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高中英语语法过关辅导课件-形容词和副词


(四)形容词和副词
一、多个形容词作定语时的排列顺序 限定词(these,those...)+数量形容词(three)+描绘性形容词 (beautiful)+大小、长短、高低等形体性形容词(large, long,high)+新旧(old)+颜色(red)+国籍(Chinese)+材料 (wood)+用途(writing)+被修饰名词(desk)。

>a beautiful white Japanese military jeep
二、形容词作定语后置的几种情况 1.当形容词修饰不定代词one,no,any,some和every构成的复合

词,如:something,anything,nothing时。
I have something important to tell you. 2.当“形容词+介词短语/不定式”构成的短语作定语时。

The teacher asked me a question too difficult to answer.

3.当两个意义相反的形容词用“both...and...”;and;or或but连接

在一起作定语时。
The students were required to see a film both interesting and instructive.

4.当old,long,high,wide,deep等词附有数量词短语作定语时。
The peasants dug a well about_fifty_metres_deep. 三、表语形容词

有些形容词只作表语,通常不作前置定语。常见的表语形容词有:
afraid,alone,awake,asleep,alive,alike,ashamed,afloat, well,sorry,unable,worth,sure等。

The old man was alone in the house.
【注】 ①上述形容词可以作补语。 We found the snake still alive.

②alive,alone,awake等可以用作后置定语。
He is the greatest poet alive.

③以a开头的表语形容词大多不可直接用very来修饰。 sound/fast asleep熟睡的

wide awake十分清醒的
四、下列形容词作表语时,主语通常是“事”而不是“人” (im)possible,(un)necessary,(im)probable,(in)convenient,如:

It is not convenient to work at the weekend.
周末工作不便。 五、形容词作状语 形容词作状语表示伴随或结果。 He returned home,safe and sound.

六、复合形容词的构成
构成方法 副词词干+分词 名词词干+过去分词 名词词干+现在分词 名词词干+形容词词干 数词词干+名词词干 数词词干+名词-ed 数词词干+名词+形容词 形容词词干+过去分词 形容词词干+名词-ed 形容词词干+现在分词 形容词词干+形容词词干 例 词

newly-made 新建的 fast-changing 飞速变化着的 snow-covered 被雪覆盖的 energy-saving 节省能源的 life-long 终生的 five-star 五星级的 four-storeyed 四层的 five-year-old 5岁的 ready-made 现成的,预先制成的

cold-blooded 冷血的
ordinary-looking 相貌一般的 red-hot 炽热的

【注】

复合形容词中的名词不能用复数形式。

七、两种形式的副词
有些副词有两种形式,其中一种形式与形容词相同,另一种 形式是在形容词后加后缀“?ly”。这两种形式的副词表示的意义不

大相同,应加以分辨。
close接近(指距离)——closely仔细地,密切地 free免费——freely自由地,自如地 deep深——deeply深刻地,深入地 hard努力地——hardly几乎不

wide宽阔——widely广泛地
high高——highly高度地 late晚、迟——lately近来

near邻近——nearly几乎

most最——mostly主要地;绝大多数地
easy从容地——easily容易地 八、有些副词置于句首可修饰全句,作评注性状语 Fortunately,he was not drowned and was saved by the PLA men. 九、副词enough的用法 1.enough作副词用来修饰形容词、副词时要放在所修饰词的后面。 If I had a long enough holiday,I’d visit Europe,stopping at all the small interesting places. The driver drove his car carefully enough. 2.cannot与enough连用,表示“再……也不为过”。 You cannot be careful enough.你再细心也不为过。

【注】

enough的这一用法可用“cannot(can never)...too...”句型替换。

You can never be too careful in the street.(=You can never be careful enough in the street.) 十、注意下列几句有关形容词、副词的固定搭配 He’s dead/blind drunk.他喝得酩酊大醉。 It’s raining/snowing heavily.雨/雪下得很大。 He’s moving/breathing/drinking/smoking heavily.

他吃力地移动/喘着粗气/酒喝得多/烟抽得多。
十一、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级 1.表示倍数的三个句型:

(1)...times as+形容词原级+as...
This table is 3 times as big as that one.

(2)...times the+性质名词+of...
This table is 3 times the size of that one. (3)...times+形容词比较级+than...

This table is 2 times bigger than that one.
2.同程度级的比较,用as...as,the same as,such...as引导: Henry does not have so/as many books as I have.

亨利不如我的书多。
3.the+比较级……,the+比较级…… The more you talked,the less attention he paid to you.

你说得越多,他越不注意你。
4.比较级+and+比较级,表示“越来越……” The new city is becoming more and more beautiful.

新城变得越来越美丽。

5.the+比较级+of the two+名词:The taller of the two boys is my
brother. 这两个男孩中较高的是我弟弟。

6.用介词by表示相差的程度。
She is taller than I by three inches.她比我高三英尺。 7.一个人的两种品质的比较,用more...than结构: I think she’s more shy than unfriendly. 与其说她不友好,不如说她害羞。

8.否定+比较级=最高级
There is no greater love than that of a man who lays down his life for his friends.

为朋友而放弃生命的人的爱是最伟大的爱。

9.比较的对象不能相互包容,注意:

The Mississippi River is longer than any other river in the United States.密西西比河是美国最长的河。 10.比较级的修饰语常见的有: rather,much,still,even,far,any(用于否定句或疑问句),a lot,a little,a great deal,by far,a bit,three times等。 The students study even harder than before. 学生们比以前学习更努力了。

11.比较的对象应该相同。 The population of China is larger than that of any other country in the world.中国的人口比世界上任何其他国家的都多。 China has a larger population than any other country in the world. 12.no+比较级+than的特殊含义 A is no more careful than B.A和B两人都不仔细。 A is no less careful than B.A和B两人都很仔细。

过关落实
1.This magazine is very ________ with young people,who like its content and style. A.familiar 答案:B B.popular C.similar D.particular 解析:be popular with受……欢迎。

2.A new ________ bus service to Tianjin Airport started to operate

two months ago.
A.normal B.usual C.regular D.common

解析:regular有规律的,固定的。 答案:C 3.It is not socially ________ for parents to leave children unattended at that age. A.accessible B.adorable C.adaptable D.acceptable

解析:acceptable可接受的。

答案:D

4.After two years’ research,we now have a ________ better understanding of the disease.

A.very

B.far

C.fairly

D.quite

解析:far/much/even等副词常用来修饰比较级。 答案:B

5.He began to take political science ________ only when he left
school. A.strictly B.truly C.carefully D.seriously

解析:seriously认真地,严肃地。 答案:D

6.The final score of the basketball match was 9394.We were only ________ beaten.

A.nearly

B.slightly

C.narrowly

D.lightly

解析:be narrowly beaten指比分靠近,(对方)险胜。 答案:C 7.It’s hard for him playing against me.I’ve got nothing to play for,but for him,he needs to win so ________. A.far B.well C.little D.badly

解析:badly在本句中意为“非常,很”。 答案:D

8.With April 18’s railway speedup,highway and air transport will
have to compete with ________ service for passengers. A.good B.better C.best D.the best 解析:随着四月十八日前火车提速,公路和航空运输将面临更 好(better service)的竞争。 答案:B 9.Though he started late,Mr.Guo played the piano as well as,if ________,Miss Liu. A.not better than C.no better than 答案:A B.not better D.better

解析:句中完整结构为if he did not play better than...。

10.—Do you need any help,Lucy? —Yes.The job is ________ I could do myself.

A.less than
C.no more than

B.more than
D.not more than

解析:more than远远超过。

答案:B
11.We’re happy that our predictions should be so accurate,which is ________ from expectation. A.away B.free C.far D.empty

解析:far from意为“远非、远远不够”。

答案:C

12.________,the girl didn’t seem able to do anything right. A.Exhausted B.Exhaustedly

C.To be exhausted

D.Being exhaustedly

解析:过去分词作状语表动作的被动和完成。 答案:A 13.—If you’re free tonight,I’d like to invite you to a movie. —That’s nice of you,but are you ________?

A.honest

B.careful

C.serious

D.true

解析:serious指“严肃的”。 答案:C

14.Excited by the news,Marie lay in bed with her eyes ______ open while all her family were ______ asleep.

A.widely;soundly
C.widely;sound

B.wide;sound
D.wide;soundly

解析:wide open意为“大睁着”,wide为副词,sound作副词 时,意为“深深地、舒畅地”。 答案:B

15.By looking at a problem in as many ways as possible,creative
thinkers can find solutions that would ________ remain invisible. A.otherwise B.yet C.already D.forever

解析:otherwise与虚拟语气连用,表“否则、要不然”。
答案:A


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