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牛津高中英语模块3课文对照 翻译 百度上传


Unit 1 Fog Fog warning When Polly left home that morning, the city was already covered in a grey mist. At lunch, the radio forecast that the mist would become a thick fog in the afternoon. At four o'clock, Polly left work and stepped out into the fog .She wondered if the buses would still be running. No buses to King Street Once out in the street, she walked quickly towards her usual bus stop. ‘How far are you going?’ the bus conductor asked her before he took her fare. ‘King Street.’ said Polly. ‘Sorry,Miss’ replied the man, ‘the truth is that it is too foggy for the bus to run that far. Take the Underground to Green Park. The weather might be better there and you might be able to get a taxi.’ A tall man As Polly observed the passengers on the train, she had a feeling that she was being watched by a tall man in a dark overcoat. At last the train arrived at Green Park station. While the rest of the passengers were getting out, she glanced at the faces around her. The tall man was nowhere to be soon. Footsteps When Polly got to the station entrance, it was empty. Outside, wherever she looked the fog lay like a thick, grey cloud. There was no one in sight. Polly set off towards Park Street. As she heard a man’s voice in her ear saying ‘Sorry.’ The man moved away. She could feel her heart beating with fear. The helpful stranger Then she heard the sound again-soft footsteps behind her. A minute before, she had wished for someone to come along. Now she wanted to run, but fear held her still. The footsteps seemed close now. Then a man’s voice came out of the darkness. ‘Is anybody there?’ Polly hesitated. At last she answered, ‘Hello, I think I’m lost. ’ A few seconds later, a hand reached out and grasped her arm. Polly found herself staring up at the face of an old man with a beard. ‘Maybe I can help you. Which road do you want?’ he asked. ‘I live at 86 King Street.’ Polly replied. ‘Just take my hand.’ said the man. ‘Come with me. You’ll be all right.’ He took Polly’s hand. ‘Watch out for the step here.’ In his other hand the man carried a stick. Polly heard it hit the step. ‘I can remember some terrible fogs, but maybe that was before your time. I can’t see your face, but you sound young. How old are you?’ ‘Just twenty.’ answered Polly. ‘Ah, twenty ! A nice age to be. I was young once. Now we’re at the crossroads. Turn left here.’

‘I’m quite lost now. Are you sure you know the way?’ Polly was beginning to feel frightened again.’ ‘Of course. You really shouldn’t feel anxious,’ He held her hand more firmly. The grateful helper ‘Here we are. King Street.’ He stopped. ‘Thank you so much for coming to my aid.’ said Polly in relief. ‘Would you like to come in and rest for a while?’ ‘It’s very nice of you.’ said the man, ‘but I’ll be off. There may be more people lost today, and I’d like to help them. You see, a fog this bad is rare. It gives me the chance to pay back the help that people give me when it’s sunny. A blind person like me can’t get across the road without help, except in a fog like this.’ P18 Project Shark attacks There are nearly 400 different types of sharks, but only about 30 types are known to have attacked human beings. Many people know that the most dangerous shark is the great white shark, probably because they have seen the film Jaws. However, two other sharks are also rather dangerous: the tiger shark and the bull shark. Contrary to what many people might assume, evidence shows that sharks seldom attack humans. There are three types of shark attacks. In the main type, the shark attacks you because it mistakes you for a fish, but when it tastes human flesh it decides to give up and swims away. In the second type, the shark pushes you with its nose to find out if you are fit to be eaten, and then bites you if it thinks you are. In the third type, the shark waits for you to swim by, and then attacks you suddenly. The last two types of attack more often result in the death of humans. To reduce the risk of a shark attack, you should follow these suggestions. Do not swim in the dark. Sharks can still see you but you cannot see them. Do not go swimming in the ocean if you have a fresh wound. Sharks can smell blood over a long distance. Do not wear bright clothing or jewellery, because sharks are attracted to the flash of, colours and bright objects. Stay in groups, as sharks usually avoid large numbers of people. Recently, shark attacks have been increasing as water sports are becoming more popular. If a shark attacks you, follow the advice below. Keep calm. Do not panic. Hit the shark on the nose with your fist. Stick your finger in the shark's eye. Don't be frightened by sharks: you are 3o times more likely to be hit by lightning than be attacked by a shark. The wonderful world of pigeons It is night. All is quiet. The soldiers are asleep while a guard watches for the enemy. There is a flash, and the sound of guns! They are being attacked! Hundreds of enemy soldiers rush towards them. They are all going to be

killed unless they get help. What should they do? An officer writes a short message quickly on a small piece of paper: 'Being attacked! Hurry!' He rolls up the paper and puts it into a small case, and then reaches into a cage and gets a bird. Attaching the message to its leg, he sets the bird loose. It immediately flies into the air and disappears in the dark. Will the bird arrive in time? Will they be saved? Though it may seem hard to believe, the bird the officer uses is the same bird often seen in public parks--the pigeon. Pigeons have a wonderful sense of direction and can find their way home over long distances. Indeed, pigeons have been known to fly home from as far away as 1,800 kilometres. That is why pigeons have been used since ancient times to carry the news or even the mail. However, it was in war that they found their greatest use. During both World War I and II, pigeons were employed by armies to carry messages to and from the front lines, saving the lives of many soldiers and even helping win some important victories. How do pigeons find their way? Pigeons appear to have a compass inside them that tells them which way is north. How this compass works remains a mystery. Of course, since a compass alone is not enough to find one's way, they also appear to use their sight and even their sense of smell to tell them which way they should go. Unlike humans, they never get lost and can always find their way home. Unit 2 English and its history All through history, people from many different countries and cultures have lived together in Britain. The English language is made up of the grammar and vocabulary these people brought to Britain. That is why English has so many difficult rules that confuse people. Old English Old English is very different from the English we speak nowadays. In fact, we would not be able to understand it if we heard it today. Before the 5th century, people in Britain all spoke a language called Celtic. Then two Germanic groups from the European mainland—the Angles and the Saxons—occupied Britain. Old English consisted of a mixture of their languages. (Both the English language and the English people are named after the Angles; the word Angle was spelt Engle in Old English.) Aside from place names such as London, very few Celtic words became part of Old English. At the end of the 9th century, the Vikings, people from Northern European countries such as Denmark and Norway, began to move to Britain. They brought with them their languages, which also mixed with Old English. By the 10th century, Old English had become the official language of England. When we speak English today, we sometimes feel puzzled about which words or phrases to use. This is because English has many words and phrases from different languages, but with similar meanings. For example, the word sick came from a word once used by the Angles and the Saxons, while ill came from a word once used by the Norwegians. Middle English

Middle English is the name given to the English used from around the 12th to the 15th centuries. Many things played a part in the development of this new type of English. The most important contribution was from the Normans, a French-speaking people who defeated England and took control of the country in 1066. However, the Norman Conquest did not affect English as mush as the Angles and the Saxons’ victory about 600 years earlier, which led to Old English replacing Celtic. Even though the Normans spoke French for the entire 250 years they ruled England, French did not replace English as the first language. On the other hand, the English language did borrow many words from French. This resulted in even more words with similar meanings, such as answer (from Old English) and reply (from Old French). It is interesting to learn how the words for most animals raised for food, such as cow, sheep and pig, came from Old English. However, the words for the meat of these animals, which was served to the Normans, came from Old French: beef, mutton, pork and bacon. Old French made other contributions to Middle English as well. In Old English, the Germanic way of making words plural was used. For example, they said housen instead of houses, and shoen instead of shoes. After the Normans took control, they began using the French way of making plurals, adding an -s to house and shoe. Only a few words kept their Germanic plural forms, such as man/men and child/children. After the Norman Conquest, high-class people spoke French while common people spoke English. However, by the latter half of the 14th century, English had come into widespread use among all classes in England. In 1399, Henry Ⅳ became King of England. His mother tongue was English, and he used English for all official events. Modern English Modern English appeared during the Renaissance in the 16th century. Because of this Modern English includes many Latin and Greek words. Pronunciation also went through huge changes during this period. Of course, this was not the end of the changes in the English language. The question of whether English will keep on changing in the future is easy to answer. It is certain that this process will continue, and people will keep inventing new words and new ways of saying things. Project The development Chinese characters The Chinese language differs from Western languages in that, instead of an alphabet, it uses characters which stand for ideas, objects or deeds. Chinese words are formed by putting together different characters. In many cases, a single character can also make up a word. The history of the Chinese language can be examined by looking at how these characters developed. Chinese writing began thousands of years ago. According to an ancient story, a man named Cang Jie invented Chinese writing. One winter day while he was hunting, he saw the tracks of animals in the snow and observed that the appearance of each one was different. Then he had the idea that he could use different shapes to represent different objects. The first Chinese characters were drawings of physical objects. Some characters have been simplified and others have been made more difficult over time.

However, as a whole, the characters have developed from drawings into standard forms. The character for a mountain was at first three mountaintops together. This became one mountaintop and three lines, and over time turned into the character used nowadays. Not all characters were developed from drawings of objects. Sometimes to express ideas, some characters were made by combining two or more characters together. For example, 'rest' was made up of the characters for a man and a tree. The character 'prisoner' was formed with a 'man' inside a square. Other characters were developed for directions and numbers. It is easy to distinguish their meanings by looking at them, for example, the characters for 'up' and 'down', which are opposites of each other. Though these kinds of characters indicate meanings, one of their shortcomings is that they do not show how they should be pronounced. Therefore, a method was developed to have one part of a character indicate the meaning and the other suggest the pronunciation. Many Chinese characters used today were made this way. In the 1950s the Chinese government introduced simplified Chinese characters and now they have widespread use in China's mainland. The story of Braille Usually, when we talk about reading, we think of using our eyes to see letters written in ink on paper. However, this is not always true. For example, blind people cannot see, but they can still read books. The man who introduced blind people to reading was Louis Braille (1809-1852). Braille lost his eyesight at the age of three as a result of an injury. When he was ten, he went to a school for the blind in Paris. In those days, books for blind people used paper pressed against metal wire to form letters. Since the metal wire was heavy, each book weighed as much as 100 pounds. The whole system was not convenient for use. Indeed, the school library only had fourteen such books in it. In 1821, a soldier visited the school and showed the students a system for passing messages at night during times of battle. His system used paper with small, raised dots that could be felt with the fingers. Each letter of the alphabet was represented by a different pattern which consisted of twelve dots. The soldiers would drag their fingers over the raised dots to read the message. While the students found the soldier's idea interesting, the system was too difficult to be of practical use. However, young Louis Braille took the idea and worked on it. At the age of fifteen, he created a system with patterns of six raised dots representing each letter. 'Braille', the system for reading used today by blind people around the world, was thus born. The blind can easily recognize Braille with the fingers. They can also easily write in Braille with a special typewriter. Today, it is the most common system used by blind people for reading and writing, and nearly every language, including Chinese, has its own version of Braille for its people to use.

Unit 3 Lost civilizations Day 1,15 July

I feel lucky to have won a place on this trip. We are in Italy now, and tomorrow we are visiting Pompeii. Next week we are flying to China, and going to Loulan, which is known as China’s Pompeii in the desert. Both Pompeii and Loulan became lost civilizations long ago. Day 2,16 July This morning we attended a lecture about Pompeii. The city was founded in the 8th century BC. In 89 BC, the Romans took over Pompeii. It then became a rich and busy city. Near the city was a volcano. On 24th August AD 79, the volcano erupted and lava, ash and rocks poured out of it onto the surrounding countryside. It continued to erupt for the next two days. Many people were buried alive, and so was the city. How unfortunate! Day 3,17 July Today I saw the ancient Roman city of Pompeii as it was 2,000 years ago. How amazing! The city was forgotten for many years until the 18th century when a farmer discovered a stone with writing on it. People started to dig in the area for treasure, which caused much damage. Thus, in 1860, the area was put under government protection so it could be preserved and studied. When I walked around the city, I saw streets just as they had been, with stepping stones along the road so you did not have to step in the mud on rainy days! I saw several houses which were decorated with wall paintings. I also saw the people who had been buried alive. It turns out that after the ash covered the people who failed to feel the city, their bodies nearly completely broke down and disappeared, leaving empty spaces to produce true-to-life figures of the people who had died in the disaster. You can see them today in Pompeii , in the same place where the people feel. The volcano is still there, but looks very quiet now. It’s hard to imagine how this peaceful volcano destroyed the whole city! Day10,24 July Finally, we arrived in Loulan after several days of travelling. This commercial city was busy and wealthy about 2,000 years ago. It was a stopping point on the famous Silk Road between the East and the west. It is believed to have been gradually covered over by sandstorms from AD200 to AD400. I am so excited to be here! Day11,25 July An scholar from the local cultural institute, Professor Zhang, told us that around the year 1900 the European explorer Sven Hedin discovered the ruins of the Loulan Kingdom. Seven found the remains of buildings buried beneath the sand, together with a lot of treasures, including coins, painted pots, materials such as silk, documents and wall paintings. When we went to the city, we saw the city walls, palaces, temples, workshops and towers. We found the ruins most interesting. There was an ancient water system that ran through the middle of the city. The desert was once a green land with huge trees, but they were cut down and that resulted in the city from being buried by sand—what a pity!

Project Ancient Greek statue found in Xinjiang Researchers announced the discovery of a small statue in northern Xinjiang, China, recently. The metal statue is of a Greek soldier. When asked how a statue from distant Greece could have appeared in China, researchers explained that no doubt this was a result of Alexander the Great’s influence. Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) was the son of a Greek king who defeated many Greek cities in battle. At the age of twenty, Alexander himself became king after his father died. However, many cities rose up against Alexander, so he led an army to take them back. Though his army had only 3,000 troops, he won every battle and many enemy soldiers joined him. In 334 BC, he took his army, now with 42,000 men, into the Middle East and then Egypt, defeating every army that stood in his path. Then he turned his eyes east, and marched all the way to India, finding victory wherever he went. It seemed that nothing could stop him from taking control of the entire world. However, his own army grew tired of endless battles and refused to go any further, so he had to turn back. By the age of thirty, he had already occupied more land than anyone before, and it seemed that more glory was waiting ahead of him. Yet, in 323 BC, he came down with a fever and died. Since he had no son, his generals divided his vast kingdom among themselves. Alexander the Great spread the Greek culture from Europe to Africa and Asia, influencing the world for centuries to come. The statue of the Greek soldier found in northern Xinjiang probably came to China in the 4th century BC as a result of trade. Like many other ancient objects that show a Greek influence, it can now be seen in a museum in Urumqi.

The father of Western philosophy The word 'philosophy' means 'love of wisdom'. Philosophy can be thought of as a way of looking at the world around us, or of answering the great questions of life, such as 'Why are we here?' and 'What is truth?' The father of Western philosophy was Socrates (469-399 BC). Socrates was from Athens, in Greece. When he was young, he was a brave soldier. Later, he became a teacher, but he taught for free and earned his salary from being a common worker. Aside from this, we know very little about him. Since he never wrote a book, we also know very little about his philosophy. Yet, Socrates has had a deep influence on Western thought and science. To understand how this can be true, we must understand how Socrates taught. Socrates taught by asking questions. Through this, he challenged his students to develop and explain their own arguments. In many cases, his questions made his students aware of their own errors. Many students got embarrassed and even angry when this happened, while others changed their opinions. Socrates' way of approaching the truth is now called the Socratic Method. The idea of asking questions until you reach the right answer is the basis of modern philosophy and science. Unfortunately for him, Socrates questioned too much. He always asked challenging questions to everyone he met, upsetting many people in Athens. Finally, some people had had enough of him, so they took him to court for questioning the existence of the Greek gods and for corrupting the young people of Athens. At his trial, he defended himself by asking his judges yet more questions.

This just made a bad situation worse. Finally he was put to death by being forced to drink poison. Through his death, Socrates became the hero of all people who search for the truth.

Appendix I: Translation Unit 1 Reading 雾
比尔·洛 浓雾警报 那天早晨波莉离家时,整个城市已笼罩在灰色的薄雾中。午餐时分,收音机预报说,薄雾 将会在下午变成浓雾。下午四点,波莉下了班,步入了浓雾中。她不知道公交车是否还会照 常运行。 没有到国王大街的巴士 一走到街上,她就快步向平常乘车的公交车站走去。 “您要坐多远?”巴士售票员收下她的车费前问道。 “国王大街。 ”波莉答道。 “对不起,小姐, ”售票员回答说, “现实情况是雾太浓了,公交车跑不了那么远。乘地 铁到格林公园吧。那里的天气可能好一点,您也许能叫到一辆出租车。 ” 高个子男人 当波莉打量地铁车厢里的乘客时,她感到她正被一个穿着黑色大衣的高个子男人注视 着。地铁终于到达了格林公园站。当其他乘客走出车厢时,她扫视了一下她周围的一张张面 孔。那个高个子男人不见了。 脚步声 当波莉到达车站入口处时,那里空无一人。外面,她目光所及之处,雾像浓密的灰云一 样聚积着。什么人也看不见。波莉朝着公园大街走去。当她沿着狭窄的街道行走时,她听到 了由远及近的脚步声,但当她走到街道拐角处时,脚步声却消失了,突然,波莉感到有一只 粗糙的手拂过她的脸颊'并且她还听到了一个男人在她耳边说“对不起”的声音。那个男人 走开了。她能感到她的心脏因害怕而怦怦地直跳。 热心的陌生人 然后,她又听到了那种声音——在她身后响起的轻柔的脚步声。一分钟前,她曾希望有 人跟着来。现在她则想跑开,可恐惧让她挪不动脚步。脚步声这会儿似乎很近了。接着,一 个男人的声音从黑暗中传来: “有人吗?” 波莉犹豫了。最终她还是回答道: “你好,我想我是迷路了。 ” 几秒钟后,一只手伸过来抓住了她的胳膊。波莉抬头看去,发现是一位长着络腮胡子 的老人。 “也许我能帮你。你想去哪条路?”他问道。 “我住在国王大街 86 号, ”波莉答道。 “只要拉着我的手就成, ”老人说, “跟着我走,不会有事的。 ”他拉住波莉的手。 “小 心这里的台阶。 ”

老人的另一只手里攥着一根手杖。波莉能听见它敲击台阶的声音。 “我还记得几次糟糕 的大雾,不过那可能都是在你出生之前的事了。我看不见你的脸,但你听起来挺年轻。你多 大了?” “刚 20 岁, ”波莉答道。 “啊,20 岁,多好的年纪啊。我也年轻过。现在我们到了十字路口了。这里向左转。 ” “我是彻底迷路了。您肯定你认识路吗?”波莉又开始感到害怕了。 “当然肯定,你真的不用担心。 ”老人将她的手握得更紧了。 感恩的帮助者 “我们到了。国王大街。 ”老人停住了脚步。 “非常感谢您帮忙, ”波莉如释重负地说道, “您愿意进屋休息会儿么?” “你真客气, ”老人说道, “不过我还是得走了,可能今天还会有更多人迷路,我想帮 帮他们。你瞧,像今天这么大的雾是很少见的。这给了我一个机会,来回报晴天时人们给我 的帮助。像我这样的盲人没人帮助是根本过不了马路的,除非是在这样的浓雾里。 ”

Project
鲨鱼攻击 有将近 400 种不同种类的鲨鱼,但我们知道只有约 30 种鲨鱼攻击过人类。许多人知道 最危险的鲨鱼是大白鲨,也许是因为他们看过电影《大白鲨》吧。然而,另外两种鲨鱼也相 当危险: 虎鲨和牛鲨。和许多人可能会认为的正好相反,证据显示鲨鱼极少攻击人类。 鲨鱼攻击人类的情形有三种。在主要的情形中,鲨鱼攻击你是因为它把你错当成了一 条鱼,但当它尝出人肉的味道时,就会决定放弃并游开。在第二种情形中,鲨鱼会用鼻子推 搡你,以弄清你是否适合被食用,如果它觉得适合,便会咬你。而在第三种情形中,鲨鱼会 等待你游过,然后突然攻击你。后两种攻击类型对人类来说往往是致命的。 遵循这些建议,以降低被鲨鱼攻击的风险: 不要在黑暗中游泳。在黑暗中,鲨鱼仍能看得见你,而你却看不见它们。 如果你有刚受伤的伤口,不要在海洋中游泳。鲨鱼在很远处便能嗅到血腥味。 不要穿鲜亮的衣服或佩戴珠宝首饰,因为鲨鱼会被颜色或明亮物体的闪光吸引。 集体行动,因为鲨鱼通常会避开人群。 最近,随着水上运动更加普及,鲨鱼攻击事件也在持续增多。如果鲨鱼攻击你,遵循 以下建议: 保持冷静。不要慌张。 用你的拳头击打鲨鱼的鼻子。 用你的手指戳鲨鱼的眼睛。 不要害怕鲨鱼:你被闪电击中的几率要比受到鲨鱼袭击的几率大三十倍。 鸽子的奇妙世界 万籁俱寂的夜晚。除了一名哨兵在站岗放哨,所有士兵都在梦乡。突然一道闪光,枪声 四起!他们遭到攻击了!数百名敌军士兵冲向了他们。除非获得救援,否则他们全都会被杀 死。他们该怎么办? 一名军官飞快地在一张小纸片上写道: “受袭!速援! ” 他把纸片卷起来,放进一个小盒子里,然后伸手探入一个笼子,捉出一只鸟来。他将 信系在它的腿上后,便松开鸟儿。它立刻飞向天空,消失在黑暗中。 这只鸟会及时到达吗?他们会得救吗? 虽然这似乎令人难以置信,但是那名军官所用的鸟儿和我们常在公园里看到的一种鸟

是同样的——鸽子。鸽子有着极强的方向感,能从很远的地方找到回家的路。确实,据知鸽 子能飞行远达 1800 公里回到家。 因为这个缘故, 鸽子自古以来就被用于携带消息甚至邮件。 然而,它们的最大用途却是在战争中发现的。在第一次世界大战和第二次世界大战期间,鸽 子被军方用来和前线往返传递消息, 挽救了许多士兵的生命, 甚至帮助赢得了一些重要的胜 利。 鸽子是怎么认路的呢?鸽子体内似乎有一只罗盘,告诉它们何处是北。这个罗盘是如 何,工作的仍然是个谜。当然,由于仅靠一只罗盘不足以认路,它们似乎也使用视觉乃至嗅 觉去辨明应该走哪条路。和人类不同,它们从不迷路,总是能找到归家的路。

Unit 2
Reading
英语及其历史
有史以来,在不列颠共同生活着来自许爹不同国家和文化背景的人们。英语就是由这 些人带来的语法和词汇构成的。那就是为何英语有这么多使人困惑的不解规则。 古英语 古英语和现今我们说的英语完全不同。事实上,如果现在听到古英语,我们会听不懂。 公元 5 世纪中叶前,生活在不列颠的人都说一种叫凯尔特语的语言。然后,来自欧洲大陆的 两个日耳曼部族——盎格鲁人和撒克逊人——占领了不列颠。 古英语是他们的语言混合而成 的。 (英语及英国人都是从盎格鲁这个词而来的;Angle 这个词在古英语里拼作 Engle。 )除 了像伦敦这样的地名外,极少数的凯尔特单词成了古英语的一部分。在 9 世纪末,来自北欧 诸国(如丹麦和挪威)的维京人开始向不列颠移居。他们带来了他们的语言,这些语言也与 古英语交汇在了一起。到了十世纪,古英语已是英格兰的官方语言。 现在当我们讲英语时,我们有时会对用哪些单词或短语而感到困惑。这是因为英语有 着许多来自不同语言的单词和短语,这些单词和短语有着相似的意思。比如,sick-词就是来 自由盎格鲁和撒克逊人曾经用过的一个词,而 ill 则来自曾经被挪威人用过的一个词。 中古英语 中古英语是给大约 12 世纪到 15 世纪期间使用过的英语起的名字。在这一新型英语的 发展中,许多东西起了作用。最大的贡献来自于讲法语的诺曼人,他们于 1066 年击败英格 兰并控制了这个国家。 然而, 诺曼征服对英语的影响并不及约 600 年前盎格鲁人和撒克逊人 的胜利对英语产生的影响, 那场胜利导致古英语替代了凯尔特语。 尽管诺曼人在统治英格兰 的整整 250 年间一直讲法语,但是法语并没有取代英语成为第一语言。但另一方面,英语也 确实借用了许多法语单词,因此产生了更多意思相近的单词,比如 answer(来自于古英语) 和 reply(来自于古法语) 。了解有关动物和肉的词汇是怎么演变而来的,是件挺有趣的事。 诺曼人征服英格兰之后,许多英国人以仆人的身份从事饲养动物的工作。因此,我们现在所 用的大多数表示专为肉食而饲养的动物的单词,比如 cow(母牛) 、sheep(羊)和 pig(猪) , 来自于古英语。然而,由于这些动物的肉是供应给话曼人的,所以指代这些动物的肉的词来 自于古法语,如 beef(牛肉) 、mutton(羊肉) 、pork(猪肉)和 bacon(熏猪肉,成猪肉) 。 古法语也为中古英语做出了其他贡献。在古英语中,单词变复数采用了日耳曼语中单 词变复数的方法。比如说,他们说 housen 而不是 houses,说 shosen 而不是 shoes。当诺曼人 控制英格兰之后,他们开始使用法语的复数构成形式,在 house 和 shoe 后面加 s。只有很少 的单词保留了日耳曼语的复数形式,如 man/men 和 child/children。 诺曼征服之后,上层社会的人讲法语,而普通人则讲英语。但是到了 14 世纪后半叶时, 英语已被英格兰所有社会阶层广泛使用。1399 年,亨利四世成了英格兰国王。他的母语是

英语,他在所有正式场合都使用英语。

现代英语 现代英语是在 16 世纪的文艺复兴时期出现的。由于这个原因,现代英语中含有许多拉 丁语及希腊语单词。在此期间,英语发音也经历了巨大的变化。当然.这并不是英语语言变 化的终结。英语在未来是否会继续变化,这一问题是很容易问答的。可以肯定的是,这一变 化过程将会继续,人们将会不断地发明新的单词和新的表达方式。

Project
汉字的发展 汉语与西方语言不同,区别在于它不使用字母,而是用汉字表示思想、物体和行为。 中文的词语是通过把不同的汉字放在一起而组成的。 在许多情况下, 一个单字也能构成一个 词。通过研究这些汉字是如何发展的就可以考察汉语的历史了。 汉字起源于数千年前。根据古代传说,一位名叫仓颉的人发明了汉字。他在某个冬日 打猎时,看到各种动物留在雪中的足迹,他发现足迹的形状各不相同。于是他想到可以用不 同的形状来代表不同物体。最初的汉字只是表现有形物体的图画。随着时间的推移,一些汉 字被简化了,而另一些则变得更加复杂。不过总的来说,汉字从图画发展成了标准形式。表 示“山”的汉字最初是三座山峰并列,继而变成了一座山峰和三条线,随着时间的推移,最 终演变成了现在使用的字形。 并非所有的汉字都从物体的图画演变而来。有时候为了表达概念,某些汉字由两个或 多个汉字组合而成。比如, “休”是由表示“人”和“树”的汉字组合而成的, “因”字则是 由人字位于框中构成的。另一些汉字则用于表示方向和数字。只要看它们的字形,就可以很 容易区别它们的意思,比如汉字“上”和“下” ,其字形恰好相反。 虽然这几种类型的汉字能够表意,但是它们的缺点之一是其字形不具有表音的功能。 因此便出现了一种应对之策,即汉字的一部分表意,另一部分表音。今天使用的许多汉字便 是用这种方式创造出来的。 20 世纪 50 年代,中国政府推广简化汉字,现在它们已在中国大陆全面普及。 布莱叶盲文的故事 通常,当我们谈到阅读时,我们会想到用眼睛去看纸上墨水写成的字母。然而,情况 并不一定总是这样。比如,盲人无法看到东西,但他们仍能阅读书籍。 将盲人领入阅读世界的人是路易斯·布莱叶(1809-1852)。布莱叶在三岁时因为受伤而 失明。十岁时,他进入巴黎一所盲人学校就读。那时候,供盲人阅读的书籍是用纸压在金属 丝上来形成字母。因为金属丝很重,所以每本书都会重达 100 磅,整个系统使用起来非常不 方便。事实上,学校图书馆也只有 14 本这样的书。 1821 年,一位士兵参观学校时向学生们展示了一种战时夜间传递信息的方法。他的方 法是使用带小凸点的纸张,这些小凸点可以用手指感觉出来。字母表里的每一个字母都由 12 个点组成的不同形状来表示。因此士兵们可以用手指触摸凸点来阅读信息。 虽然学生们都觉得士兵的想法非常有趣,但这一方法太过复杂,并不实用。然而年轻 的布莱叶采纳了这个想法并着手完善它。15 岁时,他创造出了可以由 6 个凸点表示字母的 体系。 “布莱叶盲人点字法” ,这一当今被全世界盲人广泛使用的阅读体系就此诞生了。 盲人可以轻松的用手指辨别布莱叶盲文。他们也可以使用特殊的打字机,方便地用布 莱叶盲文书写。 今天, 布莱叶盲文是世界上最为普及的盲人阅读及书写体系, 几乎每种语言, 包括汉语,都有着自己的布莱叶盲文版本供盲人使用。

Unit 3 失落的文明

Unit 3

Reading
失落的文明

第一天,7 月 1 5 日 能获得这次旅行的机会我感到非常幸运。现在我们在意大利,明天我们将游览庞贝。下 周我们会飞往中国去楼兰, 那是沙漠中的一座被誉为 “中国庞贝” 的古城。 庞贝和楼兰一样, 都是很久以前失落了的文明。 第二天,7 月 16 日 今天上午我们听了一场有关庞贝的讲座。这座城市建于公元前 8 世纪,公元前 89 年, 罗马人占领了庞贝。后来庞贝成了座繁华的城市。离城市不远处有一座火山。公元 79 年的 8 月 24 日,这座火山喷发了,岩浆、火山灰以及岩石喷涌而出,全部倾泻到四周的乡村。 火山喷发持续了两天。很多人被活埋了,整个城市也被掩埋。真是太不幸了! 第三天,7 月 1 7 日 今天我见到了罗马古城庞贝,它就跟两千年前一模一样。多么奇妙啊!这座城市多年来 一直被人们遗忘,直到 1 8 世纪时一个农民发现了一块刻有文字的石头。人们开始在这一区 域挖掘寻宝,这造成了很大的破坏。因此在 1 860 年,政府将这一区域保护了起来,便于保 存和研究。 当我在城中漫步时,我看到保持原样的街道,沿路都有垫脚石,这样下雨天你就不用在 泥泞中行走了!我还看到了几处装饰着壁画的房子。我也看到了被活埋的人。原来,火山灰 覆盖了没能逃离城市的人,他们的身体几乎全部烧化消失了,只留下火山灰里的人形空当。 多年之后, 研究者们能够利用这些人形空当制作出逼真的遇难者轮廓。 你现在可以在庞贝看 到他们,就在原来他们倒下的同样地点。火山还在那里,但现在看起来非常平静。很难想象 如此平静的火山如何摧毁了整座城市! 第十天,7 月 24 日 经过好几天的旅程, 我们终于抵达了楼兰。 这座商业城市在大约两千年前也曾繁华过。 它是连接东西方著名的丝绸之路上的停靠站。据信,从公元 200 年到公元 400 年,它已被沙 尘暴逐渐吞没。能在这里我好兴奋! 第十一天,7 月 25 日 来自于当地文化研究所的一位学者张教授告诉我们, 在 1900 年前后, 来自欧洲的探险 家斯文·赫定发现了楼兰王国的遗迹。斯文发现了埋藏于沙下的建筑遗迹以及许多宝藏,包 括钱币、带有图画的壶、像丝绸这样的布料、文献以及壁画。当我们到这座城市时,我们看 到了城墙、宫殿、庙宇、作坊及高塔。我们发现楼兰废墟非常有趣。有一条古老的供水系统 贯穿市中心。这片沙漠曾经是大树成荫的绿洲,但这些树被砍倒了,那导致楼兰这座城市被 沙尘埋葬——多遗憾啊!

Project 新疆发现古希腊塑像

最近,研究人员宣布,在中国新疆北部地区发现了一尊小型塑像。这尊金属塑像是一名 希腊士兵的造型。当被问及来自遥远希腊的塑像怎么会出现在中国时,研究人员解释说,这 无疑是亚历山大大帝的影响所致。 亚历山大大帝(公元前 3 5 6 一公元前 323 年)是一位在战斗中击溃了许多希腊城邦的希 腊国王之子。20 岁那年,父亲死后,亚历山大自己成了国王。然而,许多城邦趁势作乱, 反对亚历山大,于是他便率领一支军队夺回这些城邦。尽管他的军队仅有三千人,但是他赢 得了所有战役,许多敌方士兵投靠了他。 公元前 334 年,他率领当时已达四万两千人的军队进入中东,接着是埃及,兵锋所至, 所向披靡。然后,他又将目光转向东方,长驱直入印度,所到之处,攻无不克,战无不胜。 似乎没有什么能够阻止他控制整个世界。然而,他自己的军队对无休止的战斗感到厌倦,拒 绝再往前走,所以他不得不班师回朝。亚历山大 30 岁时便已占领了辽阔的疆域,前无古人, 前面似乎还有更大的辉煌在等着他。可是,公元前 323 年,他发烧病倒,不治身亡。由于他 没有儿子,他的将军们便瓜分了他庞大的王国。 亚历山大大帝将希腊文化从欧洲传播到非洲和亚洲,在此后的数个世纪中影响了整个 世界。 在新疆北部发现的希腊士兵塑像也许是在公元前 4 世纪因贸易而来到中国的。 像许多 显示希腊影响力的其他古代文物一样,它现在乌鲁木齐的一家博物馆展出。

西方哲学之父
“哲学”一词意为“热爱智慧” 。哲学可被认为是观察我们周围世界的一种方式,或是 解答人生重大问题的一种方式,如: “我们为什么会在这里?”以及“什么是真理?” 西方哲学之父是苏格拉底(公元前 4 69—公元前 3 99 年)。苏格拉底是希腊雅典人。在 年轻时,他是一名勇敢的士兵。后来,他成了一名教师,但他教书却不收费,靠当一名普通 劳动者挣钱。除此以外,我们对他了解很少。由于他从不写书,因此我们对他的哲学也知之 甚少。然而,苏格拉底对西方的思想和科学却有着深刻的影响。 为了理解这何以成真,我们必须搞清苏格拉底是怎样教学的。苏格拉底通过提问进行 教学。通过这种方式,他盘问学生,要他们完善并阐释自己的论点。很多时候,他的问题让 学生们意识到自己的错误。当这种情况发生时,许多学生感到尴尬和气愤,而另外一些学生 则会改变他们的观点。 苏格拉底探求真理的方式现在被称作苏格拉底问答法。 提出一个个问 题直至你得出正确答案的这一思路是现代哲学和科学的基础。 很不幸的是,苏格拉底问得太多了。每遇到一个人,他都要提出一些难以回答的问题, 惹恼了雅典的许多人。最后,一些人对他忍无可忍,于是便把他送上了法庭,罪名是质疑希 腊众神的存在和腐蚀雅典的年轻人。 在审判中, 他却向法官提出更多问题, 以此为自己辩护。 这更是雪上加霜。最后,他被迫喝下毒药而被处死。由于他的死,苏格拉底成了所有探求真 理的人心目中的英雄。


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