? 形容词用来修饰、说明名词或不定代词，表 示人或物的性质、特征和状态。而副词是用 来修饰动词、形容词、其他副词或整个句子， 有时也能修饰名词，表示时间、地点、方式、 程度等。 ? 高考重点要求： ? 1、形容词、副词比较级，最高级常用句型 ? 2、形容词的倍数表达法和副词的位置 ? 3、多个形容词修饰同一名词的前后顺序 ? 4、分清
? 1大部分形容词能作定语、表语或宾语补足 语, 如： ? a beautiful park 一座美丽的公园 ? The play Tea-house（茶馆）is both moving and interesting. ? Who left the window open? ? How long will the weather stay sunny ? ? The silk clothes feel soft. ? How interesting the story sounds!
定冠词the + 形容词
? 定冠词the + 形容词”表示一类人或物，作 “主语或宾语”，意思为“……的一种人”， “……的一类东西或事情”。 ? The new will take the place of the old . （新 事物将代替旧事物。） ? The young are fond of sports .(年轻人喜欢 体育运动。) ? The Living and the Dead is a horror film.
? 3．有些形容词只能作表语 如： ? 叙述形容词只能作表语，所以又称为表语形 容词。这类形容词没有级的变化，也不可用 程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的形容词都 属于这一类。例如：afraid 害怕的。 ? （错） He is an ill man. ? （对） The man is ill. ? （错） She is an afraid girl. ? 对） The girl is afraid. ? well，unwell，ill，faint，afraid，alike， alive，alone，asleep，awake 等
词加-ed 和 –ing都可构成形容词
? 加-ed的形容词表示“人感到如何”，加-ing 的形容词则用来描写事物， 如： ? We were excited when we heard the exciting news. ? alarming,amusing,astonishing,charming, ? daring,demanding,encouraging,confusing, ? disappointing,discouraging,exciting, ? interesting,inviting,pleasing,promising, ? shocking,striking,surprising
? friendly，deadly，lovely，lonely，likely，lively， ugly，brotherly (有……品质的 ) ? ： (错） She sang lovely. ? （错） He spoke to me very friendly. ? （对） Her singing was lovely. ? （对） He spoke to me in a very friendly ? 有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词，也为副词。 ? daily，weekly，monthly，yearly，early ? The Times is a daily paper. ? The Times is published daily.
? 分两大类。一类是加到名词上的 ? ㈠加到名词上的主要有：
? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
① -y，：bloody, dirty, healthy, juicy, muddy； ③ -ful：careful, faithful, helpful, peaceful, useful； ④ -less：careless, harmless, noiseless, senseless, useless； ⑤ -ous/-ious：dangerous; courageous, mysterious； ⑥ -al/-tal/-ial/-tial：accidental, horizontal, colonial, influential； ⑦ -ic/-etic/-atic，：artistic, sympathetic, systematic； ⑧ -ish：childish, foolish, selfish； ⑨ -like： life-like, business-like, war-like； ⑩ -ed/-en：skilled, horned, golden, wooden。
? ① -ent/-ant，如：dependent, different, observant, pleasant； ? ② -able/-ible，如： agreeable, comfortable, defensible, sensible(明智的;合情理的 )； ? ③ -ive/-tive/-ative/-itive，如：active, attentive, imaginative, sensitive(敏感的;易受伤害的 )； ? ④ -ed/-en，如：advanced, noted, stolen, swollen； ? ⑤ -ing，如：annoying, disgusting, entertaining。
形容词在句子中的位置 ? 形容词一般放在被修饰的名词之前。两个或 两个以上形容词修饰一个名词时，形容词排 列的次序一般应考虑下面二种情况。 ? （1）与被修饰名词关系比较密切的形容词 位置靠近名词， 如：an exciting American film ? （2）音节少的形容词位置在前，音节多的 形容位置在后。
? 1）修饰复合不定代词 something, anything, nothing等， ? 如：anything important, nothing easy ? （2）同表示数量的词组连用， 如：twenty feet long, five years old ? 3．几个形容词修饰一名词时，一般顺序为 大小（little除外）、形状、色彩、由来、用 途。如： ? a fine round maple（枫木）writing table, ? a famous old English country house
? 副词在句子中主要用作状语，许多副词皆由形容词 加-ly 构成，如：careful-carefully. ? 副词主要被分为以下几种： ? 1．时间副词，如：often，early，usually， frequently always constantly now ? 2．地点副词，如：here，above，outside，below， there ? 3．方式副词，如：hard，fast，badly，well ? 4．程度副词，如：very，quite，much，still，even， almost ? 5．疑问副词，如：how，when，why， where
副词在句子中的位置 ? ? 时间副词和地点副词的位置 表示确定时间的副词和地点的副词，一般 放在句尾，如句中同时有地点副词和时间 副词，地点副词通常在前，时间副词在后。 修饰形容词和副词的程度副词，除enough 后置外，一般放在被修饰词的前面。副词 在此作状语。 如： be well enough, go fast enough
? ? ?
修饰动词的方式副词有以下几种 修饰不及物动词时，该副词要后置，如：sing well 修饰及物动词时，可放在被修饰词之前或宾语 之后；如宾语较长也可放在动词和宾语之间。 如：study English hard，see clearly the words on the blackboard 及物动词和副词（如：down，on，off，in，out， up等）组成的动词词组，其宾语是名词，该名 词可放在副词之前或之后：如是代词，该代词 一定要放在副词前。 He cut down the tree. / He cut the tree down. / He cut it down.
1 两者比较情况一样，常用“as+形容词原级+as‖句 型。 2 He is as tall as his monitor . 3 两者比较，表示一方在某方面不如另一方，常用 “not so /as +形容词原级+as‖句型。 A train doesn’t travel so fast as a plane . 4 三者或三者以上比较，表示某人某物“最……‖时， 用“the+形容词最高级+比较范围”句型。 Asia is by far the largest of the seven continents . She writes (the) most carefully of the three .
5 比较级+and+比较级“越来越……‖ It is getting cooler and cooler in autumn. She is becoming more and more active in taking part in social activities. 6 the +比较级，the +比较级“越……越……‖ The harder he studies , the greater progress he will make .
? 1 (1)Tom sounds very much ______in the job, but I’m not sure whether he can manage it. (2006 安徽) A. interested B. interesting C. interestingly D. interestedly ? 2—What a nice fire you have in your fireplace! —During the winter I like my house _____. (2005上海春) A. warmly and comfortably B. warm and comfortable C. warm and comfortably D. warmly and comfortable
? 3 She doesn't speak ________her friend, but her written work is excellent. (1993全国) A. as well as B. so often as C. so much as D. as good as ? 4(7)______, some famous scientists have the qualities of being both careful and careless. (2004上海春) A. Strangely enough B. Enough strangely C. Strange enough D. Enough strange
? 5 _______to take this adventure course will certainly learn a lot of useful skills. (2000全国) A. Brave enough students B. Enough brave students C. Students brave enough D. Students enough brave ? 6 All the people ______at the party were his supporters. (2002北京) A. present B. thankful 形容词作定语一般位于所修饰的名词前，但下列三种情况 C. interested D. important 形容词要后置：
①形容词短语作定语时； ②表语形容词作定语时； ③修饰复合不定代词时。
? (7) John Smith, a successful businessman, has a ______car. (2004辽宁) A. large German white B. large white German C. white large German D. German large white ? (8)______ students are required to take part in the boat race. (2004浙江) A. Ten strong young Chinese B. Ten Chinese strong young C. Chinese ten young strong 多个形容词修饰名词时，其排序规律是： D. Young strong ten Chinese
(限定词+程度副词+) 描绘+大小(长短、高低) +形状+年龄(新旧)+颜色+国籍或产地+物质材料+ 类别或用途+名词
? 9 The husband gave his wife ______every month in order to please her. (2004重庆) A. all half his income B. his half all income C. half his all income D. all his half income ? 10 (15)－How was your recent visit to Qingdao? －It was great. We visited some friends, and spent the ______days at the seaside. (1995全国) A. few last sunny B. last few sunny ? C. last sunny few D. few sunny last
注：限定词的排序：前位限定词 (指量限定词all, both, half等； 倍数词double, twice等；分数词one-third, two-fifths等) +中位限定词 (冠词，指示代词，形容词性物主代词，名词所 有格) +后位限定词 (序数词及last, next等；基数词及few, several等)
? (11) If I had ______, I'd visit Europe, stopping at the small interesting places. (1998全国) A. a holiday long enough B. an enough long holiday C. a holiday enough long D. a long holiday enough ①频度副词always, usually, often, never等一般放在 行为动词前，或者情态动词、助动词或be动词之 后。②表示方式的副词通常放在“动词(+宾语)‖之 后；③同时有表示时间、地点和方式的副词时， 其顺序一般为：方式＋地点＋时间。如：
? (12) Laws that punish parents for their little children’s actions against the laws get parents _____. (2004重庆) A. worried B. to worried C. worrying D. worry ? (13)It is believed that if a book is ______, it will surely ______ the reader. (2003上海) A. interested; interest ? B. interesting; be interested C. interested; be interesting ? D. interesting; interest (23)Mr. Smith, ______ of the ________ speech, started to read a novel. (2003京春) A. tired; boring B. tiring; bored ? C. tired; bored D. tiring; boring
? (15) It was raining heavily. Little Mary felt cold, so she stood ______to her mother. (2002北京) A. close B. closely C. closed D. closing
? (16)A typhoon swept across tiffs area with heavy rains and winds _____ strong as 113 miles per hour. (2006上海) A. too B. very C. so D. as ? (17)John is the tallest boy in the class, ________ according to himself. (2005安徽) A. five foot eight as tall as ? B. as tall as five foot eight C. as five foot eight tall as ? D. as tall five foot eight as
2. not as/so+原级+as
? (29) He speaks English well indeed, but of course not ______a native speaker. (2004上海) A. as fluent as B. more fluent than ? C. so fluently as D. much fluently than (30)—Do you have a big library?" —No, we don't─at least, not _ yours. ? A. bigger as B. as big as ? C. as big than D. as bigger than
3. as +形容词+(a/an+)名词+as
? (21) Our neighbour has ______ ours. (2003北京) A. as a big house as B. as big a house as C. the same big house as D. a house the same big as ? (22)It is generally believed that teaching is ________ it is a science. (2001全国) A. an art much as B. much an art as ? C. as an art much as D. as much an art as
? (24)–Did you take enough money with you? –No, I needed _______ I thought I would. (2006 全国II) A. not so much as B. as much as ? C. much more than D. much less than ? (25)Mr. Smith owns _____collection of coins than anyone else I have ever met. (2005山东 ? A. larger B. a larger ? C. the larger D. a large
? 有时省略或不点明被比较的对象，而是通过语境 来暗示被比较的对象 ? (26)I wish you'd do ______ talking and some more work. Thus things will become better. (2006江苏) A. a bit less B. any less ? C. much more D. a little more ? (27)I don’t think this film is by far the most boring. I have seen______ . (2006江西) A. better B. worse C. the best D. the worst 28 Mary kept weighing herself to see how much ______ she was getting. (2004全国) A. heavier B. heavy ? C. the heavier D. the heaviest
? 29 Your story is perfect; I’ve never heard _______ before. (2006全国II) A. the better one B. the best one ? C. a better one D. a good one ? (30) Bob ran the 100 meters in 9.91 seconds, and I have not seen ______ this year. (2005 浙江) A. the best B. better C. the most D. more
. least +原级 (最不)
? 31The salesman showed her several bags and she chose ______one as she didn’t want to spend too much time on it. (1991上海) A. the less expensive B. less expensive ? C. the least expensive D. least expensive 32 David has won the first prize in singing; he is still very excited now and feels_____ desire to go to bed. (2005江苏) A. the most B. more C. worse D. the least
10. the+比较级, the+比较级
? In recent years travel companies have succeeded in selling us the idea that the further we go, ______. (2001上海) A. our holiday will be better ? B. our holiday will be the better C. the better our holiday will be ? D. the better will our holiday be
? ? ? ? ? ? ? 比较级+and+比较级； no more than和……一样不 仅仅，； more…than…与其说……倒不如……； less than少于； more than多于，不只是，非常； more or less几乎，差不多，大约，或多或少； sooner or later(迟早，早晚，总有一天)；what’s more(而且，此外)； ? no sooner…than…(一……就……)。如：
? (71)I used to earn _______than a pound a week when I first started work. (06陕西6) A. a little B. a few ? C. fewer D. less
(73)Maggie has been fortunate to find a job she loves and, _____, she gets well paid for it. (2005浙江) A. sooner or later B. what’s more ? C. as a result D. more or less
(75)After supper she would sit down by the fire, sometimes for ______ an hour, thinking of her young and happy days. (2003上海) A. as long as B. as soon as ? C. as much as D. as many as (76)_____ I can see, there is only one possible way to keep away from the danger. (2004安徽春) A. As long as B. As far as ? C. Just as D. Even if
? (79)You're standing too near the camera. Can you move ______ ? (2000上海) A. a bit far B. a little farther ? C. a bit of farther D. a little far ? (80)－Are you feeling ________? －Yes, I'm fine now. (1992全国) A. any well B. any better ? C. quite good D. quite better
1. 比较级前可用a bit, a little, rather, some(肯定句及请求或建议 的问句中), any(否定句或疑问句中)表示“稍稍，一点”； 用much, far, a great/good deal, a lot, lots, a good bit等表示“…… 得多”。
(83)What a table! I’ve never seen such a thing before. It is_____ it is long. (2005湖北) A. half not as wide as B. wide not as half as ? C. not half as wide as D .as wide as not half (84) It is re ported that the United States uses _____ energy as the whole of Europe. (2004广西) A. as twice B. twice much ? C. twice much as D. twice as much ? 2. half，倍数，以及分数或有关长度、时间、重量 等表示确定程度的修饰语，通常放在比较级前， 或as…as结构的第一个as前。
? (88)We were in ______ when we left that we forgot the airline tickets.(2003上海) A. a rush so anxious ? B. a such anxious rush ? C. so an anxious rush ? D. such an anxious rush ? (89)It is ______ work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it. (1998上海) A. so unusual B. such unusual ? C. such an unusual D. so an unusual
? (92)Would you be ________to step this way, please? (1982全国) A. too kind B. so kind ? C. so kind as D. as kind as
? 解析：Would you be so kind as (=kind enough) to do sth.? (请您/劳驾您做某事好吗？)是表示请求 的一个固定句型。答案是C。
? (96) The number of people present at the concert was ______than expected. There were many ticket left. (2004福建) A. much smaller B. much more ? C. much larger D. many more
(94) Mr. Smith used to smoke but he has given it up. (2004天津) A. seriously B. heavily ? C. badly D. hardly
? (97) －Must I turn off the gas after cooking? －Of course . You can never be ______ careful with that. (2005江西) A. enough B. too C. so D. very ? can never too careful或can never careful enough，
? (99)—Are you going to have a holiday this year? —I'd love to. I can't wait to leave this place ______. (2006江苏) A. off B. out C. behind D. over
? (104) Progress so far has been very good. _______, we are sure that the project will be completed on time. (2006浙江) ? A. However B. Otherwise ? C. Therefore D. Besides ? (105)I’m certain Davel’s told you his business troubles. ______, it’s no secret that he owes a lot of money to the bank. (2006湖北) A. However B. Anyway ? C. Therefore D. Though ? (106)The hurricane damaged many houses and business buildings; ______, it caused 20 deaths. (2006江西) A. or else B. therefore ? C. after all D. besides
? 1. You should try to get a good night’s sleep _____ much work you have to do. A. however B. no matter ? C. although D. whatever 2. He tried his best to solve the problem, _____ difficult it was. A. however B. no matter ? C. whatever D. although
1. 用作副词 (1) 表示让步：意为“无论如何”“不管怎样”，用 来修饰形容词或副词，其词序为：however+形容词 或副词+主语+谓语。这样用的however其实具有连 词的功能，用以引导让步状语从句 ? Phone me when you arrive, however late it is. ? 你到达之后就给我打电话，不论多么晚也要打。 ? However much he eats, he never gets fat. ? 不管他吃多少，他永远吃不胖。 ? However cold it is, he always goes swimming. ? 不管天有多冷，他都去游泳。 ? You won’t move the stone, however strong you are. ? 不管你力气有多大，也休想搬动那块石头 ? However far it is, l intend to drive there tonight ? 不管有多远，我今晚也要开车到那儿去。
? ②这样用的 however 与 no matter how 大致同义。 如： ? People always want more, however [no matter how] rich they are. 人总是富了还想再富。 ? However [No matter how] hard I worked, she was never satisfied. 无论我多么努力地工作，她从来没 满意过。 ? ③有时从句谓语可用情态动词。如： ? Don’t laugh, however funny it may be. 无论多么有 趣也不要笑。 ? I’ll try to finish it in time, however hard it may be. 无论多么难，我也要按时完成。
? ④―however＋形容词或副词＋主语＋谓语” 有时可以有所省略。如： ? I refuse, however favorable the conditions. 不管条件如何有利，我都不干。 ? (conditions后省去了are) ? I’d rather have a room of my own, however small (it is), than share a room. 无论房间多 么小，我宁愿一个人住一间，而不愿意与别 人合住一个房间。
? (2) 表示转折：尤其用于谈及一个既成事实时， 表示转折，其意为“可是”“仍然”等。可 放在句首、句中或句末，通常用逗号与句子 其他成分隔开。 ? My father, however, did not agree. 但是，我 父亲不同意。 ? My room is small; however, it’s comfortable. 我的房间很小，但却很舒服。 ? He said that it was so; he was mistaken, however. 他说情况如此，可是他错了
? ? ? ? ? ?
我们都已尽了最大的努力，不过我们还是输了。 We all tried our best, however we lost the game. We all tried our best, but we lost the game. We all tried our best; however, we lost the game. We all tried our best. However, we lost the game. 注：however不能像 but(但是)那样直接连接两 个句子(注意正句中的标点符号)
? (3) 表示惊奇或强调：相当于how ever的用 法，其意为“究竟怎样，到底以什么方 式”。如： ? However did you get here without a car? 没有 汽车你究竟是怎样来的呢? ? However does he manage to write music when he is so deaf? 他聋成这个样子，究竟是怎样 从事作曲的呢?
? 用作连词，引导方式状语从句，表示“无论以何 种方式”“不管怎样”。如： ? However it may be, I shall take your word. ? 无论如何，我将会相信你的话。 ? However I approached the problem, I couldn’t find a solution. ? 这一问题我不管怎样都无法解决。 ? However you travel, it’ll take you at least two days. ? 无论你怎么个走法，至少要两天时间。 ? The painting looks wrong however you look at it. ? 这张画不论怎么看都显得不对劲。
I think, therefore I am
? 1Your information is inaccurate and your conclusion is therefore wrong. 你的信息不准确，所以你的结论是错误的。 ? 2. We have a growing population and therefore we need more food. 我们的人口在增长，因此我们需要更多的食物。 ? 3. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have more cunning, to seem to know that he doth not. ? 因此，一个人如果不写，他就需要记住很多东西；如果不 和人交谈，他就需要天笺机智；如果不读书，他就需要更 狡猾，能够假装知道他所不知道的东西。
? 1 not used at the beginning of a clause in spite of the fact, nevertheless ? It’s hard work, I enjoy it though. ? He’s a bad President. There is no reason, though , to shoot him. ? 2, conj, in spite of the fact, even if ? Though/ Even though it’s hard work, I enjoy it. ? Poor though I am, I can afford beer. ? As though/ if, ? He behaves as though he were better than us.
? 1differntly, in an the other way 不同地， 用别的方 法 ? I hate him , and I won’t pretend otherwise. ? He is guilty until proved otherwise. ? 2 apart from that, in other ways其他方面 ? Father still has a bit of his cold, but otherwise all are well. ? 3 if , in different conditions（否则，在不同的情况 下。 ? Do it now. Otherwise , it will be too late. ? 4 or otherwise 或用其他方式 ? we’ll get there somehow, by train or otherwise.
? 1 without any regular order, in a careless manner 随便 ? His clothes were thrown down just anyhow. ? 2 in spite of that, in spite of everthing, in any case 无论如何 ? It may snow, but anyhow I will go to town. ? 可能下雪,但我无论如何要进城。 ? 3. 不管从什么角度(或用什么方法),总之 ? He couldn't convince her anyhow. ? 他怎么想办法也不能使她信服。
thus: [ ??s ]
? ? ? ? ? ? ad. 如此,这样,因此,从而 1.It has been thus and will continue to be so. 事情一直是这样，并将继续这样下去。 2.He is the eldest son and thus heir to the title. 他是长子，因此是头衔的继承人 3 He forgot to turn on the radio and thus missed the program. ? 他忘了打开收音机, 因此错过了那个节目。
? 指时间 强调延续， 主要用在英文句和肯定 句中， 常用进行时 ? Mrs Mason is still in hospital ? I’m still waiting for my new passport. ? I still haven’t heard from her.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ever 意味在任何时候 用在疑问句中 Have you ever thought of applying for a job abroad? Ever 可用在any- no-等不定代词之后 Does anyone ever visit them? Nothing ever bothers Howard Ever，可以出现在含有if的肯定句中 If you ever need any help, you know where to find me. ? Not ..ever 常用来取代never ? I prpmise yo , he won’t ever trouble you again.
? (110)This washing machine is environmentally friendly because it uses _____ water and electricity than _____ models.(2006北京) A. less; older B. less; elder ? C. fewer; older D. fewer; elder (111)Letterboxes are much more _______ in the UK than in the US, where most people have a mailbox instead. (2006浙江) A. common B. normal ? C. ordinary D. usual
? (121)The committee is discussing the problem right now. It will ______ have been solved by the end of next week. (2006江苏) A. eagerly B. hopefully ? C. immediately D. gradually
(123)I thought she was famous, but none of my friends have ______heard of her. (2006广东) A. even B. ever C. just D. never