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2015英语二轮复习专题3:名词


合肥六中 2015 年高考英语二轮复习专题(三) 名 词
一、 《考试说明》的内容及要求 ? 名词不仅是中学英语的基本词汇,也是历年高考的“常客”。高考单项填空题中考查名词的题目一 般为 1—2 道, 《考试说明》的语法项目列举了:可数名词及其单复数,不可数名词,专有名词, 名词所有格四项。考点往往集中在抽象名词具体化、名词作定语、名词固定搭配及名词词义辨析 等方面。 二、六年高考有关名词考点分布: 考点 年份 名词辨析 完形填空中的名词 任务型读写中的名词

安徽六年高考 2009 年 2010 年 全国 各地 高考 2011 年 2012 年 2013 年 2014 年

3 8 7 6 6 6 7 安徽 2009 年 2010 年 2011 年 2012 年 2013 年 2014 年 3 3 4 7 8 6 安徽 2009 年 2010 年 2011 年 2012 年 2013 年 2014 年 6 6 6 4 3 3

三、命题规律 ? 1.安徽高考单选题近六年共有 3 次(2014 年安徽 29:2010 年安徽,25;2009 安徽,31, )对名词 进行了考查,都是关注名词词义在语境中的辨析。 ? 2.全国各地近六年高考重点考查一般在单项选择以及完型填空中出现, 绝大多数是考查名词词义 辨析, 名词和表示数量词结合的考查, 名词短语搭配以及主谓一致的考查以及在具体语境中的理 解和应用也将占有一席之地。 ? 3.安徽高考任务型读写题型对名词的考查也不容忽视。从 09 年设题以来,几乎一半以上的词都是 名词。主要考查原文关键词,词性转化,概括归纳等。 四、命题趋势 从近五年安徽高考题可以看出,名词在单选中的考查不是每年出现,但是仍需要考生重视。鉴于近几年 安徽高考考试说明不断增加词汇量,可能继续关注对名词的辨析,考查难度可能会呈上升趋势。 五、突破方法 ? 1. 名词的辨析是高考的热点, 主要考查考生结合语境区分词义、固定搭配的能力, 因而在记忆单 词时, 一定要结合语境体会其意义。 ? 2.注意熟词生义,认真辨析语境中常见单词的陌生含义。多背诵印发的资料。 ? 3.平时备考中注意积累有关名词的习惯用法和固定搭配。

六、

名词的基本考点

名词的数 规则 1: 以-s 结尾,仍为单数的名词多为学科名词,如:physics, linguistics, mathematics, politics, statistics。 规则 2: 表示一类事物总称的名词, 常作不可数名词看待而不能加“s”。 如: furniture, equipment, technology, luggage, baggage, homework, evidence 。 规则 3: 有些名词形式上虽是单数,但表示的是复数含义。如:people, police, cattle, staff, public, the+adj., the+分词(表示一类人) 。 规则 4:对于集体名词,当它表示一个整体时,视作单数;当它侧重各个成员时,视作复数。 规则 5: 有些名词单复数同形。如:fish, deer, sheep, youth, Chinese, Japanese, means, species, crossroads, series, works。 a means of transportation a great works of literature 规则 6: 由连字符构成的复合名词的“数” (1)是合成名词的复数形式通常只将其中的主体名词变成复数。如:lookers-on 参观者,sons-in-law 女 婿,editors-in-chief 主编,shoe-makers 鞋匠 (2)是如果没有主体名词,在最后一个词上加复数(词尾)。如:go-betweens 中间人,grown-ups 成人, follow-ups 续集. (3) 是 man, woman, gentleman 等作定语时, 定语和被修饰词都变成复数。 如: men workers, women teachers, gentlemen officials 注意: 1. 一般说来抽象名词为不可数名词,但当抽象名词表示具体的东西时,可用作可数名词且词义发生变 化,在具体化的抽象名词前加 a,一般译成“一个?的人”或“一件?的事” It is a pity that you have missed the chance. It is a shame / a pleasure / an honour for sb. to do sth. (1) 抽象名词表示具有某种特性、状态、感情情绪的人或事。如: 抽象名词(不可数) in surprise 惊讶地 win success 获得成功 win honor 赢得荣誉 have pity on sb. 怜悯某人 with pleasure 乐意 具体化(个体名词,可数名词) a surprise 一件令人惊讶的事 a success 一个(件)成功的人(事) an honor 一个(件)引以为荣的人(事) a pity 可惜的事情 a pleasure 乐事

Failure is the mother of success.失败是成功之母. a failure 一个(件)失败的人(事)

※有一些抽象名词: advice( 忠告) ,behavior(行为),fortune(运气), fun(娱乐 ), information(情报 ), progress(进步),damage(损害),harm(伤害)等, weather(天气),即使被形容词修饰,也不加不定冠词。 Karl Marx gave us some advice on how to learn a foreign language well. 卡尔· 马克思就怎样学好外语,提出了许多建议。 注,fortune 译为运气时,为不可数名词。但在“make a big fortune”发大财中要加不定冠词。 ※抽象名词后加 of 短语修饰,其前用不定冠词。 have a good knowledge of have a much better command of have a better understanding of have a thorough grasp of

a study of history Many people agreed that a knowledge of English is a must in international trade today. 许多人都持相同的看法,在当前国际贸易交往中,英语知识是必备的知识 2. 物质名词是不可数名词,但表示数量或种类之多时,可以用作可数名词。如: (1) 物质名词有形或数的相应物体,有单、复数。 some coffee 一些咖啡 some drink 一些饮料 his hair 他的头发 glass 玻璃 a coffee 一杯咖啡 a drink 一杯饮料 a few white hairs 几根白发 a glass 一只玻璃杯

(2) 物质名词有形容词修饰时,前面要使用不定冠词。 have breakfast have a wonderful breakfast The road is covered with snow. They have a heavy snow every year. Time and tide wait for no man. We had a wonderful time last night. 3. 有复数形式的不可数名词 (1) 有些抽象名词有时以复数形式出现,表示具体化,意义发生变化或构成固定短语。如: use one's brains 动脑筋 meet with difficulties 遇到各种困难 make preparations 做准备 in high spirits 情绪高涨 good manners 有礼貌 Many thanks. 非常感谢。 No pains,no gains. 不劳无获。 Congratulations! 祝贺 possessions 所有物,财产 surroundings 环境 (2) 有些物质名词以复数形式出现。如: burst into tears 大哭起来 miles of golden sands 绵延几英里的金黄色沙滩 burn to ashes 烧成灰烬 (2) 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如: 不可数名词 time 时间 wood 木头 paper 纸 名词的格 复数形式 times 次数;时代;倍数 woods 树林 不可数名词 glass 玻璃 sand 沙子 复数形式 glasses 眼镜 sands 沙滩 wishes 问候

papers 试卷;论文;报纸 wish 愿望

1. 's 所有格的特殊表达形式 (1) 用于表示时间、距离、价格、重量等的名词后。如:today's newspaper, five minutes' walk(drive),five pounds' weight, ten dollars' worth of apples。 (2) 用于表示国家、 世界、 城市等地方的名词后。 如: the earth's plant, the world's population, China's industry, New York's parks。 (3) 表示店铺或某人的家时,常在名词所有格后省去 shop,house 等名词。如:the tailor's 裁缝店,the barber's 理发店,go to the doctor's 上诊所。 2. of 所有格 (1) 基本形式:a friend of Tom's some/two students of mine (2) 无生命名词的所有格则通常用 of 结构。 如: a map of China, the end of this term, the capital of our country, the color of the flowers (3) 如果两个名词并列, 若分别有加“’s”, 则表示“分别有??”; 若只有后一个名词加“’s”, 则表示两个“共 有”。如:John’s and Mary’s rooms(两间);John and Mary’s room(一间) 。 (4) 双重格:of +名词“’s”结构。如 a friend of my father’s, works of Lu Xun’s 请比较:a picture of mine/ a picture of me ? I’ll take the risk for friendship’s sake. 为了友谊 ? She was at her wit’s end. 黔驴技穷 ? Now they could sing at their heart’s content. 尽情地 ? We should get the children out of harm’s way. 不受损害 ? We had best keep them at arm’s length. 保持距离 ? For goodness’ sake, stop arguing. 看在上帝的份上 ? Jane got the money’s worth out of the coat. 很合算 名词作定语 名词作定语是现代英语较为简洁的修饰语表达方式,根据习惯搭配可归为以下几类: 表示中心词的用途、功能、材料。 stone wall, shoe shop, coffee cup 表示中心词的时间、地点、称呼。 summer school, evening dress, street light 表示中心词的类别、对象、身份。 bike key, animal trainer, woman driver 注意: 1. 名词作定语时,一般用其单数形式,且不随后面的名词的单复数产生变化。如: two pencilboxes, girl friends 但是,少数的名词作定语却用复数形式,如: sports shoes 运动鞋 clothes shops 服装店 a sales girl 女销售员 a greetings card 贺卡 a customs officer 海关人员 2. man 和 woman 作定语要注意其单复数形式的变化。 a man doctor—men doctors; a woman engineer—women engineers 3. 名词作定语和所有格作定语的区别。 the girl friend 女朋友—the girl's friend 那位女孩的朋友 the woman driver 女司机—the woman's driver 那位妇女的司机 4. 名词作定语和形容词作定语的区别。

名词作定语主要说明物质的材料、来源或对象;形容词作定语主要起修饰、限定的作用。 gold watch 金表; golden sunshine 金色的阳光 heart trouble 心脏病; hearty welcome 热忱的欢迎 convenience food 快餐; convenient food 制作方便的食品 七:总结 在二轮分析中,学生仍要重视记忆单词,在背诵名词时,侧重于词义及在具体语境中名词的选用。这些 都需要在平时的学习中积累。

分类练习 1. His letter was so confusing that I could hardly make any _____ of it. A. explanation B. meaning C. sense D. guess 2. Wherever advised to diet, the overweight lady would say, “What’s the _____ of working so hard to lose weight, only to gain it back again?” A. concern B. matter C. effect D. point 3. If you like I can do some shopping for you. -- That’s a very kind _____. A. offer B. service C. point D. suggestion 4. Surely you can find the museum, for it is within easy _____ of your hotel. A. walk B. reach C. distance D. space 5. In a natural disaster, minutes and even seconds of warning can make the _____ between life and death. A. division B. difference C. separation D. sense 6. Students need to have _____ to the computer system. A. right B. approach C. access D. way 7. Rose is Mr. Smith’s secretary, so she has _____ to all his business e-mails. A. power B. account C. way D. access 8. Would you like this gold necklace, Madam? -- It’s beautiful, but out of my price _____. A. control B. reach C. aim D. range 9. Any help from you will be greatly appreciated. Please give me a reply at your earliest _____. A. convenience B. consideration C. interruption D. imagination 10. Much to my _____, I’m unable to accept your kind invitation. A. fault B. duty C. guide D. regret 11. Betty’s parents are away for the week, so I think I’d go over to keep her _____. A. favor B. firm C. absence D. company 12. Does that make any _____? -- Yes, it matters a great deal. A. money B. sense C. difference D. trouble 13. Thanks for the _____ you did me to move away the stone. -- That’s all right. A. favor B. good C. trouble D. kindness

14. Under no _____ should we seek temporary economic development at the expense of the environment and resources. A. catastrophes B. circumstances C. considerations D. commitments 15. It was difficult to guess what her _____ to the news would be. A. feeling B. opinion C. comment D. reaction 16. With international _____ and education exchanges increasing every year, the number of Chinese students studying abroad has increased rapidly. A. cooperation B. competition C. construction D. conflict 17. It is clear that in modern society high _____ and demands are placed on students. A. motivations B. expectations C. standards D. opportunities 18. The police are trying to find out the _____ of the woman killed in the traffic accident. A. evidence B. recognition C. identity D. status 19. Do you know the school _____ in this university? -- Yes. It’s “Never lose hope”. A. motto B. speech C. expression D. matter 20. The British government often says that providing children with _____ to the information superhighway is of great importance. A. prevention B. protection C. allowance D. access 21. In China, the Mid-autumn Festival is a good chance for family get-together under the full moon, a _____ for happiness and prosperity. A. signal B. celebration C. feature D. symbol 22. After the earthquake, the first thing the local government did was to provide _____ for the homeless families. A. occupation B. furniture C. equipment D. accommodation 23. This restaurant has become popular for its wide _____ of foods that suit all tastes and pockets. A. range B. circle C. area D. division 24. Her biggest pride is that, in _____, she does not panic. A. peace B. emergency C. comfort D. amazement 25. Pets need a lot of care and _____; you can not leave them alone for a long time. A. patience B. attention C. courage D. responsibility 26. So far, I haven’t adapted to the fast _____ of the life in Toronto. A. step B. style C. pace D. manner 27. Each of us is likely to develop a personal _____ for certain types of entertainment. A. comparison B. possession C. preference D. advantage 28. Much to the _____ of the worried parents, their son finally came back safe and sound. A. relief B. regret C. anger D. disappointment 29. Jack is not very decisive, and he always finds himself in a _____ as if he doesn’t know what he really wants to. A. fantasy B. contradiction C. dilemma D. conflict 30. In order to put an end to poverty, the World Bank has switched its _____ to providing technical assistance and long-term loans to developing countries. A. concern B. process C. struggle D. focus 31. Mr. Anderson is popular with his students, for he is kind, strict and knowledgeable.

32.

33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

-- No wonder he has such a good _____. A. expectation B. contribution C. reputation D. regulation There’s no doubt that the past years have seen _____ of the progress in economy of the country, as more and more people moved into new house. A. impressions B. views C. signs D. features Courageous people think quickly and act without _____. A. anxiety B. consideration C. delay D. intention The event not only promoted _____ of world hunger, but also raised a lot of money to help starving people. A. information B. knowledge C. instruction D. awareness It’s really a _____ for a teenager to study abroad after high school. A. challenge B. puzzle C. failure D. disadvantage AIDS control and prevention is a _____ to China as well as the whole world. A. surprise B. challenge C. reaction D. threat Apart from his monthly salary as a sales manager, he also gets a travel _____ that covers hotel bills. A. insurance B. circumstance C. allowance D. competence

38. Some companies are thinking of ways to save natural _____ by making better use of the water used in the bathroom. A. energy B. sources C. power D. resources 39. I try to make him understand that I’m not interested in him, but he never gets the _____. A. information B. news C. message D. word 40. Have you heard the traffic _____ that happened in Yatai Street last week? A. accident B. affair C. incident D. event 41. Everybody knows smoking is harmful to health, but still so many people smoke. -- Exactly! So our country is planning to start a _____ against smoking. A. war B. campaign C. motion D. struggle 42. Working hard is not a _____ of great success, but it is among the essential requirements. A. sign B. signal C. guarantee D. mark 43. Although the used car seems in good _____, it cannot run too fast. A. state B. situation C. condition D. occasion 44. A tour of the Forbidden City and the Great Wall, _____ of China’s long history and rich culture, certainly provided President Obama rare opportunities to gain first-hand impressions of China’s past. A. symbols B. sight C. scenes D. views 45. I really admire the people full of _____. I’m always tired. -- You’d better take more exercise. A. power B. strength C. force D. energy 46. The bank is offering a(n) _____ to anyone who can give some information about the robbery. A. reward B. award C. prize D. bonus 47. Most air pollution is caused by the burning of _____ like coal, gas and oil. A. fuels B. articles C. goods D. products 48. He had a burning _____ to win back the teacher’s confidence in him. A. desire B. feeling C. emotion D. impression 1-10CDABB CDDAD 11-20DCABD ABCAD 21-30BDABB CCACD 31-40CCCDA BCDCA 41-45BCCAD AAA

真题再现 1.(2014 安徽卷)29.— Why not buy a second-hand car first if you don't have enough money for a new one? — That's a good A. saying . C. suggestion D. account

B. question

2.(2014 福建卷)26. —Could you tell me the____ of making such tasty cakes? — Well, I just follow the directons in the cookbook. A. feature B. plan C. cost D. trick

3.(2014 湖北卷)21. Her ______ for writing was a desire for women to get the right to higher education. A. motivation B. qualification C. talent D. technique

4. (2014 湖北卷) 22. When Richard said, “You are much more agreeable and prettier now,” Joan’s face turned red at the unexpected ______. A. command B. comparison C. compliment D. contribution in last year's

5. (2014 江苏卷) 27. She was put under house arrest two years ago but remained a powerful election. A. symbol B. portrait C. identity D. statue

6.(2014 天津卷)3.Wind is now the world’s fastest growing ________ of power. A. source B. sense C. result D. root 7. (2014 浙江卷 )6. We most prefer to say yes to the ______ of someone we know and like. A. attempts B. requests C. doubts D. promises

8. (2013 湖北)21. Poetry written from the ______ of the urban youth tends to reveal their anxiety over a lack of sense of belonging. A. perspective B. priority C. participation D. privilege 9.(2013 湖北)22. Carbon dioxide, which makes a ______ between us and the sun, prevents heat from getting out of the atmosphere easily, so the earth is becoming warmer. A. difference B. comparison C. connection D. barrier for the 10.(2013 江苏)33.With inspiration from other food cultures, American food culture can take a better. A. share B. chance C. turn D. lead 11.(2013 江西)22. A. curiosity patience. Whenever I made mistakes, the teacher pointed them out with ______. B. satisfaction. C. envy D.

12. (2013 辽宁)23. The accident caused some _______to my car, but it’s nothing serious. A. harm B. injury C. ruin D. damage for fine art. D. habit

13. (2013 天津)7.While she was in Paris,she developed a A. way B. relation C. taste

14. (2013 浙江)4.As the world’s population continues to grow, the ______ of food becomes more and more of a concern. A worth B supply C package D list 15.(2013 浙江)15.People develop _______ preference for a particular style of learning at _____ early age and these preferences affect learning. A a; an B a; 不填 C 不填; the D the; an

16(2011 湖北卷) 21. “Tommy, run! Be quick! The house is on fire!” the mother shouted, with clearly ________ in her voice. A. anger B. rudeness C. regret D. panic 17 (2011 湖北卷) 22. Giving up my job to go back to full-time education was a big _______, but now I know it was the best decision I ever made. A. project C. competition B. commitment D. ambition

18 (2011 山东卷) 34. There’s a _____ in our office that when it’s somebody’s birthday, they bring in a cake for us all to share. A. tradition B. balance C. concern D. relationship 19(2011 江西卷)31. What’s the ______ , in your opinion, of helping him if he doesn’t make an effort to help himself? A. sympathy B. theme C. object D. point 20 (2011 江苏卷) 27. Teachers have to constantly update their knowledge in order to maintain their professional _______. A. consequence B. independence C. competence D. intelligence 21(2011 浙江卷)18. Anyway, I can’t cheat him --- it’s against all my ______. A. emotions C. regulations B. principles D. opinions

22(2011 福建卷)26.The lack of eco-friendly habits among the public is thought to be a major ____ of global climate change. A.result B.cause C.warning D.reflection 23(2011 四川卷)13. Always remember to put such dangerous things as lives out children’s _____. A. touch B. sight C. reach D. distance

24. (2010 安徽卷 25).I haven’t seen Sara since she was a little girl, and she has changed beyond . A. hearing B. strength C. recognition D. measure 25.(2010 湖北卷 21). This restaurant has become popular for its wide of foods that suit all tastes and

pockets. A. division B. area C. range D. circle 26. (2010 湖北卷 22). After the earthquake, the first thing the local government did was to provide for the homeless families. A. accommodation B. occupation C. equipment D. furniture 27.(2010 江苏卷 22). The doctor is skilled at treating heart trouble and never accepts any gift from his patients, so he has a very good_____. A. expectation B. reputation C. contribution D. civilization 28(2010 江西卷 35. Last year the number of students who graduated with a driving license reached 200,000, a(n) of 40,000 per year. A. average B. number C. amount D. quantity 29.(2010 山东卷 33). Those who suffer from headache will find they get ______ from this medicine. A. relief B. safety C. defense D. shelter 30.(2010 天津卷 3). James took the magazines off the little table to make _______ for the television. A. room B. area C. field D. position 31.(2010 浙江卷 16). The school advisers help you talk through your problems but they don't give you any direct __. A. solution B. target C. measure D. function 32. (2009 安徽卷)China has got a good for fighting against the flu with its careful and smooth organization. A. reputation B. influence C. impression D. knowledge 33. (2009 福建卷)We are at your service. Don’t ______ to turn to us if you have any further problems. A. beg B. hesitate C. desire D. seek 34. (2009 福建卷)The World Health Organization gave a warning to the public without any When the virus of H1N1 hit Mexico in April,2009. A. delay B. effort C. schedule D. consideration 35. (2009 湖北卷)Hiking by oneself can be fun and good for health. It may also be good for building. K A. respect B. friendship C. reputation D. character 36. (2009 湖北卷) in our class, when the bell rang and the teacher closed his book, it was a for everyone to stand up. A. signal B. chance C. Mark D. measure 37. (2009 江西卷)The ____________ shoes were covered with mud, so I asked them to take them off before they got into __________ car. A. girl’s; Tom’s B. girls’; Toms’ C. girls’; Tom’s D. girl’s; Toms’ 38. (2009 山东卷)— He says that my new car is a ____________ of money. — Don’t you think those words are just sour grapes? A. lack B. load C. question D. waste 39. (2009 陕西卷)Form their ________ on the top of the TV Tower, visitors can have a better view of the city. A. stage B.position C. condition D. situation 40. (2009 天津卷)I’m trying to break the _______ of getting up too late A. tradition B. convenience C. habit D. leisure

答案: 1-10 CDACA ABADC 11-20 DDCBA DBADC 21-30 BBCCC ABAAA 31-40 AABAD ACDBC



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