主语从句, 表语从句和同位语也要使

用虚拟语气, 从句中的动词形式一样。
order, advice, suggestion, proposal,

demand, request, desire

It’s suggested that the plan be carried out. My demand is that she should come to see me once a week. All of us are for the advice that the

chemical factory should be closed down.

6. without和but for 构成虚拟。but for要不是 Without sunlight, people’s life would be different from today. But for your help, I wouldn’t have finished the work. Without your help, I would have failed. But for water, it would be impossible to live in the desert.

7. If only …要是就好了 If only I knew his name! If only we had followed your advice! If only I could see him again! 要是我们的父母能和我们住在一起就好了! If only our parents could live with us! 要是我没错过火车就好了! If only I hadn’t missed the train!

8. It’s necessary/strange/natural/ important/pity/no wonder/impossible + that---Clause 从句中的动词要用虚拟, 即 (should)+动词原形
It is important that we (should) master a foreign language. It is strange that she refuse to come to the party. It’s necessary that we should study hard.

9. 某些简单句的固定句型: Heaven help him! God bless you! May you succeed! Long live the People’s Republic of China!

10. need “不必做”和“本不该做” didn’t need to do 表示: 过去不必做

某事, 事实上也没做。
needn’t have done 表示: 过去不必做

某事, 但事实上做了。

约翰开车去车站接玛丽, 所以她不必步
行回家了。

John went to the station with the car to
meet Mary, so she didn’t need to walk

back home.

约翰开车去车站接玛丽, 所以她本不必 步行回家了。 (Mary步行回家,没有遇 上John的车。)

John went to the station with the car to
meet Mary, so she needn't have walked

back home.

典型例题

There was plenty of time. She ____.
A. mustn’t have hurried

B. couldn’t have hurried
C. must not hurry

D. needn't have hurried

答案D。needn’t have done. 意为“本不
必”, 即已经做了某事, 而实际上不必要。 mustn’t have done用法不正确, 对过

去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为
couldn’t have done, “不可能已经”。 must not do 不可以 (用于一般现在时)

三. 虚拟语气假设条件句型注意点: 1. 假设条件从句谓语动词发生的时间与 主句所假设的谓语动词不一致, 叫做 错综条件虚拟语气。主句和从句的谓 语动词要依照假设的时间而定。

If the weather had been finer, the

crops would be growing still better.
If you had followed the teacher’s

advice, you wouldn’t be in the
hospital.

2. 假设条件虚拟倒装。条件从句中有 should, were, had三个助动词可以把if 省略, 并将这三个词提至句首。 If I were you, I would give it up. Were I you, I would give it up. If it were not for your advice, we couldn’t have got over the difficulties. Were it not for your advice, we couldn’t have got over the difficulties.

If I had had time, I would have run round that lake again. Had I had time, I would have run round that lake again. If there should be a flood, what should we do? Should there be a flood, what should we do?

3. 谓语动词以should + have done的形式出 现的时候, 表示过去应该做而没有做的 事情, 从而表示一种责备的语气。 e.g. 1) You should have finished your homework yesterday. 2) You should have come here five minutes earlier. 3) He should have told me about it earlier.

注意:

在虚拟语气的从句中, 动词be的过
去时态一律用were, 不用was, 即在从

句中be用were代替。

If I were you, I would go to look for him.
如果我是你, 就会去找他。

If he were here, everything would be all
right.

如果他在这儿, 一切都会好的。

典型例题 _____ to do the work, I should do it

some other day.
A. If were I B. I were

C. Were I

D. Was I

答案C. 注意: 在虚拟条件状语从句中,

省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词
的缩略形式。如我们可说 Were I not to do, 而不能说 Weren’t I to do.

Exercises I
1. You ___ to the meeting yesterday. What

was the reason for your absence?
A. had come B. came

C. would have come

D. should have come

2. “ Have you visited the Science Museum?”

“ No, but I really wish I ___.”
A. had B. did C. have D. will

3. Here is some money in case you ___ it. A. needs B. need C. needed D. will need 4. He demanded that the classroom ___ at once. A. should clean B. clean C. should have been cleaned D. be cleaned

5. But for your carelessness, we ___.
A. should have succeeded

B. had succeeded
C. would have succeeded

D. succeeded

6. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it _____. A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken 7. Jane’s face suggested that she _____ ill, and her parents suggested that she _____ a medical examination. A. be; should have B. was; have C. should be; had D. was; has

8. The two strangers talked as if they _____ friends for years. A. should be B. would be C. have been D. had been 9. I wish I _____ the meeting last week. A. could attend B. attended C. have attended D. could have attended

10. My suggestion is that we ____ the sports met. A. would put off B. should put off C. putted off D. be put off 11. It is necessary that our drinking water _____ cleaner. A. should be made B. is made C. would be made D. was made

12. Don’t come this afternoon. I’d rather you _____ tomorrow. A. come B. to come C. came D. will come 13. The old professor gave orders that the experiment _____ before 6. A. was finished B. will finish C. be finished D. shall be finished

II. 根据括号内的提示将下列句子补充 完整。 1. Had I not seen it with my own eyes, I ____________________ wouldn’t have believed it (都不会相信的). 2. If I should be free tomorrow, I would go with you __________________ (会和你一起去). 3. If you had listened to the doctor, you would be all right now (现在一切都好了). __________________

4. Had Mark been in charge, it ______________________ (就不会发生 wouldn’t have happened 了). 5. Looking round the town, he felt as though he _________________________ had been away for many years (已经离开了好多年).

III. 用括号内所给词的适当形式填空。 1. If I had known (know) more about _________ giving first aid, I _______________ (help) could have helped them when the accident happened. 2. If I ______ (be) a man, I ___________ were would run (run) for president. 3. —Do you think the thief entered through the side door? —No, if he _______ (have), he _________ wouldn’t had had have broken ____________(not break) the window of the living room.

4. I would rather you __________ (stay) had stayed at home last night. would stop 5. I wish that the rain __________ (stop) immediately. 6. They talked as if they _________ (be) had been good friends for many years.


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