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2016届山东省淄博市萌水中学中考英语复习素材:十大词类总结(鲁教版)


十大词类
复习难点:十大词类的句法功能 复习重点:十大词类的常考点 复习方式:熟记各词类的总结、教师提出重难点、强化细节知识的考查、近年在词类方面的 命题去向、强化训练 I.词法 英语中的词可以根据词义、语法功能和形式特征分为十大类,即名词 (noun) 、代词 (pronoun) 、 形容 词 (adjective) 、副 词 (adverb) 、动 词 (verb)

、数 词 (numeral) 、冠 词 (article)、介词(preposition)、连词 (conjunctions)和感叹词(interjection)。 一、名词(n.) 表示人、事物或抽象概念的名称的词 (一)名词的分类 名词分为普通名词和专有名词, 其中普通名词包括可数名词和不可数名词, 可数名词可 用作单数,也可用作复数。 可数名词包括个体名词(表示一类人或物的个体。如:boy,desk,cat,window)和集体 名词(由若干 个体组成的集合体。如:family,class,police)。 不可数名词包括物质名词(表示无法分为个体的实物。 如:water,paper, silk,money) 和抽象名词(表示性质、行为、状态、感情或其它抽象概念。如:work,happiness,music, difficulty,housework) 专有名词表示个人、 地方、 机构、 组织等。 如: Tom, the Great Wall, the Spring Festival, France,the United States) (二)名词的数(考点) 1.可数名词有单数和复数两种形式,其复数形式的构成主要有以下几种: (1)一般情况下,在词尾加 s。 eg.book——books,dog——dogs,pen——pens,boy——boys 以轻辅音结尾的名词后的 s 的读音为[s), 以浊辅音和元音结尾名词后的 s 读音为 〔z〕 。 (2)以 s,x,ch,sh 结尾的词名词变复数时,要在词尾加 es。 eg. beach——beaches, brush——brushes, bus——buses, box—boxes(es 读音为 〔i z〕 (3)以“辅音字母+y”结尾的名词,先变 y 为 i,再加 es。 eg.city——cities,family——families,documentary——documentaries,country— —countries, strawberry——strawberries(ies 读音为[iz]) (注:以“元音字母+y”结尾的词,直接在词尾加-s。eg.boys,holidays,days) (4)以元音字母。结尾的名词,变复数时情况如下: ①加 es.tomato—tomatoes,potato—potatoes hero----heroes ②结尾是两个元音字母的加 s,eg.Zoo—zoos,radio——radios ③某些外来词变复数时词尾加 s,eg. piano—pianos ④一些名词的缩写形式变复数时,词尾加 s, eg.photo(photograph)——photos,kilo(kilogram)kilos ⑤zero 变复数时,既可加 s,也可加 es.zeros/zeroes (5)以 f 或 fe 结尾的名词变复数时,先把 f 或 fe 变为 v,再加 es。

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eg . wife — — wives , leaf leaves , half — — halves , knife — knives , thief--thieves(res 读音为[vz] (注意:roof 的复数为 roofs; scarf 的复数为 scarfs/scarves) (6)有些名词由单数变复数时,不是在词尾加 s 或 es,而是变换其中的字母, eg. man——men, woman——women, policeman——policemen, Englishman——Englishmen, Frenchman——Frenchmen, foot——feet, tooth——teeth, child——children, mouse—mice (7)还有一些名词的单数和复数形式相同。 eg.Chinese,Japanese,sheep,deer,fish (8)另一些名词本身即是复数形式,不可用作单数。 eg,people,police,trousers,pants,clothes,scissors 另外,①当一个名词作定语说明另一个名词时,这个名词一般用单数。 eg.an apple tree,five apple trees,a girl friend,two girl friends,a twin sister 但是,当 man 和 woman 作定语修饰复数名词时,就要用其复数形式。 eg.two men teachers,three women doctors ②可用“量词+of+名词复数”这一结构表示可数名词的数量。 eg.a room Of students,two boxes Of pencils 2.不可数名词一般没有复数形式,它的“量”的表示方式如下。 (考点) (1)表不定数量时,一般用 much,(a)little,a lot of/lots of,some,any 等词修 饰。 eg,much money,a little bread (2)表确定数量时,一般用“数词+量词+of+不可数名词。如:two/three/?+量词复 数十 of+不可数名词。 eg.a bag Of rice,two glasses Of milk,four bottles Of water 3.有些名词既可作可数名词也可作不可数名词,但词义有所不同。 eg: fruit 水果——fruits 表示不同种类的水果;food 食物——foods 各种食品;fish 鱼——fishes 鱼的种类;drink 饮料、酒——a drink 一杯/一份饮料、一杯酒; cloth 布——,a cloth 桌布、 抹布; sand 沙——sands 沙滩; tea 茶——a tea 一杯茶; chicken 鸡肉——a chicken 小鸡;orange 橘汁——an orange 橘子; glass 玻璃——a glass 玻 璃杯,glasses 眼镜; paper 纸——a paper 试卷、论文;wood 木头——a wood 小森林; room 空间、余地——a room 房间 (三)名词的所有格(表示人或物的所属关系) (难点) (1)有生命的名词所有格以及表示时间、距离、城镇、国家等的名词所有格。 ①不是以 s 结尾的名词变成所有格时,在词尾加’s。 eg.Mike’s watch;Women’s Day ②以 s 结尾的名词变成所有格时,只加’。 eg.teachers’ office,students’ rooms ③两个或两个以上名词并列,表示共同所有,只需在最后一个名词后加’s。 eg.Tom and Mike’s room 汤姆和迈克的房间(表示汤姆和迈克共有一间房) ④两个或两个以上名词并列,表示分别所有,需在几个名词后都加’s。 eg. Mary’s and Jenny’s bikes 玛丽和詹妮的自行车(表示玛丽和詹妮各自的自行车) (2)无生命的事物的名词所有格常用 of 结构 eg.a map Of China,the beginning Of this game,the door Of the room

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(3)特殊形式 ①可用’s 和 of 短语表示的名词所有格 eg.the boy’s name=the name Of the boy(男孩的名字) the dog’s legs=the legs of the dog(狗的腿) China’s population=the population Of China(中国的人口) China’s capital=the capital of China(中国的首都) ②双重所有格 eg.a fiend of my mother’s 我妈妈的一个朋友 a picture of Tom’s 汤姆的一张图片 二、代词(pron.)代替名词,兼有名词和形容词的作用 相互代词 each other,one another 指示代词 this,that,these,those 不定代词(不指明特定的人或事物的代词)each,every,both,all,either,neither, none,no,one,(a)few,(a)little,some,any,many,much,other,another 复合不定代词 everybody,somebody,anybody,nobody,everyone,someone,anyone, no one,every-thing,something,anything, nothing 疑问代词 what,who,whom,which,whose 直接代词 疑问代词都可作连接代词,引导宾语从句.表语从句等。 关系代词 who,whom,whose,that,which 用引导定语从句。 (二)代词的用法 1.人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、相互代词和指示代词的用法 (1)人称代词有主格和宾格之分,主格用来作主语,宾格用来作动词或介词的宾语等。 eg. She gavemea red apple.她给了我一个红苹果: (She 作主语,me 作动词宾语) Kathy is near him.凯西靠近他。(介词 near 的宾语) 2,物主代词有形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词之分。 ①形容词性物主代词位于名词前:their school,his backpack ②名词性物主代词相当干一个名词,在句中可作主语、宾语等,后面不能再接名词。 egIt isn’t my pen.→Mine(=my pen) is missing.(作主语) I left my pen at home.You can use hers(=her pen),(作宾语) ③"of+名词性物主代词”属双重所有格的一种形式。 eg.a cat of hers 她的一条狗,a friend of yours 你的一个朋友 (3)反身代词 ①反身代词在句中可作同位语,起强调作用,也可作动词或介词的宾语。 eg.A few days later,I myself had to go to Paris.(作同位语) She bought herself a new bag.(作动词宾语) He's not worried about himself.(作介词宾语) ②带有反身代词的常用短语。 teach oneself 自学 help oneself to 随便吃些?吧 say to oneself 自言自语. learn. . .by oneself 自学? enjoy oneself 过得愉快 leave one by oneself 把某人单独留下 hurt oneself 伤了自己

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dress oneself 自己穿衣服 come to oneself 苏醒过来 (4)相互代词 ①表示相互关系,可用作动词或介词的宾语,用法区别不大。 eg.For years,the two sisters looked after one another(each other).多年来 姐妹俩互相照顾。 We should learn from each other. 我们应当互相学习。 ②可以用格表示所有关系:each other’s, one another’s 互相的,彼此的 eg.They are looking at each other’s pictures.他们相互看对方的照片。 (5)指示代词 ①指示代词有单复数之分,既可指物,也可用于介绍人。 Eg This is an apple tree,and that is an orange tree.这是一棵苹果树,那是 一棵桔子树。 These are my friends,and that is my sister.这些是我朋友,那个是我姐姐。 ②指示代词可用来指上文中提到的事情: eg.Steve had a bad cold.This/That was why he didn’t come to school yesterday· 2.不定代词的用法(考点,难点) (1)each,every,both,all,either,neither,no,none 的用法 ①each"每个/各个”(强调个体),用于两者或两者以上。 eg.Two girls came and l gave an apple to each.来了俩姑娘,我给她们每人一个 苹果。 Each of them has a nice ring.她们每人有一枚漂亮的戒指。 ②every"每个/各个”(强调全体),用于两者以上。every 常作形容词用。 eg.Everyday is important to us.每天对我们都很重要。 He has read every book(all the books) On the subject.他阅读了所有有关这个主 题的书。 ③both 表示两者“都”(强调全体)。 eg.Her parents are both doctors.她父母都是医生。 Both of them are doctors.他俩都是医生。 They both like potatoes.他俩喜欢吃土豆。 ④all“全体/大家/一切”用于三者以上,也可接不可数名词。 eg.That’s all for today.今天到此为止。 All of us are from China.我们都来自中国。 All the food is delicious.所有的食物都很好吃。 ⑤either“两者之一” ,用于两者(强调个体)。 eg.The two coats are cheap,so you can choose either of them.那两件外套不 贵,你可以随便挑一件。 ⑥neither“两个都不” ,用于否定两者。 eg. Neither Of the books is/are so interesting.那两本书没一本好看的。 ⑦no(=not any/not a)“没有”可接可数名词单复数,也可接不可数名词。 eg.I have no brothers Or sisters.我没有兄弟姐妹. A clock has no mouth,but it can talk. 钟表没有嘴,但能说话。 There is no fire without some smoke.有火就有烟。 ⑧none“没有一个人/物”用于否定三者或三者以上的可数名{司。

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eg.None Of them has/have been to Japan.他们都没去过日本。 I like none of the books.这些书我全都不喜欢。 ⑨neither 和 none 表示完全否定;all,both,each 和 every(含 every 的复合词)等与 not 连用时表示部分否定。 eg.I don’t know all of you.我不完全认识你们。 Not everyone Of us know how to go there.不是我们每个人都知道怎样去那儿。 (2)one,ones 和 no one 的用法 one 用来代替前面刚提到的一个东西或一个人,以免重复;复数 ones 用来代替前面提 到的一些物或一些人;no one 表示否定。 eg.——Would you please pass me the science book?给我递过那本科学方面的书 好吗? 一 Which one?哪一本? 一 The one on my shelf.我书架上的那本。 No one has traveled farther than to the moon.没有人旅行远过月球。 (3)(a)few,(a)little;many,much;some,any 的用法(考点,难点) ①many(+复数名词),much(+不可数名词)表示“许多/很多” 。 eg.Many Of the students come from England.那些学生许多是从英国来的。 Thanks,it’s too much for me.谢谢,我承受不起。 ②few(+复数名词),little(+不可数名词)表示“没多/很少”(表否定)。 eg,There were few people in the street last night.昨晚街上没什么人。 I am very worried that l have little time to finish the job.我担心,我几乎 没有时间完成这份工作了。 ③a few(+复数名词),a little(+不可数名词)表示“有一些/有几个”(表肯定)。 eg.I call see a few cakes and a little bread inthe fridge.我看到冰箱里有几 块蛋糕和一些面包。注意:quite a few 表示“相当多” eg.There are quite a few students over there.那儿有相当多的学生。 ④some(+复数名词/不可数名词),any(+复数名词/不可数名词)表示“有一些/有几 个”(表肯定)。 eg.There are some birds in the tree.树上有些鸟。 There is some water in the bottle.瓶里有些水。 I don’t have any brothers Of sisters.我没有 Is there any tea in the cup?杯子里有茶吗? ⑤.some 一般用于肯定句,但在表示请求、建议。反问等的疑问句中,多用 some。 eg: Would you like some beer?你要不要来点啤酒吗? Why didn’t you buy some sweets?(You should have bought. . .)你怎么没买点糖果? ⑥.any 一般用于疑问句和否定句及条件从句 eg.There isn't any water left.没有剩下一点水。 If you have any questions, put up your hands。please.如果有问题,请举手。 ⑦:some+单数名词表示“某一个” ,any+单数名词表示“随便哪一个”或“任何一个” 。 eg.I'll catch up with you some day 有一天我会赶上你的。 Come any day you like.你哪天来都行。 Tom is taller than any other student in his class.汤姆比他班上其他任何一个 学生都高。 ④one ,other, others, the others ,another 等的用法

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1.○ ● one??the other 表示两个人或两件东西中的“一个?另一个” eg. Mr Smith has two daughters.0ne is a teacher,the other is a nurse. 2.○ ○○●○ one ???another 表示不定数目中的“一个”与“另—个” 。 eg. I don’t want this One, please give me another. 3.○ ●●● one ??the others 强调在一定范围中的“一个”与“其余的” 。 eg. In Our school One Of the teachers is American,the Others are Chinese. 4.○○○ ●●●● some?? the others 表示许多人或物,不在一定范围中的“一部分”与“其余的全部” 。 eg.Some students are reading,the others are drawing pictures. ⑤others=other+名词;the others=the Other+名词。 eg.Some students like traveling,others(other students) like watching TV at home. ⑥another 表示“再/又”时既可接单数名词,也可接数词+复数名词。 eg. He will be able to finish his work in another two hours.再过两个小时他 就能完成他的工作。 (4)复合不定代词的用法 ①复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 eg.Someone is knocking at the door.有人在敲门 ②修饰复合不定代词的形容词或其它词要放在其后,即定语后置。 eg.There is something important On today’s newspaper.今天的报纸有些重要新 闻。 ③复合不定代词变否定句时,要否定主语: eg.Something is wrong.(变为否定句) Something isn’t wrong.(错误) Nothing is wrong.(正确) ④Somebody,someone,something 一般用于肯定句;anybody,anyone,anything 一般 用于否定句、疑问句及条件句。 eg.There is something new in the park.公园里有些新的景点。 Do you have anything interesting to tell us?你有什么有趣的事要告诉我们吗? ⑤当 somebody,someone 等用于疑问句时,表示肯定、请求、建议或反问;anybody, anyone 等用在肯定句中表示“任何人” 。 eg.Is someone coming this afternoon?今天下午有客人来吗? Anyone can make mistakes. 任何人都可能犯错误。 3.疑问代词的用法。 (1)who/whom 谁(指人). ①作主语 eg. Who wants to go with him? ②作宾语 eg.Who/Whom are you waiting for?(作介词 for 的宾语) eg.Who/Whom do you want tomeet?(作动词 meet 的宾语) ③作表语 eg.Who/Whom are they? (2)whose 谁的 ①作定语 eg. Whose pen is this?

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②作表语 eg. Whose is this pen? (3)which 哪一个,哪一些 ①作定语 eg.Which girl is Kathy? ②作表语 eg. Which is the boy’s ball? (4)what 什么 ①作主主语 eg. What’s on the table? ②作宾语 eg. What are you doing? ③作表语 eg. What is he? ④作定语 eg. What class are you in? 4.关系代词的用法 关系代词用来引起定语从句, 它一方面代表定语从句所修饰的那个名词或代词, 另—— 方面又在从句中充当一个成分。 eg·This is the man who gave me the book. 这就是给我书的那个人。 The money that/which is on the table is mine. 桌上的钱是我的。 The money that/which my mother gave me is on the table. 我妈妈给我的钱在 桌上。 三、形容词(adj.) 表示人和事物的特征,对名词起修饰和描绘作用 四、副词(adv.) 表示动作特征或性状,主要修饰动词、形容词、副词及整个句子 (一)形容词的用法及位置 1.形容词在句中作定语、表语、宾语补足语等,作定语时一般放在名词前。 Eg. She has short hair.(作定语) Paul is tall.(作表语) We must keep our room clean.(作宾补) 2.形容词修饰不定代词时放在其后。 eg.She has something important to tell us./ There’s nothing wrong in the sentence. (二)副词的种类、用法及位置 1.副词的种类 (1)时间副词 ①表示大体时间: now, then, yesterday, today, tonight, before, justnow, recently, sO faf ②表示频率:always,usually,often,sometimes.seldom,never ③其它作用:already,yet,late,early,soon,at once,immediately,atfirst, at last,finally (2)地点副词 ①表地点: here, there, home, abroad, upstairs, downstairs, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere,somewhere ②表位置关系(后接宾语时,用作介词):above,below,round,around,down,up, in,out,inside,outside,across,back,along,over,away,near,off,past (3)方式副词 表示谓语动词“怎样地” ,(此类副词大部分由形容词加 ly 构成): badly,bravely,gratefully,calmly,carefully,carelessly,nervously,proudly, patiently,politely,sadly,properly,rapidly,wrongly,suddenly (4)程度副词 多数用来修饰形容词或副词:much,(a)little,a bit,very,sO,too, enough,quite, rather,completely,terribly,deeply,nearly,almost,hardly

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(5)疑问副词 构成特殊疑问句:how,when, where,why (6)连接副词 连接主语、宾语或表语从句:how,when,where,why (7)关系副词 引导定语从句:when,where,why (8)其它性质的副词 对整个句子进行说明,一般用逗号与主句隔开:frankly(坦率 地说,说真的),generally(一般说来),luckily(幸运地是),first of all(首先)等。 2.副词的用法及位置 (1)修饰动词作状语 ①多数位于动词之后,及物动词的宾语或介问的宾语之后。 eg.The farmers are working hard in the field. She speaks English well. The nurse looks after the babies carefully. ②频度副词放在动词前,情态动词和助动词之后。 eg.He always goes to school On foot. She was often late for school. I have never been to Beijing· (2)修饰形容词作状语,放在形容词前。 eg.He has a very nice watch. The box is too heavy. (3)修饰另一副词作状语,放在另一副词前。 eg.She paints quite well. You speak too fast.I can’t understand you. (4)作表语,放在系动词后。 eg.Is anybody in? (5)作宾语补足语,放在宾语之后。 eg.I saw him out just now. (6)作定语,放在名词之后。 eg.There is a man:here On vacation. (7)疑问副词、 修饰整个句子的副词以及 perhaps, first, sometimes, finally 等副词, 一般放在句首。 eg.Finally,I finished the work. Perhaps he’s watching TV at home. (8)表示程度的副词一般放在被修饰词前,而 enough 则放在它所修饰的词后。 eg. He is old enough to go to school. (三)形容词和副词的比较等级 1.比较级、最高级的构成 (1)单音节和少数双音节词 ①一般在词尾加 er 或 est great--greater —— greatest , young —— younger —— youngest , slow → slower → slowest ②以 e 结尾的只加 r 或 st nice——nicer----nicest,large——larger—largest. ③以辅音字母加 y 结尾的,先变 y 为 i,再加 er 或 est heavy——heavier——heaviest, easy——easier——>easiest, busy——busier—— busiest,

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funny——funnier——+funniest,early——earlier→earliest ④以重读闭音节结尾的词,先双写最末的一个辅音字母,再加 er 或 est big——bigger— —biggest, thin——thinner——>thinnest,fat—)fatter→fattest,ht—)fitter→fittest (2)多音节和部分双音节词,前加 more 为比较级,加(the)most 为最高级 careful→more careful——most careful useful——more useful——most useful popular→more popular→most popular carelessly——more carelessly——most carelessly (3)不规则变化的词 good/well→better→best bad/ill/badly→worse→worst many/much→more→most little→less→least old→older/elder→oldest(指年龄大小)/eldest(指长幼顺序) far→farther/further→farthest(指距离)/furthest(指程度) 2.形容词和副词比较级、最高级的用法 (1)形容词和副词比较级的用法 ①用于两者比较,表示“比?更?” : “A+系动词+形容词比较级+than+B, eg.I am two years older than my little sister. “A+谓语动词+副词比较级+than+B: eg. She gets to school earlier than the other students. ②用于两者之间的同级比较,表示“?和?一样” : “A+系动词+as+形容词原级+as+B, eg.Bill is as funny as his father. “A+谓语动词+as+副词原级+as+B” eg.Lucy speaks Chinese as well as Lily. ③表示甲在某方面不如乙: “A+系动词+notas/so+形容 i 司原级+as 十 B” eg.These books aren’t as interesting as those. “A+助动词/情态动词+not+谓语动词+aS/SO+B” eg.She didn’t sing sO well that night as she usually does. ④表示某个范围内的两者相比: “A 十动词十 the+比较级+of 短语(比较范围)” eg.Penny is the taller of the two girls.Penny 是这两个女孩中较高的一个。 ⑤表示“越来越?” : “比较级+and+比较级” eg.In spring the days are getting longer and longer. 在春天,白天变得越来 越长。 ⑥表示“越?越?” : “the+比较级?the+比较级” eg.The mort:you practice using English,the better you’ll learn it 你英 语练得越多,就会学得越好。 ①可以用 much,far,even,a bit,a little,a lot 等修饰比较级表示程度,但决不 可用 very 修饰。

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eg.Tom is a little taller than Mike.Tom 比 Mike 稍高一点; it is even colder today than yesterday。 今天甚至比昨天更冷 ⑧在比较级中,为了避免重复,可用 that 或 those 代替前面提到过的事情。 eg.The weather here is much hotter than that Ofour hometown.这儿比我的老家 热得多。 The pants in this shop are a lot better than those in that shop.这家商店的裤 子比那家商店的裤子质量好得多。 (3)形容词和副词最高级的用法 对三者或三者以上的人或物进行比较时用最高级。形容词最高级前面要加定冠词 the, 副词最高级前可加 the,也可省掉 the;后面可带 of/in 短浯来说明比较范围: “主语+系动词+the+形容词最高级+of 短语/in 短语” eg.She is the youngest Of all. “A+谓语动词+(the)+最高级+of 短语/in 短语” eg.Linda draws most carefully in her class. 五、冠词(art.)用在名词前,帮助说明其意义 冠词分为不定冠词 a/an 和定冠词 the,放在名词前、a/3n 用在单数可数名词前(a 用 于辅音音素开头的词前,an 用于元音音素开头的词前)。 1.不定冠词 (1)不定冠词的用法 ①泛指—类人或物。 eg.This is a pencil case. She’S a doctor. ②指不具体的某个人或物。 eg.I met an old man On my way home. ③用在序数词前,相当于 another。 eg.There’s a third boy near the shop. ④表示“每—(个)” ,相当于 every。 eg.They have music lessons twice a week. ⑤固定搭配。 a lot Of,a lot,a little,a few,a glass Of,such a/an, have a word with, have a look,have a try,have a swim,a quarter,half an hour, three times a day, have a talk,give a talk,ten Yuan a kilo (2)不定冠词的位置 ①不定冠词—般放在所修饰的单数可数名词前。 eg,a bike,an egg ②当名词被 such,what,many 修饰时,不定冠词放在这些词之后。 eg.It took me half an hour to finish my homework. He left in such a hurry that he forgot to close the door. What a dangerous job it is! Many a man has gone to the big cities for work. ③当名词前的形容词前有 so,how,too 等词时,不定冠词应放在形容词之后。 Eg. She was so nice a girl that she took the blind man to the station. How nice a film this is! ④当名词前面有形容词和 quite, rather, very 时, 不定冠词放在 quite, rather 之后,

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very 之前。 eg.It is quite a good book. That is rather a useful too1. This is a very interesting story 2.定冠词的用法表示上文中所提到过的人或物。 eg:l have two children,a boy and a girl.The boy's name is Mark.The girl’s name is Penny. (2)特指某(些)人或物。 eg: The girl in a red dress comes from America. (3)指说话人和听话人都熟悉的人或物。 eg: My shoes are under the bed. (4)用在形容最高级和部分比较级前。 eg Tom is the taller of the two boys. (5)用在序数词前。 eg Monday is the second day of a week. (6)yo 用在世界上独一无二的事物前(如太阳、月亮、世界、地球、天空、宇宙等)。 cg The moon moves round the earth. (7)用在某些形容词前,表示—类人或物。 the rich(富人),the poor(穷人),the deaf(聋人),the blind(盲人),the dead(死 者),the wounded(伤员) (8)用在姓氏复数前,表示“某某—家人”或“某某夫妇” 。 eg.The Greens are having dinner at home. (9)用在乐器前。 eg.play the piano/guitar/violin/drums. (10)用于逢“十”的复数数词前,指某个世纪中的几十年代或人的大约年岁。 eg. In the 1970s,a highway was built to linkup the city with my hometown. I think he is in the thirties. (11)用在某些专有名词和习惯用语中。 the United Nations,the Great Wall,the Summer Palace,the Palace Museum,in the end,in the day,in the middle Of,all the time,in the east,by the way,On the way tO,the(more). . . the(more)?“越?越?” 3.不用冠词的情况 (1)名词前有指示代词 this,that,these,those 时不用冠词。 eg.That girl is my friend. (2)名词前有物主代词 my,your,his her,their 等时不用冠词。 eg.Lucy is her sister. (3)名词前有 whose,which,SO[1ie,any,each,every 等代词时不用冠词。 eg.Which man is Mr Green? Each student has a beautiful picture. (4)复数名词表示一类人或物时不用冠词。 eg.Those young men are teachers,not students. (5)物质名词表示种类时不用冠词。 eg.Snow is white.

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(6)抽象名词表示一般概念时不用冠词。 eg.Does she like music? (7)在球类运动和棋类游戏前时不用冠词。 eg.play basketball/soccer/chess (8)在三餐前不用冠词。 eg.have breakfast/lunch/supper/dinner (9)在人名、地名、节假日、星期、月份前不用。 Eg. Tina, China, Tian an men Square, Beijing University, New Year’s Day, Tuesday, January (10)在学科和节目名称前不用冠词。 eg.My favorite is English. (11)在某些固定搭配中不用冠词。 eg.at noon, at work,at home,by bus, by air,On foot,from morning till night, at night,go to school,go to bed,at last 4.在有些词组中,用冠词和不用冠词意思有较大区别。 in hospital(在住院);in the hospital(在医院) in prison(在坐牢);in the prison(在监狱里) at table(吃饭,用餐);at the table(在桌旁) in front of(在某个范围之外的前面);in the front of(在某个范围之外的前面) go to college(上大学);go to the college(去那所大学) take place(发生);take the place(代替) 六、数词 (一)基数词 在英语中表示数目的词称为基数词。 1.基数词的构成 (1)1-20 one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten,eleven,twelve, thirteen,fourteen,fifteen,sixteen,seventeen,eighteen,nineteen,twenty (2)21-99 先说“几十” ,再说“几” ,中间加连字符。 23 → twenty-three , 34 → thirty-four , 45 → forty — five , 56 → fifty-six , 67 → sixty-seven,78→seventy-eight,89→eighty-nine,91→ninety-one (3)101—999 先说“几百” ,再加 and,再加末两位数或末位数; 586→five hundred and eighty-six,803→eight hundred and three (4)l,000 以上,先从右往左数,每三位数加一个“, ” ,第一个“, ”前为 thousand.第 二个“, ”前为 million,第三个“, ”前为 billion(美式)或 thousand ,million(英式), 然后一节一节地表示。 1,001→one thousand and one 9,785→nine thousand, seven hundred and eighty-five 18,423→eighteen thousand,four hundred and twenty-three 6,260,309→six million two hundred and sixty thousand three hundred and nine 750,000,000,000 → seven hundred and fifty, billion( 美式 ) seven hundred and fifty thousand million(英式) 2.基数词的用法 (1)作主语 eg.Four Of them come from Paris.

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(2)作宾语 eg.一 How many books would you like? 一 I would like two. (3)作表语 eg.Seven minus two is five. (4)作定语 eg.There are three people in my family· (5)作同位语 eg. You two will go swimming with us. (6)表具体数字时,hundred,thousand,million 用单数。 eg. There are six hundred students in our grade. (7)表不确定的数字时,数词用复数。若带名词,再加 of hundreds of(数百,成百上 千的),thousands of(数干,成千上万的),millions of(数百万) eg,They arrived in two sand threes.他们三三两两地来了。 (8)表示“?十”的数词的复数可以表示人的岁数或年代。 eg. He is in his early thirties.他有三十来岁(31—34 岁): This took place in the 1930s.这事发生在二十世纪三十年代; (9)表示时刻 eg.I watch CCTV News at seven o’clock every evening. (二)序数词 在英语中表示顺序、次序的词称为序数词。 1,序数词的构成 (1)一般在基数词后加 th eg.four→fourth,thirteen→thirteenth (2)不规则变化 one→first, two→second, three→third, five→fifth, eight→eighth, nine→ninth, twelve--~twelfih (3)以 y 结尾的十位整数,变 y 为 ie 再加 th twenty→twentieth, forty→fortieth, ninety→ninetieth (4)从 21 后的“几十几”直至“几百几十几”或“几千几百几十几”只将个位的基数词 变为序数词。 twenty-first,two hundred and forty-fifth 2.序数词的用法 (1)序数词作定语时,一般要与定冠词或物主代词连用。 eg.Tom is their second son. He is the first one to come here. (2)序数词有时可与不定冠词连用,表示数量上"又—", “再一” eg: He tried a second time.他又试了—次. Shall l ask him a third time?还要我再问他—次吗?我已问了他两次) (3)序数词的缩写形式为:阿拉伯数字加上这个词的末尾两个字母。 1st 2nd,3rd,4th,20th,21st,22nd,23rd (4 表示年、月、日时,年用基数词,日用序数词。 2005 年 8 月 15 日:(英)15,8,2005=15th,August,2005;(美)8,15,2005=August 15th,2005 (三)基数词和序数词都可以用来给数字编号。

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No.1(1 号),No.3bus(3 路公共汽车),Room 103,(103 号旁间) The first lesson=Lesson Two(第二课) (四)分数词的表达 分子用基数词,分母用序数词,分子大于 1 时,分母加 s eg.1/3-one third;2/5-two fifths (五)数学运算的表达 eg.3+5=8 Three plus/and five is eight. 9-2=7 Nine minus two is seven. 6x5=30 Five times six is thirty /six unutilized five is thirty. 8÷2=4 Eight divided by two is four. 七、介词 (一)表示时间的介词 (1)at ①接具体时间:eg.at six,at half past two,at ten to twelve ②表示“在?时刻” ;eg: at noon,at midnight (2)in ①表示“在(某段时间段)之间” ; eg.in January,in a month,in spring,in 2005 ②在将来时中,表示“在某段时间之后” eg.In ten years,I think I'll be a reporter. (3)on 表示在具体的某一天或某一天的上午、下午或晚上等。 eg. On Monday,On Tuesday afternoon,On May4th,On the morning of July 6th (三)固定搭配的介词 (1)动词+介词:look after,look at,look for,laugh at,listen to,hear from, turn On,turn off, wait for,worry about,think of,spend. . .On (2)介词十名词:by train,on foot,at the end of ,at last,in the end,in trouble, at table,at breakfast, in hospital,in time,On time, On one’s way to,with pleasure (3)be+形容词+介词:be afraid of ,be good at,be good/bad for, be late for, be interested in,be angry, with,be full of,be sorry for 八、连词(conj.用来连接词与词或句与句 (1)并列连词(用来连接平行的词、词组或分句) ①表并列关系:not only. . .but also,neither. . .nor,and ②表选择关系:or,either. . .or ③表转折关系:but,while ④表因果关系:for,so (2)从属连词(用来引导从句) ①引导时间状语从句: after,before,when,while,as,until,till,since,as soon as ②引导原因状语从句:because,as,since ③引导目的状语从句:so that,in order that ④引导结果状语从句:so that,so?that,such. . .that ⑤引导比较状语从句:than,as?as

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⑥引导宾语从句:that,if, whether 九、动词(verb.)动词表示主语的动作或状态 (一)动词的种类。 (1)及物动词 vt,其后接宾语。 eg.She wears a uniform. (2)不及物动词 vi,不接宾语。 eg :She can dance. (3)连系动词 like-v.接表语。 eg.They are nurses. That sounds interesting. His mother looks young. If you keep milk for too long, it goes bad. (4)助动词 aux--V.接动词原形或分词(它无实在意思,只起语法作用)。 eg, DO you like pandas? He has gone to Australia. She is looking at the cat. (5)情态动词 mod-v.接动词原形(它不能单独作谓语,有自己的意思,无人称和数的变 化)。 Eg. He must go now. You should clean the classroom after class. (6)有些动词既可作及物动词,也可作助动词或不及物动词,be 也可作助动词。 eg.I do my homework after class.(Vt.) Do as you like.(Vi.) She is a little bit quiet.(mod-v.) She is swimming now.(aux-v.) 二)情态动词的用法 (一)can,could,may 的用法 l .can/could (1)表示具有某种能力,意为“能,能够,会”(could 表过去)。 eg.I can sing English songs. Lisa can’t speak Japanese. She could swim when she was four years old. (2)表示许:可、允许,意为“可以” 。 eg.Can we watch TV now? You can’t play computer games in the morning. (3)表示请求某人做某事,意为“能,能够”(用 could 使晤气更委婉)。 eg.Can/Could you help me,please? (4)表示推测 “可能” , 多用于否定句和疑问句中。 (表肯定推测可用 must, might, could 等) cg。it can’t be true.这不可能是真的。 Where can he have gone?他可能会去哪儿呢? 2.may/might (1)表示许可、允许,意为“可以” ,比 can 更正式。 eg. May l use your pen?我可以用你的钢笔吗?

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May l ask you a question?我可以问你—个问题吗? (2)表示推测“可能” ,用于肯定句和否定句,不能用于疑问句。 eg.He may be at home now.他可能现在在家。 She may not be there today.今天她可能不在那儿。 (二)can 与 be able to 的区别 1.两者都可以用来表示能力。 eg.I can/am able to mend the bike. 2.can 只有现在时(Can)和过去时(could),而 be able to 可用于多种时态。 eg. I will be able to come back in another few months. He hasn’t been able to get there before dark. 3.can 可以表示推测,但 be able to 不能。 eg.That Can't be Gina's dictionary. 4.can 与 be able to;不能重复使用 eg.他能做好这件事。 He can be able to do is well.(X) He can do it well.(√) He is able to do it well.(√) (三)must 与 have to 的区别 1.主客观方面不同。 must 表“义务”或“强制” ,表示主观的必要;在肯定句中 must 还可表推测,语气要 比 may 肯定多。have to 表“必须”或“不得不” ,表示客观的必要。 eg.We must clean the room.(表示我们认为房间太脏了。) We have to clean the room.(表示没有人替我们打扫房间等客观原因。) He must beat home before supper。(他晚饭前一定在家。) 2.人称和时态不同。 must 无人称和时态的变化,一律用 must 十动词原形。have to 后接动词原形,有人称、 数和时态的变化,一般现在时的第三人称单数要用 has to,过去时中要用 had to,将来时 中要用 will have to。另外,have to 还可与情态动词和助动词连用。 eg: Tom must practice his guitar every day. The train has left.We'll have to wait for the next train. 3.否定式及意义不同。 must not=mustn't“决不可/千万不可/务必不要” ;don’t/doesn’t/didn’t/ won’t+ have to“不必” eg.We mustn’t tell jokes on him.我们千万不可与他开玩笑。 We don’t have to tell jokes on him.我们不必和他开玩笑。 在对 May I?? 作否定回答时用 No, you mustn’t/can’t. eg. May l go to the movies? NO,You mustn't 5.疑问式及回答不同。 Must+主语+动词原形+?? Yes,主语+ must./NO,主语+needn’t. 助动词+主语+have to+动词原形+?? Yes,主语+助动词./No,主语+助动词+not. eg.Must l go now? Yes,you must./NO,you needn’t Does she have to go to the doctor? Yes,she does./NO,she doesn’t.

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