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M6U4 虚拟语气讲解
Lead-in 请欣赏下面的歌曲,并填出歌词中空缺的单词。


If a picture paints a thousand words, then why can’t I paint you? The words will never show, then you I've come to know. If a face ① _____________ (launch) a thousand ships, then where am I to go? There's no one home but you. You're all that's left me to. And when my love for life is running dry, you come and pour yourself on me. If a man ②______________ (be) two places at one time, I____________(be) with you. Tomorrow and today, beside you all the way. If the world③ ________________ (stop) revolving (旋转), spinning slowly down to die, I___________________ (spend) the end with you. And when the world was through. Then one by one the stars would go out. Then you and I ④ ______________ simply fly away. Question: What grammar item is used in these sentences?

Step one: Let’s review
1. 完成句子 1). If I ___________the answer now, I ______ tell you.如果我知道答案,我会告诉你。 2). If you _____________ ten minutes earlier, you _______________ with the American Indians. 如果你早十分钟来的话,你就可以和印第安人跳舞了。 3). If it ___________________________ tomorrow, we would change our plan. 要是明天下雪的话,我们就改变计划。 Conclusion: 虚拟条件句(if 从句) 语法规则 (Grammar rules) 时间 If 从句 主句 与现在相反 与过去相反 与将来相反 2.把划线部分的句子译成中文 ① Should it snow tomorrow, we would put off our celebration. ② Were I rich, I would buy an expensive cal. ③ Had you attended the lecture, you could have known the special custom. Conclusion: 如果条件状语中有 were, had, should 时, 可以省去条件句中的_____,把 were, had, should 置于 ___________ 3.完成句子 ① If you __________ hard now, you __________________ a good job in the future. 如果你现在努力,将来会有好工作。 ② If he ________________________ in the rain yesterday, he __________________ now.

要是他昨天不淋雨的话,现在就不会生病了。 ③ If David ___________ six more votes in the last election, he ________ our chairman now. 如果大卫在上次的选举中多赢得六张选票,那么他就会是我们的现任主席。 Conclusion: 如果虚拟句的主、从句中动词表达_______的虚拟动作时间,则该句被称为“___________”。 句中动词采用何种形式(现在或过去虚拟式)要依据主、从句中的______(或上下文)来确定。 【注意】在混合条件虚拟句中,要注意事实和虚拟假设的混合。要根据所述事实发生的时间确定 它的时态形式。 ① I ______________________ him in the hospital had it been at all possible,but I was fully occupied the whole of last week.如有可能,我本来会到医院去看望他的,但整个上周我实 在是太忙了。 ② If Tom ____________ overtime today, he would come to our reception. However, he is preparing the coming exam now. 如果 Tom 今天不加班,他回来我们的宴会的。然而,他现在正准备 即将到来的考试。 ③ ___________________ tomorrow, I might travel around our town. What a pity! I will have to help my father on the farm. 万一明天不下雨,我可能会周游我们镇。真遗憾,我不得不在 农场上帮助我父亲。 4. 英译汉 ① If I could have earned enough money, I should have traveled over the world. ② If you could have prevented mistakes, you might have been more successful. Conclusion: “could have + 过去分词” 也可用于虚拟条件句中, 这时的 could 是情态动词, 表示 “__________” , 相当于:________________________比如:

Step2 Let’s learn Unreal conditionals: other cases(虚拟语气在其它场合的运用)
1.由 even if (即使、虽然),as if / though,if only(但愿、要是……就好了),wish 引导的虚拟句: ① I wish I had studied medicine, so I could save the injured people. ② I wish I were a firefighter. So I could save the trapped people. ③ When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it were broken. ④ If only such disasters would not happen again in the future. ⑤ Even if I had known the key in the exam yesterday, I could have told you. Conclusion: 语法规则 (Grammar rules) as if / though if only even if/though wish 与现在情况相反 与过去情况相反 与将来情况相反

Practice: ① I wish I _________ a bird.我多么希望我是一只小鸟。 ② He wished she ________ better next time. 他希望她下次能做得更好。 ③ I wish l ____________ the game last night.但愿我昨晚没看比赛。 ④ Even if he _________________ without delay,no one _____________________ him.

即使他当时得到护理,也救不活。 ⑤ He looks as if he ___________________ for a month.他看上去好像一个月没吃饭一样。 ⑥ If only I __________ with my father! 要是现在和父亲在一起该多好啊! ⑦ If only she __________ the army next year. 但愿她明年能参军。 【注意】as if / as though 后面的从句有时也可用陈述语气,这是因为从句中的情况往往是可能发 生的或可能被设想为真实的。例如: ① It seems as if our side is going to win. _________________________。 ② The meat tastes as if it has gone bad. ______________________________。 2.would rather+从句: I would rather you returned me the money now. I would rather you hadn’t made the mistake yesterday. Don’t come now. I would rather you came tomorrow. Conclusion: would rather+从句 现在 过去 将来 Practice: ① He would rather you______ on Friday.他比较希望你在星期五来。(现在/将来时间虚拟) ② I’d rather you ____________ that.要是你别干那事就好啦。(过去时间虚拟) 【注意】would rather + have done 表示过去的某种选择不恰当。 I’d rather not have told her the news. She is such a gossip. ____________________________。 她是个爱说闲话的。 3.It is (high/about) time that……:该做……了。(动词用“__________”或“_______________”) It is high time that something ____done about the traffic problem.该采取措施解决交通问题了。 4.动词+ that……(should) do…… 这类动词常见的有: 一个坚持:_______________ 两个命令:___________________/_________________ 三条建议:____________/__________________/___________________ 四项要求:_____________/_______________/__________________/_________________ ① She advised that we _______________ the gate locked. 她建议我们一直把大门锁着。 ② I recommend that we ____________________________ 10 copies for the library. 我提议为图书馆买十册书。 以上动词相应的名词构成的名词性从句(包括主语从句,表语从句和同位语从句)也要使 用虚拟语气。从句中的动词形式一样。 ③ It is arranged that they ___________ the following week.安排好他们下星期动身。 ④ The captain has given the order that it (should) be done.船长_____________________ ⑤ My proposal is that we _____________________________ 我提议让更多的人来参加会议。 ⑥ Jane’s pale face suggested that he ___ ill . A. be B. was C. should be D .is ⑦ He insists he ______right. A. were B. was C. be D. is 【注意】suggest 当表示“___________“讲时,insist 表示坚持_____之意时,应用陈述语气。 5.It is + 形容词/分词 + that……(should) do…… 这类常见的形容词有:

advisable________; essential_________; 自然的_________;紧迫的_____________ appropriate_________; 重要的_____________; 必要的 _____________ ① It is necessary that you _____________ present at the meeting.务必要求你出席会议。 ② It is urgent that food and clothing _______________ sent to the sufferers. 急需将食物和衣服送给灾民。 6.It is + 形容词/ 名词 + that……(should) do / should have done…… 这类常见的形容词有:strange,amazing,surprising,astonishing,incredible_____________; 常见的名词有:no wonder(____________),a shame,a pity,表示“惊奇、惶惑、怀疑、不满”等。 此时,should 一般不可省略,含义为“________、________”。 ① It is strange / amazing that he should have leant so much in such a short time.____________ ② It is incredible that Jane should have finished her paper so soon._______________________ ③ It is ____________________________________________.她的成功,不足为奇 ④ It is ___________________________________________ 真遗憾,他不在这里。 7. 在 lest, for fear that, 和 in case 引导的状语从句中, 谓语动词用陈述语气或虚语语气 should 动 词原形。 ① He put his coat over the child for fear that/lest he should catch cold. ____________________ ② I’ll keep a seat for you in case ______________. 我给你留一个座位,以防你需要它。 8. Were it not for sth: (与现在或将来情况相反)要不是因为…… Had it not been for sth: (与过去情况相反) 要不是因为…… ① __________________ the heavy traffic today, I would set off to my school. 要不是因为今天繁忙的交通,我就动身去学校了。 ② _____________ the delay, they could have completed their long march yesterday. 要不是因为耽误,他们昨天就能结束他们的长征。 9.隐含条件虚拟句 虚拟句中没有明显的虚拟条件, 而是利用其他手段来暗示所存在的虚拟条件(可转化为 if 条件 虚拟句),此类虚拟句被称为“隐含条件虚拟句”。 (1)由 without,but for(要不是因为) ,with 等词引导的介词短语表示隐含条件。 ① I couldn’t have lived through Christmas without giving you a present. (=I couldn’t have lived through Christmas ______________you a present.) 若不送给你礼物,我无法过这圣诞节。 ② _________ your timely help,we couldn’t have finished the work on time. (=We couldn’t have finished the work on time if you hadn’t given us your timely help.) 要不是你们及时给予帮助,我们不可能按时完成工作。 ③ ______ better equipment, we could have done it better. 如有更好的设备,我们能做得更好。 ⑵ 含有 otherwise(副词),or,but that(要不是) 等词的隐含条件虚拟句。 ① He reminded me of what I should otherwise have forgotten. (=If ___________________,I should have forgotten all about that.) 他提醒了我,要不然我就会把这件事给忘了。 ② But that it snowed heavily, they could have arrived there earlier. =____________ the heavy snow, they could have arrived there earlier. 要不是大雪,他们本来能到的更早。 ⑶ 用不定式表示隐含条件。 ① To go there by train would have saved us a lot of trouble. (=If we had gone there by train,it would have saved us a lot of trouble.) __________________________________________ ② To have studied harder, you would have passed the exam. (=If you had studied harder, you would have passed the exam.) ________________________________________________

⑷ 通过句子间的联系或上下文来表示隐含条件。 Einstein __________ little for money,though he __________________very rich. (=If Einstein had cared for money, he could have been very rich.) 尽管爱因斯坦本可以成为非常富有的人,但是他对金钱却不感兴趣。 【注意】在不少情况下,虚拟式已变成习惯说法,很难找出其暗含的条件。如: You wouldn’t know. ____________________; I would like to come.___________________ I wouldn’t have dreamed of it. ______________________________________ He told the story in such minute detail that he might himself have been an eye-witness. _______________________________________________________________ 10. 虚拟语气用在简单句中,多用动词原形,表示祝愿,命令。 May you be happy. May the friendship between us last long. God bless you ! Long live the People’s Republic of China! Step three : Let’s practise I. Penny is a girl who likes to make dreams. Now fill in the blanks, and you will know what her dreams is. What is Penny’s dream I do wish I were a princess. If I _______ (be) a princess, I __________ (know) a lot of princes and I would choose the handsomest prince. Suppose I __________ (marry) a prince, we would have a couple of little prince and princess. That’s really interesting. If I ___________ (know) my desire before, I __________________ (be born) in a royal family 25 years ago. However, all of these are not true but I still know what I can do to fulfill my dream. If I ___________________________________ (live) in London in the future, I ____________ (visit )the palace every day. I wish I_____________ ( meet) Prince Henry , younger brother of Prince William. The newspaper says he ______(be) single now so I will have a chance to know him. If he ______ (fall) in love with me, I __________( get) married to him. What if I _______________________(never meet ) my own prince? II、Let’s appreciate 1.Filling the blanks to complete the sentences. ① If everyone______________ (donate)a little bit love, the world_______(be) more beautiful! ② ___________________ love, the world _______________ be freezing cold. ③ _________ ______ the Party’s wise leadership, China couldn’t be so rich and strong now. ④ We all have clear goals and ambitions. ___________________, we couldn’t have achieved so much success. 2. Filling the blanks and then translate the following sentences into beautiful Chinese. ① We wish each other (________)a long life so as to share the beauty of this graceful moonlight, even though miles apart. ② If only there _______ be millions of houses to shield those who are suffering from the coldness, how happy they ________ be! (shield…from 遮蔽…以免) (虚拟语气与诗歌的美丽邂逅)

3. Appreciating the poem . If you ______________ a teardrop in my eye For fear of losing you, I ___________ never cry. And if the golden sun____________ cease to (= stop)shine its light, Just one smile from you ______________ make my whole world bright. Without you, I’d be a soul without a purpose. Without you, I’d an emotion without a heart. I’m a face without expression, a heart with no beat. Without you by my side, I’m just a flame without the heat. III. Multiple choices 1 . [2014 天津]15. ________ the morning train, he would not have been late for the meeting. A. Did he catch B. should be catch C. has he caught D. Had he caught 2. [2014 浙 江卷 ]16. They were abroad during the months when we were carrying out the investigation, or they _____ to our help. A. would have come B. could come C. have come D. had come 3. [2014 福建]32. no modern telecommunications, we would have to wait for weeks to get news from around the world. A. Were there B. Had there been C .If there are D. If there have been 4. (2013 北京)34. If we a table earlier, we couldn’t be standing here in a queue. A. have booked B. booked C. book D. had booked 5. (2013 福建)30.—Do you think George has passed the driving test? —No. If so, he _____his car to our college yesterday. A. would drive B. drove C. would have driven D. had driven 6. (2013 安徽)28. I to my cousin’s birthday party last night, but I was not available A. went B. had gone C. would go D. would have gone 7. (2013 安徽)34. It be the vocabulary that caused you the problem in the exercise, because you know a lot of words. A. may B. couldn’t C. should D. needn’t 8. (2013 江苏)30. I should not have laughed if I you were serious. A. thought B. would think C. had thought D. have thought 9. (2013 江西)29. When I was a child, I ______ watch TV whenever I wanted to. A. should B. could C. must D. need 10. (2013 辽宁)31. Harry is feeling uncomfortable. He _______too much at the party last night. A. could drink B. should drink C. would have drunk D. must have drunk 11.(2013 陕西)12. My mom suggests that we eat out for a change this weekend. A. should B. might C. could D. would 12.(2013 陕西)21. The children lost in the woods; otherwise, they would have been at the lakeside camp as scheduled. A. must have got B. must get C. should have got D. should get 15.(2013 天津)14. If he had spent more time practising speaking English before, he ________ able to speak it much better now. A. will be B. would be C. has been D. would have been 18.(2013 重庆)29. ---- It rained cats and dogs this morning. I’m glad we took an umbrella. ---- Yeah, we would have got wet all over if we

A. hadn’t B. haven't C. didn't D. don't 19.(2013 浙江)3. I ______ myself more ---- it was a perfect day. A shouldn’t have enjoyed B needn’t have enjoyed C wouldn’t have enjoyed D couldn’t have enjoyed 20.(2013 浙江)8.Eye doctors recommend that a child’s first eye exam _____ at the age of six months old. A was B be C were D is 1. 【2012 全国卷 II】⒘ I’m going to Europe on vacation together with John if I ___ find the money. A. can B. might C. would D. need 2. 【 2012 北京】33. We ______ the difficulty together, but why didn’t you tell me? A. should face B. might face C. could have faced D. must have faced 3. 【2012 福建】31. We lost our way in that small village, otherwise we _____ more places of interest yesterday. A. visited B. had visited C. would visit D. would have visited 4. 【2012 陕西】17. If my car _____ more reliable, I would have driven to Lhasa instead of flying last summer. A. was B. had been C. should be D. would be 5. 【2012 山东】30. If we _____ adequate preparations, the conference wouldn’t have been so successful. A. haven’t made B. wouldn’t make C. didn’t make D. hadn’t made 6. 【2012 湖南】29. Sorry,I am too busy now. If I _____ time, I would certainly go for an outing with you. A. have had B. had had C. have D. had 7. 【2012 天津】15. We would have called a taxi yesterday if Harold ______ us a ride home. A. didn’t offer B. wouldn’t offer C. hasn’t offered D. hadn’t offered 8. 【2012 辽宁】33. Jack is a great talker. It’s high time that he _____ something instead of just talking. A. will do B. has done C. do D. did 9. 【2012 浙江】19. Had they known what was coming next, they _____ second thoughts. A. may have B. could have C. must have had D. might have had IV、完形填空 I am used to ___1___ a bus home, but last night it was raining and I decided to ride in a taxi. I stood on the side-walk ___2___ to each car that passed. I ___3___ each one to ___4___, but none ___5. Then I remembered it was the time of day when one group of taxi drivers stopped and another began work. I began to wish that I ____6____ the idea of getting a taxi. I was soaking wet. I set my briefcase(公文包)___7___ and took off my hat for a minute to pour ____8___ the water that had collected in the brim(帽边). At that moment, a taxi stopped ____9____ me and the driver said something that I didn't understand. I quickly jumped in and sat down. “Where do you want to go?” He asked me. I gave him my ____10____. “That's uptown, sir,” he said. “I am going to downtown. I told you that. I am ___11____ duty now. I was just to ____12___ you up if you were going my ___13___.” ____14____ this time it was raining harder. Cars were stopped ____15____ the taxi. Their knocking horns (喇 ) were beginning to demand that we ____16____. I wished I ___17____ what to do! I felt like insisting that the taxi driver _ _18____ me home. But I knew that I ____19____ into the taxi without understanding what the driver had said to me. Now more blasts(鸣笛) from somebody's horn made the driver demand that I ___20____ up my mind, I got out, 1. A. waiting for B. sitting C. taking D. riding 2. A. signing B. showing C. shaking D. nodding 3. A. hoped B. thought C. considered D. expected

4. A. park B. pause C. stop D. stand 5. A. would B. should C. had D. might 6. A. didn't have B. wouldn't have C. hadn't D. hadn't had 7. A. out B. down C. off D. on 8. A. of B. out C. in D. into 9. A. in front of B. behind C. opposite D. for 10. A. place B. house C .home D. address 11. A. from B. off C. to D. on 12. A. take B. bring C. pick D. keep 13. A. direction B. road C. house D. way 14. A. By B. On C. At D. In 15. A. before B. in front of C. behind D. beside 16. A. would move B. move C. moved D. should have moved 17. A. had known B. hadn't known C. knew D. know 18. A would send B. sending C. take D. would take 19. A. should have got B. shouldn't get C. shouldn't have got D. should get 20. A. would make B. made C. might make D. make V. Translate the following paragraph into Chinese ,using unreal conditions as much as possible. ①还有一年多我就要参加高考了,现在是在学习上全力以赴的时候了。②我后悔把本应该用 在学习上的时间浪费在玩电脑游戏上了。③如果两年前我能像现在一样用功,现在的成绩会令人 满意得多。④不过,后悔是没有用的。⑤如果可能的话,我现在愿意每天 24 小时都花在学习上。 ⑥我的老师建议我制定一个学习计划并认真执行。⑦我也下定决心刻苦学习。⑧出乎我的意料, 在最近一次的英语考试中,我得到全班最高分,这给了我极大的鼓舞。⑨现在,我学习起来好像 永不疲倦一样。⑩如果我能坚持下去,我相信我会取得成功。

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Over a year later, I will take part in the college entrance examination and now it is high time that I

should try/tried my best in my study. I regret wasting the time which I should have spent on my studies playing computer games. If I had worked two years ago as hard as I do now, my grade would be much more satisfactory now. However, it is no use regretting. If it were possible, I would spend 24 hours a day on my study. My teacher suggested that I (should) make a study plan and carry it out seriously. I have made up my mind to study hard too. To my surprise, I got the highest mark in the last English test, which greatly inspired me. At present, I am learning as if I were never tired. I believe I can succeed if I can keep it up.
倘若画能表达千言万语 为什么我无法勾勒你的容颜 言语永远无法描述我了解的你 如果我能登上千万条船远航,那我会飘向何处? 你是我唯一的归宿,是上天留给我的一切 当我对生活的希望枯竭殆尽 你进入我的生命,将你的爱浸入我心(你来到将自己融进我的世界) 如果一个人能分身两地,我也只愿和你依偎 现在和将来,永远在你身旁 如果世界会停止循环旋转慢慢走向死亡 我会陪你到最后 当世界已到尽头 繁星依次熄灭光辉 我和你终能一起相伴飞翔 (星辰一颗颗地陨落,我们将一起远走高飞)




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在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气。 现将虚拟条件从句和主句的动词形式列表如下: 时间 形式 动词 从句谓语 动词 过去式(be 的过去式...


虚拟语气学案-2016_英语_高中教育_教育专区。虚拟语气学案Ⅰ. 虚拟语气在条件句的运用 1. If I were a millionaire, I ___ (travel) round the world 虚拟语...

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