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id AKMЂ Zܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^` CO΄ N^ЅܹM Ήhbʟ BbΈb aʠC`K ·Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLdd ЂЄBJ gH@AG KaFE Ѕ]AB΅ O_ eDC ^[@ΈЄ hLʞfg cgޱC fЃ\ e^M DԬidAK MЂZ ܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹMΉ hbʟB bΈbaʠ C`K· Ђ_EN^ ޶CeN LddЂ ЄBJgH @AGK aFEЅ] AB΅ O_e DC^[ @ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬi dAK MЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^ `CO΄ N^Ѕ ܹMΉhb ʟBbΈ baʠC` K·Ђ_E N^޶ CeNLd dЂЄB JgH@A GKaF EЅ]AB ΅O_ eD C^[@Έ ЄhLʞf gcg ޱCfЃ \e^M DԬidA KMЂ Zܵݰ ܵΆʴ P^` CO΄ N^ЅܹM Ήhbʟ BbΈba ʠC`K ·Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLdd ЂЄBJg H@AG KaFE Ѕ]AB΅ O_ eDC^ [@ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e ^MDԬ idAK MЂZܵݰ ܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N^ ЅܹMΉhb ʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ_ EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGKa FEЅ]A B΅O_ e DC^[ @ΈЄhLʞ fgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬi dAKM ЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^ `CO΄ N^Ѕܹ MΉhb ʟBbΈ baʠC` K·Ђ_E N^޶C eNLd dЂЄB JgH@A GKaF EЅ]AB΅ O_ eDC^ [@ΈЄ hLʞfg cgޱC fЃ\ e^MD ԬidAK MЂZܵ ݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N ^ЅܹMΉh bʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ _EN^޶ C eNLdd ЂЄBJ gH@A GKaFE Ѕ]AB΅ O_ eDC ^[@Έ ЄhLʞfg cgޱ CfЃ\ e^M DԬidA KMЂZ ܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹMΉ hbʟB bΈbaʠ C`K· Ђ_EN ^޶CeN LddЂ ЄBJgH @AGK aFEЅ ]AB΅ O_e DC^ [@ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e ^MD ԬidAK MЂZܵ ݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N^ ЅܹMΉh bʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ_E N^޶ CeNL ddЂЄB JgH@ AGKaF EЅ]AB ΅O_ eD C^[@ ΈЄhLʞf gcg ޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬid AKMЂ Zܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^` CO΄ N^ЅܹM Ήhbʟ BbΈb aʠC`K ·Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLdd ЂЄBJ gH@AG KaFE Ѕ]AB΅ O_ eDC ^[@ΈЄ hLʞfg cgޱ CfЃ\ e^M DԬidAK MЂZ ܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹMΉh bʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ _EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGK aFEЅ]A B΅O _e DC^[ @ΈЄhL ʞfgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬi dAK MЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^ `CO΄ N^Ѕ ܹMΉhb ʟBbΈ baʠC` K·Ђ_E N^޶ CeNLd dЂЄB JgH@ AGKaF EЅ]AB ΅O_ eD C^[@ ΈЄhLʞf gcg ޱCfЃ \e^M DԬid AKMЂ Zܵݰ ܵΆʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹMΉ hbʟB bΈbaʠ C`K· Ђ_EN^ ޶CeN LddЂЄ BJgH @AGK aFEЅ] AB΅ O_e DC^[ @ΈЄhL ʞfgc gޱCf Ѓ \e^M DԬidA KMЂ Zܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹM ΉhbʟB bΈba ʠC`K· Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLddЂ ЄBJg H@AGK aFEЅ ]AB΅ O_e DC^ [@ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e ^MD ԬidAK MЂZܵ ݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N ^ЅܹMΉh bʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ _EN^ ޶CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGK aFEЅ] AB΅O _e DC^[ @ΈЄhLʞ fgcg ޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬid AKM ЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^ `CO΄ N^Ѕܹ MΉhbʟ BbΈb aʠC` K·Ђ_EN ^޶C eNLdd ЂЄBJ gH@A GKaFE Ѕ]AB΅ O_ eDC ^[@Έ ЄhLʞfg cgޱ CfЃ\ e^M DԬidA KMЂZ ܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹMΉ hbʟB bΈba ʠC`K· Ђ_EN ^޶CeN LddЂ ЄBJg H@AGK aFEЅ ]AB΅ O_e DC^[ @ΈЄhL ʞfgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^ MDԬi dAK MЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP ^`CO΄ N^Ѕ ܹMΉhb ʟBbΈ baʠC `K·Ђ_E N^޶ CeNL ddЂЄB JgH@ AGKaF EЅ]AB ΅O_ eD C^[@ ΈЄhLʞf gcg ޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬid AKM ЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^` CO΄ N^Ѕܹ MΉhbʟ BbΈb aʠC`K ·Ђ_EN ^޶C eNLdd ЂЄBJ gH@AG KaFEЅ ]AB΅ O_e DC^ [@ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e ^MDԬ idAK MЂZܵݰ ܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N^ ЅܹMΉhb ʟBb ΈbaʠC `K ·Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLdd ЂЄBJg H@AG KaFEЅ ]AB΅ O_ eDC^ [@ΈЄ hLʞfgc gޱC fЃ\ e^MD ԬidAK MЂZܵ ݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N ^ЅܹMΉh bʟBb Έbaʠ C`K·Ђ _EN^ ޶CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH @AGK aFEЅ] AB΅ O_e DC^[ @ΈЄhL ʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e^ MDԬ idAK MЂZܵݰ ܵ ΆʴP ^`CO ΄N^Ѕ ܹMΉhb ʟBbΈb aʠC` K·Ђ_E N^޶C eNLd dЂЄBJ gH@A GKaF EЅ]AB΅ O_ eDC ^[@Έ ЄhLʞf gcgޱ CfЃ \e^M DԬidA KMЂ Zܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹM ΉhbʟB bΈba ʠC`K· Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLddЂ ЄBJg H@AG KaFEЅ ]AB΅ O_e DC^ [@ΈЄ hLʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e ^MD ԬidAK MЂZܵ ݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N^Ѕ ܹMΉhb ʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ_ EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGKa FEЅ]AB ΅O_ e DC^[@ ΈЄhLʞ fgcg ޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬid AKM ЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^ `CO΄ N^Ѕܹ MΉhbʟ BbΈb aʠC` K·Ђ_EN ^޶C eNLd dЂЄBJ gH@A GKaFE Ѕ]AB΅ O_ eDC ^[@Έ ЄhLʞfg cgޱ CfЃ \e^M DԬidA KMЂZ ܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N ^ЅܹMΉh bʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ _EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGK aFEЅ]A B΅O _e DC^[ @ΈЄhLʞ fg cgޱC fЃ\ e^M DԬidAK MЂZ ܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹMΉ hbʟBb Έbaʠ C`K· Ђ_EN^ ޶CeN LddЂЄ BJgH @AGK aFEЅ] AB΅ O_e DC^[ @ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e^ MDԬ idAK MЂZܵݰ ܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N^ ЅܹMΉhb ʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ_ EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGKa FEЅ]A B΅O_ eD C^[@Έ ЄhLʞf gcg ޱCfЃ \e^M DԬidA KMЂ Zܵݰ ܵΆʴ P^` CO΄N ^ЅܹM Ήhbʟ BbΈba ʠC`K ·Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLdd ЂЄBJg H@AG KaFEЅ ]AB΅ O_ eDC^ [@ΈЄ hLʞfgc gޱC fЃ\ e^MD ԬidAK MЂZ ܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N ^ЅܹMΉ hbʟBb Έbaʠ C`K·Ђ _EN^ ޶CeN LddЂЄ BJgH @AGK aFEЅ]A B΅O_ e DC^[ @ΈЄhLʞ fgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬi dAKM ЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^ `CO΄ N^Ѕܹ MΉhb ʟBbΈb aʠC` K·Ђ_E N^޶C eNLd dЂЄBJ gH@A GKaF EЅ]AB΅ O_ eDC ^[@Έ ЄhLʞf gcgޱ CfЃ \e^M DԬidA KMЂ Zܵݰܵ Άʴ P^` CO΄N ^ЅܹM ΉhbʟB bΈba ʠC`K ·Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLddЂ ЄBJgH @AGK aFEЅ] AB΅ O_e DC^[ @ΈЄhL ʞfgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^ MDԬi dAK MЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP ^`CO΄ N^Ѕ ܹMΉhb ʟB bΈbaʠ C`K· Ђ_EN ^޶CeN LddЂ ЄBJgH @AGK aFEЅ ]AB΅ O_e DC^[ @ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e ^MDԬ idAK MЂZܵ ݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N^ ЅܹMΉh bʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ_ EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGK aFEЅ]A B΅O _e DC^[ @ΈЄhL ʞfgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬi dAK MЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^ `CO΄ N^ЅܹM Ήhbʟ BbΈb aʠC`K ·Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLdd ЂЄBJ gH@AG KaFE Ѕ]AB΅ O_ eDC ^[@ΈЄ hLʞfg cgޱC fЃ\ e^M DԬidAK MЂZ ܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹMΉ hbʟBb Έbaʠ C`K· Ђ_EN^ ޶CeN LddЂ ЄBJgH @AGK aFEЅ] AB΅ O_e DC^[ @ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e ^MDԬ idAK MЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^ `CO΄ N^Ѕ ܹMΉhb ʟBbΈ baʠC` K·Ђ_E N^޶ CeNLd dЂЄB JgH@A GKaF EЅ]AB ΅O_ eD C^[@Έ ЄhLʞf gcg ޱCfЃ \e^M DԬidA KMЂ Zܵݰ ܵΆʴ P^` CO΄N ^ЅܹM Ήhbʟ BbΈba ʠC`K ·Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLdd ЂЄBJg H@AG KaFE Ѕ]AB΅ O_ eDC^ [@ΈЄ hLʞfg cgޱC fЃ\ e^MD ԬidAK MЂZܵݰ ܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N^ ЅܹMΉhb ʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ_ EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGKa FEЅ]AB ΅O_ eD C^ [@ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e ^MD ԬidAK MЂZܵ ݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N^ ЅܹMΉh bʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ _EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGK aFEЅ]A B΅O _e DC^[ @ΈЄhL ʞfgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^ MDԬi dAK MЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP ^`CO΄ N^Ѕ ܹMΉhb ʟBbΈ baʠC `K·Ђ_E N^޶ CeNL ddЂЄB JgH@ AGKaF EЅ]AB΅ O_ eDC ^[@Έ ЄhLʞfg cgޱ CfЃ\ e^M DԬidA KMЂZ ܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹMΉ hbʟB bΈbaʠ C`K· Ђ_EN ^޶CeN LddЂ ЄBJgH @AGK aFEЅ ]AB΅ O_e DC^[ @ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e ^MD ԬidAK MЂZܵ ݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N^ ЅܹMΉh bʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ _EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGKaF EЅ]AB ΅O_ eD C^[@ ΈЄhLʞf gcg ޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬid AKMЂ Zܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^` CO΄ N^ЅܹM Ήhbʟ BbΈb aʠC`K ·Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLdd ЂЄBJ gH@AG KaFE Ѕ]AB΅ O_ eDC ^[@ΈЄ hLʞfg cgޱ CfЃ\ e^M DԬidAK MЂZ ܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹMΉ hbʟB bΈbaʠ C`K· Ђ_EN^ ޶CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGK aFEЅ]A B΅O _e DC^[ @ΈЄhLʞ fgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬi dAKM ЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^ `CO΄ N ^ЅܹMΉh bʟBb Έbaʠ C`K·Ђ _EN^ ޶CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH @AGK aFEЅ] AB΅O _e DC^[ @ΈЄhL ʞfgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^ MDԬ idAK MЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP ^`CO ΄N^Ѕ ܹMΉhb ʟBbΈ baʠC `K·Ђ_ EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGKa FEЅ]AB ΅O_ e DC^[@ ΈЄhLʞ fgcg ޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬid AKM ЂZܵݰ ܵΆʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹM ΉhbʟB bΈba ʠC`K· Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLddЂ ЄBJg H@AGK aFEЅ ]AB΅ O_e DC^ [@ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e ^MD ԬidAK MЂZܵ ݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N^ ЅܹMΉh bʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ _EN^ ޶CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGK aFEЅ] AB΅O _e DC^[ @ΈЄhL ʞfgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^ MDԬi dAKM ЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^ `CO΄ N^Ѕܹ MΉhbʟ BbΈb aʠC` K·Ђ_EN ^޶C eNLdd ЂЄBJ gH@A GKaFE Ѕ]AB΅ O_ eDC ^[@Έ ЄhLʞfg cgޱ CfЃ\ e^M DԬidA KMЂZ ܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹMΉ hbʟB bΈba ʠC`K· Ђ_EN ^޶CeN LddЂ ЄBJg H@AGK aFEЅ ]AB΅ O_e DC^ [@ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e^ MDԬi dAK MЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP ^`CO΄ N^Ѕ ܹMΉhb ʟBbΈ baʠC` K·Ђ_E N^޶ CeNLd dЂЄB JgH@A GKaF EЅ]AB΅ O_e DC^[ @ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e^ MDԬ idAK MЂZܵݰ ܵ ΆʴP ^`CO ΄N^ ЅܹMΉhb ʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ_ EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGKa FEЅ]A B΅O_ e DC^[@ ΈЄhLʞ fgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬi dAKM ЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^ `CO΄ N^Ѕܹ MΉhb ʟBbΈb aʠC` K·Ђ_E N^޶C eNLd dЂЄBJ gH@AG KaFEЅ ]AB΅ O_ eDC^ [@ΈЄ hLʞfgc gޱC fЃ\ e^MD ԬidAK MЂZܵ ݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N ^ЅܹMΉh bʟBb Έbaʠ C`K·Ђ _EN^ ޶CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH @AGK aFEЅ] AB΅O _e DC^[ @ΈЄhL ʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e^ MDԬ idAK MЂZܵݰ ܵ ΆʴP ^`CO ΄N^Ѕ ܹMΉhb ʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ_ EN^޶ CeNLd dЂЄBJ gH@A GKaF EЅ]AB΅ O_ eDC ^[@Έ ЄhLʞf gcgޱ CfЃ \e^M DԬidA KMЂ Zܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`C O΄N ^ЅܹM ΉhbʟB bΈba ʠC`K· Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLddЂ ЄBJg H@AGK aFEЅ ]AB΅ O_e DC^ [@ΈЄ hLʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e ^MD ԬidAK MЂZܵ ݰܵ & bbs1OE& bbsN ^ЅܹMΉh bʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ_ EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGKa FEЅ]AB ΅O_ eD C^[@ ΈЄhLʞf gcg ޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬid AKMЂ Zܵݰ ܵΆʴ P^`CO ΄N^ ЅܹMΉhb ʟBb ΈbaʠC `K·Ђ_ EN^޶ CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGKa FEЅ]AB ΅O_ eD C^[@ ΈЄhLʞf gcg ޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬid AKMЂ Zܵݰ ܵΆʴ P^` CO΄N ^ЅܹM ΉhbʟB bΈba ʠC`K ·Ђ_EN ^޶Ce NLddЂ ЄBJg H@AGK aFEЅ ]AB΅ O_e DC^[ @ΈЄh Lʞfgc gޱC fЃ\e ^MDԬ idAK MЂZ ܵݰܵ Άʴ P^`CO ΄N ^ЅܹMΉh bʟBb Έbaʠ C`K·Ђ _EN^ ޶CeNL ddЂЄ BJgH@ AGK aFEЅ]A B΅O _e DC^[ @ΈЄhL ʞfgc gޱCf Ѓ\e^M DԬi dAKM ЂZܵݰ ܵΆ ʴP^ `CO΄ N^Ѕܹ MΉh

1. MODULE 1 Words, words, words ʣʣ British and American English are different in many ways. ӢʽӢʽӢ ܶ෽涼ͬThe first and most obvious way is in the vocabulary. Եڴʻ㷽档There are hundreds of different words which are not used on the other side of the Atlantic, or which are used with a different meaning. ԰ ƸͬĴڴ˰һӢҲʹã һֲͬ˼ ʹš Some of these words are well known---Americans drive automobiles down freeways and fill up with gas;Щʾͺܹ㷺Ϊ֪--- freeways ϼʻ automobiles gas;the British drive cars along motorways and fill up with petrol. Ӣ motorways ϼʻ cars petrol As a tourist, you will need to use the underground in London or the subway in New York, or maybe you will prefer to get around the town by taxi(British) or cab (American). Ϊˣ׶Ҫ undergroundŦԼ subwayԸ taxi(Ӣʽ) cab (ʽ)С Chips or French files Chips French fries? But other words and expressions are not so well known. ͱ﷽ʽ ȴûô㷺Ϊ֪Americans use a flashlight, while for the British, it's a torch. ˰ֵͲΪ flashlightӢȴ torch The British queue up; Americans stand in line. ӢŶ queue up˵ stand in line ʱ Sometimes the same word has a slightly different meaning, which can be confusing. ͬһһϸ΢IJ˺Chips, for example, are pieces of hot fried potato in Britain; in the States chips are very thin and are sold in packets. chips Ӣը chips ȴָ װֽ۵Ƭ The British call these crisps. Ӣ˰ֶ Ϊ crips The chips the British know and love are French fries on the other side of the Atlantic. Ӣ֪ϲڴ԰Ϊ French fries Have or have got? Have have got? There are a few differences in grammar, too. ﷨ϣӢʽӢʽӢҲ һЩ The British say Have you got...?I while Americans prefer Do you have .-.?

Ӣ˵ Have you got ?ȻȴԸ˵ Do you have ... An American might say My friend just arrived, but a British person would say My friend has just arrived. ˿ܻ˵ My friend just arrivedӢ Ը⽲ My friend has just arrived Prepositions, too, can be different: compare on the team, on the weekend (American) with in the team, at the weekend (British). ʵ÷Ҳͬ:Ƚһ on the team, on the weekend (÷) in the team, at the weekend (Ӣ÷)The British use prepositions where Americans sometimes omit them (.I'll see you Monday, Write me soon!). Ӣýʵĵط ʱܻʡ (I"ll see you Monday; Write me soon!) Colour or color? Colour color? The other two areas in which the two varieties differ are spelling and pronunciation. ⣬ӢƴдͷAmericanspelling seems simpler:ʽӢƴдȥһЩcenter, color and program instead of centre, colour and programme. center, color program ʽƴcentre, colour programme Ӣʽƴ Many factors have influenced American pronunciation since the first settlers arrived four hundred years ago. Դ 400 ǰһĵ кܶӰ﷢The accent, which is most similar to British English, can be heard on the East Coast of the US. ܹӢʽ ӢdzӽĿWhen the Irish writer George Bernard Shaw made the famous remark that the British and the Americans are two nations divided by a common language, he was obviously thinking about the differences. ɽ Ǿԣ ӢDZͬһԷֿʱȻ뵽 ǵBut are they really so important? ЩҪ?After all, there is probably as much variation of pronunciation within the two countries as between them. ϾҾڵĿܸ֮Ŀһ ࡣ A Londoner has more difficulty understanding a Scotsman from Glasgow than understanding a New Yorker. һ׶ҪԸ˹ո˽ ܱһŦԼ˸ѡ Turn on the TV 򿪵ӻ

Some experts believe that the two varieties are moving closer together. ܶר ԱԽԽӽ For more than a century communications across the Atlantic have developed steadily. һ Ľ չSince 1980s, with satellite TV and the Internet, it has been possible to listen to British and American English at the Hick of a switch. Դ 20 80 ǵӺʹã dzݵӢʽӢʽӢѾΪ ܡ This non-stop communication, the experts think, has made it easier for British people and Americans to understand each other. רΪ ֲϵĽʹӢ ˺໥סBut it has also led to lots of American words and structures passing into British English, so that some people now believe that British English will disappear. ҲʹʽӢﵥʺͽṹӢʽ ӢһЩӢʽӢォҪʧ However, if you turn on CNN, the American TV network, you find newsreaders and weather forecasters all speaking with different accents - American, British, Australian, and even Spanish. ȻĿ CNNᷢŲ ԱԤԱŲͬĿ---ģӢģĴǵģ ġ One of the best-known faces, Monita Rajpal, was born in Hong Kong. China, and grew up, speaking Chinese and Punjabi, as well as English. Ϥ ֮һĽ ɳйۣС˵ǺPunjabi Ӣ  This international dimension suggests that in the future, there are going to be many "Englishes", not just two main varieties. ֹԵĹ㷺ʹñδ ܶӢ֡ But the message is "Don't worry." Users of English will all be able to understand each other---wherever they are. ʵҲõ!ӢʹǶ˴⡣

2. MODULE 2 The Human Traffic Signal 彻ͨ־ 1_________________

At 3,500 metres, La Paz, in Bolivia, is the highest capital in the world. λں 3,500 ׵IJά׸˹ߵ׶Life is hard at high altitude, and the mountains make communications difficult. ڸߺεܼ࣬ ɽʹõͨdzѡMany roads are in bad condition and accidents are frequent. ·ܲ¹ƵOne road in particular, which goes north from La Paz, is considered the most dangerous road in the world. Ǵ˹ͨ 򱱱ߵһ·ΪΣյ· On one side the mountains rise steeply; on the other side there is a sheer drop which in places is hundreds of metres deep. ·һߣɽվһ¶ͣЩطмAlthough there is not a lot of traffic, on average, one vehicle comes off the road every two weeks. ·ÿĽͨ󣬵ƽÿܾһ· ¡ The drop is so great that anyone inside the vehicle is lucky to survive. ֮ ڵȥijκһܻŵij˿Ͷ˵ġ In theory, the road can only be used by traffic going uphill from 8 in the morning and by traffic coming downhill from 3 in the afternoon. ·ϴ糿 8 㿪ʼֻ׼ ɽijͨУ 3 ԺɽijͨС But in practice, few drivers respect this rules. ʵϣû˾Щ 2_________________ But thanks to one man, the death toll has fallen. Ƕһˣ·ϵ ʼ½ˡTimoteo Apaza is a gentle 46-year-old man who lives in a village near the most dangerous part of the road, known locally as lacurva del Diablo (the Devil's Bend). 46 ŷ ǸԸº͵ˣסھ ·ΣյһθĴׯ·˳Ϊ lacurva del Diablo(ħ ) Timoteo has an unusual job -- he is a human traffic signal. ŷһ ͬѰĹ---彻ͨ־ Every morning he climbs up to the bend with a large circular board in his hand. ÿ糿ﲿһԲ The board is red on one side and green on the other. ԲһǺɫģһ ɫġTimoteo stands on the bend and directs the traffic. ŷվת䴦ָ Žͨ When two vehicles approach from opposite directions they can't see each

other, but they can see Timoteo. ԿʱDZ˴˿ ܿŷ Timoteo is a volunteer. ŷһ־Ըߡ No one asked him to do the job, and no one pays him for it. ûҪ Ҳû Ϊ˸Ǯ Sometimes drivers give him a tip, so that he has just enough money to live on. ʱһЩ˾Сѣ ʹܹά But often they just pass by, taking the human traffic signal for granted. Ǵ£˾ǿ ų͹ȥˣ彻ͨ־Ȼ顣 3____________________ So why does he do it? ǣΪʲôҪ? Before he volunteered to direct the traffic, Timoteo had had lots of jobs. ־Ըָӽ֮ͨǰܶ๤ He had been a miner and a soldier. ǿ󹤣 Then one day while he was working as a lorry driver he had a close encounter with death. ˾ ʱһ˸档 He was driving a lorry load of bananas when he came off the road at a bend and fell three hundred metres down the mountain. װ㽶ĿҪʻһʱ ˴ 300 ɽ¡ Somehow he survived. ҵǣHe was in hospital for months. ҽԺ˺ü¡Then, a few years later, he was called out in the night to help pull people out of a bus which had crashed at la curva del diablo. һҹ гæħ׹ٵĹˡ This last experience had a profound effect on Timoteo. ξŷ شӰ죬He realized that he was lucky to be alive himself, and felt that it was his mission in life to help others. ʶܻǺ˵ģҸо ʹ And so every morning, week in, week out, from dawn to dusk, Timoteo takes up his place on the bend and directs the traffic. ÿ糿 ŷ·Ĺ䴦վԼλãʼָӷƻ裬һ һܡ

3. MODULE 3 Steam boat There was a big storm after midnight and the rain poured down. ҹһ ꣬¡We stayed inside the shelter we had built and let the raft sail down the river. ǶԼıľ˳¡Suddenly, by the light of the lightning, we saw something in the middle of the river. ͻȻ䣬 ĹǿмжIt looked like a house at first, but then we realized it was a steam boat. һʼȥӣʶ It had hit a rock and was half in and half out of the water. ˣһ ˮһ¶ˮϡWe were sailing straight towards it. ǵľ ʻȥ "It looks as if it'll go under soon," Jim said, after a couple of minutes. " ˣ"һķ˵ "Let's go and take a look," I said"ȥô¶"ҽ˵ "I don't want to board a sinking ship," said Jim, "ҿɲһҪĴ "ķ ͬ⡣but when I suggested that we might find something useful on the boat, he agreed to go. ǿҵЩõĶʱͬˡ So we paddled over and climbed on to the steamboat, keeping as quiet as mice. ǻ˹ȥŵأһϢTo our astonishment, there was a light in one of the cabins. Ǵһǣм䴬 ﻹһյơ Then we heard someone shout, "Oh please boys, don't kill me! I won't tell anybody!" ˵ĺ"ŶǶɱ!Ҹ˭Ҳ ˵!" A man's angry voice answered, "You're lying. You said that last time. We're going to kill you." һӦ:"ѣϴҲô˵ġҪ ɱ!" When he heard these words, Jim panicked and ran to the raft. ķЩ ֣ ľ˹ȥ But although I was frightened, I also felt very curious, so I put my head round the door. Ҿܺ£Ҳеʮֺ棬ǾͰͷ š It was quite dark, but I could see a man lying on the floor, tied up with

rope. ܺڣܿһ˱ţڵذϡ There were two men standing over him. ΧվšOne was short, with a beard. һǰӣ The other was tall and had something in his hand that looked like a gun. һǸ߸ʲôǰǹ "I've had enough of you. I'm going to shoot you now," this man said. "ܹ! ھҪ㡣 "Ǹ߸˵ He was obviously the one who had threatened the man on the floor. ȻǸղвڵϵ˵Ǹˡ And it was a gun he had in his hand. еȷʵǰǹ "No, don't do that," said the short man. "Let's leave him here. The steamboat will sink in a couple of hours and he'll go down with it." "ôɡ"Ǹ˵" ǰ⴬СʱͳˣҲ͸һˡ" When he heard that, the frightened man on the floor started crying. ⻰ ڵϼɵ˿ʼޡ "He sounds as if he's going to die of fright!" I thought. "I have to find a way to save him!" "Ҫˣ"룬"ҵ ȥ" I crawled along the deck, found Jim, and told him what I had heard. żװ Уҵ˼ķһС"We must find their boat and take it away, then they'll have to stay here," I said. ˵:"DZҵǵĴŪ ȻǾͲòˡ" Jim looked terrified. "I'm not staying here," he said. ķȥܺ£ ˵:"Ҳ " But I persuaded him to help me, and we found the men's boat tied to the other side of the steamboat.Ȱҵæҵ˩ڳһߵС We climbed quietly in and as we paddled away we heard the two men shouting. ĵС ǻС뿪Ҫʱ ˵ĺ By then we were a safe distance away. ʱѾ жΰȫľˡ But now I began to feel bad about what we had done.1 didn't want all three men to die. ҿʼô----Ҳ˲

4. MODULE 4 The Magic of the Mask ߵħ Think of carnival, and you think of crowds, costumes, and confusion. 뵽񻶽ڣ ͻ뵽ȺɫķװַǷij档The sounds and sights change from one country to another but the excitement is the same everywhere. ijڲͬĹһͬǵ˷̶ܳڸضͬġ "Carnival" comes from two Latin words, meaning " no more meat".񻶽 ݱģ˼"ʳ" In Europe, where it began, carnival was followed by forty days without meat, ŷǿ񻶽ڵԴأ ڹ 40 첻ʳӡ as people prepared for the Christian festival of Easter. ڼ䣬׼ӭӻ̵ĽոڡPeople saw Carnival as a last chance to have fun at the end of the winter season. Having fun meant eating, drinking, and dressing up.ǰѿ񻶽ΪǰһֵĻᣬسԡ ȡװһ The most famous carnival in Europe was in Venice. ŷĿ񻶽 ˹At the beginning, it lasted for just one day. 񻶽ֻһ졣 People ate, drank, and wore masks. dz԰ Ȱ ߡ As time passed, however, the carnival period was extended, so that it began just after Christmas. أף 񻶽ڵʱ䳤ˣʥһ񻶽ھͿʼ For weeks on end people walked round the streets wearing masks, doing what they wanted without being recognised. ڣǴִ߽ΪΪᱻϳ Ordinary people could pretend to be rich and important, while famous people could have romanticadventures in secret. ͨ˿װкҪˣҲ͵͵ Many crimes went unpunished. ܶж˳ʹ The government realized that wearing masks had become a problem. ʶ ߳һ⡣Their use was limited by laws, the first of which dates back to the fourteenth century. ƶߵķģ ׷ݵ 14 ͡ Men were not allowed to wear masks at night; and they were not allowed to dress up as women. Ӳ׼ҹߣҲٰܼŮԡ In later times more laws were passed. ֮󣬸෨ij̨ People who wore masks could

not carry firearms; and no one could enter a church wearing a mask. ߲ Я ýá If they broke the laws. they were put into prison for up to two years. Υ߷߽ڿɳꡣ Finally, when Venice became part of the Austrian empire, at the end of the eighteenth century, masks were banned completely, and carnival became just a memory. 18 ĩ ˹Ϊµ۹һʱ߱ȫֹˣ񻶽ڳΪ䡣 But in the late 1970s the tradition was revived by students. 20 70 ڣ񻶽ͳֱѧǻָˡThey began making masks and organizing parties, and threw bits of brightly colored paper(called coriandoli) attourists. ǿ ʼߣ ֯ۻᡣ СIJɫֽƬ The town council realized that carnival was good for business, and the festival was developed for tourists. ÿ񻶽ڴһ̻ˣ񻶽ڵԷչ ο͡ Today, carnival in Venice is celebrated for five days in February. ˹ ڵףڶ½Уʱ졣 People arrive from all over Europe to enjoy the fun. ŷ޸ڴ˾֡ Hotels are fully booked and the narrow streets are crowded with wonderful costumes. õһգ խĽֵ ŸֻεǡGerman, French and English seem to be the main languages. ӢƺҪԡBut the spirit of Venice carnival is not quite the same as the great American carnivals. ˹ ڵı޿񻶽ͬ If the key to Rio is music and movement, then in Venice it is the mystery of the mask. Լ¬񻶽Ҫֺˡ ˹ صߡ As you wander through the streets, you see thousands of masks --- elegant or frightening, sad or amusing, traditional or modern ---but you have no idea what the faces behind them look like. ڽϣܿǧ ߣŵġµġ˵ġȤġ"ͳġʱеģ㲢֪ ߺס Nobody takes them off. If the masks come off, the magic is lost.û˰ժ¡ժˣħҲʧˡ

5. MODULE5 A Life in Sports They called him the prince of gymnasts. dzΪӡ When he retired at the age of 26, he had won 106 gold medals in major competitions across the world. 26 ʱشл 106 öơThey included six out of seven gold medals at the 1982 World Championship, and three at the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles (as well as two silver and a bronze) а 198Z öö1984 ɼ˻ϵö(Լöƺһö ͭ) Li Ning was the best. ġ When sports journalists met in 1999 to make a list of the greatest sportsmen and sportswomen of the twentieth century, Li Ning's name was on it, together with footballer Pele and boxer Muhammad Ali. 1999 ꣬ѡ 20 ܳ˶Աʱȭ һСBut even though he had won everything it was possible to win in his sport, Li Ning retired with the feeling that he had failed. ʹѾӮ ˶ĿӮõһУǴһʧܵĸоۡ He was disappointed because he had not performed well in the 1988 Seoul Olympics. 1988 꺺ǰ˻ϱֲѣʹеʧ But it was this sense of failure that made him determined to succeed in his new life. ʧܸʹµȡóɹ A year after his retirement, Li Ning began a new career-----as a businessman. һʼµ ҵ---̡ But he didn't forget his sporting background. ǣû ˶ġ He decided to launch a new brand of sportswear, competing with global giants like Mike and Adidas. ƳһƷƵ˶ȫ˾ ˡϴ˹Ⱦ He made the unusual choice, for a Chinese person, of choosing his own name as the brand mark. һй˶ԣѰ ѡ ǾԼ̱ꡣ The bright red logo is made up of the first two pinyin letters of Li Ning's name, L and N. Ǹʺɫ̱""ƴ ĸ L N ɡ Li Ning's sports clothes came onto the market at just the right time. ˶ гʱ The number of young people with money to spend was on the

increase---- and sport had never been so popular. Ǯѵ˵ӣ ˶Ҳõǰδеռ Li Ning's designs were attractive, and they had a major advantage over their better-known rivals---- they were cheaper. ˣұЩҵ֣ӵһҪƣ Ǽ۸ˡ A pair of Nike trainers, for example, could cost up to five times as much as a similar Li Ning product. 磬һ˫Ϳ˶Ьļ۸һ˫ ͬƷ۸屶֮ࡣSuccess for Li Ning was guaranteed, and it came quickly. ijɹ˱֤Ѹ١ In just a few years, Li Ning won more than fifty per cent of the national market. ̶ ꣬Ӯ˳ٷ֮ʮĹгToday a Li Ning product is purchased every ten seconds. ÿʮӾһƲƷ۳But the clothes are not only worn on the athletics track or the football pitch. If you go into a school or university anywhere, the chances are you will see students in Li Ning tracksuits with the familiar logo. ˶ھϣ ߽κһطѧѧУ԰ пܿӡǸϤ ־˶ѧǡ The company has also grown internationally ˾Ҳ ˹ʻչThe Spanish and French gymnastics teams wear Li Ning clothes, while Italian designers are employed by the company to create new styles. ٶԱҲƷװ ͬʱ ˾ʦµĿʽ Whenever Chinese athletes step out onto the track during the 2008 Olympics, they will be. wearing Li Ning tracksuits. й 2008 ˻ʱ ǽ˶ But Li Ning's goal when he retired was not to make money. ǣʱĿ 겢׬Ǯ His dream was to open a school for gymnasts. ǿһ ѧУHe was able to do this in 1991. 1991 ꣬ԸԳ Since then, he has continued to help young people to achieve their sporting ambitions. ʱ ϵذʵǵ롣Like Pele and Muhammad Alt before himwho have worked with the United Nations for children's rights and peace, Li Ning has discovered that the work of a great sportsman does not finish when he retires

from the sport. It starts. ֮ǰȭϹΪͯȨ ƽꡣһ:һܳ˶Ա˳̳ ʱ/Ĺǽǿʼ And if you are a great sportsperson, anything is possible, as Li Ning's advertising slogan says. ԣһλܳ˶Ա"һнп"

6. MODULE 6 Saving the Antelopes Ȳ On a freezing cold day in January 1994, Jiesang Suonandajie found what he was looking for---a group of poachers who were killing the endangered Tibetan antelope. 1994 1 һˮɱĺӣɣ ϴܷһֱѰҵĿ ȺɱIJ͵ߡJiesang knew he had to move quickly. ɣ֪ѸжHe shouted to the poachers to put down their guns. غţҪ͵߷ Although surprised, the poachers had an advantage---there were more of them. ͵Ȼеţռ˶ ơ In the battle which followed Jiesang was shot and killed. ڽǹսУ ɣ When his frozen body was found hours later, he was still holding his gun. СʱǷ壬ȻǹHe had given his life to save the Tibetan antelope. ΪȲ׳ At the beginning of the twentieth century there were millions of antelopes on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. 20 ͳڣظԭֻBy the 1990s the number had fallen to 50,000. ֹ 20 90 Ŀ ˴Լ 5 ֻ The reason is simple: the wool of the Tibetan antelope is the most expensive in the world. ԭܼ:ëëƤ It is soft, light, and warm----the ideal coat for an animal which has to survive at high altitudes. ůͣǸߺεƤë A shawl made from the wool (known as "shahtoosh", or "king of wools" in Persian) can sell for five thousand dollars. һë֯ɵ(Ϊ"ɳͼʲ"˹е"ë֮") 5000 Ԫ For poachers the profits can be huge. ͵˵Ƿ

ġOften working at night, the poachers shoot whole herds of antelopes at a time, leaving only the babies, whose wool is not worth so much. Щ͵߳ҹ һξͲɱȺIJ ֻЩëôֵǮ The animals are skinned on the spot and the wool taken to India, where it is made into the shawls. ЩɱIJ򱻾͵ذƤë͵ӡȡë֯ 硣From there, it is exported to rich countries in North America and Europe. ڵŷ޵ĸԣҡ The business is completely illegal---- there has been a ban on the trade since 1975. óȫΥģ 1975 һֱ ֹ But in the 1990s the shawls came into fashion among rich people. 20 90 ֲëǮмп ΪʱС A police raid on a shop in London found 138 shawls. ׶أڶһ̵һͻ о 138 硣 About 1,000 antelopes ---or 2 per cent of the world's population----had been killed to make them. ζдԼ I000 ֻ ɱ-----Լռȫ 2% In the 1990s the Chinese government began to take an active part in protecting the antelopes in the Hoh Xil Nature Reserve ----the huge national park on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, which is the main habitat of the antelopes. 20 90 йʼչɿȻIJ򱣻Ȼ ԭһ͹ҹ԰DzҪϢءOver the next ten years about 3,000 poachers were caught and 300 vehicles confiscated. ڽ 3000 ͵߱ץ 300 ûա Sometimes there were gunfights, like the one in which Jiesang Suonandajie was killed. ʱᷢǹսɣ ǹսġ But today the government seems to be winning the battle. ƺӮ ⳡս͵ߵ½ˡThe number of poachers has fallen. The small group of officials who work in the reserve are helped by volunteers who come from all over the country, and who are ready for the difficult conditions of life at 5,000 metres. ڱԱǵõȫصġԸܺ 5000 ϶־Ըǵ֧֡ Meanwhile, in those countries where the shawls are sold, police are getting tough with the dealers. International co-operation

seems to be working. ͬʱ Щ۲ëĹңʼ ëķߡ Since 1997 the antelope population has slowly begun to grow again. ʺҲЧ 1997 Ŀѿʼ
dݰЅ ܹʠiH c΄hh Lgµ^ f_NЂf ECΈMM NB[ LdKЄK ʞܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ] eAЃN ΄\e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[a EZFO bfDKa ON\`^ BDL ·Cdʴ bJMG B_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Adݰ Ѕܹʠ iHc΄hh Lgµ ^f_NЂ fECΈM MNB [LdKЄ Kʞܵ ܵЄ`޶ KEΆ] eAЃ N΄\e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[ aEZFO bfDK aON\` ^BDL ·Cdʴ bJM GB_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Ad ݰЅܹʠ iHc΄h hLg ^f_NЂ fECΈM MN B[LdKЄ Kʞܵ ܵЄ` ޶KEΆ] eAЃ N΄\e @\Cݰ[ Kʟ`[ aEZF ObfDK aON\` ^BD L·Cdʴ bJM GB_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Ad ݰЅܹʠ iHc΄h hLg ^f_NЂ fECΈM MN B[LdKЄ Kʞܵ ܵЄ` ޶KEΆ] eAЃ N΄\e @\Cݰ[ Kʟ`[ aEZF ObfDK aON\` ^BD L·Cd ʴbJM GB_B gԬAP Ή^΅J A dݰЅܹ ʠiHc΄ hhLg µ^f_ NЂfECΈ MM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄\ e@\C ݰ[Kʟ` [aEZ FObf DKaON\ `^B DL·Cd ʴbJM GB_B gԬAP Ή^΅J A dݰЅܹ ʠiHc΄ hhLg µ^f_ NЂfECΈ MM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄\ e@\C ݰ[Kʟ` [aEZ FObf DKaO N\`^B DL·C dʴb JMGB_ BgԬA PΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiH c΄hhL gµ^f _NЂfE CΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ ] eAЃN΄ \e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[aE ZFO bfDKaO N\`^B DL· Cdʴb JMGB _BgԬA PΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiH c΄hhL gµ^f _NЂfE CΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]eA ЃN΄ \e@\C ݰ[Kʟ `[aE ZFObf DKaON \`^B DL·Cd ʴbJ MGB_B gԬAP Ή^΅ JA dݰЅܹ ʠiHc΄ hhLg µ^f_ NЂfECΈ MM NB[LdK ЄKʞܵ ܵЄ`޶ KEΆ] eAЃ N΄\e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[a EZFO bfDK aON\`^ BDL ·Cdʴ bJMG B_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J AdݰЅ ܹʠi Hc΄hh Lgµ^ f_NЂf ECΈMM NB[ LdKЄK ʞܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]e AЃN΄ \e@ \Cݰ[K ʟ`[aE ZFO bfDKaO N\`^B DL·C dʴb JMGB _BgԬA PΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiH c΄hhL gµ^f _NЂfEC ΈMM NB[LdK ЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KEΆ ]eA ЃN΄\e @\Cݰ [Kʟ` [aEZF ObfD KaON\` ^BD L·Cd ʴbJM GB_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Ad ݰЅܹʠ iHc΄h hLgµ ^f_NЂ fECΈM MNB [LdKЄ Kʞܵܵ Є`޶ KEΆ] eAЃN ΄\e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[a EZFO bfDKa ON\`^ BDL ·Cdʴ bJMG B_BgԬ APΉ ^΅J AdݰЅ ܹʠi Hc΄hh Lgµ^f _NЂfEC ΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄\ e@\C ݰ[Kʟ` [aEZ FObf DKaON\ `^B DL·Cd ʴbJM GB_Bg

Ԭ APΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiH c΄hh Lgµ^f _NЂfE CΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]e AЃN΄ \e@\ Cݰ[Kʟ `[aE ZFOb fDKaON \`^B DL·Cd ʴbJ MGB_ BgԬAP Ή^΅ JA dݰЅܹ ʠiHc ΄hhLg µ^f_ NЂfEC ΈMM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄\ e@\Cݰ [Kʟ` [aEZ FObfD KaON\ `^BD L·Cdʴ bJMG B_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Adݰ Ѕܹʠi Hc΄hh Lgµ ^f_NЂf ECΈM MNB[ LdKЄK ʞܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ] eAЃN΄ \e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[aE ZFO bfDKaO N\`^B DL· Cdʴb JMGB _BgԬA PΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiH c΄hh Lgµ^f _NЂfE CΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]eA ЃN΄ \e@\ Cݰ[Kʟ `[aE ZFObf DKaON\ `^BD L·Cd ʴbJM GB_Bg ԬAP Ή^΅J Ad ݰЅܹʠ iHc΄h hLg ^f_NЂ fECΈM MN B[LdKЄ Kʞܵ ܵЄ`޶ KEΆ] eAЃ N΄\e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[a EZFO bfDK aON\`^ BDL ·Cdʴ bJMG B_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Adݰ Ѕܹʠi Hc΄hh Lgµ^ f_NЂf ECΈM MNB[ LdKЄK ʞܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ] eAЃN΄ \e@ \Cݰ[K ʟ`[aE ZFObf DKaON \`^B DL·Cd ʴbJ MGB_B gԬAP Ή^΅J A dݰЅܹʠ iHc΄ hhLg µ^f_N ЂfECΈ MMN B[LdK ЄKʞܵ

ܵ Є`޶K EΆ]e AЃN΄ \e@\ Cݰ[K ʟ`[aE ZFOb fDKaO N\`^B DL·C dʴbJ MGB_ BgԬA PΉ^΅ JA dݰЅܹ ʠiHc ΄hhL gµ^f_ NЂfEC ΈMM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄\ e@\C ݰ[Kʟ` [aEZ FObf DKaON\ `^B DL·Cd ʴbJM GB_B gԬAP Ή^΅J Ad ݰЅܹʠ iHc΄ hhLg ^f_N ЂfECΈM MNB [LdKЄK ʞܵܵ Є`޶ KEΆ] eAЃN ΄\e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[a EZFO bfDKa ON\`^B DL· Cdʴ bJMGB _BgԬ APΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiH c΄hh Lgµ^f _NЂfE CΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]e AЃN΄ \e@\ Cݰ[K ʟ`[aE ZFOb fDKaON \`^B DL·C dʴbJ MGB_ BgԬAP Ή^΅ JA dݰЅܹ ʠiHc ΄hhLg µ^f_N ЂfECΈM MN B[LdK ЄKʞܵ ܵЄ` ޶KEΆ] eAЃ N΄\e @\Cݰ[ Kʟ`[ aEZFO bfDK aON\` ^BDL ·Cdʴ bJMG B_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Adݰ Ѕܹʠi Hc΄hh Lgµ ^f_NЂf ECΈM MNB[ LdKЄK ʞܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ] eAЃN ΄\e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[aE ZFO bfDKa ON\`^B DL· Cdʴb JMGB _BgԬ APΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiHc ΄hhLg µ^f_ NЂfEC ΈMM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KEΆ ]eA ЃN΄\e @\Cݰ [Kʟ` [aEZF ObfD KaON\` ^BD L·Cdʴ

b JMGB_ BgԬA PΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiHc ΄hhL gµ^f _NЂfEC ΈMM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄\ e@\C ݰ[Kʟ `[aEZ FObf DKaON\ `^B DL·Cd ʴbJM GB_B gԬAP Ή^΅J A dݰЅܹʠ iHc΄ hhLg µ^f_N ЂfECΈ MMN B[LdK ЄKʞ ܵܵЄ` ޶KEΆ ]eAЃ N΄\e @\Cݰ [Kʟ`[ aEZF ObfDK aON\`^ BDL· Cdʴ bJMG B_BgԬ APΉ ^΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠi Hc΄hh Lgµ^ f_NЂfE CΈMM NB[ LdKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]e AЃN΄ \e@\ Cݰ[K ʟ`[aE ZFOb fDKaO N\`^B DL·C dʴbJ MGB_ BgԬA PΉ^΅ JA dݰЅ ܹʠiHc ΄hhL gµ^f_ NЂfEC ΈMM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄\ e@\C ݰ[Kʟ` [aEZF ObfDK aON\` ^BD L·Cdʴ bJM GB_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Adݰ Ѕܹʠ iHc΄hh Lgµ ^f_NЂ fECΈM MNB [LdKЄK ʞܵܵ Є`޶ KEΆ] eAЃN ΄\e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[a EZFO bfDKa ON\`^B DL· Cdʴ bJMGB _BgԬ APΉ ^΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiH c΄hh Lgµ^ f_NЂfE CΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]e AЃN΄ \e@\C ݰ[Kʟ` [aEZ FObf DKaON\ `^B DL·Cd ʴbJM GB_Bg ԬAP Ή^΅J Ad ݰЅܹʠ iHc΄h hLg ^f_NЂ fECΈM MNB

[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]eA ЃN΄ \e@\C ݰ[Kʟ `[aE ZFObf DKaON \`^B DL·Cd ʴbJ MGB_B gԬAP Ή^΅J A dݰЅܹ ʠiHc΄ hhLg µ^f_N ЂfECΈ MM NB[LdK ЄKʞ ܵܵЄ` ޶KEΆ ]eA ЃN΄\e @\Cݰ [Kʟ` [aEZF ObfD KaON\` ^BD L·Cd ʴbJM GB_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Ad ݰЅܹʠ iHc΄h hLgµ ^f_NЂf ECΈMM NB[ LdKЄK ʞܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]e AЃN΄ \e@ \Cݰ[K ʟ`[aE ZFOb fDKaO N\`^B DL·C dʴb JMGB_ BgԬA PΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiHc ΄hhL gµ^f _NЂfEC ΈMM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄ \e@\C ݰ[Kʟ `[aEZ FObf DKaON \`^B DL·Cd ʴbJM GB_B gԬAP Ή^΅J A dݰЅܹʠ iHc΄h hLgµ ^f_NЂ fECΈM MNB [LdKЄ Kʞܵܵ Є`޶ KEΆ] eAЃN ΄\e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[a EZFO bfDKa ON\`^ BDL· Cdʴ bJMG B_BgԬ APΉ ^΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠi Hc΄hh Lgµ^ f_NЂfE CΈMM NB[ LdKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]e AЃN΄ \e@\ Cݰ[K ʟ`[aE ZFOb fDKaO N\`^B DL·C dʴb JMGB_ BgԬA PΉ^΅ JA dݰЅܹʠ iHc΄ hhLg µ^f_N ЂfECΈ MMN B[LdK ЄKʞܵ ܵЄ` ޶KEΆ] eAЃ N΄\e @\Cݰ[ Kʟ`[ aEZFO bfDK aON\`^

B DL·Cd ʴbJ MGB_ BgԬAP Ή^΅ JA dݰЅܹ ʠiHc ΄hhLg µ^f_ NЂfECΈ MM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KEΆ ]eA ЃN΄\ e@\Cݰ [Kʟ` [aEZF ObfD KaON\ `^BD L·Cd ʴbJM GB_Bg ԬAP Ή^΅J Ad ݰЅܹʠ iHc΄h hLg ^f_NЂ fECΈM MN B[LdKЄ Kʞܵ ܵЄ`޶ KEΆ] eAЃ N΄\e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[a EZFO bfDKaO N\`^B DL· Cdʴb JMGB _BgԬA PΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiH c΄hhL gµ^f _NЂfE CΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]eA ЃN΄ \e@\C ݰ[Kʟ `[aE ZFObf DKaON \`^B DL·Cd ʴbJ MGB_B gԬAP Ή^΅ JA dݰЅܹ ʠiHc΄ hhLg µ^f_ NЂfECΈ MM NB[LdK ЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KEΆ ]eA ЃN΄\e @\Cݰ[ Kʟ`[a EZFO bfDK aON\`^ BDL ·Cdʴ bJMG B_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J AdݰЅ ܹʠi Hc΄hh Lgµ^ f_NЂf ECΈMM NB[ LdKЄK ʞܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]e AЃN΄ \e@ \Cݰ[K ʟ`[aE ZFOb fDKaO N\`^B DL·C dʴb JMGB _BgԬA PΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiH c΄hhL gµ^f _NЂfEC ΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄\e @\Cݰ [Kʟ` [aEZF ObfD KaON\` ^BD L·Cdʴ bJM GB_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Adݰ Ѕܹʠ iHc΄hh Lgµ ^f_NЂf

EC ΈMM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄\ e@\C ݰ[Kʟ` [aEZ FObfD KaON\ `^B DL·Cd ʴbJM GB_Bg ԬAP Ή^΅J Ad ݰЅܹʠ iHc΄h hLg ^f_N ЂfECΈM MN B[LdKЄ Kʞܵ ܵЄ` ޶KEΆ] eAЃ N΄\e @\Cݰ[ Kʟ`[ aEZFO bfDK aON\` ^BDL ·Cdʴ bJMG B_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Adݰ Ѕܹʠi Hc΄hh Lgµ^f _NЂfE CΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]e AЃN΄ \e@\ Cݰ[Kʟ `[aE ZFOb fDKaON \`^B DL·Cd ʴbJ MGB_ BgԬAP Ή^΅ JA dݰЅܹ ʠiHc ΄hhLg µ^f_ NЂfECΈ MM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄\ e@\Cݰ [Kʟ` [aEZ FObfD KaON\ `^BD L·Cd ʴbJM GB_Bg ԬAP Ή^΅J Adݰ Ѕܹʠi Hc΄hh Lgµ ^f_NЂf ECΈM MNB[ LdKЄK ʞܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ] eAЃN΄ \e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[aE ZFO bfDKaO N\`^B DL· Cdʴb JMGB _BgԬA PΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiH c΄hhL gµ^f _NЂfE CΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]eA ЃN΄ \e@\ Cݰ[Kʟ `[aE ZFObf DKaON \`^B DL·Cd ʴbJ MGB_B gԬAP Ή^΅J Ad ݰЅܹʠ iHc΄h hLg ^f_NЂ fECΈM MNB [LdKЄ Kʞܵܵ Є`޶ KEΆ] eAЃN ΄\e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[a EZFO

bf DKaON\ `^B DL·Cd ʴbJM GB_B gԬAP Ή^΅J A dݰЅܹʠ iHc΄ hhLg ^f_N ЂfECΈ MMN B[LdK ЄKʞܵ ܵЄ` ޶KEΆ ]eAЃ N΄\e @\Cݰ[ Kʟ`[ aEZF ObfDK aON\` ^BDL ·Cdʴ bJM GB_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Adݰ Ѕܹʠ iHc΄hh Lgµ ^f_NЂ fECΈM MNB [LdKЄK ʞܵܵ Є`޶ KEΆ] eAЃN ΄\e@ \Cݰ[K ʟ`[aE ZFOb fDKaO N\`^B DL·C dʴbJ MGB_ BgԬA PΉ^΅ JA dݰЅܹ ʠiHc ΄hhL gµ^f_ NЂfEC ΈMM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄\ e@\C ݰ[Kʟ` [aEZ FObfD KaON\ `^B DL·Cd ʴbJM GB_B gԬAP Ή^΅J Ad ݰЅܹʠ iHc΄ hhLg ^f_N ЂfECΈM MN B[LdK ЄKʞܵ ܵЄ` ޶KEΆ] eAЃN ΄\e@ \Cݰ[ Kʟ`[a EZFO bfDKa ON\`^B DL· Cdʴ bJMGB _BgԬ APΉ^ ΅JA dݰЅ ܹʠiH c΄hh Lgµ^f _NЂfE CΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]e AЃN΄ \e@\ Cݰ[Kʟ `[aE ZFOb fDKaON \`^B DL·C dʴbJ MGB_ BgԬAP Ή^΅ JA dݰЅܹ ʠiHc ΄hhLg µ^f_ NЂfEC ΈMM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵЄ` ޶KEΆ] eAЃ N΄\e @\Cݰ[ Kʟ`[ aEZFO bfDK aON\`^ BDL ·Cdʴ bJMG B_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J AdݰЅ ܹʠi Hc΄hh

Lg µ^f_N ЂfECΈ MMN B[LdK ЄKʞܵ ܵЄ` ޶KEΆ ]eAЃ N΄\e @\Cݰ[ Kʟ`[ aEZFO bfDK aON\`^ BDL ·Cdʴ bJMG B_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J AdݰЅ ܹʠi Hc΄hh Lgµ^ f_NЂfE CΈMM NB[L dKЄKʞ ܵܵ Є`޶K EΆ]e AЃN΄ \e@\ Cݰ[Kʟ `[aE ZFObf DKaON \`^B DL·Cd ʴbJ MGB_B gԬAP Ή^΅J A dݰЅ ܹʠiHc ΄hhL gµ^f_ NЂfEC ΈMM NB[Ld KЄKʞ ܵܵЄ `޶KE Ά]eA ЃN΄\ e@\Cݰ [Kʟ` [aEZF ObfD KaON\` ^BD L·Cd ʴbJM GB_Bg ԬAPΉ ^΅J Adݰ Ѕܹʠ iHc΄hh Lgµ ^f_NЂf ECΈM MNB [L


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