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08必修三 unit 8 Adventure


必修三:Unit 8 Adventure

教学目标
必修三 Unit 8 同步课程 词汇、短语、句型、语法解析 分词、动作动词和状态动词的区分、限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句

学习内容

知识梳理
重点单词 1.risk vt.冒??的危险,冒险干 n.冒险,风险;危险的人/事物 【精讲拓展】 risk sth.冒??的危险 risk doing sth.冒险做某事 at the risk of doing sth.冒着??的风险 take a risk(to do sth.)冒险做某事 take the risk of/in sth./doing sth.甘冒(做)某事的风险 【典型例句】 He risked his life to save the drowning boy. 他冒着生命危险去救那个溺水的男孩。 [朗文当代] He who risks nothing gains nothing. 不入虎穴,焉得虎子。 [朗文当代] Whoever you are,don’t take the risk of doing a job like that. 无论你是谁,都不要冒险做那样一份工作。 [朗文当代] He risked losing his house when his company went bankrupt. 他的公司破产时,他差点连自己家的房子都保不住了。[剑桥高阶] 即学即用 ①He thinks we shouldn’t go ahead with this plan because of the ________ of failure. A.future B.pressure C.worry D.risk 解析:句意:他认为我们不应该执行这个计划,因为失败的风险 很大。risk 指可能存在的危险。 答案:D 2.differ vi.不同,有区别 【精讲拓展】 differ from...in...在??方面与??不同
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differ (with sb.) about/on /over sth.(和某人)就某事意见不同 be different from sb./sth.in sth.在某方面不同于某人或某物 make a difference 有影响,起主要作用 make no difference 不起作用,没影响,不重要 【典型例句】 Economists differ on the cause of inflation. 经济学家们对通货膨胀的原因看法不一。[剑桥高阶] His opinion differs entirely from mine. 他的意见与我的意见完全不同。[朗文当代] It makes a great difference to me.这对我很重要。[朗文当代] Is there any significant difference in quality between these two items?这两件东西在质量方面有显著的差别吗?[剑桥高阶] 即学即用 ②They are different________nature. A.in B.on C.of D.with 解析:句意为:他们本质上有区别。be different in 表在?? 方面有所不同。 答案:A 3.tire vt.疲倦,(使)厌烦,(使)厌倦 【精讲拓展】 tire sb.out 使某人筋疲力尽 tiring adj.引起疲劳的,累人的 tired adj.疲劳的,厌烦的 be tired of 厌烦 be tired from/with 因??而疲倦 be tired out 累坏了 【典型例句】 I am tired of living in the same area. 我厌倦了生活在同一地区。 I am tired from overwork.过度工作使我很疲倦。 [朗文当代] Let the kids run around in the garden and that’ll soon tire them out. 让孩子们在院子里跑跑吧,他们很快就会筋疲力尽的。[剑桥高阶] 即学即用 翻译句子 ③他助人不倦。 He never tires of helping others. 4.anxious adj.忧虑的,担心的;渴望的,急切的 【精讲拓展】 be anxious about sb./sth.为??而担心 be anxious to do sth.渴望做某事 be anxious for sb. to do sth.急于让某人做某事 with anxiety=anxiously 焦虑地 【典型例句】
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[朗文当代]

I am anxious for/about his safety.我很担心他的安全。[朗文当代] I’m anxious to get home to open my presents. 我恨不得马上到家去打开礼物。 [剑桥高阶] They were anxious that they (should) have everything they want. 他们渴望得到所有他们想要的东西。 [朗文当代] We waited with great anxiety for more news about the accident. 我们忧心忡忡地等待着有关这一事故的更多消息。 [朗文当代] 即学即用 ④I am anxious________ the result of exam. A.about B.to C.with D.over 解析:句意:我急于想知道考试结果。 答案:A 5.patience n.耐心,耐性,容忍 【精讲拓展】 be/get out of patience with 对??失去耐心 lose one’s patience with 失去??的耐心 have no patience with 不能容忍,对??没有耐心 be patient with 对??有耐心 be patient of 能忍受,容许 【典型例句】 I’ll look into the matter as soon as possible.Just have a little patience. 请耐心点,我会尽快调查此事。 [朗文当代] He’s a good teacher,but he doesn’t have much patience with the slower pupils. 他是个好老师,但对较迟钝的学生没多大耐心。 [剑桥高阶] Be patient with her—she’s very young. 对她耐心点——她年纪太小了。 [剑桥高阶] 即学即用 翻译句子 ⑤她是一位富有耐心和想象力的活泼的年轻妇女。 She was a lively young woman with patience and imagination. 6.break vt.& vi.撕破;摔开; 损坏 【精讲拓展】 break out(战争、火灾、瘟疫等)突然爆发 break away from 逃脱;脱离(政党等);打破(陈套等) break down 出故障;(计划等)失败;(身体,精神等)垮掉;(关系 或讨论)破裂;(化合物等)分解 break in 闯入;打断,插嘴 break into...破门而入;突然??起来 break through 突破;冲破 break off 折断;(突然)中止,结束 break up 打碎;拆散,放假;(集合)结束 【典型例句】 He likes to break in when others are talking.
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别人讲话时他喜欢插嘴。 [朗文当代] The two countries have broken off diplomatic relations with each other. 这两个国家突然中断了外交关系。 [朗文当代] Fire broke out during the night.夜间突然起火了。[美国传统] 即学即用 完成句子 ⑥The police broke up (驱散)the crowd. 解析:句意为:警察驱散人群。 ⑦It was wrong of him to break away from (断绝往来)all his old friends. 解析:句意为:他断绝了与他所有老朋友的往来是错的。 7.run vi.& vt.跑;开动(机器等);经营;伸展,扩散,流动 【精讲拓展】 run out 结束,??东西用完了(主语为物,无被动态);流出 run out of(人)用完了??;从??中流出/跑出 run across 无意中碰到,遇见 run after 追逐;追求 run into 碰撞;偶然遇到 run over 浏览;(车辆)碾压 run through 浏览 【典型例句】 They soon ran out of their food.=They soon used up their food. 他们很快用完了食物。 [朗文当代] Let me know if you run across my keys. 如果你碰巧看到了我的钥匙,告诉我一声。 [美国传统] His car ran into the fence.他的汽车撞上了围栏。[朗文当代] She’s been running after him for years. 她追求他多年了。 [美国传统] 即学即用 ⑧Keep the machine________,and you will know how it works. A.run B.running C.to run D.runs 解析:句意为:让机器开着,这样你就可以了解机器的运行情 况。keep...doing 让??处于??状态。 答案:B 8.carry vt.搬,抬,提,拿,背 【精讲拓展】 carry on 从事,经营;继续做某事 carry out 实施;贯彻;执行 carry through 进行到底,完成 carry about/around 随身携带 【典型例句】 We should carry out the plan to the full. 我们应该不折不扣地执行计划。 [朗文当代] Despite powerful opposition,they managed to carry their reforms through.尽管遇到了强大的阻力,但是他们还是设法进 行了改革。 [朗文当代]
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The debate was carried off without any difficulty. 辩论轻松地结束了。[美国传统] He carried through the work.他完成了那件工作。 [朗文当代] 即学即用 ⑨I carried ________my promise. A.off B.away C.out D.at 解析:句意为:我实现了我的诺言。A 表“夺走” ,B 表“冲走,搬 走” 。 答案:C ⑩We carried________the discussion. A.on B.off C.about D.at 解析:句意:我们继续讨论。 答案:A 9.various adj.不同的,种种的,各种各样的 【精讲拓展】 variety n.种类,种种 a variety of/varieties of 多种多样的 vary vi.变化,不同,变更,改变 vary with 随??而变化 vary from...to...从??到??转变 【典型例句】 The weather varied from very cold to quite mild. 天气变化很大,会从冷变得相当暖和。 [朗文当代] The shirt is available in a wide variety of colours. 这种衬衫有各种各样的颜色可供选择。 [朗文当代] Her mood varies with the weather. 她的情绪随天气的变化而变化。 [朗文当代] I varied the speed of the drill to get it to work better. 我调整了钻头的速度以使其更好用。 [美国传统] 即学即用 翻译句子 ?他多方面的成就给人以深刻的印象。 His various achievements are most impressive. 10.back n.背部,反面;vt.使后退/倒退;支持;vi.后退,倒退 【精讲拓展】 back out 决定不履行(允诺的事);食言;打退堂鼓 back sb. on sth.支持某人某事 back up 后退,倒车;支持;证实 back away 退缩;退却 【典型例句】 He had a lot of evidence to back up his arguments. 他有许多证据证明自己的观点。 [朗文当代] I promised to help and I’m not backing out now. 我答应过要帮忙,现在我也没有打退堂鼓。 [朗文当代]
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There was an argument because neither side was willing to back down.双方都不愿意让步,于是争论了起来。 [美国传统] Don’t talk about me behind my back. 不要在背后议论我。 [美国传统] 即学即用 英译汉 ?Someone must be at the back of this. 这事一定有什么人在背后捣鬼。 11.limit v.限制,限定,n.边界,限度 【精讲拓展】 beyond/over the limit 超过限度 within limits 在一定范围内 without limit 无限制性 limit sth.to sth.把??限定在??的范围内 be limited to 局限于 【典型例句】 His speech was limited to five minutes. 他的演讲被限制到五分钟。 [朗文当代] I’ll help as much as I can,but there’s a limit to what I can do. 我会尽力帮忙,但我所能做的也是有限度的。[朗文当代] Try to limit your talk to ten minutes. 尽量把你的讲话限制在 10 分钟内。 [美国传统] 即学即用 完成句子 ?I can’t shoulder such a great responsibility;I know my own limits (能力有限). 解析:句意:我无法肩负如此重任,我自知能力有限。 12.advantage n.有利,有利条件 【精讲拓展】 at an advantage 有利地,占优势地 take advantage of 乘机利用 gain/win/have an(the)advantage over 胜过,优于 be of advantage to 对??有利 to one’s advantage 对某人有利 【典型例句】 Being able to speak another language fluently is a great advantage when you are looking for a job.当你找工作的时候,能熟练地说另 一门语言是一种优势。 [朗文当代] You should take advantage of the fine weather to paint the fence. 你应该利用这好天气给篱笆上油漆。 [朗文当代] His height and reach give him a big advantage over(=make him better than)other boxers.他身高臂长,这使他在和其他拳击手较 量时占有很大优势。 [剑桥高阶] 即学即用
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?You will find it________your advantage to learn some German before you visit Switzerland. A.to B.at C.over D.on 解析:句意为:你会发现到瑞士前学点德语对你有好处。to one’s advantage 对??有好处。 答案:A 重点短语 get across(使)通过;(使)被理解;(把??)表达清楚 【精讲拓展】 get about/around 走动;(消息等)传开 get sth.across to sb.向某人表达 get down to sth./doing sth.开始认真考虑做某事 get down 把??写下来;使悲伤,使沮丧 get along/on with 进展;与??相处?? get through 熬过困境;接通电话;做完,通过(测试) get over 痊愈,克服,战胜 get rid of 摆脱,除去 get into 陷入;养成(某种习惯) 【典型例句】 He’s not good at getting his idea across. 他不善于表达思想。 [朗文当代] Sooner or later you’ll get over the shock. 迟早你会从震惊中恢复过来的。 [朗文当代] I’m going to get down to studying English this term. 这学期我要认真学习英语了。 [朗文当代] I telephoned twice,but couldn’t get through. 我打了两次电话,但都没打通。 [美国传统] 即学即用 用 get 相关词组填空 ?The news of their secret wedding soon got about . 解析:句意:他们秘密结婚的消息很快传开了。 ?The message got about/around at last. 解析:指:(消息、谣言等)传开。 ?A police officer grabbed him,but he got away . 解析:get away 表“挣脱” 。 重点句型 as well as 除??之外(也),与??一样(程度) 【精讲拓展】 as well as 含义相当于 not only...but also 等,表“不但??而 且??,既??又??” 。它可以连接名词、代词、形容词、动 词、介词短语、非谓语动词及从句。 as well as 也可用作介词,放在句末或句首,含义与用法相当于
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besides,in addition to。 由 as well as 连接的复合宾语并不影响谓语动词的数,即 as well as 后面的部分不应看作主语的一部分。 as well as 在意义上强调前者。 【典型例句】 He as well as his parents is kind to me.他和他的父母对我都很好。 The stars shine during the day as well as at night. 星星不仅夜间发光,白天也发光。 He can sing as well as,if not better than,John. 如果他唱得不如约翰好的话,起码是唱得一样好。 语法精讲 分词分现在分词、过去分词 一、现在分词 doing 常表主动,动作正进行(也可表经常性动作、 状态,还可表条件、原因、方式等),具有动词、副词、形 容词的特征。 (1)现在分词的形式有:主动态的一般式、完成式;被动态的一般式、完成式。(即 doing,having done;being done,having been done) (2)现在分词的一般式表示的动作与句中谓语动词表示的动作同时或几乎同时发生。 She sat there reading the book.她坐在那里看书。 (3)现在分词的完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作时间之前。 Having lived there for many years,he told us a lot about things about the city. 在那个城市居住多年之后,他给我们讲了关于那儿的很多事情。 二、过去分词(done)常表被动,动作已完成 1.定语 A.看作定语的分词与被修饰词之间的关系,①存在主动关系用现在分词 doing;②存在被动关系用过去 分词 done(表动作已完成)或现在分词被动态 being done(表被动动作正进行) a sleeping baby 一个正在睡觉的婴儿 spoken English 英语口语 the building being built now 在建的大楼 B.部分不及物动词的分词有进行与完成之分,无主动、被动意味。如: developing country 发展中的国家 developed country 发达的国家 changing world 还在变化的世界 changed world 变化了的世界 falling leaves 正在下落的叶子 fallen leaves 落叶 boiling water 沸水 boiled water 开过的水 rising sun 初升的太阳 Risen sun 升起了的太阳 C. 表示人的心理活动的动词如: amuse , surprise , interest , excite , move , please , satisfy , disappoint,worry,tire,frighten,relax,puzzle 等,现在分词常修饰物(表使人如何),过去分词常 修饰人(表本身如何)。此时的动词已失去动作意义,是形容词。
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excited people 激动的人们 exciting news 令人激动的消息 2.表语 The cup is broken.杯子是破的。 I am very tired.我很累。 3.宾补 A.现在分词 doing 作宾补,常表主动动作正在进行或某一动作或 状态一直在持续。 I found him sleeping.我发现他在睡觉。 We have the lights burning.我们让灯一直开着。 B.过去分词(done)作宾补强调一被动动作已完成或一种状态,现 在分词被动态(being done)强调一被动动作正在进行。 I have my bike repaired.我把自行车拿去修理了。 We saw shop windows being painted by two workers. 我看见两个工人正在油漆橱窗。 4.状语 多表伴随、条件、时间、原因、结果、方式,分词作状语要看 作状语的动词与句子主语之间的关系。 A.存在主动关系,用①现在分词一般式 doing;②现在分词的完 成式 having done(时间上有先后关系) B.存在被动关系用①过去分词 done(强调动作已完成);②现在分 词的被动态 being done(强调一被动动作正在进行);③现在分词 完成式的被动态。having been done(强调一被动动作发生在句子 谓语动词所表示的动作时间之前)。 They came into the classroom,singing and dancing. 他们又唱又跳地进了教室。 Being a student,I must study hard.因为我是学生,我得努力学习。 Having time,I’ll come to see you.有时间的话我会来看你。 Having finished the work,we went out for a walk. 完成工作后我们就出去走了走。 Built in 1900,the bridge is over 100 years old. 这桥建于 1900 年,有 100 多年的历史了。 Being repaired now,the car can’t be used.车还在修,现在用不了。 Having been criticized by his teacher,the boy decided to correct his mistakes. 那个小孩受到老师的批评后决定改正错误。 观察下列从 Reading 中选取的句子,体会动作动词与状态动词的用法。 ①You are thinking about how far there is to go. ②It looks great. ③A few minutes later,you arrive at the camp. ④They know all the best routes and best places to camp. ⑤We also think that good travel arrangements are important. ⑥While on a hiking trip,our cooks prepare delicious meals.
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[自我总结] 以上六句话中①句中的 think 用于进行时态,为 理和情感的变化, 为 动词。 ②句中的 look 表示感官感觉的动作, 为 动词。

动词;⑤句中的 think 表达心 动词。 ③句中的 arrive,

⑥句中的 prepare 表示动作活动,为 【答案】 动作;状态;状态;动作

动作动词与状态动词 英语动词按其是否可以用于进行时态的语义特征,分为动作动词和状态动词。大量的动词是表示动作 的,可以用于进行时态。有一些动词是表示状态的,不能用于进行时态。还有不少动词,兼有动作与状态 两种特性,而其含义是不同的。 一、动作动词 1.活动动词 这类动词表示各种活动,可用于各种时态,如 do,play,ask,drink,rain 等。 2.过程动词 这类动词表示情况的改变,可用于进行时态,如 turn,become,grow,change 等。 注意:①有些动作动词表示的是短暂性的动作,没有持续性,即“一发生就结束”的动作。这类动词 一般称为“非延续性动词”或“终止性动词”,不能同表示一段时间的状语连用。常见的这类动词有:go, come,leave,arrive,lose,land,catch,join,kill,find,occur,happen,take part in 等。 He has joined the club for a long time.(误) He has been a member of the club for a long time.(正) 他成为这个俱乐部的一员很长时间了。 ②但是,有几个表示去向的非延续性动词,如 go,come,start,leave 等,可以同表示时段的时间状 语 for 短语连用。但要注意,这种用法的 for 短语表示的不是句中谓语动词延续的时间,而是该动词动作 完成后再做某事所需要的时间。 She has come here for three days. (=She has come here,intending to stay for three days.)她来到这儿三天了。 ③在不同的语言环境中,有些动词可以作延续性动词或非延续性动词,如 sit,walk,move,run,feel 等。 He sat in the grass,watching the sun rising.(延续性) 他坐在草地上,看着太阳升起。 He sat in the grass and began to read.(非延续性) 他坐在草地上,开始读书。 二、状态动词 状态动词表示非活动性的静止状态,不用于进行时态。但有些状态动词如果转义成为动作动词,又可 以用于进行时态。状态动词还可分为:
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1.感官、感觉动词 这类动词表示的是不自觉的、无意的活动,如 see,feel,hear,taste,smell 等。 I see a picture on the wall.我看到墙上有一幅画。 但“They are seeing sights in the Eastern Suburb.”中 see 是有意的,可以用进行时。 2.心理、情感动词 这类动词很多,如 believe,consider,desire,dislike,doubt,forget,fear,hope,imagine, know,like,love,mind,object,prefer,remember,suppose,think,want,wish,expect,regret, feel(=think)等。 I think he is both honest and diligent.(正) I am thinking he is both honest and diligent.(误) 我认为他既诚实又勤奋。 但:I am thinking about his plan.(正) 我正在考虑他的计划。 注意:状态动词 know 等不可与 long ago 连用。比较:
? ?I knew her long ago.?误? ? ?I got to know her long ago.?正? ?

我很久之前认识她的。 3.拥有、关系动词 这类动词或动词词组有:belong to,consist of,contain,cost,include,involve,lack,matter, need,owe,own,possess,apply to,differ from,equal,weigh,stand for,measure,have,exist, depend on,benefit from 等。
? ?The book is belonging to her.?误? ? ?The book belongs to her.?正? ?

这本书是属于她的。 注意:有些动词只能表示状态或持续的动作,不可用来表示非延续性动作 (瞬间完成的动作),反之亦 然。
? ?She didn't sleep until four o'clock in the morning.?误? ? ?She didn't fall asleep until four o'clock in the morning.?正? ?

直到早上 4 点钟她才睡着。 【疑难辨析】 动作动词与状态动词的区别 1.动作动词可用于进行时态,而状态动词却不可。这是这两种动词最根本的区别。 John is writing to his father.约翰正在给他的父亲写信。 John resembles his father.约翰长得像他的父亲。
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【提示】 有些动词可兼作两类动词,但意思不同,如动词 hold 的句子主语是人,作“握住、举行” 讲,是个动作动词;句子主语是处所,则作“容纳”讲,是个状态动词。 The top leaders of the two countries are holding talks in a friendly atmosphere. 这两个国家的最高领导人正在友好的氛围中进行会谈。 The concert hall can hold 2,000 people. 这个音乐厅可容纳 2,000 人。 2.有些状态动词可以充当动作动词,用于进行时态,表示委婉的口气。 I'm wondering if you can tell me the password. 我不知你可否告诉我密码是什么。 3.在现代英语中,有越来越多地使用进行时态的趋势,包括状态动词用于进行时态,表示“惊讶、责 备、抱怨、批评”等感情色彩。 Why are you always complaining?你怎么总是抱怨? 4.动作动词大多可用于祈使句,状态动词则不可。 Keep the house clean and tidy!保持房子整齐清洁! 观察下列从 Reading 中选取的句子,体会定语从句的用法。 ①He travelled across Europe and Asia with his father,who wanted to do trade with the Chinese. ②There were inventions and developments in China which were not available in Europe at that time. ③Marco was lucky enough to meet another prisoner who enjoyed listening to his stories about China. ④The prisoner then wrote the stories in a book called The Description of the World,which became one of the best?selling books in Europe. [自我总结] 以上四句均含有定语从句,引导词分别为 。其中①④句的引导词前有逗号将主

句和从句隔开,这种定语从句称为

。②③句的主句和从句无逗号隔开,这种定语从句称为

【答案】 who;which;who;which 非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句

限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 一、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句概述 1.限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的一部分,若去掉,主句的内容就不完整,意义也会发生改变。 从句和先行词的关系十分密切,从句紧跟先行词,两者之间不可用逗号隔开。 She has found the necklace(that)she lost two weeks ago.她找到了那条两周前丢失的项链。 2.非限制性定语从句是先行词的一个补充说明。没有它,主句也能独立存在;非限制性定语从句和先 行词的关系不是很密切,两者之间用逗号隔开。 He has two sisters,who are working in the city.
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他有两个姐姐,她们在城里工作。 二、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别: 1.标点的运用有所不同 限制性定语从句一般紧跟在先行词后,其后不可用逗号分开;而非限制性定语从句也常放在先行词后, 但必须用逗号与主句分开。 Who is the girl that is standing under the tree? 站在树下的那个女孩是谁? He is a teacher of much knowledge,from whom much can be learned.他是一个学识渊博的老师, 从他那儿可以学到许多东西。 2.从句的作用不同 限制性定语从句对先行词起到修饰限制作用,是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语,一旦省略,主句的 意思就不完整。而非限制性定语从句则是对一个概念清楚的先行词进行附加说明,若将其去掉,主句的意 思仍然完整。 In the dark street,there wasn't a single person to whom she could turn for help. 在这条黑暗的街道上,没有一个她可以向其求助的人。 Alice received a letter from her former classmate,which came as a surprise.艾丽斯收到了 她的以前同学的一封信,这真是件令人惊奇的事情。 3.关系词的选用不同 限制性定语从句可以用关系代词 who,whom,whose,that,which,关系副词 when,where,why 等引 导,而非限制性定语从句不可用 that 或 why 来引导(上述引导词除了这两者以外均可用来引导非限制性定 语从句)。 Yesterday he bought a new car,which was made in Japan. (which 不可换用 that)昨天他买了一辆新车,是日本生产的。 He didn't give the reason,which explained his absence from the meeting held last week.(which 不可换用 why,因为 which 在定语从句中作主语,而 why 只能在定语从句中作状语)此句也可以这样表达, He didn't give the reason,for which he was absent from the meeting held last week. 4.从句所修饰的先行词有所不同 限制性定语从句的先行词通常是名词、代词或词组;而非限制性定语从句的先行词除了名词、代词外, 还可以是句子。 This is the best book that I have ever read. 这是我曾经读过的书中的最好的一本。 He won the first prize in the contest,which was more than we expected. 他在比赛中得了一等奖,这一点真出乎我们预料。 5.关系词的省略不同
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在限制性定语从句中,当关系代词在定语从句中作宾语或表语时,在口语中可以省略,关系副词有时 也可省略。而非限制性定语从句中的关系代词或关系副词不可省略。 I still remember the days we spent together in college.我仍然记得我们在大学时一起度过的日 子。(we 前省略了 that/which) She is not the one(that) she used to be. 她已不再是昔日的她了。(that 在定语从句中作表语) 6.英译汉时有所不同,译成汉语时,往往把限制性定语从句的内容置于先行词之前;而非限制性定语 从句和主句往往翻译成两个分句。 Which is the machine that we used last Sunday? 上星期天我们用的那台机器是哪一台? The concert,which was held last week,was a great success.那场音乐会是上周举行的,获得了 巨大的成功。 He may be late,in which case we ought to wait for him. 他可能迟到,要是那样的话我们就等等他。 三、as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句的区别 1.as 引导非限制性定语从句时,先行词一般为整个主句;而 which 引导非限制性定语从句时,先行词 既可以是整个主句,又可以是主句的一部分。 2.as 引导的从句位置比较灵活,可位于先行词之前、之中和之后,而 which 引导的从句只能位于先行 词之后。 3.as 引导非限制性定语从句时常译为“正如”,而 which 常译为“这,那”。 She is always working hard,as everyone can see. 正如大家所看到的,她工作一直都很努力。 She is working hard,which everyone can see. 她工作一直都很努力,这是大家有目共睹的。 As we all know,smoking is harmful to one's health. 众所周知,吸烟有害健康。 The book,which I bought yesterday,is very instructive.我昨天买的那本书很有教育意义。 如何写宣传材料——小册子 小册子(a brochure)是用来介绍或宣传某事物的一种说明文体。可用来介绍一种产品,说明其样式、 作用、用途、用法等,例如说明书或产品的简介材料。也可宣传某个旅游景点、游览胜地或营地,向游客 介绍其风格、特色,从而使游客能够全面了解其服务与风貌,起到介绍或宣传的作用,并最终达到吸引游 客前往光顾的目的。 写小册子时应注意: (1)应把所介绍的特色介绍给对象或客户,从而能吸引、打动对方。
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(2)经过思考后,拟好段落。先写什么,后写什么,应周密计划,语言简明易懂,直截了当。 (3)经检查、修改无误后,编成小册子。

一家宾馆新开业,为吸引外国宾客,希望在互联网上进行宣传,请你用英语为其写一篇文字介绍。主 要内容包括: 1.地点:距白山入口处 500 米。 2.房间及价格:单人间(共 20 间),100 元/天;双人间(共 15 间),150 元/天;都有热水淋浴。 3.餐饮:餐厅(中、西餐),咖啡厅(茶、咖啡等)。 4.游泳池:全天免费开放。 5.欢迎预订。 注意:1.词数:100 词左右,题目已写好。 2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Welcome to Baishan Mountain Hotel

[思路点拨] 本次写作任务是写一篇宣传新开业宾馆的应用文。写作时注意内容的完整性和条理性。整篇文章的时 态应以一般现在时为主,用第一人称表达更显宣传的亲切和诚意。 [词汇热身] 1.开放营业 2.单/双人间 3.预订 4.提前,预先 5.免费 6.供你选择 7.整日开放 【答案】 1.open for business 2.single/double room 3.book 4.in advance 5.free of charge 6.for you to choose from 7.open all day [句式温习] 1.该宾馆设有 20 个单人间和 15 个双人间,都有热水淋浴。 It has 20 single rooms and 15 double rooms, 2.该宾馆提供一日三餐,中、西餐任你挑选。 The hotel serves and there are Chinese food and Western food for
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.

you

. 3.晚上你可以在咖啡厅喝茶或者品尝咖啡。 You can also enjoy yourself at the caf? 【答案】 1.all with hot showers [连句成篇] in the evening.

2.three meals a day;to choose from 3.drinking tea or coffee

【参考范文】 Welcome to Baishan Mountain Hotel Baishan Mountain Hotel is now open for business. Our hotel stands 500 meters away from the entrance to Baishan Mountain.It has 20 single rooms and 15 double rooms,all with hot showers.A single room is 100 yuan and a double room 150 yuan for one night.You are advised to book in advance.The hotel serves three meals a day and there are Chinese food and Western food for you to choose from.You can also enjoy yourself at the cafe drinking tea or coffee in the evening.We also have a swimming pool,which is open all day and free of charge. All are welcome!

完形填空解题技法

研读首尾抓主题法

大多数夹叙夹议类完形填空的尾段是文章的结论段落,是对前面所讲述故事的评价,这样与首段往往 形成呼应的效果,所以,考生做此类文章时,要仔细分析首段与尾段的这种对应关系。 一般来说,议论文会按照“总—分—总”的思路来写。首先提出主题,接着对主题进行分析、叙述, 最后进行归纳、总结,得出结论或提出建议。因此,一般根据文章的首句及尾句就能抓住文章的主题。故 这种抓主题解题方法就是研读首尾抓主题法。 【实例透析】 (2012·北京高考) Inspiration “Mama,when I grow up,I'm going to be one of those!”I said this after seeing the Capital Dancing Company perform when I was three.It was the first time that my
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36

took on a vivid

form and acted as something important to start my training... ... ...I see a 55 that has inspired not only generations of little girls but a splendid company

that continues to develop and grow—and inspires people every day to follow their dreams. 36.A.hobby C.dream D.word 55.A.victory B.trend C.tradition D.desire 【解析】 36.C;55.C。作者三岁时看了首都舞蹈团表演后就决心长大后当一名舞蹈演员,那是她的 B.plan

梦想首次生动地、清晰地呈现出来,并且对她开始训练起了重要的作用。结尾语:我在这个舞蹈团中看到 了一种传统,这种传统激励了一代又一代的小女孩和一支辉煌的团队不断发展壮大,鼓励人们每天追逐他 们的梦想。由结尾段中的“follow their dreams”可知 36 空应该用 dream 一词,这样形成前后呼应。 【技巧点拨】 值得注意的是,主题句不总是在文章的开头,有时在文中,有时在文尾,因此,考生在做题时一方面 要快速通读全文,另一方面应注意连接词,如 but, however, yet, though, therefore, otherwise 等, 它们的前面一句或后面一句就有可能是主题句。 考生抓住了主题,就等于掌握了整篇文章,就可根据主题顺藤摸瓜选出正确答案。

(2011·天津高考) ... I cannot thank you enough for19(what)you told me one autumn afternoon when I was nine. After finishing my homework, I wandered into the dining room where you were buried20(under)piles of law books. I was21(puzzled). Why were you doing what I do—memorizing textbooks and studying for22(tests) ? When you said you were in law school, I was more puzzled. I didn't know Moms23(could)be lawyers too. You smiled and said, “In life, you can do anything you want to do. ” ... Encouraged by your33(statement), I have forged ahead(毅然前行)with my life's journey, less afraid to make mistakes, and 34 meeting each challenge. You did it, and now I'm 35 it. Sorry, got to run. So much to do, so many dreams to live. 34. A.secretly B.curiously

C.carelessly D.eagerly 35. A.doing B.considering C.correcting D.reading 【解析】 本篇文章的主题句就是“In life, you can do anything you want to do.”母亲的这句
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话一直激励着他不断前行,勇敢地去迎接生活中的一个又一个的挑战,从而取得了一个又一个的成功。 34. D。根据前面的“不怕犯错误”可知,这里指的是“渴望”迎接每一个挑战,故选 D 项。A 项“秘 密地”,B 项“好奇地”,C 项“粗心地”,均不符合语境。 35. A。此处意为“你是那样做了,我现在正在做”。故选 A 项。

完形填空解题技法

思前想后觅逻辑法

逻辑是作者的行文方式,主要包括并列、转折、条件、因果、递进、让步等。它们之间有的通过连接 词来表达,关系非常明显;有的隐含在句与句之中,关系比较隐晦。考生应该根据前后信息进行思考,拨 开迷雾,准确理解上下文间的逻辑关系。 【实例透析】 1.(2012·江苏高考)...Today we can talk,text,e?mail,chat and blog(写博客),not only from our 42 ,but from our mobile phones as well. ... 42.A.media B.computers

C.databases D.monitors 【解析】 B。这句话用了并列连词 not only...but(also)...,意为“不仅??而且??”,根据

but 后面的“our mobile phones”可知,not only 后面也要填一个与其属于同一范畴但非同一物的名词, 故选 computers。 2.(2012·广东高考)...For example,they may believe that people should always tell the truth, and that lying is 6.A.seldom 6 acceptable...

B.rarely

C.merely D.never 【解析】 D。句中的并列连词 and 表示前后两个分句是逻辑上的并列关系。前一分句的意思是“他们 认为人们永远要说实话”,后一分句与前一分句意义一致,故此处要用 never,表示“从不”。 【技巧点拨】 应用此法做完形填空题时,需要理清上下文之间的逻辑关系,找出它们内在的联系及含义。例如注意 一些连词,像 and, but, or, if, because, so, though 等在句中所起的作用,进而理清上下文之间的逻 辑关系作出正确的判断。

When Teresa, a widow with four young children, saw a notice from her church for all members to gather to deliver presents and food to a 1 family, she took $ 10 out of her savings jar and
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bought some ingredients to make three dozen2(cookies). She got to the church parking lot just in time to join the convoy going to the home that was to 3 the people's help. The route was 4 , and she was astonished when the cars pulled up in front of her house. When the pastor saw her, he said, “We 5 expected you to join us, Teresa. We know it's been a great 6 since your husband died, and we all wanted to 7 you. ”

1.A.wealthy B.big C.noble D.needy 3.A.offer B.receive C.expect D.refuse 4.A.pleasant B.lengthy C.familiar D.rough

5.A.never B.just C.even D.seldom

6.A.failure B.comfort C.success D.struggle 7. A.satisfy B.support C.invite D.remember 【解析】 本文是一篇记叙文。特里萨是一个很贫穷的母亲,她一个人带着 4 个孩子度日。当她看见 教堂帮助人的活动通知时,她拿出了 10 美元买了一些原料,做了一些甜饼,准备送人,并且在那里等着和 他人一起给那些需要的人送去。当车队来到自己的家门口的时候,筹办人发现了特里萨,原来她也参与了 帮助人的活动。特里萨虽然感到有点不自在,但是她却奉献出自己的甜饼和他人来分享。 1. D。考查语境逻辑。根据前面的语境及下文中的“going to the home that was to 3 the people's

help”可知是给予需要帮助的家庭,所以应该是贫穷的家庭,故选 D。needy 意为“贫困的”。wealthy“富 有的”;big“大的”;noble“高贵的”,均不符合语境。 3. B。考查语境逻辑。根据前面的语境:她看到一个教堂的通知,要人们准备东西送给那些贫穷的家 庭,再根据空格后面的“the people's help”可知此处表示接受人们的帮助,所以选 B。offer“提供”; expect“期待”;refuse“拒绝”,均不符合语境。 4. C。考查语境逻辑。从后面的“she was astonished when the cars pulled up in front of her house” 可知车队来到了她家,因此路线是她熟悉的,所以选 C。pleasant“令人愉快的”;lengthy“漫长的”; rough“艰难的”,均不符合语境。 5. A。考查语境逻辑。从后面的“We know it's been a great 6 since your husband died”可知 她的丈夫死了,她生活得也很艰难,所以他们从来没有想到她还会去帮助其他人。just“刚才”;even“甚 至”;seldom“很少”,均不符合语境。 6. D。考查语境逻辑。从空格后面的“since your husband died”可知她的丈夫死了,因此生活对她
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来说是很艰难的,所以选 D。failure“失败”;comfort“安慰”;success“成功”,均不符合语境。 7. B。考查语境逻辑。前面提到她的丈夫死后,她的生活很艰难,所以人们都想帮助她,故选 B。 satisfy“满足”;invite“邀请”;remember“记得”,均不符合语境。

例题讲解
例题解析 单项填空 1.(2012·天津高考)Parents and children should communicate more to them so that they can understand each other better. A.open C.widen D.leave 【解析】 本题四个选项都为常见动词。A 项 open 意为“开(放)”;B 项 narrow 意为“使变狭窄,缩 小”;C 项 widen 意为“使变宽,拓宽”;D 项 leave 意为“离开”。句意:父母和孩子应该多沟通交流, 缩 小 彼 此 之 间 的 代 沟 , 以 便 能 够 更 好 地 彼 此 理 解 。 从 关 键 信 息 词 communicate more , the gap , understand...better 等可推断出其前后逻辑关系应该是强调逐步变好,只有 narrow 能强调此意。故可知 答案为 B。 【答案】 B 2.(2012·江西高考)We were all agreed that the cottage would for the family. A.make C.take B.turn D.have a perfect holiday home B.narrow the gap between

【解析】 make 成为,变成,此处作连系动词,后接作表语的名词,要加相应的冠词;turn 作连系动 词时后接作表语的名词,省略冠词,如果 turn 后加 into 则须在名词前加相应的冠词。句意:我们一致同 意那间村舍将会成为这个家庭的一个完美的假日之家。 【答案】 A 3.(2012·课标全国卷)If she doesn't want to go,nothing you can say will A.persuade B.promise her.

C.invite D.support 【解析】 句意:如果她不想去,你说什么也 不了她。persuade 说服,劝服;promise 允诺,

答应;invite 邀请;support 支持,支撑,养活。所以 A 项意义正确。 【答案】 A 4.(2012·浙江高考)According to scientists,our mental abilities begin to
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from the

age of 27 after reaching the highest level at 22. A.differ B.shrink C.fail D.decline

【解析】 句意:据科学家称,在 22 岁达到最高水平后,从 27 岁开始我们的脑力开始衰退。A 选项表 示“不同,有区别”;B 选项表示“收缩,萎缩”;C 选项表示“失败,没做成”;D 选项表示“下降,减 少,变弱”。 【答案】 D 5.(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅱ)The watch was very good,and he A.paid B.cost 20 percent down for it.

C.bought D.spent 【解析】 本题四个选项都为常见动词,都可以表示“花费”。本题题意为“这块手表很好,他先付

了 20%的订金”。pay...down(或 pay down)付押金,付订金,符合题意。要注意以下表示“花费”的句式: sb.pay(s) money for sth.某人花钱买某物,主语为“人”,符合题意,故选 A。sth.cost(s) sb.money 某物花费某人多少钱,主语为“物”;sb.buy(s) sth.for money 某人买某物花多少钱,for 后面接 money; sb.spend(s) money on sth.某人花钱买某物,主语为“人”,与介词 on 搭配。解答这道题目需要抓住句 中的关键信息词 down 和 for。 【答案】 A 6.(2013·福建高考)When the group discussion is nearing its end,make sure to with important points. A.conclude B.lead it

C.avoid D.hold 【解析】 句 意 : 小 组 讨 论 接 近 尾 声 时 , 一 定 要 用 几 条 要 点 作 为 结 束 。 conclude( 使 ) 结 束 ,

conclude...with 以??结束,符合题意。lead 领导,引领;avoid 避免,回避;hold 容纳,举行。其中 nearing its end 为重要信息提示。 【答案】 A 7.(2011·辽宁高考)You are old enough to A.win B.gain C.take D.earn your own living.

【解析】 句意:你的年龄已经足够大了,可以自己谋生了。earn one's living 为固定短语,意为: 谋生。 【答案】 D 8.(2011·湖北高考)Knowledge and learning are important if we want to be successful,but they may also our thinking.
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A.direct C.change 【解析】

B.limit D.improve 句意:假如我们要获得成功,知识与学问对我们很重要,但这些也会限制我们的思维。四

个选项的主要含义:A“指导,监督”,B“限制,局限”,C“改变”,D“改进,改善”。从句中的转折 连词 but 判断,本空选 B 表示“限制,局限”。 【答案】 B 9.(2011·天津高考)I the summer vacation. A.borrowed B.opened a bank account after I made $1,000 by doing a part?time job during

C.entered D.ordered 【解析】 句意:我在暑假做兼职挣了 1,000 美元之后开了一个银行账户。根据空格后的 a bank

account(银行账户)可知,此处用 open。borrow 借来;enter 进入;order 订购。 【答案】 B 10 .(2011·安徽高考 )As the story discovered. A.begins B.happens C.ends D.develops ,the truth about the strange figure is slowly

【解析】 句意: 随着故事情节的展开, 这个奇怪人物的真实情况也慢慢被人们发现。 begin 开始; happen 发生;end 结束;develop 发展。根据句意不难看出答案为 D 项。 【答案】 D 单项填空 1.(2012·陕西高考)He had to pause from time to time to wipe the sweat from his forehead, because the air?conditioning system A.broke in C.broke out D.broke down 【解析】 break in 闯入;break up 打破,打碎,解散,结束;break out(战争、火灾等)发生;break down(机器)发生故障,(计划、谈判等)失败。由主句中 pause from time to time to wipe the sweat 可 知此处是指空调出故障,故选 D 项。本题句意为:他不得不时常停下来擦擦额头上的汗,因为空调系统出 故障了。 【答案】 D 2.(2013·浙江高考)The museum will open in the spring with an exhibition and a viewing platform visitors can watch the big glasshouses being built. A.what C.when B.where D.why
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.

B.broke up

【解析】

句意:博物馆将在春季开放,届时将有一个展览,还有一个观光平台,在这里参观者可以 visitors can watch the big glasshouses being

看到许多在建的大玻璃暖房。 分析句子结构可知,

built 为定语从句,a viewing platform 为定语从句的先行词,从句缺少地点状语,要用 where 引导,所 以正确答案为 B 项。 【答案】 B 3.(2013·重庆高考)John invited about 40 people to his wedding, most of members. A.them B.that are family

C.which D.whom 【解析】 句意:约翰邀请了大约 40 个人参加他的婚礼,大部分人是家庭成员。由前后两个句子之间 没有连接词可首先把 A 项排除。B、C、D 三项都可引导定语从句,但 that 不能放在介词 of 之后,故排除。 which 引导定语从句时,表示物,不符合题意,也排除。most of whom 引导非限制性定语从句,whom 指代 about 40 people。most of whom 在定语从句中作主语,所以答案为 D。 【答案】 D 4.(2013·安徽高考)Mo Yan was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2012, one of the Chinese people's longheld dreams come true. A.it B.that C.what D.which made

【解析】 句意:莫言获得 2012 年诺贝尔文学奖,这件事使中国人民长久以来的一个梦想得以实现。 此处为非限制性定语从句,修饰前面整个句子。it 和 what 不能引导定语从句,可排除;that 不能用于引 导非限制性定语从句。故选 D 项。 【答案】 D 5.(2012·安徽高考)A lot of language learning, has been discovered,is happening in the first year of life,so parents should talk much to their children during that period. A.as C.which 【解析】 B.it D.this 句意:正如被发现的那样,大量的语言学习是在人生的第一年发生的,所以父母应当在那

个时期和孩子多说话。 该题解题的关键是理顺句子结构。 空白处所在句为非限制性定语从句, B 和 D 可排除。 空格处的关系词指代 a lot of language learning is happening in the first year of life 这个句子。 指代某个句子时,as 引导的非限制性定语从句可后指或前指,而 which 引导的从句只能前指。此处为后指, 因此 A 项正确。 【答案】 A 6.(2012·江苏高考)After the flooding,people were suffering in that area,
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urgently

needed clean water,medicine and shelter to survive. A.which B.who C.where D.what 【解析】 根据定语从句的“urgently needed clean water,medicine and shelter to survive”

可知,需要干净的水、药品和避难所的是人(people),而不是 that area 或 flooding,所以先行词为人,A 项也可排除,故选 B。 【答案】 B 7.(2012·江西高考)By 16:30, been sold. A.which B.when C.what D.that was almost closing time,nearly all the paintings had

【解析】 句意:到了 16:30,差不多是关门的时间了,几乎所有的画都卖完了。定语从句缺少主语, 使用关系代词 which 引导。when 是关系副词;what 不能引导定语从句;that 不能引导非限制性定语从句。 【答案】 A 8.(2012·全国卷Ⅱ)That evening, very late. A.that C.what 【解析】 B.which D.when 句意:那天晚上我一直工作到很晚,我过后会告诉你关于那晚更详细的情况。本题中两个 I will tell you more about later,I ended up working

逗号之间的部分是一个非限制性定语从句,关系代词 which 代替先行词 that evening。A 项 that 不能引导 非限制性定语从句;C 项 what 不能引导定语从句;D 项 when 在从句中作状语,不能作宾语。 【答案】 B 9.(2012·陕西高考)It is the third time that she has won the race, us all. A.that B.where has surprised

C.which D.what 【解析】 句意:这是她第三次赢得比赛,这使得我们都很吃惊。由逗号可知,所填词引导非限制性

定语从句,故排除 A、D 两项,因为 that 不能引导非限制性定语从句,what 不引导定语从句;另外,该从 句缺少主语,故排除 B 项;只有关系代词 which 符合题目要求,which 指代前面整个句子。 【答案】 C 10.(2013·浙江高考)The children, A.all of what B.all of which C.all of them D.all of whom 【解析】 句意:孩子们玩了一整天,都累坏了。分析句子结构可知,
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had played the whole day long,were worn out.

had played the whole

day long 是非限制性定语从句,先行词 children 指人,故排除 A、B、C 三项。所以正确答案为 D 项。 【答案】 D

教材题点 【例 1】 There are plenty of jobs ________in the western part of the country. A.present B.available C.precious D.convenient 【解题方法指导】 句意:在那个国家的西部地区有许多工作供你 选择。present 目前的,现在的(作前置定语);出席的,在场的 (作后置定语);available 可用的,可得到的,可达到的; precious 宝贵的,珍贵的;convenient 方便的,便利的。 答案:B 教材原文对照 There were inventions and developments in China which were not available in Europe at that time. (P26) 【例 2】 —How about your journey to Mount Emei? —Everything was wonderful except that our car________twice on the way. A.slowed down B.broke down C.got down D.put down 【解题方法指导】 句意:——峨眉山之游感觉如何啊?——其他 都很好,就是我的车抛锚了两次。slow down 放慢(速度),(使) 减速;break down 损坏,(健康等)垮掉,崩溃;get down 下来, 写下,使沮丧;put down 记下。 答案:B 教材原文对照 First his two sledges broke down,and then the horses began to have serious difficulties with the snow and the cold. (P28) 【例 3】 Some parents are just too protective.They want to________their kids from every kind of danger,real or imagined. A.spot B.dismiss C.shelter D.distinguish 【解题方法指导】 句意:有些父母太保护孩子了。他们极力想为 他们的孩子顶住来自各方面的危险,无论是真实的还是想象的危 险。spot 看出、注意到;dismiss 打发走,解散;shelter 袒护, 庇护,避难;n.庇护所;distinguish 区别,辨别。又如:We all think we should help the poor and shelter the homeless.我们都认为我们应该帮助贫困者,庇护无家可归者。 答案:C 教材原文对照 We’ll teach you survival skills and you’ll learn how to make a fire and build your own shelter. (P31)
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综合题库
【美文阅读】

你体验过瞬间刺激的冒险运动吗?蹦极就是一个不错的选择,尝试之前先来品味一番下文作者蹦极时 心惊肉跳的感受吧! I never thought that it absolutely needed lots of courage to decide,“Should I jump,or should I wait until someone pushes me or even to tell me NO REFUND AT ALL!” At the same time,a couple of Americans shouted at me“Hurry up!”Perhaps they didn't want to wait and take turns.All I could hear was the voice from the safety crew standing next to me saying , “Relax.Breathe deeply.Look at those beautiful mountains in the

distance...Five.Four.Three.Two.One.Jump!” Ironically(讽刺地),his final countdown didn't work because we were all still standing right there,right on the small platform located on the top of the hill above Queenstown,South Island of New Zealand. People know Queenstown is famous for this thrilling activity,even though there are other things worth seeing and fun to do there.But only bungee jumping appeals to me.Once I arrived there, I dragged my best friend to join the list of crazy guys who love bungee jumping.Well,as soon as I stepped on the tiny walkway leading to the platform,all my heroic bravery was gone and seemed to be left at the registry(登 记) counter of the shop on the ground when I paid the money. Looking downwards along my heavy path,I realized,“Gee,it's amazingly high from the ground, maybe I should simply waste the money in order to save my life!”But,at last,I closed my eyes and then jumped. I started to scream louder and louder in my heart but concealed this feeling by making no sounds at all outside.I had already been very embarrassed to linger(逗留)there at the edge the moment before,and thus I had to be a bit cool through the whole process of jumping to save face. Being up side down,hanging in the sky was not fun at all.The most memorable second was the time before and right after I jumped.That's my best conclusion from the bittersweet experience of bungee jumping. 【诱思导学】
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1.Why did the Americans shout at the author?

2.Hearing the final countdown,what did the author do?

3.Why did the author finally jump?

【答案】 1.Because they were waiting for their turns. 2.He didn't obey the order to jump down at once. 3.Because he didn't want to lose face before others. 语法专练 1.While watching television,________. A.the doorbell rang B.the doorbell was rung C.I heard the doorbell ring D.the doorbell was ringing 解析:句意为: “我看电视时听到了门铃响了” 。watching television 的逻辑主语只能是人。 答案:C 2.________from the tallest building,the whole city looks more beautiful. A.See B.Saw C.Seeing D.Seen 解析:句意为:站在最高的大楼看整个城市,它显得更美了。 seen 短语作状语与 the whole city 成被动关系。 答案:D 3.When we got back,we found the gas________but the door remained________. A.burned;locked B.burned;locking C.burning;locked D.to burn;locking 解析:句意为:当我回去时,我发现煤气还是开着的而门仍是 锁的。burning 作宾补与 gas 成主动关系,而 locked 作表语与 the door 成被动关系。 答案:C 4.The radio________tomorrow is Mary’s. A.repairing B.repaired C.to be repaired D.being repaired 解析:句意为:明天要修的收音机是 Mary 的。repaired 表“已修 了的” ,being repaired 表“正在被修理的”而 to be repaired(不 定式的被动态)表“被动动作将要进行” 。 答案:C 5.________good,the food sold out soon. A.Taste B.Tasting C.Tasted D.To taste 解析:句意为:这食物味道好,很快就卖光了。taste 是系动 词,没有被动态,故用现在分词作状语。
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答案:B 6.You can’t catch me!Mary shouted,________away. A.run B.running C.to run D.ran 解析:现在分词作伴随状语与 Mary 成主动关系。 答案:B 7.________from his accent,he is from Beijing. A.Judging B.Judged C.To judge D.Judge 解析:句意为:根据口音判断,他是北京人。judging from (根据??判断),是评注性状语为一固定结构,作状语时,不 考虑其与主语的关系。 答案:A 8.________more time,I can do it better. A.Given B.To give C.Be given D.Give 解析:句意为:给我多点时间的话,我会做得更好,given 作条 件状语与 I 成被动关系。 答案:A 9.Anyone________to vote must come to the meeting. A.wishing B.desiring C.wished D.hoped 解析:句意为:任何想投票的人必须来参加会议。现在分词短语 作定语修饰 anyone 成主动关系,wishing 常表不大能实现的愿望。 答案:B 10.Things________never come again. A.lost B.losing C.lose 解析:句意为:覆水难收。lost 过去分词作定语修饰 things, 与其成被动关系。 答案:A 综合题库 课文缩写 从方框中选择恰当的单词或短语,完成下列短文

D.have lost

best places;luggage;go straight;fit;maximum;altitude;optional choices;in comfortable hotels;cooks and porters uncomfortable Hiking trips can be 1. and even dangerous.However,at Adventure 2000 the people there

understand the needs of hikers.All the guides have much experience and they know all the best routes and 2. your 4. to camp.As well as the group guide,all teams have 3. which means that you can simply enjoy the experience. ,who carry

The people there also think good arrangements are important.In Beijing and Lhasa,they have accommodation 5. 7. .If you don't want to 6. home after the hiking , you have

.There is a trip to Western China or you can spend some time on the coast. There is a Class A hike—you have to be 8. .There are walks of six to eight hours,

with a maximum 9.

of over 5,000 metres.Hikes are between October and May and 10.
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group size is 15 people. 【答案】 1.uncomfortable hotels 6.go straight 7.optional choices 8.fit 9.altitude 10.maximum 2.best places 3.cooks and porters 4.luggage 5.in comfortable

用所给动词的正确形式填空 1.I (suppose)it will rain,for there are a lot of clouds in the sky.

2.The sights of the city never fail to (impress)foreign tourists. 3.The album 4.She 5.I 6.They 7.He 8.They 9.I 10.He 【答案】 (contain)many memorable songs. (resemble)her sister in looks. (suspect)they are very disappointed. (possess)property all over the world. (understand)how hard things have been for you. (discuss)how to collect money in the next room now. (leave)for Shanghai tomorrow morning. (sleep)on the sofa now,for his parents have come for the weekend. 1.suppose 2.impress 3.contains 4.resembles 5.suspect 6.possess

7.understands 8.are discussing 9.am leaving/will leave 10.is sleeping 1.This is the factory where we visited last week.

2.This is the watch for which Tom is looking.

3.The person to who you spoke is a student of Grade Two.

4.The house in that we live is very small.

5.The sun gives off light and warmth,that makes it possible for plants to grow.

6.I've read all the books which I borrowed from the library.

7.This is the best film which I have ever seen.

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8.My father and Mr.Smith talked about things and persons who they remembered in the country.

9.Everything which we saw was of great interest.

10.His dog,that was now very old,became ill and died.

【答案】 1.where→that/which 或去掉 where 2.把 for 放在 looking 之后 3.who→whom 4.that→which 5.that→which 6.which→that 或去掉 which 7.which→that 或去掉 which 8.who→that 9.which→that 或去掉 which 10.that→which

立体式复习单词 A.基础单词 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

n.奇遇,冒险的经历 adj.较重要的;较严重的 n.团体,组织,机构 adj.不舒服的,不自在的 n.住所,住处 adj.最大的,最多的 adj.极度的,极端的 n.相似性,类似性 n.较喜欢的东西,偏爱 vt.使惊愕 vt.使困惑 n.量,数量 n.准备,预备 n.志向,抱负 vi.运转;发挥作用
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B.词汇拓展 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 【答案】 6.maximum

vi.不同于,有区别→ adj.忧虑的,担心的→ vt.使困惑→

adj.不同的→ n.焦虑,担忧

n.不同,差异

adj.令人困惑的→ n.财富

adj.困惑的→

n.困惑

adj.富有的,富裕的→ n.耐心,忍耐力→ n.国籍→
1.adventure

adj. & n.有耐心的;病人→ adj.国家的
4.uncomfortable 10.amaze

adj.没有耐心的

n.国家,民族→
2.major

3.organisation 9.preference

5.accommodation 12.quantity

7.extreme

8.similarity

11.confuse

13.preparation 14.ambition 15. function 16.differ; different; difference 17.anxious; anxiety 18.confuse; confusing; confused; confusion 19.wealthy; wealth 20.patience; patient; impatient 21.nationality; nation; national

递进式回顾短语 A.短语互译 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 起飞 颠倒地,倒置地 出现,到场 决定不履行 使理解 in turn break out put...into prison on one's way run out of

B.用上面词组的适当形式完成下列句子 11.Everything in the room was turned 12.It appears as if a war will 13.I've 14.I couldn't . .

my tooth paste this morning. to her how much I loved her. .

15.Once you've given your word,don't try to

【答案】 1.take off 2.upside down 3.turn up 4.back out 5 . get across 6. 轮流 7. 突然发生,爆发 8. 把??关进监狱 9. 在途中 10. 用完,耗尽

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11.upside down 12.break out 13.run out of 14.get across 15.back out

仿写式活用句型 1.Then came the total darkness of the polar winter. 【句式仿写】 ①铃响了。 the bell. ②然后主席来了。 the chairman. 2.When I turned up for my first jump I was so nervous that I tried to back out,but my friends persuaded me to go through with it. 【句式仿写】 ①箱子太重了,我提不起来。 It is I can't lift it.

②屋子里人太多了,我进不去。 There are I can't enter it.

3.While on a hiking trip,our cooks prepare delicious meals. 【句式仿写】 必要时我会找你帮忙的。 I'll help 4.Putting on our shoes in the morning is getting slower and slower. 【句式仿写】 住在大城市里使他有了很多的工作机会。 him a lot of job chances. 5.However,silk wasn't the only thing that passed along the Silk Road;anything that had buyers was traded along the road. 【句式仿写】 ①这是我们现在唯一能做的事情。 This thing ②你有什么东西要在城里买吗? Is anything 【答案】 1.①There goes 2.①so heavy a box that 3.when (it is)necessary 4.Living in the big city brings 5.①that we can do now ②that you want to buy in town
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turn

to

you .

for

is

the .

only

there ? ②Then came ②so many people in the room that

归纳总结
限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句的语法内容让学生感觉比较杂乱,语法规则较多,易混易错的地 方层出不穷。让学生正确理解和掌握语法知识是本课学习的关键。

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