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专升本英语语法练习


第八章 虚拟语气
虚拟:假的,不真实的。 语气:英语中的语气指的是动词的表现形式, If Zhang Ziyi married me, I would give her all that I have.

一. 虚拟条件句: 1.主从句谓语动词的形式

If 从句 与现在事实相反 动词用过去式 be→were

主句 would, should could, might + 动词原 形

与过去事实相反

过去完成时 (had + 过去分词)

would, should could, might + have+过去 分 词

与将来事实相反

动 词 过 去 时 (be → would, should were) were to +动词原形 should +动词原形 could, might 形 + 动词原

A:与现在事实相反
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If I were you, I would choose Jolin. If I knew her number, I would call her at once.

B: 与过去事实相反 If you had told me earlier, I would not have married him. If I had won the lottery, I would have come to Zhang Ziyi.

C: 与将来事实相反 married someone If she were to marry somesone tomorrow, her photos. should marry someone I would jump into the river with

2. 错综时间的虚拟条件句:有时主从句动作发生的时间不一致,此时需要根据以上表 格进调整。 If you had listened to the doctor, you would be all right now. (从句过去, 主句现在) If my grandmother were alive, she would be 100 years old next year. (从句 现在,主句将来)

3. 两种变形 A: 在虚拟条件句中若有 were,had, should 时可以省略 If 而把这些词提至主语之前 (句首) , 主句不变。
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If I were you, I would choose Jolin. → Were I you, I would choose Jolin.

If you had told me earlier, I would not have married him. → Had you told me earlier, I would not have married him.

If I had won the lottery, I would have come to Zhang Ziyi. → Had I won the lottery, I would have come to Zhang Ziyi.

If she should marry someone tomorrow, I would jump into the river with her photos → Should she marry someone tomorrow, I would jump into the river with her photos

B: 介词短语或其他形式代替虚拟条件句:but for--- 要不是---;幸亏--without--- 如果没有--If I had not had beriberi, we would not have broken up! → Without beriberi, we would not have broken up!

If it were not for your help, we could not be together again. → But for your help, we could not be together again.

If I had been given more time, I could have got her heart.
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→ Given more time, I could have passed the exam.

二.wish 后的虚拟语气

结构:主语 + wish + that 从句

A:与现在事实相反:动词用过去式,be 动词一律用 were (How) I wish I knew her telephone number. (How) I wish my mother were here now! B: 与过去事实相反:had + 过去分词 或 could + have + 过去分词 I wish I had been here yesterday. I wish I could have gone to your birthday party yesterday. C: 表示将来不太可能实现的愿望:would/could/might + 动词原形 I wish you wouldn’t be so nervous next time. He wished she might do it better next time.

三 特殊词后的虚拟语气 当在主句中出现动词 advise, suggest, request, require, demand, desire,propose, order, insist, command, recommend 等动词或它们的名词 advice, suggestion, request, requirement, demand, desire, proposal, order, recommendation 时从 句中要用虚拟语气

从句谓语动词的形式: (should) + 动词原形

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She insisted that the seats (should) be booked in advance. She suggested that we (should) hold a meeting tonight. He issued the order that the troops (should) withdraw at once. It is suggested that the boy (should) be sent to the hospital at once. My desire is that all the members of the family (should) gather once a year.

注意:① 当 suggest 不作“建议”解,而是“暗示,表明”的时候其后的宾语从句要 用陈述语气 The look on your face suggests that you are very tired. All these facts suggest that he is not guilty. ② 当 insist 不作“坚持要求”解,而是“坚持认为”时其后的宾语从句也要用 陈述语气 The doctor insisted that the boy was badly hurt and that he should be sent to a better hospital without delay.

四.特殊句子中的虚拟语气 1. It is important/necessary/essential that ---- (做---是很重要的/很有必要 的) 从句中的谓语动词形式: (should) + 动词原形 It is important that we (should) prepare our lesson before the exam.

2. or/otherwise (否则)引导的并列句中的虚拟语气:
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并列连词之前的分句 1 要求用真实语气,其后分句 2 要求用虚拟语气,其谓语动词的 形式要 与虚拟条件句的主句谓语动词保持一致 I didn’t know that he was a liar, or/otherwise I wouldn’t have believed him. He is very busy now, or/ otherwise he would help us.

3.It is (high, about) time that ---- (早该做----的时间到了,实际上已经有些 晚了) that 从句中的谓语动词的形式:动词用过去式,be 动词一律用 were It is time that we went to bed. It is high time that we were off.

4. would rather 后的虚拟语气 1)后接动词原形,指现在或将来,表示一种愿望或选择。 I would rather do it today. He’d rather not go dancing tonight. 2) 后接不带 to 的不定式的完成式,表示过去某种错误或不当的选择。 I’d rather not have told him the news. She would rather have married that poor man. 3) 后接从句要求用虚拟语气, 表示现在或将来不太可能实现的愿望时从句谓语动词用 一般 过去时, be 动词只能用 were; 表示过去不可能实现的愿望时从句谓语动词用过去完成 时。 I would rather she painted the wall green next time.
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I would rather you hadn’t told him the fact.

5. as if/ as though 引导的表语从句或方式状语从句要求用虚拟语气。 1) 与现在事实相反从句谓语动词动词要求用过去式,be 动词只能用 were. He looks as though she were sick.

2) 于过去事实相反从句谓语动词要求用过去完成时。 She talks as if she had been to Egypt.

注意:as if/ as though 之后的从句中的情况如果可能发生也可以用陈述语气。 It looks as if it is going to rain.

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