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2016年高考英语母题题源系列 专题08 阅读理解(科普)(含解析)


母题八阅读理解(科普阅读)

【母题来源一】【2016·北京】 【母题原题】 【2016·北京】C California Condor’s Shocking Recovery California condors are North America’s largest birds, with wing-length of up to 3 meters. In the 1980s, electrical lines and lead poisoning(铅中毒) nearly drove them to dying out. Now, electric shock training and medical treatment are helping to rescue these big birds. In the late 1980s, the last few condors were taken from the wild, and there are now more than 150 flying over California and nearby Arizona, Utah and Baja in Mexico. Electrical lines have been killing them off. “As they go in to rest for the night, they just don’t see the power lines,” says Bruce Rideout of San Diego Zoo. Their wings can bridge the gap between lines, resulting in electrocution(电死) if they touch two lines at once. So scientists have come up with a shocking idea. Tall poles, placed in large training areas, teach the birds to stay clear of electrical lines by giving them a painful but undeadly electric shock. Before the training was introduced, 66% of set-freed condors died of electrocution. This has now dropped to 18%. Lead poisonous has proved more difficult to deal with. When condors eat dead bodies of other animals containing lead, they absorb large quantities of lead. This affects their nervous systems and ability to produce baby birds, and can lead to kidney(肾) failures and death. So condors with high levels of lead are sent to Los Angeles Zoo, where they are treated with calcium EDTA, a chemical that removes lead from the blood over several days. This work is starting to pay off. The annual death rate for adult condors has dropped from 38% in 2000 to 5.4% in 2011. Rideout’s team thinks that the California condors’ average survival time in the
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wild is now just under eight years. “Although these measures are not effective forever, they are vital for now,” he says. “They are truly good birds that are worth every effort we put into recovering them. ” 63.California condors attract researchers’ interest because they . A.are active at night B.had to be bred in the wild C.are found on in California D.almost died out in the 1980s 64.Researchers have found electrical lines are. A.blocking condors’ journey home B. big killers of Califorbnia condoras C. rest places for condors at night D. used to keep condors away 65.According to Paraghaph 5 ,lead poisoning. A.makes condors too nervous to fly B. has little effect on condors’ kidneys C. can hardly be gotten rid of form condors’ blood D. makes it different for condors to produce baby birds 66.The passage shows that . A.the average survival time of condors is satisfactory B.Rideout’s research interest lies in electric engineering C.the efforts to protect condors have brought good results D.researchers have found the final answers to the problem 【答案】 63.D64.B65.D66.C

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故选 D。 64.B 细节理解题。 根据第三段 “Electrical lines have been killing them off...Their wings can bridge the gap between lines, resulting in electrocution(电死) if they touch two lines at once.”可知,神鹰不知道停在电线上会触电身亡,它们经常停在电线上休息,结 果,很多被电死了,故选 B。

考点:环保类短文阅读 【名师点睛】 推理判断题属于主观题,是层次较高的题目。它包括判断题和推理题。这两类题常常相互依 存,推理是为了作出正确的判断,正确的判断又依赖于合乎逻辑的推理。此类题要求在理解 表面文字的基础上,作出判断和推论,从而得到文章的隐含意思和深层意思,也就是通过文 章中的文字信息、上下文的逻辑关系及事物的发展变化等已知的信息,推断出作者没有直接 表达的态度和观点。 推理判断题的解题方法 : 推理判断题不仅要求考生读懂文章中的每个句子的意思还要推理它们之间的关系,结合自己 的生活常识和经验,再通过逻辑推理和判断,理解文章的言外之意,从而揭示文章的深层涵 义。 任何一篇文章都有其特定的写作目的,读者需要知道如何去做或按照某种方式思考问题。推
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理判断题的答案不可能在文章中直接找到,因此推理时我们务必要忠于原文,在文章中寻找 并确定可推论的依据,即:已知部分-推论的前提,从中推测出未知部分-推理的结论,切 忌妄加评论,把自己的观点当成作者的观点。 【母题来源二】 【2016·江苏】 【母题原题】 【2016·江苏】 B Chimps(黑猩猩) will cooperate in certain ways, like gathering in war parties to protect their territory. But beyond the minimum requirements as social beings, they have little instinct (本能) to help one another. Chimps in the wild seek food for themselves. Even chimp mothers regularly decline to share food with their children. Who are able from a young age to gather their own food. In the laboratory, chimps don’t naturally share food either. If a chimp is put in a cage where he can pull in one plate of food for himself or, with no great effort, a plate that also provides food for a neighbor to the next cage, he will pull at random ---he just doesn’t care whether his neighbor gets fed or not. Chimps are truly selfish. Human children, on the other hand are extremely corporative. From the earliest ages, they decide to help others, to share information and to participate a achieving common goals. The psychologist Michael Tomasello has studied this cooperativeness in a series of expensive with very young children. He finds that if babies aged 18 months see an worried adult with hands full trying to open a door, almost all will immediately try to help. There are several reasons to believe that the urges to help, inform and share are not taught .but naturally possessed in young children. One is that these instincts appear at a very young age before most parents have started to train children to behave socially. Another is that the helping behaviors are not improved if the children are rewarded. A third reason is that social

intelligence.Develops in children before their general cognitive (认知的 ) skills,at least when compared with chimps..In tests conducted by Tomtas ell, the children did no better than the chimps on the physical worl
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d tests, but were considerably better d

at understanding the social worl

The cure of what children’s minds have and chimps’ don’t in what Tomasello calls what. Part of this ability is that they can infer what others know or are thinking. But that, even very young children want to be part of a shared purpose. They actively seek to be part of a “we”, a group that intends to work toward a shared goal. 58. What can we learn from the experiment with chimps? A. Chimps seldom care about others’ interests. B. Chimps tend to provide food for their children. C. Chimps like to take in their neighbors’ food. D. Chimps naturally share food with each other. 59. Michael Tomasello’s tests on young children indicate that they____. A. have the instinct to help others B. know how to offer help to adults C. know the world better than chimps D. trust adults with their hands full 60. The passage is mainly about ____. A. the helping behaviors of young children B. ways to train children’s shared intentionality C. cooperation as a distinctive human nature D. the development of intelligence in children 【答案】58.A 59.A 60.C

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59.A 推理判断题。根据第三段最后一句 He finds that if babies aged 18 months see an worried adult with hands full trying to open a door, almost all will immediately try to help.和第四段第一句 There are several reasons to believe that the urges to help, inform and share are not taught .but naturally possessed in young children.可知只 有 18 个月的孩子就知道去帮助他人,而且帮助他人的做法并不是父母亲教的,属于人类的本 能。故 A 项正确。 60.C 主旨大意题。本文属于科普说明文,作者从猩猩的自私行为导入到人类无私帮助他人的 本能,分析了人类愿意帮助他人、愿意与他人合作的本能天性的原因。ABD 都属于文章的部分 内容,并非中心思想。故 C 项正确。 【名师点睛】 本文属于主旨大意题。本文使用了正方形写作法。即中心主题隐含在全文之中,没有明确的 主题句。阅读这样的文章,就要求考生根据文章的细节来分析,概括出段落的主题,从而推 导出文章的主旨。分析的方法是,先弄清该段落主要讲了哪几个方面的内容,这些内容在逻 辑上有什么联系,然后加以归纳形成主题。该类型的试题则迎刃而解。注意总结性的提示词 和转折词,特别要注意中心句。 (自然段少的文章中心句不很明显。自然段多的文章,则比较 好联系中心句,找一个和中心句最贴近的选项) ,文章段落的中间部分则可采用略读或扫读的 方式,一则省时间,二则目标明确,正确率自然也相应提高了。掌握了找主题句或中心句的 方法,就可以依据主题句或中心句归纳主题。 考生要特别注意: 首段陷阱。即首段虽然貌似主题句或中心句,但却没有完整概括文章全

意,或只片面地说到文章的某一个层次,或者是作者设置的几个需要读者判定的文意。这样 的信息用来做主题句或中心句就会落入陷阱。以本文为例:本文的第一段只是一个导入的段 落,从第一段中猩猩的自私行为导入到第三段中人类无私帮助他人的本能,分析了人类愿意 帮助他人、愿意与他人合作的本能天性的原因。 考点:考查科普说明文阅读

【命题意图】阅读理解从能力的角度来讲,考查学生运用英语的能力,具体地说,就是 通过阅读有关文章提取有用信息的能力。 【考试方向】阅读理解所选的语段包括叙述文、说明文、应用文和议论文,继续保持了 体裁的多样化特点。选材多源于英文报刊和网络媒体,包括广告应用文、日常生活、新闻报

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道、社会背景、政治经济、科普文章等各个方面的知识,并且具有鲜明的英语语言文化特点 和浓厚的时代气息。综合地反映了政治、经济、文化和生活的各个方面,体现了“语言是文 化的载体”这一重要理念;从题型的角度看,阅读题型主要有、细节理解型、主旨大意型、 词义猜测型、推理判断型、篇章结构型、细节理解型。 【得分要点】从解题方法的角度讲,根据不同的题材和体裁,结合阅读的题型特点,采 用不同的阅读方法,但不论怎样,理解文章的内容的前提。从题型的角度看,阅读题型主要 有、细节理解型、主旨大意型、词义猜测型、推理判断型、篇章结构型、细节理解型。

【母题 1】 【广东省华南师范大学附属中学、广东实验中学、深圳中学、广雅中学四校 2016 届高三上学 期期末联考】People with an impulsive personality refer to those who tend to do things without considering the possible dangers or problems first. According to a new study by researchers at the University of Georgia, such people may be more likely to have food addiction. The study found that people exhibiting impulsive behavior weren’t necessarily overweight, but impulsiveness was related to a direct relationship with food, and therefore, less healthy weight. Food addiction has been compared to addictive drug use. Studies have linked the dopamine (多巴胺) release that occurs after tasting delicious food to the dopamine release that happens when people consume other addictive substances. Impulsive behavior involves several personality traits ( 特点 ). Two of these traits, known as negative urgency and lack of perseverance, were particularly associated with food addiction and high BMI (身体质量指数) during the study. Negative urgency is characterized by the tendency to behave impulsively when experiencing negative emotions. Some people might drink alcohol or take drugs. For others, it could mean eating to feel better. Lack of perseverance is when a person has a hard time finishing hard or boring tasks. People with a lack of perseverance might have difficulty attempting to change addictive eating behavior, which could also cause obesity. “Impulsiveness might be one reason why some people eat in an addictive way despite motivation to lose weight,” said Dr. Ashley Gearhardt, a clinical psychologist. He was involved in developing the Yale Food Addiction Scale in aid of those people. “We
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are theorizing that if food addiction is really a thing, then our measure, the Yale Food Addiction Scale, should be related to helping controlimpulsive action,” said Gearhardt. Clinical psychologist Dr. James MacKillop, whose lab was conducting the study, believes that therapies used to treat addictive drug behavior could help people who suffer from addictive eating habits. “Most of the programs for weight loss at this point focus on the most obvious things, which are clearly diet and exercise,” MacKillop said. “It seems that managing strong desires to eat would naturally fit in with the skills a person would need to eat healthily.” 12. According to Paragraph 1, the result of food addiction is ________. A. less healthy weight C. negative emotions B. motivation to lose weight D. taking alcohol or drugs

13. How does the author introduce the two personality traits in Paragraph 4? A. By making comparisons and conclusions. effects. C. By presenting questions and answers. examples. 14. What can be inferred about the Yale Food Addiction Scale from the text? A. It has been successfully carried out among overweight people. B. It might help some impulsive people with food addiction to lose weight. C. It will prove whether food addiction is a problem to impulsive people. D. It is theoretically a proper treatment for addictive food and drug behavior. 15. Which of the following can be the best title for the text? A. Dopamine release caused by food addiction drug use C. Impulsive personality linked to food addition to obesity 【答案】 12A
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B. By explaining causes and

D. By giving definitions and

B. Food addiction compared to

D. Food addiction contributing

13D 14B 15C

13.D 推理判断题。根据第四段第一句 Negative urgency is characterized by the tendency to behave impulsively when experiencing negative emotions.和第四段第三句 Lack of perseverance is when a person has a hard time finishing hard or boring tasks.可知 这两句是 Negative urgency 和 Lack of perseverance 两个概念的定义。同时本段 2、3 句 Some people might drink alcohol or take drugs. For others, it could mean eating to feel better. 和最后一句 People with a lack of perseverance might have difficulty attempting to change addictive eating behavior, which could also cause obesity 给 出的是这两个概念的例子。所以作者是通过定义和举例来介绍这两个定义的。故 D 正确。 14.B 推理判断题。根据第五段最后一句“We are theorizing that if food addiction is really a thing, then our measure, the Yale Food Addiction Scale, should be related to helping control impulsive action,” said Gearhardt. 和 第 六 段 第一 句 Clinical psychologist Dr. James MacKillop, whose lab was conducting the study, believes that therapies used to treat addictive drug behavior could help people who suffer from addictive eating habits 可知耶鲁大学的这个研究可以帮助控制冲动的行为,并帮助那些因 为冲动而有不好的饮食习惯的人。故 B 项说法正确。 15.C 标题概括题。本题属于主旨大意题中的标题概括题,根据第一段第二句 According to a new study by researchers at the University of Georgia, such people may be more likely to have food addiction.一项新的研究显示性格冲动的人很可能会有食物成瘾的行为。在后 几段中介绍了人们对于这两者之间联系的研究。所以 C 项“Impulsive personality linked to

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food addition”与文章主题一致。 考点:考查科普说明文阅读 【母题 2】 【广东省汕头市金山中学 2016 届高三上学期期末考试】A team of engineers at Harvard University has been inspired by Nature to create the first robotic fly. The mechanical fly has become a platform for a series of new high-tech integrated systems. Designed to do what a fly does naturally, the tiny machine is the size of a fat housefly. Its mini wings allow it to stay in the air and perform controlled flight tasks. “It’s extremely important for us to think about this as a whole system and not just the sum of a bunch of individual components ( 元件),” said Robert Wood, the Harvard engineering professor who has been working on the robotic fly project for over a decade. A few years ago, his team got the go-ahead to start piecing together the components. “The added difficulty with a project like this is that actually none of those components are off the shelf and so we have to develop them all on our own,” he said. They engineered a series of systems to start and drive the robotic fly. “The seemingly simple system which just moves the wings has a number of interdependencies on the individual components, each of which individually has to perform well, but then has to be matched well to everything it’s connected to,” said Wood. The flight device was built into a set of power, computation, sensing and control systems. Wood says the success of the project proves that the flying robot with these tiny components can be built and manufactured. While this first robotic flyer is linked to a small, off-board power source, the goal is eventually to equip it with a built-in power source, so that it might someday perform data-gathering work at rescue sites, in farmers’ fields or on the battlefield. “Basically it should be able to take off, land and fly around,” he said. Wood says the design offers a new way to study flight mechanics and control at insect-scale. Yet, the power, sensing and computation technologies on board could have much broader applications. “You can start thinking about using them to answer open scientific questions, you know, to study biology in ways that would be difficult
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with the animals, but using these robots instead,” he said. “So there are a lot of technologies and open interesting scientific questions that are really what drives us on a day to day basis.” 8. The difficulty the team of engineers met with while making the robotic fly was that __________. A. they had no model in their mind B. they did not have sufficient time C. they had no ready-made components D. they could not assemble the components 9. It can be inferred from paragraphs 3 and 4 that the robotic fly __________. A. consists of a flight device and a control system B. can just fly in limited areas at the present time C. can collect information from many sources D. has been put into wide application 10. Which of the following can be learned from the passage? A. The robotic flyer is designed to learn about insects. B. Animals are not allowed in biological experiments. C. There used to be few ways to study how insects fly. D. Wood’s design can replace animals in some experiments. 11. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage? A. Father of Robotic Fly B. Inspiration from Engineering Science C. Robotic Fly Imitates Real Life Insect D. Harvard Breaks Through in Insect Study 【答案】 8C 9B 10D 11C

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9.B 推理判断题。根据第三段倒数第二句“he flight device was built into a set of power, computation, sensing and control systems”可知 A 项是错误的。根据第四段第一句“While this first robotic flyer is linked to a small, off-board power source”和“Basically it should be able to take off, land and fly around,”可知,目前由于电池等的限制, 只能在有限的区域飞行。因此 B 项是正确的。根据第四段的“so that it might someday perform data-gathering work at rescue sites, in farmers’ fields or on the battlefield”可知该飞行器是在 someday 将来的某一天才能从不同的地方收集信息,而不是 现在,因此排除 C 项。纵观全文,讲述的是该飞行器尚处于开发的初级阶段,有很多地方需 要改善,因此 D 项广泛投入使用是错误的。综上所述,选 B 项。 10.D 细节理解题。根据第四段的 it might someday perform data-gathering work at rescue sites, in farmers’ fields or on the battlefield 可知,A 项是错误的。B 项中 animals are not allowed 是错的,应该是 difficult with animals,即有些用动物来做试验是困难的, 不是不允许。C 项在文中并没有提到以前方法的多少,文中只是说 offers a new way to study, 提供了新的方法,故排除 C 项。根据最后一段的 you know, to study biology in ways that would be difficult with the animals, but using these robots instead,可知,有些试 验用动物很苦难,但是可以用机器人来替代,故选择 D 项。

【名师点睛】 本文属于主旨大意题中的标题概括题。我们可以根据以下原则来选择最好的标题—选帽原 则 。
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英语文章的标题可以是单词、短语,也可以是句子,它高度概括了文章内容,点明文章主题, 它是文章中心思想最精练的表达形式。那如何选择文章的标题呢?如同选择文章的主题思想 一样,标题要有概括性、全面性、针对性。标题要避免概括不够,即以部分代整体,或以事 实细节代替具体的大意;也要避免概括过度,即脱离了文本内容的过度发挥,导致标题范围 太大,缺乏针对性。像帽子一样,大小合适才行。另外,标题要简洁、突出、新颖。标题是 文章的点睛之笔,所以它还要具有醒目的特点,能吸引读者。 本文的重点观点在第一段,主要讲述的是哈佛大学从自然界的昆虫那里得到了灵感,设计开 发了第一款机器苍蝇。所以 C 项最概括第说明了文章的大意。 考点:考查科普说明文

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