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Unit 1 Learning about Language


Unit 1 Women of achievement Learning about Language

1. Let students know what the Subject-verb agreement is.

2. Ask them to conclude the rules and then give them
s

ome explanation.

3. Learn how to use Subject-verb agreement
correctly.

观察下面三个句子,看看它们在语法形式上有何不同?

(1) Our group are all going to visit them in the forest.
(2) Our group is going to be very tired and dirty by the

afternoon.
(3) She inspires those who want to cheer the

achievements of women.
【点津】从上面的句子可见它们是主谓一致原则。

Subject—Verb Agreement (主谓一致) 一、相关概念 1. 主谓一致

人称 和_____ 数 上和 即在句子中,谓语动词必须在_____
主语 保持一致。寻其规律,大致可归纳为以下四个 _____ 原则,即语法一致、意义一致、就近原则和就远原则。 2.语法一致 即主语是单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式,主语是 复数形式,谓语动词也用复数形式。

3. 意义一致 即主语形式上为单数,但意义上为复数,因此谓语 动词用复数形式;或主语形式上为复数,但表示单 数意义,这时谓语动词用单数形式。 4. 就近原则 即谓语动词用单数形式还是复数形式,取决于最靠 近它的主语。 5. 就远原则 “主语+ 附属结构” 作主语,谓语与主语一致。

二、语法一致 1.当主语由and连接时,如果表示同一人或同一物时, 谓语动词用单数,此时and后面的名词前面无冠词。 如果表示不同的人或物时, 谓语动词用复数,此时and 后面的名词前面有冠词。 is The worker and writer ____(be) from Wuhan.

那位工人兼作家来自武汉。
The worker and the writer _____(be) from Beijing. are 那位工人和那位作家来自北京。

【即学即练】

The League secretary and monitor _____ asked to
make a speech at the meeting last week.

A. is

B. was

C. are

D. were

【解析】选B。monitor 前没有the,在英语中,当 一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面 的职务用 and 连接。由于本题主语为一个人,时 间状语为last week, 所以应选B。

a knife and fork

is used to have meals. A knife and fork ___

is on the stage. The singer and dancer ___

2. 动词不定式(短语), 动名词(短语) 或从句作主语时,

谓语动词常用单数。例如:
Going out for a walk after supper is a good habit.

晚饭后出去散步是一个好习惯。
To see is to believe.

眼见为实。
Whether we’ll go depends on the weather.

我们是否要去取决于天气的好坏。

3.不定代词somebody, someone, something, anybody,

anything, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, no
one, nothing等作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。 Something ____ has (has / have) gone wrong with my watch. Anybody who _______ breaks ( break / breaks) the rule will be punished.

4.倒装句中的语法一致
Two pictures ______ are on the wall, which attract many people. On the wall _____ are two pictures, which attract many

people.
stands among the students, who is in her Their teacher ______

thirties.
stands their teacher, who is in Among the students _______

her thirties.

5.分数或百分数 + of +名词作主语时,谓语动词的形

式与of 后面的名词的数一致,即分数或百分数+of+不
可数名词或单数名词,谓语动词用单数;分数或百分

数+of+复数名词,谓语动词用复数。
are absent today. Ten percent of the pupils _____ is sea. Three fourths of the surface of the earth ____

【即学即练】 1. Reading English papers and magazines ___ is helpful to

our study of English. (is/ are)
is of no matter. (is /are) 2. Whether he comes or not ____

3. To say ___ (is/are) is one thing; to do ___another. is
4. Listening, speaking, reading and writing ____four are

skills for English study. (is/are)
5. Where to find the plant and what to do with it _____still the problems to settle. (is/are) are

三、意义一致
1. 由集体名词,如group, family, class, government,

team, public, enemy, crowd, audience, club, party,
crew等作主语时,如果看成一个整体,谓语动词用单

数形式,如果看成其中各个成员,则用复数形式。
His family is very large. 他家是一个大家庭。

His family are music lovers.
好者。

他的家人都是音乐爱

is made up of nine students. The group ____

are dancing happily. The group____

【即学即练】 Choose the correct verb form to complete the following sentences. (1)The research group ____(is/are) made up of five is people. do (do/does) the group want for their lunch? (2)What ____ is (is/are) not poor any more. (3)Our family ____ are (is/are) waiting for (4)He has to hurry. His family ____ him.

is (is/ are) more than forty in (5)The class ____
number. have (have/ has) disagreed among (6)The class ______ themselves about where they should go and have a

picnic. have ( has/ have) different (7)The city government _______ opinions about next year’s plan.
【点津】但集体名词 people, police, cattle等在多数

情况下谓语动词都用复数形式。

2.代词作主语 A big. ( A. is B. are ) Neither dog _____ / B big. ( A. is B. are ) Neither of them A _____ A handsome. ( A. is B. are ) Neither rabbit _____ A / B handsome. ( A. is B. are ) Neither of the rabbits _____

【辨析】 How to use “none” and “neither” neither + 单数名词 谓语动词用单数 谓语动词用单 数或复数

neither of
none of

+可数名词

+ 不可数名词

谓语动词用单数

【即学即练】
C doctors. (1)None of these people ___

A. has
A. was

B. have
B. is

C. are
C. were

D. be
D. is used to be

B a good singer. (2)Neither of them ___

was/were (was/were) ready when (3)Neither of us ________
the party began. have/has (has/have) watched the (4)None of them ________ talk show.

3.表示时间、距离、金钱等的复数名词作主语,表 达一个整体概念时, 谓语动词用单数形式。 has passed since I left Ningbo. Two years ______ is One million dollars ______ a great sum of money.

【真题在线】

(2013?湖南高考)The university estimates that living
expenses for international students _____around

$8,450 a year, which _____ a burden for some of them.
A. are;is C. is;are B. are;are D. is;is

【解析】选A。考查主谓一致。句意:这所大学估计

一名国际生的生活开销每年大约是8 450美元,这对其
中的一些学生来说是一大负担。living expenses生活开 销,为复数名词,故谓语动词用复数;$8,450为金钱 概念,谓语动词用单数。

4.以-s 结尾的名词本身不表示复数意义,谓语动词 常用单数形式,如news, maths, physics, the United States, works等作主语, 谓语动词用单数形式。 Every means ______ A been tried since then. A. has B. have C. are D. is

No news ____ is good news. (is / are)

e.g. Tom is one of the students who ____ are good at

playing football.
Tom is the only one of the students who ___ is good at

playing football.
【点津】在“one of+复数名词+从句” 的结构中, 定语从句中谓语动词用复数形式;但是若前面有the only, 将其限定为只有一个时,谓语动词用单数形式。

5. the+adj.作主语 the+adj.表示一类人,谓语动词用复数,如the old,

the young, the rich, the poor等。
the+adj.表示某个人或一类抽象的事物,谓语动词用

单数,如the beautiful, the good等。
The old ____ are taken good care of in our society.

The rich ____ are for the decision but the poor are
against it. The beautiful ____not always the same as the good. is

四、就近原则 用or, neither…nor, either…or, not only…but also,

not…but…等连接的并列主语,谓语动词与靠近它
的主语在数上保持一致。

A or B
Not A but B

Either A or B
Neither A nor B Not only A but also B

Verb

Here There +Verb

A and B A , B and C

?存在句: There be … 结构

我们教室里有一台电视机和56张桌子。
There are 56 desks and one television in our classroom. There is one television and 56 desks in our classroom.

【即学即练】 (1) One or two days ____ B enough to see the city. A. is C. am B. are D. be

(2) Not the teacher,but the students ____ B looking forward to seeing the film. A. is C. am B. are D. be

五、就远原则

“主语+ 附属结构” 作主语,谓语与主语一致。
当主语后面跟有as well as, as much as, no less than,

along with, with, like, rather than, together with,
but, except, besides, including等引导的词组时,其

谓语动词的单、复数由主语的单、复数决定。

1) The teacher with two students ______ was at the
meeting. (was / were)

2) E-mail, as well as the telephones, ________ an A
important part in daily communication.

A. is playing
C. are playing

B. have played
D. play

A

with along with together with besides but except including as well as rather than as much as no less than

B
谓语动词与第一个主语A 保持一致。

【真题在线】 1.(2013?福建高考 )The famous musician, as well as his students, _____ to perform at the opening ceremony of the 2012 Taipei Flower Expo. A. were invited B. was invited C. have been invited D. has been invited 【解析】选B。考查主谓一致。句意:著名的音乐家和 他的学生被邀请在2012年台北花博会开幕式上表演。as well as连接两个并列的名词作主语,谓语动词应和前面 的名词一致,故排除A、C两项。本题只是陈述在过去的 时间发生的事,故用一般过去时,由于the famous musician和invite之间是被动关系,故选B。

2.(2013?江苏高考 )Generally, students’ inner motivation with high expectations from others___ essential to their development. A. is B. are C. was D. were 【解析】选A。考查主谓一致。句意:一般说来,学生 的内在动机和来自于他人的高期望值对他们的发展是 必要的。此处考查主谓一致中的就远原则,除了with 外,还有together with, along with, as well as, but, except, but, rather than等。根据就前原则,谓语动词 的数应与inner motivation一致,因此使用单数形式, 排除B项和D项。然后根据generally确定使用一般现在 时,因此答案为A。

【即学即练】

were (be) here just now. 1. All but one _____
is (be) offered 2. A library with five thousand books ____ to the nation as a gift. is (be) 3. A peasant together with some soldiers ____ about to help us.

4. Nobody but Betty and Mary ____ A late for class yesterday.

A. was

B. were C. has been

D. have been

5. A woman with some children ____ A soon.

A. is coming
C. has come

B. are coming
D. have come

6. Everything, including the clothes, ____ B stolen that
evening.

A. is

B. was

C. are

D. were

1. 语法一致。
2. 意义一致。

3. 就近原则。
4.就远原则。

Homework
1. Finish exercises on Pages 4、5. 2. Finish workbook Page 43 Using Structures 1, 2, 3.

Difficult circumstances serve as a textbook of life for people. 困难坎坷是人们的生活教科书。


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