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定语从句---关系代词的用法


The Attributive Clause 定语从句讲解(Ⅰ)

学习目标: 1明确并理解概念:定语从句,关系词。

2掌握关系词的功能并能准确灵活运用。

思考一:什么是定语从句 ?

什么是先行词? 什么是关系词?
关系词的功能是什么?

树下的那辆车是我的。 The car that is under the tree is mine. 先行词

关系词

放置于名词之_____,修饰 后 名词的从句 1. 连接作用
2. 在从句中充当成分 3 指代先行词

用作定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句所修饰的 名(代)词叫作先行词。定语从句一般紧跟在先 行词的后面。 1. The students (who don’t study hard) will not pass 先行词 定语从句 the exam. 主句: The students will not pass the exam.

2. The woman (whom you saw in the park) is our 先行词 定语从句 English teacher. 从句的主语:you 从句的宾语: whom 主句:The woman is our English teacher.

思考二:引导定语从句的引导词有 哪些?

组成成分:
先行词+关系词+从句

关系代词与关系副词
关系代词: 指人:who(主格),whom(宾格),whose(所有格) 指物:which(主格,宾格),whose(所有格) 指人或物:that as 关系副词: when, where, why

思考三 关系词与先行词的 关系?

关系代词的实质 Join the following sentences:

The lady is Green. We saw her yesterday.
Who/that

The lady

we saw her yesterday is Green

关系副词和先行词的关系

I still remember the day when I came here.
on the day =when

This is the house where I lived last year.
in the house= where

There are many reasons why people like traveling.
for the reasons =why

I don’t like the way that you speak.
in the way =that 关系副词实际上是介词+先行词

总结 先行词和关系词的关系
1.A plane is a machine that can fly.
the machine = that

2.The boy who broke the window is called Tom.

the boy =who 关系代词实际上是先行词的复指

3.The boy whose parents are dead was brought up by his grandfather. 关系词whose实际上是先行词的
the boy’s =whose 所有格

4.The school where I study is far from my home.

in the school = where
关系副词实际上是介词+先行词

归纳:that,即指人又指物,作主语或宾语。 which,指物,作主语或宾语。 who, whom指人,who作主语,whom作宾语。 that,which,whom在定语从句中作宾语时,可省去。 1) A plane is a machine ________________ can fly. which/that which/that/ / / 2) The car _______________________ my uncle bought last week was stolen. who/that 3) The students ________________ don’t study hard will not pass the exam. 4) The woman ___________________ you saw in whom/that/ / / the park is our English teacher. 5) He talked happily about the men and books____ that __________ interested him greatly in the school.

Fill in the blanks. that/which 1. I still remember the day _________ we spent in the forest. when/on which 2. I still remember the day ____________ I first came to Beijing. 3. The factory _________ we will visit is large. that/which where 4. The factory ___________ his father works is large. when/at which 5. I’ll never forget the time _____________ we work on the farm. where/in which 6. This is the house ____________ we lived last year. 归纳:关系副词when指时间,关系副词where指地点, 在定语从句中作状语。即使先行词是时间地点,若 作从句中的宾语,只能用关系代词that, which.

Join two sentences into one: The boy is my brother. He helped me. 1. The boy who helped me is my brother. The film is interesting. They saw it last night. 2. The film they saw last night is interesting. The students will not pass the exam. They don’t work hard. 3.The students who don’t work hard will not pass the exam.

1. That book that you want it is on the desk. 2. Is this factory that we visited last week? the one This factory is the one that we visited last week? 3. He is the person for whom you are looking. 4. The person to whom you talked is Lily. for

The person whom you talked to is Lily. 归纳:1定语从句要避免成分重复 2定语从句要避免漏用先行词 3含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开

几种易混的情况
1.I’ll never forget the days______________ we worked when together. which 2.I’ll never forget the days ___________ we spent together.
及物动词

3.I went to the place ago.

where

I worked ten years

which 4.I went to the place _____________ I visited ten years ago.
及物动词

5.This is the reason _____________________ he was late. why 6.This is the reason _____________________ he gave. that/which
及物动词

The Attributive Clause 定语从句讲解(Ⅱ)
学习目标: 1解读考纲,明确考点。 2掌握并准确运用定语从句。

3学习掌握非限制定语从句。

考纲解读:

定语从句的考查要点:
1关系词的使用,特别是 which ,that ,when ,where 等。 2介词和关系词连用时,介词的选用。 3以as 引导的定语从句。

4只用that 的情况。
5只用which 的情况。 6定语从句与强调句型的区别。

考点分布
定语从句 2008 2009 12 15

2010

11

命题趋势 高考将继续重视对复合句的考查, 试题将着重对定语从句中相关基 础知识的考察。

突破方法:

1从句的学习并非一日之功,平时应加 强对从句语法特征和语义特征的思考, 形成纯正的思维能力。如不能形成这种 思维能力,而仅凭汉语思维去解决英语 问题,大量失误是在所难免的。
2加强对非限制定语从句的学习。在平 日的学习过程中,经过认真思考之后, 将典型的 从句分门别类,整理建档, 以备考前复习巩固。

定语从句复习
The Restrictive Attributive Clause 限制性定语从句

定 语 从 句

The Non-Restrictive Attributive Clause 非限制性定语从句

限制性定语从句的构成
The old lady who lives next to us sells books. You should do all that I said. I have found the teather whom I am looking for . I visited the factory where my father works.
1.从句位置及语序: 2.翻译方法: 3.构成

先行词 之后,用陈述式语序 “….的” 关系词
关系代词 关系副词

非限制性定语从句
Please compare:

Teachers ,who are kind ,are popular with the students. Mr Wang, who is kind, is popular with the students. The town ,where I live, is beautiful. Kenli, where I live, is beautiful. 形式 限制性定 语从句 作用 修饰限定 能否省略 翻译 不能 能 ….的

非限制性 插入成分 补充解释 定语从句

限制性定语从句省略后主语所指就不明确, 所以不能省略
分析两种定语从句省略后的结果 Teachers who are kind are popular with the students.

心地善良的老师受学生欢迎。 (说明老师有很多类型)
Mr Wang, who is kind, is popular with the students.

王老师受学生欢迎,他心地善良。 他指代明确

His brother who is a soldier is coming next week.

His brother ,who is a soldier ,is coming next week.

非限制性定语从句和单句的比较
1.I am reading Harry Porter, which an interesting book. _____is
This 2.He failed in the exam._______ made his parents angry. which 3.He failed in the exam, _______made his parents angry.

× that
them 4.He has two sons. Both of ________ are teachers. whom 5.He has two sons, both of ________ are teachers.

考点一that 和which

That 和which
? 只用that不用which的情况 ? 1)先行词为 all,much,little,something,everything,anything,nothin g,none,the one,等 ? eg.we’ll do all that we could do to help you. ? 2)先行词被all,every,no,some,any,little,much,one of,the only,the very,the right,the last, few ,just修饰 时。 ? This train is the last train that will go to beijing.

? 3) 先行词前有序数词和形容词最高级修饰时 ? This is the most interesting book that I’ve ever read. ? 4)先行词既有人又有物的时候。 ? The people and the happy time that I had in that village influnced me a lot. ? 5)有两个定语从句时,其中一个关系代词已用 which,另外一个用that。 ? They secretly built up a small factory which produced things that could cause pollution.

6)当先行词在主句中做表语,而关系代词在从句 中也做表语的。 Shanghai is no longer the city that used to be. 7)当先行词为集体名词时,多用that引导。 He wants to join the team that won the game.

A 1.This is all____I know about the matter. A.that B.what C.who D.whether 2Is there anything else_____you require? B A.which B.that C.who D.what B 3.The last place _____we visited was the Great Wall. A.which B.that C.where D.it 4.He talked happily about the men and B books_____ interested him greatly in the school. A.which B.that C.it D.whom

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

5.There is no dictionary_____you can find . A A.that B.which C.where D.in that A 6.This is one of the best books_______. This is the only one of the best books___ B A.that have ever been written B.that has ever been written

7.He wrote a letter to me,telling me B everything____ he saw on the way to the Paris. A.what B.that C.which D.where 8.Is oxygen the only gas_____helps fire burn? A A.that B./ C.which D.it B 9.Is there anything_____to you? A.that is belonged B.that belongs C.which belongs D.that belong

B 10.The scientist and his achievements______ you told me about are admired by us all. A.which B.that C.who D.whose C 11.Which of the books______were borrowed from him is the best? A.which B.what C.that D.whose

只用which不用that的情况
1)在非限制定语从句中。 2)动词短语中的介词提前时。 This is the house in which Lu Xun once lived. 3)先行词本身是that时。 What is that which flashed in the sky just now. 4)引导词后面有插入语的情况。 Here is the book which, as you know, I like best.

注意
先行词是指人的不定代词时,连接词只用 who不用that的情况 1) 先行词是指人的不定代词one,anyone ,no one, all,nobody,anybody,none,those. People all like those who have good manners. 2)There be 结构中 There is a Mr.Wang who wants to see you. 3) 先行词与关系词相距较远时 The man is coming who wants to see you.

考点二 as 引导的定语从句

as 引导的非限制性定语从句
It The earth is round._____ is known to all. which The earth is round,_____ is known to all. / as

_____ is known to all, the earth is round As 定语从句在句首时只能用as, ______ is known to all that the earth is round. It

as 具有正如之意,与之搭配的动词一般是固定的,如: as you know/ as you see/as we planned/ as we expected

as 引导的限制性定语从句 (1)
Please compare:

This is the same pen as I lost.
这本书和我丢的那本一模一样。

This is the same pen that I lost.
这本书就是我丢的那本。

as 引导的限制性定语从句 (2)
Please complete the following sentences and compare:

as This is such an interesting book ____ we all like. as This is so interesting a book _____ we all like.
这是大家都喜欢的如此有趣的一本书。(定语从句)

that This is such an interesting book ____we all like it. This is so interesting a book ____we all like it. that
这本书如此有趣,大家都喜欢。(结果状语从句)

As 和which

? 注意: ? as ,which均可以引出非限制性定语从句, ①如都指前一句话的意思,二者可以互换. 主句与从句有因果时用which ? ②as 引导的从句可以放在句首。 ? ③as 本身有“正如…..正象…”. 一类的含 义. 与之连用的词有 know,see,expect,announce,point out等. ④在the same…as… ? such….as….中as引导的是限制性定语从 句.

D 1.______was natural,he married Jenny. A.Which B.That C.This D.As 2.Such signs_____we use in the experiment A ______ Greek letters. A.as ,are B.as,is C.that,are D.that,is 3.I passed him a large glass of whisky,_____ C he drank immediately . A.that B.as C.which D.who 4.She is very good at dance,____everybody D knows. A.that B.which C.who D.as

5.It was raining,_____was a pity. D A.what B.that C.the which D.which D 6.______has been said above,grammar is a set of dead rules. A.Which B.What C.That D.As B 7.We do the same work_____they do. A.which B.as C.than D.like D 8.The earth is round,_____we all know. A.that B.which C.who D. as

考点三 介词+关系代词的定语从句

介词+关系代词的情况 1

The man

whom you spoke to was a scientist.

The city

which she lives in is far away.

A 与谓语动词的搭配习惯

介词+关系代词的情况 2
I still remember the day when =on which I came here.

on the day =when
This is the house where =in which I lived last year.

in the house= where

B与先行词的搭配关系

与先行词的搭配关系 on which 1)I will never forget the day _____________ I joined the army. during which 2) I will never forget the days ____________ I worked in the school. in which 3) I will never forget the year ____________ my son went to college. by which 4) I got home at 7:00 p.m. yesterday, ____________ most people had had supper.

与谓语动词的搭配习惯 for which 1)Have you found the book ____________ I paid 29 US dollars? 2) Have you found the book _____________ I spent on which 29 US dollars? from which 3) Have you found the book _____________ we learnt a lot? about which 4) Have you found the book ____________ she often talks?

注意表所有关系及整体中的一部分或全部时,用介 词of, 有时可用whose转换。 of whom 1) There are 100 teachers in our school, __________ 60 are women teachers. of whom 2) He has three children, two ___________ work as teachers. of which 3) That table has four legs, all _____________ are very short. 4) I’m painting a house, the roof _____________ is of which round. I’m painting a house whose roof is... 5) They live in a house ,_________ windows face whose They live in a house, the windows_____ south. of which face south. _________

考点四.定语从句中的主谓一致

定语从句中的谓语动词的人称和数与先行词保持一致。 例如: 1. Here are such sentences as are often used by the students. ( as指代sentences,谓语动词用are)。 2. I, who am a Party member, should work hard for our country.( who指代I, 谓语用am.)。 3. He was one of the students who were praised for it. ( who指代the students) 他是被表扬的学生之一。 4. He was the only one of the students who was praised for it. ( who 指the only one) 他是唯一被表扬的学生。

考点五 易与定语从句混淆的其他复合句

1.定语从句与同位语从句 定语从句与前面的名词是修饰与被修饰的关系“…的”。 而同位语从句是用来说明前面名词的内容。与that从句 同位的名词必须是一些表事实或概念的抽象名词, 如fact, news, belief, truth, reply等。that在定语从句中 作成分,可用which 或who/whom代替;而that在同位 语从句中不充当任何句子成分,只起连接作用。试比较: ① We all have heard the news that our team won. (同位语从句,that从句表示news的内容,that 在从句 中不作任何成分) ② We don’t believe the news that/which he told us yesterday. (定语从句,that 作told 的宾语)

2. 定语从句与状语从句。 试比较: ① He left the key where it had been an hour before. (where引导地点状语从句,相当于in the place where) ② He left the place where he lived for many years. (where 引导定语从句,修饰the place) ③ He is such a good teacher as all of us love and respect. (as 引导定语从句) ④ He is such a good teacher that we all like him. (that引导结果状语从句,such…that… “如此…以致…”)

3.定语从句与主语从句。 试比较: ① As is known to us all, paper was first made in China. (as 引导定语从句,指代整个主句内容,可置于句首) ② It is known to us all that paper was first made in China. (it 做形式主语,代替that 引导的主语从句) 4.定语从句与强调结构。试比较: ① It is the house where I met the young man. (where 引导定语从句,修饰house,where在定语 从句中作地点状语) ② It was in the house that I met the young man. (本句为强调结构,可还原为 I met the young man in the house.)

1. It is the young man _______ looked for _______ caught the murderer. A. that …who B. that …they C . they …that D they…which

2. Is this factory _______ we visited last year? A. where B in which C the one D at which 3. The book, the cover _______ is broken, is not mine. A. of it B for C whose D of which 4. This is Mr Smith, _____ I think has something interesting to tell you. A . who B whom C. that D. x 5. Who _______ has seen the TV film doesn’t admire it? A . that B who C which D as 分析:先行词是who,到是指人,可为了避免重复, 不用who,而用能指代 人的that。答案是A。

6. You can never imagine what great trouble I have had____ the patient who received a serious wound. A. treat B. to treat C treating D treated 注:have trouble (difficult) doing sth 7. This is the last time ____ I shall give you a lesson. A. when B that C which D in which 分析:答案是B。这里的time不指时间,而是次数。 且先行词time 被the last 所修饰,所以用that引导。 8. I don’t like the way _____ you laugh at her. A . that B on which C which D as 9. ____ have plenty of money will help their friend. A.Those who B.He who C.That who D.You who 10. I shall never forget those years _____ I lived in the farm ____ you visited last week. A.when,where B.which,which C.when , which D.which , where

难用的 whose
Join the following pair of sentences.

The teacher praised the student. His English is the best in our class. The teacher praised the student whose English is the best in our class. whose =the student’s 关系词whose实际上是先行词的所有格

难用的 whose

Join the following pair of sentences.

The house is mine. The window of the house is broken. The house whose window is broken is mine. whose=the house’s window
the window of which is broken

The house
of which the window is broken

is mine.

Bye bye! Bye bye!



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