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北京市2016高考英语二轮复习 短文改错训练(1)


短文改错训练(1)
高考英语专题之短文改错 从近几年的高考短文改错来看,一篇 120 词左右的短文中共有 10 处错误,每句中最多有 两处。错误涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。增加:在缺词处加一个漏词符号 (∧),并在 其下面写出该加的词。删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。修改:在错的词下画一横线,并在 该词下面写出修改后的词。 短文改错的目的是测试考生发现、判断、纠正

一些词法、句法以 及语篇中的行文逻辑等方面错误的能力。它既能考查考生的词汇和语法方面的能力,也能考 查考生的阅读理解能力。其考查要点的主要方面有: 知识点一:词法性错误 1.冠词:冠词的考查主要集中在不定冠词 a,an 及定冠词 the 的混用和漏用。主要包括以下 几个方面: (1)不定冠词 a 和 an 互改; (2)不定冠词 a 或 an 和定冠词 the 互改; (3)定冠词 the 的多余或缺失;(4)单数可数名词前冠词的缺失(一般情况下,单数可数名词在句中出现时, 其前需要加上适当的冠词或其他限定词);(5)不可数名词表示泛指时冠词的多余;(6)常见固 定搭配的错用。 (1)After a hour or so we began to feel very frightened. 解析 因 hour 以元音音素开头。 答案 a→an (2)I decided to climb the tree to see where we were. 解析 因此处并非特指,而是泛指。 答案 the→a (3)Good health is person's most valuable possession. 解析 这里的 a 表泛指。 答案 person's 前加 a (4)Maybe you could come during a winter holidays. 解析 此处的 winter holidays 属特指或者是谈话双方都知道的。 答案 a→the (5)Suddenly,I caught a sight of my English teacher in the crowd. 解析 catch sight of 是习语,意为“看见,瞥见” 答案 去掉 a 2.名词:名词的考查主要包括名词的数的用法(可数名词与不可数名词的混用,可数名词单复 数的错用);名词格的误用、名词前限定词的用法以及抽象名词与物质名词具体化的用法。 (6)We stopped to rest for a while and to drink some waters from a stream. 解析 因“水”为物质名词,不可数。 答案 waters→water (7)There are branch library in many villages. 解析 因其前的谓语动词 are 为复数形式。 答案 library→libraries (8)I hope that you two could come and visit us some times soon. 解析 some time 意为“某时”。 答案 times→time (9)They were eager to know everything about China and asked me lots of question. 解析 因其前有表示复数意义的修饰语 lots of。 答案 question→questions 3.代词: 短文改错对代词的考查主要涉及人称代词的前后一致性(包括指代的一致性和单复 数的一致性)、人称代词的主格与宾格变化、各类代词的误加与漏用(尤其是一些易受汉语影 响的结构)、某些不定代词的用法(尤其是在意思上用错)、代词在某些习语中的用法等。 (10)David pointed to a path which it he thought would probably lead to a village. 解析 因它与其前的关系代词 which 语义重复。 答案 去掉 it (11)When we walked to the car,Bill smiled and shook head. 解析 汉语为“摇头”,而英语的习惯是说 shake one's head。 答案 head 前加 his (12)We climb everywhere,not only in America. They have been to Europe many times. 解析 前后人称不一致。 答案 They→We

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(13)The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home. 解析 因前面的 the Smiths 指的是“史密斯夫妇/一家”,是复数意义。 答案 his→their 4.形容词与副词:形容词与副词主要考查两个方面: (1)形容词与副词的错用。包括近义形容词的错用、近义副词的错用、形容词与副词之间的 混用以及以-ly 结尾的副词和不是以-ly 结尾的同根副词之间的误用、 动词-ing 形式 和动词-ed 形式的形容词辨析等; (2)原级、比较级和最高级的误用。包括原级、比较级和最高级之间的混用;比较级的修饰 语使用不当。常见的比较级修饰语有 a bit,a little,much,far,many,a lot,even 等;常见的最高级修饰语有 almost,by far,nearly 等;常见的和原级搭配的结构有 as...as;how 与 what 的混用也是常见考点。 (14)Last Sunday,police cars hurried to the taller building in New York. 解析 因从含义上看此处应是最高级。 答案 taller→tallest (15)As a result,people in the modern world generally live much more longer than people in the past. 解析 因为 longer 本身已是比较级,不能再用 more 修饰。 答案 去掉 more 5.介词与介词短语:短文改错中对介词的考查主要集中在介词短语及介词与动词、形容词、 名词的搭配等。介词与名词的常见搭配: 与 to 搭配的名词: answer, reply, key, visit, apology, introduction, entrance, invitation 等。 与 in 搭配的名词:expert,interest 等。 与 on 搭配的名词:mercy,congratulation 等。 其他介词与名词的搭配:victory over,advantage over,respect for,prize for 等。 (16)Bill insisted in staying near the car. 解析 insist on 为固定搭配。 答案 in→on (17)When they came down,the police were angry to them. 解析 要表示“对某人生气”,习惯上用 be angry with sb。 答案 to→with (18)Most people can quickly get for help from a doctor or go to a hospital since they are ill. 解析 因其前的 get 是及物动词。 答案 去掉 for 6.动词:除动词时态与非谓语动词之外,动词考点还包括被动语态、情态动词、动词用法辨 析、动词 be 的误加与漏用等。 (19)Charles and Linda were seeing near the top of the building. 解析 因为从含义上看,此处谓语应用被动语态。 答案 seeing→seen (20)Books may be keep for four weeks. 解析 因此处要用被动语态。 答案 keep→kept (21)...and let you know when the book you want has returned. 解析 因从句意上看,此处要用被动语态。 答案 returned 前加 been (22)Uncle Ben will also go back for Christmas. 解析 由句意可知。 答案 go→come (23)They eager to know everything about China and asked me lots of questions. 解析 因此处缺谓语动词。 答案 eager 前加 were 7.非谓语动词:短文改错对非谓语动词的考查主要涉及不定式符号 to 的有无,介词后该使用 动词的什么形式(用动名词),并列结构中几个非谓语动词是否一致,动词用作主语时用何种 形式(可用动名词或不定式,但不能用动词原形)等。

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(24)David and I wanted go off to find help but Bill insisted on staying near the car. 解析 因为 want 后要接不定式。 答案 wanted 后加 to (25)...rather than go into the forest and getting lost. 解析 因为 get 与其前的 go 并列。 答案 getting→get (26)Modern people know more about health,have better food,and to live in clearer surroundings. 解析 因为 live 与其前的 know,have 并列。 答案 去掉 live 前的 to (27)...you pay the cost of send a postcard,the librarian will write to you. 解析 因为介词后接动名词作宾语。 答案 send→sending

模拟短文改错 Mother’s Day was around the corner. My good friend Alice, Jenn y and I get together, discussing what we should do to our respect for. Alice was planning to buy some flowers with 1. _____ 2. ______ 3. ______

his pocket money in honor of her mother. Jenny was going to buy 4. ______ vegetables to cook delicious dinner for her family on that day, because she wanted to experience how many her mother does for her family every day. As for me, I’d like to make a greeting card, said “Happy Mother’s Day”, in which I would also tell my mother to pay attention to health or promise her to study harder. We are looking forward to Mother’s Day. 【参考答案及解析】 1.friend --- friends 考查名词的单复数。根据后为可知应是两人,故用复数形式。 2.get --- got 考查动词时态。根据上文可知事情发生在过去,故用一般过去时。 3.去掉 for 考查介词的用法。此处 what 作 do 的宾语,for 是多余的。 5. _____ 6. ______ 7. ______ 8. ______ 9. ______ 10. ______

4.his --- her 考查代词指代一致。根据文意 Alice 是女名,故用 her。 5 cook 后加 a 考查冠词的用法。此处 dinner 是可数名词,其前应加 a。 6.many --- much 考查词义的区别。此处 do much for 为。 。 。做得多。 7.said --- saying Mother’s Day” 8.in --- on 考查介词的用法。此处 on which 相当于 on the card。 9.or --- and 考查句意理解。此处 and 表并列。
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考查现在分词作定语。此处相当于定语从句 which says “Happy

10.V 经分析本句正确。

下面短文中有 10 处语言错误。请在有错误的地方增加、删除或修改某个单词。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧) ,并在其下面写上该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写上修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词。 2.只允许修改 10 处,多者(从第 11 除起)不计分。 例如: It was very nice to get your invitation to spend ∧weekend with you. Luckily I was The am completely free then, so I’ll to say “yes”, I’ll arrive in Bristol at around 8:00 p.m in Friday on evening. 2011 年浙江高考真题: I was playing at my cousin house. Since his family was rich than mine, he had more toys than I did. There was one on particular I’d always wanted. I put into my pocket when he wasn’t looking. I guessed, even at that age, I would never be able to enjoy to playing with the toy or faced my cousin again; I would always know I’d done something wrong. Late on, my aunt drove me home. When she dropped me off, I pulled out the toy slow and gave it back. She knows what had happened, but she thanked me and ever mentioned it again. 参考答案: I was playing at my cousin house. Since his family was rich than mine, he had more toys than I did. cousin’s richer There was one on particular I’d always wanted. I put into my pocket when he wasn’t looking. I guessed, in put 后加 it even at that age, I would never be able to enjoy to playing with the toy or faced my cousin again; I would 去掉 to face always know I’d done something wrong. Late on, my aunt drove me home. When she dropped

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me off, I Later pulled out the toy slow and gave it back. She knows what had happened, but she thanked me and ever slowly knew never mentioned it again.

2015 年浙江高考真题: 下面短文中有 10 处语言错误。请在有错误的地方增加、删除或修改某个单词。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧) ,并在其下面写上该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写上修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词。 2.只允许修改 10 处,多者(从第 11 除起)不计分。 My old classroom was interesting because three side of the classroom were made from glass. I enjoyed sit close to the windows and looking at the view. On the left-hand side of the class, I could easy see the football field. In the mornings, it was full of students exercising. The view from the back of the classroom is also splendid. Close to the school there was a beautiful park with many trees around them. Farther in the distance, I could not enjoy the view of snowy mountains. On the right side of the class was the road. I was always interested to see the drivers in hurry in the morning. The position of the classroom with its view made me felt like I was dreaming. If I was only a child when I studied in that classroom, I will never forget it. 参考答案: My old classroom was interesting because three side of the classroom were made from glass. I enjoyed sides of

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sit close to the windows and looking at the view. On the left-hand side of the class, I could easy see the sitting easily football field. In the mornings, it was full of students exercising. The view from the back of the classroom is is also splendid. Close to the school there was a beautiful park with many trees around them. Farther in the it distance, I could not enjoy the view of snowy mountains. On the right side of the class was the road. I was not 去掉 always interested to see the drivers in hurry in the morning. The position of the classroom with its view 加a made me felt like I was dreaming. If I was only a child when I studied in that classroom, I will never forget feel Though/Although it.

短文改错。 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同学写的以下作文。文中共 有 10 处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。错误涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1. 每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 2.只允许修改 10 处,多者(从第 11 处起)不计分。 Walter's goal in life was become a successfully doctor. He knew he had to finish high school first, so he put his heart into her studies—in particular, biology, chemistry and maths. Because he worked hard at these subjects, Walter became good at it. However, Walter forgot that he needed to master some other subjects beside those he had been chosen. As a result, Walter fails in both English and Chinese in the end of the second school year. But he had to repeat these subjects and he was almost unable to graduate like planned. Walter learned a good lesson. 【参考答案】 :

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Walter's goal in life was ∧become a successfully doctor. He knew he had to
to successful

finish high school first, so he put his heart into her studies—in particular,
his

biology, chemistry and maths. Because he worked hard at these subjects, Walter became good at it. However, Walter forgot that he needed to master some other subjects beside
them besides

those he had been

chosen. As a result, Walter fails in both English and Chinese
failed

in the end of the second school year. But he had to repeat these subjects and he was
at So

almost unable to graduate like planned. Walter learned a good lesson.
as

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