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高考英语科普阅读的方法与实例


高考英语科普阅读的方法与实例
一、考点描述 科普类文章是高考英语的常考题材,每年高考都有所涉及,如 2005 年的江苏卷 在五篇阅读文章中就有两篇是关于科普文章的阅读。因此,同学们在平时的学习 中一定要对此引起高度的重视。 二、材料特点 这类文章的总体特点是:科技词汇多,句子结构复杂,理论性强,逻辑严谨。具 体说来它有以下几个特点: 1. 文章中词汇的意义比较单一、稳定

、简明,不带感情色彩,具有单一性和准 确性的特点。这类文章通常不会出现文学英语中采用的排比、比喻、夸张等修辞 手法,一词多义的现象也不多见。 2. 句子结构较复杂,语法分析较困难。为了描述一个客观事物,严密地表达自 己的思想,作者经常会使用集多种语法现象于一体的长句。 3. 常使用被动语态,尤其是一些惯用被动句式。 三、命题特点 科普类阅读的主要命题形式有事实细节题、词义猜测题、推理判断题以及主旨概 括题等,其中推理判断题居多。 四、应对策略 1. 要想做好科普英语阅读理解题,同学们就要注意平时多读科普知识类文章, 学习科普知识,积累常见的科普词汇,从根本上提高科普英语的阅读能力。 2. 要熟悉科普类文章的结构特点。科普类文章一般由标题(Headlines),导语 (Introductions),背景( Background),主体(Main body)和结尾(Ends)五部分构成。 标题是文章中心思想高度而又精辟的概括,但根据历年的高考真题情况来看,这 类阅读理解材料一般不给标题, 而要同学们选择标题。导语一般位于整篇文章的 首段。背景交待一个事实的起因。主体则对导语概括的事实进行详细叙述。这一 部分命题往往最多,因此,阅读时,同学们要把这部分作为重点。结尾往往也是 中心思想的概括,并与导语相呼应,命题者常在此要设计一道推理判断题。 3. 在进行推理判断时,同学们一定要以阅读材料所提供的科学事实为依据,同 时所得出的结论还应符合基本的科普常识。 五、真题赏析 A Animals can move from place to place, but plants cannot. When an animal is under attack, it can run away or fight back. Plants certainly cannot run away, and they lack teeth and claws. But plants can defend themselves by using both physical and chemical means. Some plants have their own ways to keep animals away. For example, the leaves of the holly plant have sharp spines(刺) that discourage grass-eating animals. Holly leaves on lower branches have more spines than leaves on upper branches. This is because the lower leaves are easier for most animals to reach. Some plants, such as the oak tree, have thick and hard leaves that are difficult for animals to eat. Some grasses may contain a sandy material; eating such grasses wears down the animal’s teeth.

Many plants also have chemical defenses. Some plants produce chemicals that taste bitter or cause an unpleasant reaction. Some plants may fight against an attack by increasing the production of these chemicals. When a caterpillar (毛虫) bites a tobacco leaf, the leaf produces a chemical messenger. This messenger sends to the roots the information to produce more nicotine. The higher levels of nicotine discourage the caterpillar. Many plants depend on both physical and chemical defenses. A certain plant in China, for instance, has prickly (多刺的) leaves, and each prickle contains poisonous venom (毒液). A single experience with this kind of plant will teach an animal to stay away from it in the future. 68. The holly plant has more spines on the lower leaves because most animals________. A. are not tall enough B. like the lower leaves only C. are not clever enough D. can get the lower leaves easily 69. To defend themselves, oak trees use________. A. chemical means B. physical means C. bitter chemicals D. sandy materials 70. How does tobacco protect itself against an attack from a caterpillar? A. Its leaves fight against the attack by physical means. B. Its roots send a messenger to discourage the caterpillar. C. Its roots increase the production of nicotine when it is attacked. D. Its leaves produce poisonous sand to drive the caterpillar away. 71. What would be the best title for this passage? A. Plants and Animals B. How Plants Defend Themselves C. Attacks and Defenses D. How Animals Eat Plant Leaves 【答案与解析】 本文主要介绍一些植物是如何通过物理和化学的方式保护自己不 受外界侵害的。 68. D。事实细节题。根据第 2 段最后一句…the lower leaves are easier for most animals to reach 可知答案。 69. B。推理判断题。根据第 3 段中的…oak tree, have thick and hard leaves that are difficult for animals to eat 可推知, 又厚又硬的树叶属于植物自我保护的物理手段。 70. C。推理判断题。根据第四段可知,tobacco 保护自己不受毛虫侵害的办法是 产生更多的 nicotine。 71. B。主旨概括题。因为整篇文章都在讲植物是怎样保护他们自己的,故选 B。 模拟训练 B Walk through the Amazon rainforest today and you will find it is steamy, warm, damp and thick. But if you had been around 15, 000 years ago, during the last ice age, would it have been the same? For more than 30 years, scientists have been arguing about how rainforests like the Amazon might have reacted (反应) to the cold, dry climates of the ice ages, but until now, no one has reached a satisfying answer. Rainforests like the Amazon are important for mopping up CO2 from the atmosphere and helping to slow global warming. Currently the trees in the Amazon take in around 500 million tons of CO2 each year: equal to the total amount of CO2 giving off in the

UK each year. But how will the Amazon react to future climate change? If it gets drier, will it still survive and continue to draw down CO2? Scientists hope that they will be able to learn in advance how the rainforest will manage in the future by understanding how rainforests reacted to climate change in the past. Unfortunately, getting into the Amazon rainforest and collecting information are very difficult. To study past climate, scientists need to look at fossilized pollen, kept in lake mud. Going back to the last ice age means drilling deep down into lake sediments(沉 淀物) which requires specialized equipment and heavy machinery. There are very few roads and paths, or places to land helicopters and aero planes. Rivers tend to be the easiest way to enter the forest, but this still leaves vast areas between the rivers completely unsampled (未取样). So far, only a handful of cores have been drilled that go back to the last ice age and none of them provide enough information to prove how the Amazon rainforest reacts to climate change. 1. The underlined phrase “mopping up” in the second paragraph means “______”. A. cleaning up B. taking in C. wiping out D. giving out 2. How will the Amazon rainforest react to future climate change? A. It’ll get drier and continue to remove CO2. B. It’ll remain steamy, warm, damp and thick. C. It’ll get warmer and then colder and drier. D. There is no exact answer up to present. 3. What’s the main idea of the last paragraph? A. It’s important to drill deep down into lake sediments to collect information. B. It’s impossible to prove how climate changes in the Amazon rainforest. C. It’s hard to collect information for studies of the past climate in the Amazon rainforest. D. It’s necessary to have specialized equipment and machinery to study the past climate. 4. The best title for this passage may probably be _____. A. Studies of the Amazon B. Climates of the Amazon C. Secrets of the Rainforests D. Changes of the Rainforests 【答案与解析】本文主要介绍了热带雨林对气候的影响。 1. B。词义猜测题。根据第二段中的 helping to slow global warming,同时结合化 学知识可推知 mopping up 的意思是“吸入”。另外,文章中的…currently the trees in Amazon take in around 500 million tones of CO2 each year 也暗示 mop up 和 take in 的意思相同。 2. D。事实细节题。根据文章第 2 段的内容(尤其是最后一句话)可推知此题最佳 答案为 D。 3. C。 主旨大意题。 根据文章最后一段中的 So far, only a handful of cores have been drilled 可知,资料收集不是很容易。 4. C。主旨大意题。文章主要讲的是亚马孙热带雨林难以预料的变化,所以选 C 为佳。 C Terrible weather, melting(融化的) snow and gathering clouds may be signs of global warming. The average temperature on Earth for last year was the second warmest

since written records began 140 years ago. The global average surface temperature in 2001 was 14.42 degrees centigrade, the World Meteorological Organization said. The record, set in 1998, was 14.58 degrees centigrade. “Temperatures are getting hotter, and they are getting hotter faster now than at any time in the past,” said Michel Jarraud, a WMO official. Carbon dioxide(二氧化碳) produced from burning fuels is the most common of the so-called greenhouse gases. The growing concentration(集中) in the atmosphere of these gases is thought to be warming the Earth. “Most of the causes of global warming are due to human action,” said Ken Davidson, director of WMO’s climate programme department. Every year, large amounts of gases produced by factories, cars and burning trees hold in too much heat and cause global warming. Many scientists believe the warming, if not stopped, will cause extreme climate changes this century. Throughout the world, the spreading of particular diseases and other threats(威胁) to human health depend largely on local climates. Extreme temperatures can directly cause loss of life. Warm temperatures can increase air and water pollution, which in turn can harm human health. In the Earth’s atmosphere there are tiny amounts of gases called greenhouse gases. These gases hold in the heat that comes up from the sun-warmed Earth. As cities have increased in size and population, factories and industries in the world have grown, people need more and more electricity, cars and other things. So more greenhouse gases have been added to the atmosphere. This causes more heat to be trapped than in the past. This is called the greenhouse effect. 1. The subject discussed in the passage is _______. A. the growing population of the world B. the global average surface temperature C. the increasing greenhouse effect D. the causes of air and water pollution 2. According to a WMO official, it is ________ that should be blamed for global warming. A. modern factories impressive B. mankind C. carbon dioxide D. burning fuels 3. The rising of the earth temperature will finally result in _______. A. the spreading of particular diseases B. air and water pollution C. extreme climate changes D. loss of life 4. Which of the following is true according to the passage? A. Air and water pollution is caused by global warming. B. Greenhouse gases do no good to human beings C. With the air getting hotter, people need more and more electricity, cars and other things. D. The average temperature on Earth for 1998 was the warmest according to written records 【答案与解析】本文向我们介绍了由于环境污染而引起的全球变暖的现象。

1. C。主旨大意题。本文讨论的是全球变暖的现象,而造成这种现象的原因是温 室效应,文章在最后也对温室效应做了解释,故答案为 C。 2. B。 事实细节题。 根据第四段中的 most of the causes of global warming are due to human action, said Ken Davidson, director of WMO’s climate programme department 可知答案为 B。 3. D。 事实细节题。 根据第六段中的 Extreme temperatures can directly cause loss of life 可知此题的最佳答案为 D。 4. D。事实细节题。根据第二段中的 The record, set in 1998, was 14.58 degrees centigrade 可知答案 D 正确。 D Before the early 1960’s people interested in the differing roles of the left and right hemispheres(半球) of the brain depended almost entirely on facts drawn from animal research, from studies of patients with one-sided brain damage. But it was possible to find out which brain hemisphere was most involved in speech and other functions in normal people by having them listen to two different words coming to the two ears at the same time. This became known as the “dichotic listening” procedure. When several word pairs are given in a row, people are unable to report them all, and most right-handers prefer to report, and report more correctly, words given to their right ears. This seems to be related to the fact that signals from the right ear, although sent to both hemispheres, are better sent to the left hemisphere which controls speech. People who have speech represented(回忆) in the right hemisphere, a very unusual occurrence even in left-handed people, more correctly report what their left ears hear. In contrast to the right-ear advantage for speech, there is generally a left-ear advantage for another type of auditory(听觉的) signal: music. When right-handed people listen to melodic patterns they report them better from the left ear. 1. Which of the following would be the most proper title for the passage? A. An Introduction to Speech Damage in Patients with Brain Damage. B. An Investigation into the Role of the Brain’s Hemispheres. C. An Analysis of Left and Right-handed People. D. An Examination of “Dichotic Listening”. 2. The “dichotic listening” procedure could best be described as hearing _______. A. two different words in the same ear twice B. the same word twice in the same ear C. two different words in different ears D. two different words twice in two ears 3. according to the passage, right-handed people normally _______. A. have better hearing in their both ears B. have little difficulty in reporting words given to their right ears C. are unable to report word pairs given to their left ears D. correctly report word pairs given in a row 4. according to the passage, music is best appreciated when heard by _______. A. the left ear of right-handers B. people with a right-ear advantage C. left-handers in their right ears

D. right-handed people who understand melodic patterns 【答案与解析】本文主要讲人体的左右半脑对听觉和语言方面的作用和影响。 1. B。推理判断题。阅读全文可知本文主要是一项关于人体左右大脑的作用的调 查,故答案选 B。 2. C。事实细节题。根据…having them listen to two different words coming to the two ears at the same time. This became known as the “dichotic listening” procedure 可知答案为 C。 3. B。推理判断题。根据 and most right-handers prefer to report, and report more correctly, words given to their right ears 可知答案为 B。 4. A。事实细节题。根据 When right-handed people listen to melodic patterns they report them better from the left ear 可知答案为 A。 E Today just as technology changed the face of industry, farms have undergone an “agricultural revolution”. On the farm of today, machines provide almost all the power. One of the most important benefits will be the farm computer. A few forward-looking farmers are already using computers to help them run their farms more efficiently. The computers help them keep more accurate records so they can make better decisions on what crops to plant, how much livestock to buy, when to sell their products, and how much profit they can expect. Many computer companies have been developing special computer programs just for farmers. Programs are being written for hog producers, grain farmers, potato farmers, and dairy farmers. In the future, farmers will be able to purchase computer programs made to their needs. Because of the growing importance of computers on the farm, students at agricultural colleges are required to take computer classes in addition to their normal agricultural courses. There can be no doubt that farmers will rely on computers even more in the future. While the old-time farm depended on horse power, and modern farms depend on machine power, farms of the future will depend on computer power. Another technological advance which is still in the experimental stage is the robot, a real “mechanized hired hand” that will be able to move and, in some ways, think like a human being. Agricultural engineers believe that computer-aided robots will make startling changes in farming before the end of the century. Unlike farmers of the present, farmers of the future will find that many day-to-day tasks will be done for them. Scientists are now developing robots that will be able to shear sheep, drive tractors, and harvest fruit. Even complex jobs will be done by robots. For example, in order to milk their cows, farmers must first drive them into the barn, then connect them to the milking machines, watch the machines, and disconnect them when they are finished. In the future, this will all be done by robots. In addition, when the milking is completed, the robots will automatically check to make sure that the milk is pure. The complete mobilization of the farm is far in the future, but engineers expect that some robots will be used before long. 1. Which sentence carried the main idea of the whole passage? A. The first sentence of the first paragraph. B. The first sentence of the second paragraph.

C. The first sentence of the third paragraph. D. The last sentence of the second paragraph. 2. According to the passage, computers can not help farmers decide _______. A. how much money they can earn from their products B. whether to plant a certain kind of crop C. what livestock to raise D. when to sell their products 3. Which of the following statements is true? A. Farmers in the future will depend totally on computers. B. Both computers and robots have been in use on today’s farms. C. Farmers mainly use machines on their farms at present. D. Students at agricultural colleges must take computer classes because they can do nothing without the help of computers on today’s farms. 4. According to the engineers, _______will be done by robots in the near future. A. all farm work B. milking cows C. most of the farm work D. some farm work 5. What is the best title for the whole passage? A. Computer, Farmers’ Best Friend B. Farmers in The Future C. The Agricultural Revolution D. Computers and Robots 【答案与解析】 本文介绍了科学技术在农业方面的重大作用以及机器人将在农业 中的应用。 1. A。主旨题。通过阅读全文可知整篇文章都是围绕第 1 段第 1 句而展开的,故 答案为 A。 2. C。 细节题。 The computers help them… make better decisions on what crops to 从 plant, how much livestock to buy, when to sell their products, and how much profit they can expect 可知 A、B、D 三项正确,C 项中应把 what 改为 how much。 3. C。 推断题。 On the farm of today , machines provide almost all the power 可推 由 知 C 项正确。 4. C。细节题。从 The complete mobilization of the farm is far in the future, but engineers expect that some robots will be used before long 可知答案为 C。 5. C。主旨题。从 Today just as technology changed the face of industry, farms have undergone an “agricultural revolution”(科技推动了农业的重大变革),故答案选 C。


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