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【英语】2011届高中考点精析精练:猜测词义(阅读理解)


命题点 4 本类考题解答锦囊

猜测词义

英语的一个显著特点是它庞大的词汇数量。即使一个拥有上万单词量的人在阅读英语读物中也难免会 遇到生词。如果每遇到生词,就查阅词典,不但会降低阅读速度,而且往往使阅读变得索然无味。据调查, 影响人们阅读理解的,首先是词汇。因此学习并掌握一些猜测生词词义的方法,对排除阅读时某些生词的 干扰,降低生词率是

十分必要的。 任何一个买词,只有在一定的上下文中才能表示一个确定的词义。NMET 阅读理解中猜测词义的考查内 容既可以是文中的生词,也可以是熟词新义、短语或句子。但都要求考生根据上下文线索(即具体语境)作 出推断。此类题的提问形式一般有: 1. Which of the following is nearest/closest in meaning to"... "? 2. The underlined word, means_______. 3. The underlined phrase, means_______. 4. Theun derlined sentence,means_______. 利用上下文的提示猜测词义的方法有如下几种: 1.根据定义或解释猜测词义 【例题】 (1)A calendar is a list of the days,weeks,months of a particular year. 根据定义, calendar 的意思是日历.。 (2)A biography is the story of a person's life written by someone else 根据定义, biography 的 意思是凡别人写的生平叫做传记。 (3)Some writers are no longer writing about the modern values of the USA--money, Success or expensive things to buy. 2.破折号后而的内容是对 value 一词的具体解释。 【例题】 (1)He replied quickly. But after he considered the problem more carefully, he regretted having made such a hasty decision.根据耻下文学语境意义,可悟出 quickly 与 hasty 同义。 (2)Although people in many countries consider raw meat a delicacy(美味), we Chinese people seldom eat any meat that is uncooked.根据上下文语境意义得知 raw meat 即是 meat that is uncooked. Raw 与 uncooked 表示相同意思生的,未煮过的。 (3)--1 think we are being watched. --Really? What makes you think we are under surveillance?根据语境,可判断出 being watched -15 under surveillance 是同义关系。 (4)During the concert, the children were quiet but afterwards, they became boiaterous. but 表示转折意思,因此 bomterous 是 quiet 的反义词,意思为吵吵嚷嚷的。 (5)Unlike her gregarious sister,Jane is a shy person,who does not like to go to parties,or to make new friends. unlike 是关键词, 它表示 Jane 与她的姐姐完全不同。 根据后面对 Jane 的描述 “?ashyper son,.. like .not to go parties or to make new froends',可得知 gregarious 的意思是好交际的。 3.根据举例 【例题】 (1)Scientists are studying how birds such ternsmigrate. 根据举例法(such as),得知 terns 是一种鸟。 (2)Today young couples whoare just starting their households often spend lots of their money on appliances?for example,washing--machines,fridges and color TVs.

根据举例法(for example),得知 appUances 是指 washing-machines,fridges and co1or TVs 这类家用 电器。 (3)Several other gases,such as argon,comprise the remaining one per cent of the vo1ume of dry air. SUChas 提示 argon 为某种气体。 4.根据因果关系。 【例题】 (1)She did not hear what you said because she was completely engrossed in her reading. because 之前的分句表示结果,之后的分句表示原因,可推理,她没有听见的原因是她完全被阅读吸引 住了或她正全神贯注地看书。因此 engrossed 的意思是被吸引的,全神贯注的。 (2)The noise was so faint that it was impossible to besure what it was or even where it came fronL So..that.. . .,结构引导的句子也表示因果关系。因此可判断出 faint 在此句中的意思是微弱的。声 音太弱,以致不能确认是什么声音或是从哪里发出的。 (3)ThiS kind of flower thrives in this area because the weather is warm,the Soil is excellent, and there iS a lot of rain。 because 一词决定了 flower 与 warm weather,excellent sOil,a10t Of rain 之间是因果关系。 因此 thdves 的意思是茂盛成长。 5.根据句意或上下文语境 例 1 If he think she can invitemeout,he is all wet.I don't like to be with the them. A. drunk B.sweating C.happy D.mistaken 【解 析】 根据第二句我不喜欢跟他在一起,可推断出,如果他认为他能约我出去,那他就错了。这两句 话实际上暗含因果关系。 【答 案】 D 例 2 At the age of 77,John was still playing a skill ful game of tennis,ran four miles everydday and seldom missed his daily swim.For a man of his age he was extremelyrobust. According to the short passage,the word“robust” ,probably means________. A。strange 【答 案】 C B.weak C.strong ninteresting 根据语境的意思, 一个 77 岁的人还能如此运动, 可以说是身体不错, 因此可以推断 robust

是 strong 强壮的意思。 由此可见猜测词义离不开上下文、离不开具体语境。 Ⅰ高考最新热门题 1. (典型例题,E 卷) T-shirts out; uniforms in School uniforms are becoming more and more popular across the U. S. A. That's no surprise, because they offer many benefits. They immediately end the powerful social sorting and labeling (标记) that come from clothing. "wrong'clothes. Some people are against the strict rule of school uniforms, but they do not realize that students already accept a kind of rule-- wanting to look just like their friends. The difference is that the clothing students choose for themselves creates social barriers; school uniforms tear those barriers down. As in other places, uniforms remind the wearers of their purpose and duties. For example, when a man or woman puts on a police uniform, he or she becomes, for a time, the symbol (象征) If all students are dressed in the same way, they will not pay too much attention to their clothing, and some of them will not be laughed at for wearing the

of taw and order. The uniform means to the wearer his or her special duties and sends the same message to everyone the wearer meets. People with different jobs wear uniforms of one kind or another. For students, the school uniform reminds them that their task for the six or seven hours they are in school is to get an education. Some parents are unhappy about uniforms, saying that school uniforms will affect their children's" creativity". First, as noted above, the clothes students choose to wear do not necessarily express their individuality (个性). They just copy their classmates. Second, students have the rest of the day to be as creative as they like. While they're in school, their job is to master reading, writing, and math; this should take up all the creativity they have. Mastery of those skills will be good for the students to build up their creativity in every way. 1. In Paragraph 1, the word "benefits"probably means________. A. tasks C. differences B. messages D. advantages

2. From the passage we learn that uniforms in general________. A. prevent the wearers from being laughed at B. help the wearers keep their duties in mind C. are seen as a symbol of power D. help to create social barriers 3. Some people are against school uniforms because ________. A. they fail to realize that students have accepted the uniforms B. they believe that uniforms will make students less creative C. they don't agree that uniforms can remove social barriers D. they think that school uniforms are too popular 4. The author would probably agree that A. it makes no difference whether to wear school uniforms or not B. students' individuality may not come from school education C. students' creativity is related to' the clothes they choose D. school uniforms help to create equality among students 命题目的与解题技巧:本文有关题考查学生猜测词义能力。做这类题的关键是学生根据上下文线索(即具 体语境)作出推断。 【解 析】 本文是一篇关于是否该穿校服的争论的议论文。有人认为校服会扼杀孩子的创造性,但很显 然作者是同意穿校服的,认为穿校服可以在学生中间培养公平意识。 【答 案】 1.D 2.B 3.B 4.D 猜测词义。从下文看,作者例数校服的诸多好处,显然“benifits"在此有“优点,好 处”之义。其他三词 tasks(任务),messages(信息),differences(不同),意思相差甚远。 细节推断。从第三段第一句话“AsinOtherplaces,uni forms remind the wearers of their purpose 细节题。从最后一段第一句: “Someparents.. .,sayin8 that school uniforms will affect their 主旨推断题。纵览全文,作者的观点是认为学生穿校服可以培养公平意识,对于创造性可以在其他 and duties"可推知,制服(unifontt)帮助穿衣者时刻记住其职责。 children'screatiVity"可直接选出答案。 时间和事件中培养。 Passage 1(典型例题 B) These days a green building means more than just the color of the paint. Green building can also refer to environmentally friendly houses, factories, and offices. Green building means "reducing the impact (影响) of the building on the land" Taryn Holowka

of the U.S Green Building Council in Washington, D. C. said. According to Holowka, buildings account for(占了) 65 percent of total U. $. electricity use. But green buildings can reduce energy and water use. Also, the buildings are often located near public transportation such as buses and subways, so that people can drive their cars less. That could be good for the environment, because ears use lots of gas and give off pollution. Green buildings are often built on developed land, so that the buildings don't destroy forests. Marty Dettling is the project manager for a building that put these ideas into action. The Solaire has been called the country's first green high-rise building. According to Dettling, "We've reduced our energy use by one-third and our water by 50 percent. ' The Solaire cuts energy in part by using so]ar power. "On the lace of the building we have solar panels which change the sun's energy into electricity,'Dettling explained. The Solaire also has lights that automatically turn off when people leave the room. In addition, the building has lots of windows, allowing people to use the sun for light during the day. The Solaire cuts water by reusing it. Not everyone is eager to move into a green building, however. Some people think that things like solar panels cost more money than more traditional energy sources. Anyhow, Holowka said, "It's going to be big." 1. In the second paragraph, the underlined words "the building" most probably refer to________. A. an ordinary building B. an. energy-saving building C. a green-colored building D. a building in Washington, D. C. 答案: A 指导: 文章第一段第二句首先介绍了当今的 Green building 的概念是环保型的 houses, factories 和 offices。第二段第一句指出环保型建筑就是要减少 thebuilding 所造成的(不良)影响。由此町判断 thebuiding 为普通建筑。 2. A green building is often built on an area of land________. A. which has thick forests around 13. which has already been used for building C. where people of high income live D. where traveling around by car is most convenient 答案: B 指导:根据第四段倒数第一句可知。第四段讲了 green buiding 对于环境等的优点,A、C、D 项 内容本段未提及。 3. When Holowka says in the last paragraph, "It's going to be big", she means that green buildings________. A. will be more comfortable B. will become popular in the future C. will be more environmentally friendly D. will take the place of traditional buildings 答案: B 指导:根据前面几段对于 green buiding 优点的介绍,再根据最后一句中的 anyhow 所表达的逻 辑关系进行推理,可知答案。 4. What is the main subject discussed in the text? A. Dettling designed the first green building in the U. S. B. Energy shortage calls for buildings of new design. C. Green buildings help save environment.

D. The Solaire serves as a model of high buildings. 答案: C 指导:文章第一段介绍 greenbuilding 是环保型的,下面又分段分绍它的优点,最后一段介绍其 前景,因此可判断 C 为正确答案。 Passage 2(典型例题 E) Every year more people recognize that it is wrong to kill wildlife for "sport". Progress in this direction is slow because shooting is not a sport for watching, and only those few who take part realize the cruelty and destruction. The number of gunners, however, grows rapidly. Children too young to develop proper iudgments through independ- ent thought are led a long way away by their gunning parents. They are subjected to advertisements of gun producers who describe shooting as good for their health and guncarrying as a way of putting redder blood in the veins (血管). They are persnaded by gunner magazines with stories honoring the chase and the kill. In school they view motion pictures which are supposedly meant to teach them how to deal with arms safely but which are actually designed to stimulate (刺激) a desire to own a gun. Wildlife is disappearing because of shooting and because of the loss of wildland habitat (Jfl~,~,J~). Habitat loss will contin- ue with our increasing population, but can we slow the loss of wildlife caused by shooting? There doesn't seem to be any chance if the serious condition of our birds is not improved. Wildlife belongs to everyone and not to the gunners alone. Although most people do not shoot, they seem to forgive shooting for sport because they know little or nothing about it. The only answer, then, is to bring the truth about sport shooting to the great majority of people. Now, it is time to realize that animals have the same right to life as we do and that there is nothing fair or right about a person with a gun shooting the harmless and beautiful creatures. The gunners like to describe what they do as character- building, but we know that to wound an animal and watch it go through the agony of dying can make nobody happy. If, as they would have you believe, gun-carrying and killing improve human character, then perhaps we should encourage war. 1. According to the text, most people do not seem to be against hunting because________. A. they have little knowledge of it B. it helps to build human character C. it is too costly to stop killing wildlife D. they want to keep wildlife under control 答案: A 指导:第四段第二句是解此题的关键句。 B. condition C. pain D. sadness 2. The underlined word "agony"in the last paragraph probably means________. A. form 答案: C 指导:通过画线词所在句子中的 but 所表达的转折关系可推出该词的含义。

3. According to the text, the films children watch at school actually ________. A. teach them how to deal with guns safely B. praise hunting as character-building C. describe hunting as an exercise D. encourage them to have guns of their own 答案: D 指导:第二段最后一句是解本题的关键。 4. It can be inferred from the text that the author seems to________. A. blame the majority of people

B. worry about the existence of wildlife C. be in favour of war D. be in support of character-building 答案: B 指导:本文最后一段反映出作者反对持枪捕措,从而揭示作者对于野生动物的生存的担忧之情。 Passage 3(典型例题) Millions of aircraft take off around the world every year. The skies they fly in seem limitless --miles of empty space. But, with the number offlights increasing each year, this emptiness no longer exists. Researchers in the world of aviation (航空) are worried about the increasing pressure on pilots and ground controllers. And increasing collisions, occurring at or near an airport, have called attention to the need for more aids (辅助设备) to aviation control. People who travel the skies are not certain about air safety. A great deal of money is spent on new and bigger aircraft and airports to deal with the vast increase in passengers travelling by air. Only a small percentage of this money is spent on navigation (导航) and other aids. Actually, suitable electronic equipment has long existed, and many companies market safety aids designed to make it safer for aircraft to take off, fly any distance, any land, whatever the weather. Yet, there are two problems to be solved. The first is to get governments, airlines and airport officials to agree to basic levels of safety aids. The second problem is to find a way of meeting these basic requirements. But no matter how well the equipment works, operators of the equipment still play an important role. Communications between pilots and ground controllers are extremely important to air safety. It is worth pointing out that the mishearing or misunderstanding of instructions in English, and the use of another language, in an international conversation, have led to two recent aircraft accidents. A new type of instrument (仪器) called FLIGHTWATCH would help pilots prevent airport collisions. It would be particularly helpful near airports. 1. The increasing number of flights leads to the fact that________. A. flying is no longer limited in the sky B. there is no empty space for aids to aviation control C. piloting and controlling planes is getting more difficult D. the pressure on the ground becomes greater 答案: C 指导:第一段第三句话"Researchersi in..thepressure on pilots and ground controllers" . . 意思是世界航空研究者们担心飞行员和地面导航的日益增长的压力,正好与 C 项吻合。 2. There is uncertainty about air safety because B. money spent on electronic equipment is far from enough B. suitable electronic equipment hasn't been invented yet D. it is dangerous for planes to take off or land 答案: B 指导:根据第二段第一句话"Peoplewhotravel theskies are not certainabout airsafet/’ 和最后三句话"Yet,thereare twoproblemstobesolvedo.. .”可知 B 为最佳选项。 3. The underlined word "collisions"probably means A. accidents in which two planes hit each other B. misunderstandings between pilots and ground controllers C. quarrels among passengers D. breakdowns of new types of instrument 答案: A 指导:根据第一段第二句和第三句“飞机好像在几公里 这么宽的无限制空间中飞行”“然而随 , A. planes become bigger for the increasing number of passengers

着飞机数量的增多,这种无限的空间不存在了” 。由于空间有限,所以撞机事件时有发生。 4. It can be inferred from the passage that ________. A. governments and officials have paid great attention to air safety B. there should be more companies to sell new safety aids C. English should be used in an international conversation D. understanding between pilots and ground controllers should be improved 答案: D 指导:根据第三段第二句“Communicationsbetween pilots and ground controllers are extremely important to air 重要的。 Passage 4(典型例题) Grown-ups know that people and objects are solid. At the movies, we know that if we reach out to touch Tom Cruise, all we will feel is air. But does a baby have this understanding? To see whether babies know objects are solid, T. Bowerdesigned a method for projecting an optical illusion (视觉影像) of a hanging ball. His plan was to first give babies a real ball, one they could reach out and touch, and then to show them the illusion. If they knew that objects are solid and they reached out for the illusion and found empty air, they could be expected to show surprise in their faces and movements. All the 16-to-24-week-old babies tested were surprised when they reached for the illusion and found that the ball was not there. Grown-ups also have a sense of object permanence. We know that if we put a box in a room and lock the door, the box will still be there when we come back. But does a baby realize that a ball that rolls under a chair does not disappear and go to never-never land? Experiments done by Bower suggest that babies develop a sense of object permanence when they are about 18 weeks old. In his experiments, Bower used a toy train that went behind a screen. When 16-week-old and 22-week-old babies watched the toy train disappear behind the left side of the screen, they looked to the right, expecting it to reappear. If the experiment- er took the train off the table and iifted the screen, all the babies seemed surprised not to see the train. This seems to show that all the babies had a sense of object permanence. But the second part of the experiment showed that this was not really the case. The researcher substituted (替换) a ball for the train when it went behind the screen. The 22-week-old babies seemed surprised and looked back to the left side for the train. But the 16-week-old babies did not seem to notice the switch(更 换). Thus, the 16-week-old babies seemed to have a sense of "something permanence", while the 22-week-old babies had a sense of object permanence related to a particular object. 1. The passage is mainly about________. A. babies' sense of sight B. effects of experiments on babies C. babies' understanding of objects D. different tests on babies' feelings 答案: C 指导:本文属于说明文,说明文的中心大多在第一段就给予介绍,本文也不例外,所以要想找出 本文中心,重点看文章第一段,尤其是文章第一段的最后一句。 2. In Paragraph 3, "object permanence'means that when out of sight, an object________. A. still exists C. still stays solid 答案: A B. keeps its shape D. is beyond reach safety”可知,D 为最佳选项,句意为:飞行员和地面人员的交流对飞行安全是极为

指导:根据本句后的两个句子判断。

3. What did Bower use in his experiments? A. A chair. 答案: B B. A screen. C. A film. O. A box. 指导:根据最后一段第二句可判断。

4. Which of the following statements is, true? A. The babies didn't have a sense of direction. B. The older babies preferred toy trains to balls. C. The younger babies liked looking for missing objects. D. The babies couldn't tell a ball from its optical illusion. 答案: D 指导:A 项:这些婴儿没有方向感;B 项:年长一点的婴儿更喜欢玩具火车,而不喜欢球;C 项: 年幼一点的婴儿喜欢寻找丢失的东西;D 项:这些婴儿不能辨别球和视觉影像。A、乙两项文章未提;文章 中所提及的实验目的是看婴儿是否有 asense of object permanence(物体存在概念),并不是他们的 爱好, 因此 B 也要排除;文章第二段最后一句说明了用球做实验时,他们弄不清球和(球)所造成的视觉错觉影像。 Passage 5(O4,湖北 C) 8: 30PM Outlook Outlook is back with a new series of reports to keep you up date with all that's new in the world of entertainment. Stories go all the way from the technical to the romantic, from stage to screen. There will be reports of the stars of the moment, the stars of the future and the stars of the past. The director with his new film, the designer with the latest fashion, and the musician with the popular song are part of the new Outlook. The program is introduced by Fran Levine. 9: 00PM Discovery When a 10-year-old boy gets a first class degree in mathematics or an 8-year-old plays chess like a future grand master, they are considered as geniuses. Where does the quality of genius come from? Is it all in the genes (基因)or can any child be turned in- to a genius? And if parents do have a child who might become a genius in the future, what should they do? In this 30-minute film, Barry John-son, the professor at School of Medicine, New York University will help you discover the answer. 10: OOPM Seieaee/Heath Is it possible to beat high blood pressure without drugs? The answer is "yes". According to the researchers at Johns Hopkins and three other medical centers. After a study of 800 persons with high blood pressure, they found that after 6 months those devoted to weight loss-exercise and eating a low-salt, low-fat food---lost about 13 pounds and became fitter. Plus, 35% of them dropped into the "normal"category (范畴). This week, Dr. Alan Duckworth will tell you how these people reduce their blood pressure to a level similar to what's achieved with Hypertension drugs. 1. The main purpose of writing these three texts is________. A. to invite people to see films B. to invite people to topic discussions C. to attract more students to attend lectures D. to attract more people to watch TV programs 答案: D 指导:根据所给的时间和节目的名字可知,这是电视上所播的三个节目。 B. famous stars 2. From Outlook, you can get a great deal of information about________. A. story tellers

C. film companies 答案: B 指导:从第一句话中可知。

D. music fans

3. Who will be most probably interested in Discovery? A. Parents who want to send their children to a school of medicine. B. Children who are good at mathematics. C. Parents who want their child to become another Albert Einstein. D. Children who are interested in playing chess. 答案: C 指导:从句中“1f parents do have achild who might become genius in the future,what should they do?”可知此答案。 4. In Science/Health, "Johns Hopkins"is________. A. a famous university C. a well-known doctor 答案: B medicalcenters"可知此答案。 5. According to the third text, which of the following has almost the same effect as Hypertension drugs? A. Exercise plus a healthy diet. B. Loss of thirteen pounds in weight. C. Six months of exercise without drugs. D. Low-salt and low-fat food. 答案: A 指导:从句中"Afterastudy of 800 persons。. .,those devoted toweight loss-exercise and eating a low-salt.. .”可知答案。 Ⅱ 题点经典类型题 1.(典型例题 B) Some time ago I discovered that one of my chairs had a broken leg. I didn't think there would be any difficulty in getting it mended, as there are a whole lot of antique (古董) shops near my home. So I left home one morning carrying the chair with me. I went into the first shop expecting a friendly reception (接待). I was quite wrong. The man wouldn't even look at my chair. The second shop, though slightly more polite, was just the same, and the third and the fourth--so I decided that my approach must be wrong. I entered the fifth shop with a plan in my mind. I placed the chair on the floor and said to the shopkeeper, "Would you like to buy a chair?"He looked it over carefully and said, "Yes, not a had chair. How much do you want for it, sir?""Twenty pounds,"I said, "OK,'he said. "I'll give you twenty pounds. ' "It's got a slightly broken leg,'I said. "Yes, I saw that, it's nothing." Everything was going according to plan and I was getting excited. "What will you do with it?" I asked. "Oh, it will be easy to sell once the repair is done.' "I'11 buy it," I said. "What do you mean?" "You've just sold it to me,"he said. "Yes, I know but I've changed my mind. I am sorry. I'U give you twenty-seven pounds for it. ""You must be crazy,"he said. Then, suddenly the penny dropped. "I know what you "You're right,"I said. "And what would you have done if I had walked in and said, "Would you mend this chair for me?" "I wouldn't have agreed to do it," he said. "We don't do repairs, not enough money in it and too much trouble. But I'll mend this for you, shall we say for a fiver?" He was a very nice man and was greatly amused(感到有趣) by the whole thing. want. You want me to repair your chair.' B. a medical center D. a drug company Hopk insandthree other

指 导 : 从 句 中 “ . . according to the resarchers at Johns .

1. We can learn from the text that in the first shop the writer________. A. was rather impolite B. was warmly recelved C. asked the shopkeeper to buy his chair D. asked the shopkeeper to repair his chair 2. The underlined word "approach"in the second paragraph means________. A. plan for dealing with things C. idea of repairing things means the shopkeeper.________. A. changed his mind B. accepted the offer C. saw the writer's purpose D. decided to help the writer 4. How much did the writer pay?. A.£5. A. honest B.£7. B. careful C. £ 20. C. smart D. £ 27. D. funny 5. From the text,we can learn that the writer was________. 命题目的与解题技巧:本文 2、3 题的命题目的是考察学生同义猜测能力。这类题的解题技巧:仔细读划 线词的上下文,根据句意或上下文语境作出判断。 【解 析】 本文讲述了作者发现椅子坏了,于是请人修理椅子时所发生的一些事情。 细节推断题。可用排除法,根据文意 B、C 很容易被排除,而 A“作者很无礼” ,文中 【答 案】 1.D 2.D B. decision to sell things D. way of doing things

3. The expression "the penny dropped" in the last paragraph

并没有这样的提示,故选 D。 词义猜测题。根据上下文猜测词义,作者前四次的境遇基本相同,当他走进第五个店时,由 “Ientered..with a-- an..would you like to buy a chair?”我们知道他这次改变了方法,不再说 . . 修理,而是问店主是否愿意买椅子,所以答案应选 D,表示“做事的力法” 。 3.C 词义猜测题。根据“the penny dropped”前面店主所说的“You must be crazy",店主认为作 者给他 27 镑买自己的椅子是不可理喻的,但是很快他又说“I know what you want. You want me to repair your chair” ,表明他明白了作者的目的是希望他能帮他修理椅子。 4.A 5.C 细节题。nver 意思是“五英镑钞票” ,文章倒数第二句说明作者需付五英镑的劳务费。 概括总结题。纵观全文,作者在四次碰壁后,马上调整行为方式,最终达到了自己的目的,说

明他很聪明。 Passage 1 Haikou: A shark was killed after being dragged to shore at Ya-long Berth beach in Sanya, South China's Hainan Province, on Sunday afternoon. It was the first time a shark had been caught in the beach area, a popular tourist site in Hainan. Local fishermen said they caught the 3-meter-long, 1-tonshark by chance when they were fishing in sea water 1,000 me- tres deep near the beach. Police temporarily (暂时的) protected the shark while oceanographers decided whether it was a species belonging to State protection. Fishermen later killed and sold the shark after oceanographers confirmed that it was a whale shark and therefore not under State protection.

The shark was believed to have drifted into the area from the deep sea due to strong waves caused last week by Typhoon Imbudo. It had no open injuries but experts said they believed it suffered from internal (内部的) bleeding. Local police officer Fu Chenggeng said beachgoers should not feel threatened by sharks because the fish never attack human beings on their own initiative. Fu said he had never heard of any shark attacks at the Sanya beach since he first started work there eight years ago. However, police said they will improve the security system to safeguard tourists' safety on the beach. 1. The underlined word "confirmed "probably means ________. A. said 答案: D Passage 2 When I was about 12, I had an enemy, a girl who liked to point out my shortcomings. Week by week her list grew; I was very thin; I wasn't a good student. I talked too much; I was too proud, and so on. I tried to bear all these as long as I could. At last, I became very angry. I ran to my father with tears in my eyes. He listened to me quietly. Then he asked, "Are the things she says true or not? Janet, didn't you ever wonder what you are really like? Well, you now have that girl's opinion. Go and make a list of everything she said and mark the points that are true. Pay no attention to the other things she said. I did as he told me. To my great surprise, I discovered that about half the things were true. Some of them I couldn't change like being very thin, but a good number I could and suddenly I wanted to change. For the first time I got a fairly clear picture of myself. I brought the list back to Daddy. He refused to take it. "That's just for you," he said. "You know better than anyone, the truth about yourself. But you have to learn to listen, not just close your ears in anger and feeling hurt. When something said about you is true, you'll find it will be of help to you. Our world is full of people who think they know your duty. Don't shut your ears. Listen to them all, but bear the truth and do what you know is the right thing to ~to." Daddy's advice has returned to me at many important moments. In my life, I've never had a better piece of advice. 1. What does "Week by week her list grew"mean? A. Week by week, my shortcomings grew more serious B. She made a list of my shortcomings and kept on adding new ones to it. C. I was having more and more shortcomings as time went on. D. She discovered more shortcomings of mine and pointed them out to me. 答案: D 指导:从文中第一句话和"Weekbyweekherlistgrow” 后的一句话知 D 选项为最佳选项。 Passage 3 Bond had walked for only a few minutes when it suddenlyoccurred to him that he was being followed. There was no evidence for it except a slight headache and a little knowing the people near him but believed in his sixth sense and he at once stopped in front of the shop window he was passing and looked occasionally back along 46th street. Nothing but a lot of miscellaneous people moving slowly on the sidewalks, mostly on back from the sun. the same side as himself, the side that was There was no sudden movement into a doorway, nobody wiping his face with a stopping in the-first doorway, B. believed C. thought D. made sure 指导:关键词 oceanographer 指“海洋学者” ,所以 that 从句后的内容是专家确定的内容。

handkerchief to avoid recognition, nobody bending down to tie a shoelace. He went on and turned into the Avenue of the Americans,

the entrance to a woman's un-derwear store where a man in a blue hat with his back to him was examining the black face paints on a particularly realistic dummy (模型) And then something grasped his arm and a voice came, "All right, Limey. Take it easy kidney. unless you want lead for lunch. "and he felt something press into his back just above the contact telegraphed to Bond's mind that there could have been no gun, there came the well remembered laughter and the lazy voice saying, "No good, James. The angles have got you. ' Bond straightened himself slowly and for a moment he could only gaze into the smiling face of Felix Leiter with bland disbelief, his built-up tension (紧张) slowly relaxing. "So you were doing a front tail, you bastard? ' he finally said. 1. What did the man mean by saying "Take it easy unless you want lead for lunch"? A. Put up your hands. B. Don't move or I'll shoot you. C. If you want to have lunch, you must listen to me. D. You go first slowly and we'll have lunch together. 答案: B 指导:从上下文知,Bond 当时以为是枪顶着他的后背,故推知本句决非本义。lead 指子弹。 Passage 4 Plagiarism is one of the most serious problems in schools and colleges. It has occurred as long as there have been teachers and students, but the recent growth of the Intemet has made it much worse. Recent studies show 30% of all students may be plagiarizing on every written homework they' ve done. What is plagiarism? It is using others' ideas and words without clearly mentioning where the information is from. The ways to avoid plagiarism are. * Put in quotations(引号) everything that comes directly from the text. * Paraphrase (转述) ,but be sure you aren't just rearranging or replacing a few words. Instead, read over what you'll paraphrase carefully; close the text so that you can' t see any of it; and write out the idea quickly in your own words. Then check your paraphrase to make sure you haven't accidentally used the same expressions. In US and UK universities, plagiarism is considered as cheating or dishonesty with punishment from a zero for the homework to a failing grade for the subject, to a loss of all grades for that term or an expel(开除)from the university for at least two terms. Several methods are taken in US universities to stop students' plagiarizing on line, Some colleges are experimenting with a program that can control the computer's operating system during the test. Teachers also go to www. tumitin, com to catch cheaters. However, students need to be made clear of thereason why plagiarizing is wrong. 1. The word "plagiarism"means________. A. cheating in the exams B. putting others' words in quotations C. rewriting others' articles D. stealing others' ideas or words 答案: D 指导: 由第一段最后一句 “Whatisplagiarism?hisusing others'ideasand words without clearly mentioning where the informationisfrom"可知 D 正确。 Passage 5

There was a tap as his fist was caught in the other man's left hand, and at the same time as the

Both warm-blooded and cold-blooded desert animals have ways to escape the desert heat. Warm-blooded desert animals, such as rats and mice, rest during the day, often staying in cool underground burrows. At night they search for food. Animals that are out during the day, such as cold-blooded lizards and snakes, are active only for short periods. As their body tem- perature rises, these reptiles move into the shade in order to cool down. In the early evening, when the sun grows weaker, the reptiles become more active and begin their search for food again. Getting enough water to survive is a major problem for all desert animals. Some desert animals, like desert birds, manage to find water holes. Other desert animals, such as the kangaroo rat and the related jerboa, get water only from the food that they eat. Because these animals eat mainly dry seeds, they must survive on a tiny amount of water. Most deserts have only a small number of frogs and toads because these animals must be near water to survive. Yet even these creatures have adapted (适应) to desert conditions. When small amounts of water collect in temporary streams, the desert-living frogs and toads become active. After a rainfall, they lay their eggs. The eggs grow into tadpoles in a few days and into adults in just four weeks, when the puddles (7](t7i;) dry up, the adult frogs or toads dig into the ground. Their metabolism (新陈代谢) slows, and they stay beneath the ground until the next rain, which may be as good as a year away. Until then, their bodily activities continue at a reduced rate. The camel--often called the ship of the desert--is one of the most successful desert animals. Camels can go for long pe- riods without water, but eventually they must drink. When water becomes available to them after a long drought, they may drink 95 liters of water or more. When water is not available, what helps camels survive the desert heat is the fat stored in their humps (驼 峰). A camel's hump contains about 12 kilograms of fat. Fat is rich in hydrogen. As the fat is digested, hydrogen from the fat combines with oxygen in the air that the camel breathes. The result is H20, or water. Each kilogram of fat that a camel digests produces about a liter of water. 1. Desert animals are usually more active at night because . A. it is cooler at night B. it is easier to find water C. they like the dark D. they are less likely to be attacked at night 答案:A 指导:文章的首句: “Bothwarm-bloodedandcold-blooded desert animals have ways to escape the desert heat. 项与此信息吻合。 ”A 2. Which of the following desert animals can get water only from the food? A. The camel C. The frog B. The kangaroo D. The rat.

答案:B 指导:第二段: “Other desert animals,such as the kangatoo rat and related jerboa,get wateronly from the food that theyeat. ”本句明确告知 B 项是正确的。注意:D 项 therat 指的是“田 鼠” 。 3. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A. All the desert animals rest during the day. B. All the desert animals don't rest during the day. C. Cold blooded desert animals are out most of the day. D. None of the cold-blooded desert animals go out during the day. 答案:B 指导:注意本句的意思是:并不是所有的沙漠动物都在白天休息。而不是所有的沙漠动物都不在

白天休息。 4. The title for this passage could probably be_________. A. Hot Deserts B. Desert Animals C. How Desert Animals Get Water D. Ways To Escape the Desert Heat 答案:B 指导:本文正是介绍“沙漠动物”的。 B. caves C. rooms D. openings 5. The underlined word "burrows"in the first paragraph can be replaced by _______ A. holes Ⅲ 答案:A 指导:根据常识和 burrows 之前的 underground 一词可以作出判断。 新高考命题探究 With fifteen years Britain and other nations should be well on with the building of huge industrial complexes of the recy cling of waste. The word "rubbish"could lose its meaning because everything which goes into the dumps would be made into something useful. dangerous and unpleasant wastes would provide energy if nothing else. The latest project is to take a city of around half a million citizens and discover exactly what raw materials go into it and what go Out. The aim is to find out how much of these raw ma terials could be provided if a plant for recycling waste were built just outside the city. This plant would recycle not only metal such as steel, lead and copper, but also paper and rubber as well. Another new-project is being set up to discover the best way of sorting and separating the rubbish. When this project is complete, the rubbish will be processed like this: First, it will Pass through sharp metal bars which will tear open the plastic bags in which rubbish is usually packed; then it will pass through a powerful fan to separate the lightest elements from the heavy solids; after that founders and rollers will break up everything that can be broken. Finally. the rubbish will pass under magnets (磁铁), which will remove the bits of iron and steel; the rubber and plastic will then be sorted out in the final stage. The first full-size giant recycling plants are perhaps fifteen years away. Indeed, with the growing cost of transporting rubbish to more distant dumps, some big cities will be forced to build their own recycling plants before long. 1. The underlined part "should be well on with"(Para. 1 ) most probably means__________. A. complete C. achieve a great deal in 答案:C B. get ready to start D. put an end to Even the most Passage 1

指导:由下文介绍的关于回收利用废品的情况可以推断出来:be well on with sth.的意思是:

achieve a greatdeal in sth.在某方面有很大成就。 2. What is not mentioned as a part of the recycling process described in Paragraph 3? A. Breaking up whatever is breakable. B. Sharpening metal bars. C. Separating light elements from the heavy ones. D. Sorting out small pieces of metal. 答案:B 指导:原文中的信息是:First,讧 willpassthroughsharp metal bars which will tear open the plastic bags..而 B 项提供的信息却是“将铁条弄尖” . 。 3. What's the main reason for big cities to build their own recy cling plants?

A. To deal with wastes in a better way. B. To protect the environment from pollution. C. To get raw materials locally. D. To make much money from those plants. 答案:C 指导:从最后一段"WiththegrowingCOStoftransporting rubbish tomore distant dumps(随着把 垃圾运到遥远的垃圾场的费用增加)”可以推断出,在大城市当地处理垃圾可以节省运费。 4. The passage is mainly about _______ A. a cheap way to get energy B. the place of recycling plants C. new ways of recycling wastes D. the probability of city environment 答案:B 指导:结合全文和第二段可以作出判断。 Passage 2 When several different people look at the same person, it is not unusual for each of them to see different things; when you alone observe one behavior or one person at two different times, you may see different things. The following are about some of the factors that lead to these different senses. (1)Each person's senses of others are formed by his or her own cultural condition, education, and personal experiences. (2)Sometimes senses differ because of what we choose to observe and how we deal with what we've observed. It is not necessarily true that person sense is based on observations of a particular person. Your observations may be totally controlled by what others have told you about this person: or you may center mainly on the situation or role relationship. Most people do not use the same standard to measure their parents, their friends, and strangers. (3)Sometimes we see only what we want to see or don't see what may be obvious to others because of our own needs, desires, or temporary emotional states. This is a process known as selective sense. Selective sense is obviously more dif- ficult when contradictory ( 矛盾的) information is particularly obvious, but it can be done. We can ignore (忽略) the stimulus "He's basically a good boy so what I saw was not shoplifting. "We can reduce the importance of the contradictory information contradictory information "All kids get into naughty hehavior. Taking a book from bookstore isn't such a big deal. "We can change the meaning of the It wasn't shoplifting because he was going to pay for it later." l. The first factor given by the author that affects our sense is_________. A. the abilities of one's hearing and seeing sensors B. cultural background and personal experiences C. experiences one learns from others D. critical measures taken by other people 答案:B 指导:由第一因素就是"cultural conditionand personal experiences"可知 B 为最佳选项。 2. While observing a particular person, A. One ix likely to talk all aspects into consideration B. Otie pays more attention to }lis , her advantages C. children often differ from grown ups in sense D. one tends to choose certain cues(提示)to look for 答案:D 指导:据文中第一段最后一句“有几个因素导致不同的感觉” ,另外,由第二个因素中第三句

"controlledbywhatothers have told you about this person"可知 D 为最佳选项。 3. Observation of the same person by two people at the same rime may differ because_______. A.their measuring standards arc not the same B. either of them may be slow to catch information C. the time for observation is not long enough D. each of them uses different language to express his her impressions 答案:A 指导:据作者给出的三个因素:①据自己的文化背景和切身经历;②我们所看到的和我们处理所 看到东西的方法;③我们自己切身需要。所以 A 为正确选项,不同人的不同标准。 4. The underlined word "stimulus" in Paragraph 4 refers to_________. A. something attractive B. selective sense C. contradictory information D. shoplifting 答案:C 指导:据文中倒数第五句“When contradictory infor mation is particularly obvious,but it can be done"和后面所举的例子, “如果一个好孩子在书店中偷书??”可知 C 项为最佳选项,忽视矛 盾性的重要性。 Passage 3 Technology has been an encouragement of historical change. It acted as such a force in England heginning in the eighteenth century, and across the entire Western World in the nineteenth. Rapid advances were made in the use of scientific findings in the manufacture (制 造)of goods, which hanged ide as about work. Onc of the first changes was that other forms of energy have taken the place of human power. Along with this came the increased use of machines to manufacture products in less time. People also developed machines that could produce the same parts for a product: each nail was exactly like every other nail. meaning that each nail could be changed for every other nail. This means that goods could be mass production, ahhough mass production required breaking production down into smaller and smaller tasks. Oncc this was done, workers no longer started on the product and lahored to complete it. Instead, they might work only one thousandth of it, other workers completing their own parls in certain order. There is nothing strange about this manufacturing work by today's standards. Highly skilled workers were unable to com pare with the new produciion techniques, as mass production allowed goods of high standard to be produced in greater num- ber than could ever be done by hand. But the skilled workers wasn't the only loser, thc common workers lost too. Similar changes forced fanners a way. The increased mechanization (械化) of agriculture freed masses of workers from ploughing the land and harvesting its crops. They had little choice but to stream toward the rapidly developing industrial centers. Increasingly, standards were set by machines. Workers no longer owned their own tools, their skill was no longer valued, and pride in their work was no longer possible. Workers fed, looked after and repaired the machines that could work faster than humans at greatly reduced cost. 1. In this passage, which of the following is NOT considered as a change caused by tile use of scientific findings in the production of goods? A. Other forms of energy have taken the place of human power. B. The increased exploitation of workers in the 19th century. C. The increased use of machines to make products in less time.

D. The use of machines producing parts of the same stand ard. 答案:B 指导:由文中第一段可知。 2. The underlined word "this" in the first paragraph refers to_________. A. the use of scientific findings B. the practice of producing the same parts for a product C. the human power being replaced by other forms of energy D. the technology becoming the encouragement of historical change 答案:C 指导:由于其他“能”代替了“人力” ,从而使“机器”生产出现。所以 C 为正确答案。 3. The underlined word "this"in the second paragraph refers to the change that______. A. each nail could be taken tile place of by every other nail B. each nail was exactly like every other nail C. producing tasks became smaller and smaller D. goods could lie mass produced 答案:D 指导:由于产品成批生产,所以产生工人只做千分之一的工作。故 D 为正确答案。 Passage 4 We find that bright children are not often held back by mixed-ability teaching. On the contrary, both their knowledge and experience are improved. We feel that there are many dis advantages in streaming pupils, a way to teach pupils in groupsaccording to their ability. It does not pay attention to the fact that children develop at different speed. It can have a bad effect on bloth the bright and not-so-bright children. After all it can be quite discouraging to be at the hottom of the top grade ! Besides, it is rather unreal to grade people just according to their intellectual (智力 的) ability. This is only one aspect (方面) of their total personality. We are concerned to develop the abilities of all our pupils to the full, not just their academic (学术理论的) ability. We also value personal qua[ides (品质)and social skills, and we find that mixed-ability teaching helps improve all these aspects of learning. In our classroom, we work in various ways. The pupils often work in groups, this gives them the chances to learn to cc-operate, to share, and to develop leadership skills. They alsci learn how to deal with personal problems as well as learning how to think, to make decisions, to analyze and evaluate (分析和评价), and to comunicate effectively. The pupils learn from each other as well as from the teacher. Sometimes the pupils work in pairs; sometimes they work on individual (个人的) tasks and assignments, and they can do this at their own speed. They also have some formal class teaching when this is right and suitable. We encourage our pu- pils to use the library, and we teach them the skills they need in order to do this effectively. An advanced pupil can do advanced work; it does not matter what age the child is. We expect our pupils to do their best, not their least, and we give them every encouragement to achieve this goal. 1. What's the author's attitude towards "mixed-ability teaching"? A. He agrees to it. B. He doubts the truth of it. C. He is very discontent about it. D. He tries to be objective at)out it. 答案:A 指导:由第一段第二句“On the contrary,both their knowledSe and experience are improved” 可知作者赞同 mixed-abilityteaching.

2. By "held back", the author means A. forced to study in the lower class B. made to remain in the same class C. prevented from advancing D. made to fall behind other students 答案:C 指导:由第一段第二句中的 improved 可知。 Passage 5 When we think about people who arc leaders, we often get a mental picture of someone who is older, smarter, and wiser than ourselves. Studies of leadership, though, intelligence. Some recent research by psychologist Red Fiedle and his colleagues showed that both intelligence and experience may be important but just now how important depends upon how stressful the work situation is and what kind of task is to be ac- complished. The researchers obtained measures of intelligence, experience, performance, and stress. Overall, these variables did not relate to one another. Men with high and low intelligence were equally likely to give good performance, as were men with more and less experience, or more and less stress with their bosses. Howevcr, when you look separately at those men who have high stress with their bosses, thc picture changes. In high stress situations, there was no association between intelligence and performance, but there was between experience and performance. In other words, in difficuh situations, it was helpful to "know the ropes". In low stress situations, the find ings were just the opposite. Experience was not related to good performance, but intelligence was. That is. when things are going well, intelligence is very useful in leadership. A study of fire fighters' performance under high and low stress conditions also found the experienced officers performed best under situations of stress. None of this is really very surprising. If you have ever had a supervisory job you probably found that at least as much energy went into handling (管理) people as went into handling the job itself. Tests of intelligence at least the ones we have now do not predict success in handling people. 1. What kind of people can do the best job in stress situation? A. intelligent people C. calm people A. a management job C. a teaching job B. experienced people D. skilled people B. an advisory job D. an organizing job have usually found that there is almost no relationship between skill as a leader and traditional measures of

2. In the third sentence of the last paragraph. "a supervisory job "refers to_______.

3. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage.'? A. In stress situations, there are no association between experience and performance. B. Some recent research suggests that most leaders arc lack of intelligence. C. In low stress situations, intelligence plays an important role in leadership. D. Generally speaking, leaders are likely to be cleverer than ordinary people. 4. In the second sentence of the fourth paragraph, to "know the ropes"most probably means________. A. to understand the situation B. to control the situation

C. to get rid of the situation D. to make sure what to do about thc situation 答案:D 考场热身 一、Passage 1 On May 21,1999, some American scientists were working at the computers to look for information they needed. Suddenly they saw a lot of very bright red spots crossing the computers' screens. At the same time the computers were working much slower. To find out what was happening, they stopped their work to check some parts of the computers. To their horror, they found out that most of their stored information was got rid of by computer viruses(病毒) ! Obviously all these computers had been infected by computer viruses. It is said that the computer viruses were made by two or three Philippine young men food of playing tricks. They all had excellent education. They created the viruses just to show their intelligence(才智). The kind of computer virus is named"Love You"Virus This virus can hide in computers for a long time. When the time comes they will attack the computers by lower- ing the important fimctlons(功能), damaging their normal pro grams or even getting rid of a great deal of information which operators of the computers often use or store. What's worse, it still can reproduce itself in great quantities within a short time. We have come to know that" Love You"Virus often at- tacks computers on Mondays and that it is spreading to many computers in the world. Among the countries that suffered computer viruses recent years are Britain, Australia, Switzer- land and the U. S. Those who made the computer viruses have been found out slowly and carefully. But till now, how to get rid of the terrible viruses remains a problem. 1. Two or three Philippine young men created the computer vi ruses to_______. A. damage the computers B. test their ability quickly C. tell the world that they were intelligent D. play a trick on operators of the computers 答案:C 2. 指导:由文章第二段的“just to show their intelligence"可知应选 C passage, computer viruses seem to According to the 指导:根据上下文可以推断本句意思是:换句话说,在困难的情况下经验有利于控制局势。 探究性命题综合测试

A. have heen in nature for years B. exist in any computers C. be able to be got rid of in the near future D. be difficult to get rid of at present 答案:D 指导:由短文最后一句可知应选 D,至今,仍无法消灭计算机病毒。 3. The most serious damage catted by the viruses is that________. A. the computer's functions are lowered B. the normal programs are damaged C. most the information stored in the computers is gone D. the computers infected by the viruses can no longer 答案:C be used 指导:因为一旦计算机中的信息被毁坏,那会带来极其严重的后果,故应选 C

4. According to the passage, which of the following is true'? A. Scientists are trying to find a way to get rid of the viruses.

B. The viruses will come to the new computer after staying in the old one for some time. C. Last year four countries found their computers were infec ted by viruses. D. The "Love You"Virus is a great harm to human health. 答案:A 指导:分析短文可知答案为 A,科学家们正努力寻找消灭计算机病毒的方法。 Passage 2 Facing sorest test. Bush declares "national tragedy" The worst attack on US soil since Pearl Harbor tore George W. Bush from what should have been routine education event Tuesday and threw him into the direst crisis of his young presidency. The US leader was reading to schoolchildren at an elemen tary school when his chief of staff, Andrew Card, interrupted him and whispered into his ear. said nothing. "We'll talk about it later, "He told reporters as he walked out of Sandra Kay Daniels' second grade class, where he also listened to 18 smiling young pupils go through routine reading and pronunciation clrills. Card's intervention came after a plane slammed into one of New York' s twin World Trade Center towers. but before a second plane crashed into the other landmark office building. The president spoke out after the second incident, aborting another education themed event and declaring "a national trag edy"and vowing an all-out hunt for the authors of what he called an apparent terrorist attack. Bush said"he had ordered that the full resources of the fed eral government go to help the victims and their families and to conduct a fullscale investigation to hunt down and to find those folks that committed this act. Terrorism against our na tion will not stand." "Today we've had a national tragedy. Two airplanes have crashed into the World Trade Center in an apparent terrorist at tack on our country. I have spoken to the Vice President. to the Governor of New York, to the Director of the FBI, "He said. 1. When Bush definitely learned the attack news from his chief of staff, Andrew Card? A. Soon after the first plane crashed into one of New York' s twin World Trade Center towers. B. In the middle of two attacks. C. Just after another plane crashed into the other landmark office building. D. On his journey to his office. 答案:B 间,选 B. 2. In "aborting another education-themed event" the word "aborting"is the same meaning with______. A. putting off C. postponing B. delaying D. stopping 指导:推理题。布什得到爆炸消息是在第一次撞击后,而在第二次撞击前,即应是两次撞击的中 The president's face clouded but he

答案: D 指导:词义解释。abort 基本意是“流产” ,延伸义是“停止、取消” 。 3. Which of the following steps Bush administration will take is not true.'? A. To find out the incident-maker. B. To help the victims and their families. C. To declare the attack day as a national tragedy. D. To put off the education themed event. 答案: D Passage 3 指导: “steps”意为“措施” ,倒数第二段和第三段中,A、B、C 项都有提及。只有 D 项不是与 A、B,C 并列的救急措施。

University researchers tested the effects of different colored walls on two groups of visitors. For the first group, the room was painted white; for the second, dark brown. The movement of each group was followed by an electric system hidden under the carpet. Tie experiment showed that those who entered the dark brown room walked more quickly, covered more area, and spent less time in the room than the people in the white environment. Dark brown stimulated(刺 激)more activity, but the activity ended sooner. Not only the choice of colors but also the appearance (外表) of a room has effect on those inside it. In a second experi ment the researchers prepared subjects with photos of faces. Three groups of subjects were used; each was shown the same photos, but each group was in a different kind of room. One group was in an "ugly"room that seemed to be a messy (零乱的) storeroom. Another group was in a common room an of- fice. The third group was in a beautiful living room. Results showed that the subjects in the beautiful loom ap- peared to give higher ratings (评价) to the faces than those in the ugly room did. Other studies suggest that students do better at tests taken in comfortable rooms than in ordinary-looking or ugly rooms. 1. An electric system under the carpet was used to discover________. A. what the visitors wanted to do B. the activity of different groups of visitors C. how the visitors entered the different rooms D. whether the visitors walked quickly or not 答案:B 指导:一个置于地毯下的电子系统用来发现不同来访者的活动情况。 room walked more than those brown one. B. slower D. slowly 2. According to the passage, the people who entered the white who were in the dark A. quickly C. quick 答案: D

指导:第一段第四句话: “实验表明那些进入深棕色(茶褐色)房间的人比在白色环境中的人走得

更快些,通过的面积多些,同时花费的时间少些。 ”该题是用相反的形式设置的。 3. "... but also the appearance of a room has effect on those inside t. "In the sentence those refers to_______. A. subjects C. some people 答案: A 指导:those 指接受实验者。 4. The passage gives us_______facts that different rooms give people different effects. A. one or two C. three 答案:C 好。 Passage 4 Let children learn to judge their own work. A child learn lng to talk does not learn by being corrected all the time: if cor rected too much, he will stop talking. He notices a thousand times a day the difference between the language he uses and the language those around him use. Bit by bit, he makes the necessary changes to make his language like other people's. In the same way, children learning to do all the other things they learn to do without being taught to walk, run, B. two D. four B. researchers D. different colors

指导:文章列举了三个不同房间给人们不同影响的事例。第一,粉刷不同颜色的房间。第二,实

验材料为面部照片在不同房间受到不同的评价。第三,学生在舒适的室内考试成绩要比平常或难看的室内

climb, whistle, ride a bicycle, compare (比较) their own performances with those of more skilled people, and slowly make the needed changes. But in school we never give a child a chance to find out his mistakes and correct them for himself. We do it all for him. We act as if we thought that he would never notice a mistake unless it was pointed out to him, or correct it unless he was made to. Let him work out, with the help of other children if he wants it, what this word says, what the answer is to that problem, whether this is a good way of saying or doing this or not. If it is a matter of right answer, as it may be in mathemat ics or science, give him the answer book. Let him correct his own papers. Why should we teachers waste time to such routine work? Our job should be to help the child when he tells us that he can't find the way to get the right answer. Let the chil dren learn what all educated persons must some day learn, how to measure their own understanding, how to know what they know or do not know. 1. According to the passage, the best way for children to learn things is by_______ A. listening to skilled people's advice B. asking older people many questions C. making mistakes and having them corrected D. doing what other people do 答案:D 指导:儿童学习技能的最佳方法是模仿他人所做的事情,篇首以语言习得为例,说明儿童观察、 模仿、运用的系列过程。 2. Which of the following does the writer think teachers should NOT do? A. Give children correct answers. B. Allow children to make mistakes. C. Point out children's mistakes to them. D. Let children mark their own work. 答案:C 指导:文章论述教学中教师应引导儿童自我发现问题、解决问题,而不应该包办代替。A、B、D 与文章观点不符。 3. According to the writer, teachers in school should__________. A. allow children to learn from each other B. point out children's mistakes whenever found C. correct children's mistakes as soon as possible D. give children more book knowledge 答案:A 指导:儿童应相互学习。根据文章中相关信息(见第一自然段末)即可判断正确答案。 ride a bicycle are_________. 4. The passage suggests that learning to speak and learning to A. different from learning other skills B. the same as learning skills C. more important than other skills D. not really important skills 答案:B 指导:根据文章陈述的观点,学习语言与学习骑车规律上是一致的。 5. The title of this passage could probably be__________. A. Let Our Teachers Stop Work B. Let Us Make Children Leam C. Let Children Correct their Exercises D. Let Children Learn by Themselves 答案:D 指导:主张儿童自学符合文章主题。 Passage 5

Robably you have seen photographs of the Grand Canyon (峡谷), the great valley in the desert country of Arizona. But you must go there yourself to feel its true size and beauty. Tie Grand Canyon is one of the greatest natural wonders of the world. The Colorado River formed the Grand Canyon over mil lions of years. Slowly, the river cut down through hard rock. At the same time. the land was rising. Today. the canyon is one and a half kilometres deep and 445 kilometres long. The el dest rocks at the bottom of the canyon are more than 1 billion years old. The width varies from about 200 metres to 29 kilo metres across. The rim (边缘) or top of the canyon is about 2, 300 metres above sea level tin the South Rim, and about 3,000 metres on the other side, the North Rink As a result, there are different kinds of plants and animals on opposite sides of the canyon. The South Run is dry desert country. The North Rim has tall forests. The canyon looks different at different times of day. and in different seasons and weather. At sunrise anti sunset the red. gold, brown, and orange colours of the rocks are especially dear and bright. In winter, the canyon is partly covered with snow. The view from the South Rim of the Grand Canyon is the best. Most visitors come to the South Rim and stay in camp- grounds or hotels. Every point along the canyon' s edge offers a different view. The North Rim of the Canyon is quieter, h takes all day to drive there from the South Rim because there is only one bridge across the Colorado River. On the way, you go through Navado Indian lands, and a colourful pink desert called "The Painted Desert". You can walk clown into the Grand Canyon, or you can go down oil the back of a mule (小 型电动机车). You can also lake a boat trip down the Colorado River, and camp on the bea ches at night. But whether you see the Grand Canyon from the top or the honom, it will be an experience that you will never forget. 1. The sea level on both sides of the Grand Canyou is________. A. the same C. various 答案:C B. changing with time D. very low

指导:文中讲到:The rim or top of the canyon is about 2,300 metres above sea level on

the South Rim,and about 3,000 metres on the other side,the North Rim.由此可见,大峡谷两边 的海拔是不同的,故 C 项正确。 2. From the passage we can know that the_______of the can yon is different at different time. A. length C. width 答案: B B. scene D. height

指导:文章第三段首句意:大峡谷在一天中的不同时间,不同的季节和天气里,看上去都是不

一样的,由此可见,大峡谷的景象是多变的,在各个时期是不同的,故 B 项正确。 3. If you go to visit the canyon you'd better go to________. A. the South Rim C. the bottom 答案: A Passage 6 Feeling hopeless and sick ;it heart, Tom turned away. For a quick moment his eyes met those of the cook, and he saw there a light of such hatred(憎恨) and fear that no words could describe. The cook moved quietly closer. He whispered to Tom in a rough voice. "Don't be too clever. B. the North Rim I). the top of a tree

指导:从第四段的首句:The view from the South Rim of the Grand Canyon is the best.可

知:大峡谷南端的景象的最美的,若你要观光,最好到 theSouthRim.故 A 项为正确选项。

Mark my words.

And he went away. His friend was in

Tom's thoughts did not delay going for long on the cook and his words.

trouble, how could he help him? He decided to slip (溜走) away as soon as possihle in search of information that would clear Jay of all doubts and bring the true criminal to justice (法院). lie has noticed a piece of old sailcloth (帆布) lying on the ship floor. With this and a length of stringily-T-)he made a package which looked very nuch like the one the police had seized(逮捕). His plan was to step to the shore and to hand it over just as the cook ha{,t ordered Jay to, hoping in this way to learn the truth about the criminals' activities. He could then persuade the police of his friend's innocence(无罪). By now it was dark. Taking the blankets out of Jay's empty bed. Tom piled them up in his extra in the shatpe of a sleeping figure. How real it lookked With the blanket pulled up high around the figure's head he could almost believe he saw it breathing. moved quietly to the door. He was about to open it when he felt it secretly turned to other way. Someone was outside and about to come in. Was his plan failed? Slipping quickly back behind the door as it opened. Tom waited. It was tile cook who was leaning(倚靠) forward now over the figure in the bed. His aim swung(挥舞)up. For an instant (立即)a long knife cut into it. l. The main cause of Tom's worry was that be__________? A. failed to save bis friend out of trouble B. knew the truth about tide criminals C. knew his friend was in trouble D. felt such hatred and fear for the cook 答案:C 指导:文中第三段第二句话有交代。Tom 的朋友 Jay 被陷害,处于麻烦之中,因此 Tom 很担心。 2. Paragraph 5 mainly describes A. Tom's hope to catch thc intru{,ier (闯入者) B. the unknown sleeping figure in Jay's bed C. the danger Tom faced in Jay's empty bed D. what Tom did to carry out his plan 答案:D 指导:为帮助好友 Jay,Tom 想出了一个计谋,该段是其实施的情况。 3. Tom's plan was to ________ A. help his friend slip away B. pretend to go along with the plan of the criminal C. find out Jay was the criminal D. pretend to bring the true criminals to justice 答案:B 指导:Tom 将计就计,诱使坏人就范。 Would probably say: "I risk danger becattse 4. If asked, Tern Pleased with this, 'Ibm

A. I wanted to help the police B. I knew my friend was innocent C. I know the cook was a murderer D. I wasn't to dismiss the criminal's plan 答案:B 指导:Tom 冒险的目的是因为他知道朋友 Jay 是无辜的(innocent)。 Passage 7 Two thieves came to a house to steal something. They dug a hole in the wall of the house.

There lived many mice in the house. The woman in the moonlight(月光) saw a mouse crawl(爬 行) into the house. "Look! In conies one, "she said to the man in thehouse. The thief was so frightened that he hurriedly crawled out of the house and said to the one waiting outside, "She found me when I was just in. "But the thief outside didn't believe him, so he said, "Let us two try to crawl into the house together. "At that time two mice happened to crawl into the house, too. The woman saw the mice and shouted, "In come two, catch them!" The two thieves were terribly frightened. The man in the house said, "You saw them come in but where are they? I will catch them tonight. "The two thieves started running away at once. The two thieves waited to make it dear whether they had been found or not the night before. The next day they acted as men selling sweet potatoes and came before the house. The man and the woman were ploughing in their fields. The rein (缰绳) broke and the woman came home for a rope. She saw two men selling sweet potatoes and wanted to buy some. She picked out two which looked like mice. At the time the man couldn't wait for her any longer in the fields and he ran back from the fields to hurry her up. The woman showed the sweet potatoes to the man and said," How they look like the two of last night. "The man said, "I asked you to fetch a rope, why don't hurry for it? 'The two thieves ran away very quickly without their sweet potatoes. 1. The two thieves failed to steal anything from the house because___________. A. they were found out B. they were frightened by what they had heard in the house C. they didn't work together well with each other D. mice stopped them from doing so 答案:B 指导:见第一段,这两个贼误以为夫妇俩是在说他们。 2. From the last paragraph, we know that A. the two thieves were famous selling sweet potatoes B. the woman recognized the two thieves C. the woman pretended to know nothing about the two thieves and made fun of them D. the two thieves didn't know that they were not found at all 答案:D 指导:这两个贼不知道没人发觉他们(偷窃的行为)。亦即他们以为有人发觉他们偷东西了,所以 night! " 就仓惶逃跑了。 3. When the woman said, "How they look like the two of last A. she referred to the two thieves B. she meant nothing C. she said it on purpose D. she referred to the mice 答案:D 指导:见第二段: “She picked out two which looked mice”可见她指的是两只老鼠。 4. "____________"is the best title for this passage. A. Two Clever Thieves B. Terrible Mice C. Hit the MaA by a Fluke D. A Clever Couple 答案:C 指导: “Hitamarkbyafluke"意为侥幸中的。文中主妇说的话都指老鼠,但正好与两个小偷的情况 一样,令他们产生误会,以致没偷成东西。 5. Which of the following statements is false? A. The two thieves not only failed to steal things but also losttheir sweet potatoes.

B. Whenever they found mice, the people in the house would try to catch them. C. The two thieves ran away at once, because they thought the woman had seen them. D. The man let the woman go home for a rope, which would 答案:D Passage 8 Radioactivity is dangerous. It may cause skin burns, it may destory good tissues(组织) and it may cause illness that could be passed on to our children and grandchildren. In case of exposure (暴露) it may even cause death. In the early days of radioactivity, scientists did not realize these dangers. Marie and Pierre Curie, after having worked for a while with radioactive materials, noticed that their fingers were reddened and swollen(红肿) and the skin was peeling off. Henry Becquerel carried a small tube with radium in it in his waistcoat pocket, and was surprised to find a bum on his chest. Other early workers also reported burns and harm of dif- ferent kinds. The strange fact is that it can harm without musing pain, which is the waming signal we expect from harmfulness. Pain makes up pull back our hands from a fire or a hot object, but a person carrying radioactive materials had no way of telling whether he is touching something too "hot"for .safety. Besides, the "burns"or other harm- fulness that radioactivity produces may not appear for wceks. A person may have been hurt without knowing it for .some time. 1. Which is the topic .sentence for this passage? A. Radioactivity may ever cause death. B. Radioactivity does great harm to children. C. Radioactivity may do harm to people without being known. D. Radioactivity is dangerous. 答案:D 指导:通读全文后,得知文章主要讲的是放射的危险性。再将选项进行比较,即可推断出答案。 2. A few people were mentioned in the passage They___________ A. were all famous scientists of great achievements B. died of radioactivity C. knew litde about radioactivity D. did experiments on themselves to find the danger of radioactivity 答案:A 指导:文章所提到的人物皆为著名的科学家。 3. According to the point of the passage, pain_________. A. causes people to die B. brings people suffering C. is an important signal D. is very much expected 答案: D 指导:从最后一段中可获信息为:放射不像烫伤与烧伤会有痛感,它是一种无痛觉的伤害。 4. The sentence in the third line of the second paragraph "the skin was peeling off"means A. the skin was coining off B. the skin was turning off C. the skin was breaking away D. the skin was fleeing 答案:A 指导:peel 的汉语意思为“剥下” 。 Passage 9 是为抓小偷。 be used for catching the thieves. homeforarope”因此她取绳子不 指导:见第二段“The rein broke and the wolikqn CalTle

Students Pay to Change to Popular Majors For most students in universities, 20,000 yuan is a big sum. But Xiao Wang paid the money soon after she learned that she could change to the popular Economics Department. By paying 20,000 yuan with the help of her parents, Xiao Wang can study the economics major she prefers. "It is difficult for graduates in chemistry to find a good job in recent years." she said. Xiao Wang is only one of the many freshmen that pay to change to popular majors. Many universities throughout China offer similar services. The charges for changing majors are from 5,000 yuan to 80,000 yuan, according to a recent re- port on the Yangzi Evening News. The fee(费 用)is decided by university authorities based on the popularity of each major, the report said. The most popular majors include computer sci- ence, law, finance(金融), information engineering and for- eign languages. A saying popular among students may explain the phenomenon (现象). Studying a good major is much better than studying in a famous university. Some educators warn students against rushing blindly to today' s popular majors. They may not be popular years later, the China Youth Daily said. But it seems that many students are career oriented(以职业为宗旨), instead of being interestbased. Freshmen are allowed to change to other departments, according to roles of the Ministry of Education. But there are no official rules on the charges. In spite of the high charges, demands to change majors are still increasing. The paper said about 100 students in the English language department of a school in Harbin changed from other departments. The depart- ment planned to admit only 50 freshmen this year. These charges have become a big income for some univer- sities, the paper said. It is expected a normal school in Harbin will get an income of 30 million yuan this year. 1. Xiao Wang would rather pay 20,000 yuan to change to the Economics Department because____________. A. her parents have persuaded her to do so B. she prefers to study the major C. she can have a promising future D. transferring to another major is very popular in university 答案: C A. law 答案:D 指导:参见文中第二段,她认为一个学化学的学生很难找一份好的工作,所以她决定换专业 B. computer C. English D. chemistry decided by___________ 2. The following are the most popular majors in China today except________. 指导:第二段第七行介绍了目前最受欢迎的几个专业,不包括化学。

3. The fees that freshmen hand in to change to a new major are A. headmasters B. the Ministry of Education C. university authorities D. the China Youth Daily 答案:C

指导:第四段中提到目前对收费仍无正式确定,所以都由各大学自行决定。

4. The writer wrote the passage to_________. A. enoourage students to change to popular majors B. expect universities to charge less money for changing majors C. tell us a new phenomenon in universities D. warn the students to be careful if they want to change majors 答案:C 指导:C 项“告诉我们大学中的一个新现象”这是作者主要要表达的内容。

Passage 10 Do you find getting up in the morning so difficult that it's painful? This might be called laziness, but Dr. Kleitman has a new explanation. He has proved that everyone has a daily energy cycle. During the hours when you labour through your work you may say that you' re "hot". That' s true. The time of the day when you feel most energetic is when your cycle of body temperature is at its peak. For some people the peak comes during the forenoon. For others it comes in the afternoon or evening. No one has discovered why this is so, but it brads to such familar monologues as "Get up, John! You'll be late for work a gain! "The possible explanation to the trouble is that John is at his temperature-and-energy peak in the evening. Much family quarrelling ends when husbands and wives realise what these energy cycles mean, and which cycle each member of the family has. You can't change your energy cycle, but you can learn to make your life fit it better. Habit can help. Dr. Kleitman believes. Maybe you' re sleepy in the evening but feel you must stay up late anyway. Counteract your cycle to some extent by habitually staying up later than you want to. If your energy is low in the morning but you have an important job to do early in the day, rise before your usual hour. This won't change your eyery, but you'll get up steam and work better at your low point. Get off to a slow start which saves your energy. Get up with a leisurely yawn and stretch. Sit on the edge of the bed a minute before putting your feet on the floor. Aviod the troublesome search for clean clothes by laying them out the night before. Whenever possible, do routine work in the afternoon and save tasks requiring more energy or concentration for your shaper hours. 1. If a person finds getting up early a problem, most probably_________. A. he is a lazy person B. he refuses to follow his own energy cycle C. he is not sure when his energy is low D. he is at his peak in the afternoon or evening 答案:D 指导:根据文中第二段,有些人的精力高峰出现在下午和晚上,所以让他早起很困难,A 项“他 是个懒人” 项“他不遵守自己的能量循环” 项“他不能确知他的能量何时最低”都不正确。 、B 、C 2. Which of the following may lead to family quarrels according to the passage? A. Unwareness of energy cycles. B. Familiar monologues. C. A change in a family member's energy cycle. D. Attempts to control the energy cycle of other family members. 答案:A 指导:文中第二段最后一句话说: “当夫妻意识到什么是能量循环以及家中每个成员能量循环状 况时他们就会停止吵架。 ”言外之意,他们吵架是由于他们没意识到什么是能量循环,即选项 A 正确。 3. If one wants to work more efficiently at his low point in the morning, he should___________. A. change his energy cycle B. overcome his laziness C. get up earlier than usual D. go to bed earlier 答案:C 指导:第三段最后一句话给出了本题答案。早起有助于你在精力低落时仍然高效工作。A 项“改 变能量循环方式” 、 B 项“克服懒惰” 项“早睡”都不正确。 、D

4. You are advised to rise with a yawn and stretch because it will___________. A. help to keep your energy for the day's work B. help you to control your temper early in the day C. enable you to concentrate on your routine work D. keep your energy cycle under control all day 答案:A 指导:第四段第一句话说,慢点起床可以让你节省能量,所以选 A 项。B 项“控制体温” 项“让 。C 你做日常工作时集中精力” 项“让你的能量循环得以控制”都不正确。 、D Passage 11 So much to do, so little time. So much infonnation, so little time to read it. In this age there is more information than ever before. There is not enough time to read everything wewant to read. However, you can consume more information in shorter time through speed-reading. This article will not makeyou read 3,000 words per minute, but it will show you how to increase your speed significantly. You will also learn the basictechniques of speed-reading, along with the dos and don' ts of speed-reading. When you first learned to read, you would say the word out loud and sound it out. Then you might whisper the word because people can become annoyed when you read aloud. The stage you are now at is saying the word in your head. Most people tend to read this way. Saying the word in your head will cut your reading speed tremendously (极大地). How do you calculate your reading speed? The speed is measured by how many words per minute you can read. Get some reading material, preferably a book. Find out how many words are on the page. Time yourself for one minute. Start your timer and start reading. When the timer beeps, stop. If you counted 500 words on the page and you read half of the page, and then you are probably reading at 250 words per minute. The first thing about speed-reading is looking at the word and recognizing it. Don't say the word in your mind, just look at it and recognize its importance. Later you will recognize clumps of four words or more to increase your speed. This is the first and most important step in speed-reading. The next step is technique. As with any other skill, speedreading requires technique. You should first be sitting up straight with your book flat on a horizontal (水平的) surface, such as a table or desk. Next,you should be able to see the entire page. This is necessary if you want to recognize clumps of words. Lastly, you should be focused. It' s hard to read with a lot of noise. Find a quiet place to read. This will help your understanding of the text. You need something to guide your eyes while reading. That's right, you should use your hand. Remember when you were little, you would read using your finger. That is a great technique, only now you're using your hand to underline each line. Move your finger smoothly across the page. No need to go rush, start out slow. Keep your eyes focused on the words as you recognize them while using your hand as a guide. This will increase your'speed. The third step is practice. Practice makes perfect. Set time intervals (间歇). Read using different techniques, but make sure you understand what you are reading. 1. Which of the following statements is true according to the text? A. Now there is limited information than ever before. B. Now conditions ask people to use less time to know more information. C. Now people can read what they like. D. The less you read, the more time you will spend.

答案:B

指导:我们这个时代的信息比任何时候都多。在这样的时代里,人们只有提高阅读能力,加快阅

读速度,花较少的时间,获得较多的信息。 2. What is the subject discussed in the text? A. What speed-reading is. B. Why we need speed-reading. C. Now it is much information time. D. People should practise speed-reading in different kinds of ways. 答案:A 阅读。 3. The underlined sentence "you should be focused'in the fifth paragraph means that A. a person should devote his attention to it while reading B. your feelings will be hurt while reading C. a person should smooth away difficulties while he reads D. you should pay attention to your faults while you are reading 答案:A 指导:从第五段中可以看出,只有集中精力才能有效地进行阅读。有许多噪音很难进行阅读。 Passage 12 Tides(潮汐)are created mainly by the pull of the moon on the earth. The moon's pull causes water in the oceans to be a little deeper at a point closet to the moon and also at a point farthest from the moon on the opposite side of the earth. These two tidal"Waves"follow the apparent(明 显的) movement of the moon around the earth and strike nearly every coast line at in- tervals of about twelve hours and twenty-five minutes. After reaching a high point, the water level goes down gradually for a little more than six hours and then begins to rise toward a new high point. Hence, most coast lines have two tides a day, and the tides occur fifty minutes later each day. Differences in the coast line and in channels in the ocean bottom may change the times that the tidal wave reaches different points along the same coast line. Tne difference in water level between high and low tide varies from day to day according to the relative positions of the sun and the moon because the sun also exerts a pull on the earth, although it is only about half as strong as the pull of the moon. When the sun and the moon are pulling along the same line, the tides rise higher, and when they pull at fight angles to one another, the tide is lower. The formation of the coast line and variations(变化)in the weather are additional factors which can affect the height of tides. Some sections of the coast are shaped in such a way as to cause much higher tides than are experienced in other areas. also cause tides to be higher. 1. The height of the tide is affected by all of the following except_________. A. the position of the sun B. the direction of the wind C. variations in the coast line D. channels in the sea bottom 答案:D 指导:潮汐的高度受太阳、风向和海岸线差异的影响,海沟只影响潮汐的时间。由文中 Differences..in channels in the ocean bottom may change the time.可知。 . 2. If the pull of the sun equaled the pull of the moon, tides would_________. A. sometimes be higher than they are now B. be the same height as they are now C. no longer be affected by the wind A strong wind blowing toward the shore may 指导:本文所谈及的是快速阅读,包括为什么要快速阅读、快速阅读速度的测定和怎样进行快速

D. be of equal height all the time 答案:A 指导:太阳对地球的吸引力只有月亮的一半(..it is only about half as strong as the pull . of the moon)如果相同并作用在一个方向上,潮汐会比目前高。本题必须正确理解设问的意思 3. If one high tide occurs at 1: 00 a. m. , the next high tide at the same point will occur at about_________. A. 1: 25 a.m. the same day B. 1: 00 p.m. the same day C. 1: 25 p.m. the same day D. 1:50 a.m. the next day 答案:C 指导:潮汐 12 小时一次,每 24 小时向后延迟 50 分钟,题干中所给定的时间是 12 小时间段,故 应是 25 分钟。 Passage 13 Did you ever think someone was scary because they looked different or ate strange food? Well, they might think the same about you! One of the things we all need to do is to celebrate variety. We shouldn't think badly of people from other cultures because they are different from our own. Sometimes we judge people from other countries unfairly, because one person from that culture did something bad. Well, has your class ever been punished just because a few kids were causing trouble? Has your whole family ever been blamed for something your little sister did? It doesn't seem fair, does it? It's just asunfair to blame a whole culture for what two or three people do. So here are some things that you can do to help yourself understand other cultures: 1. Find common ground! Remember that even though some people look different on the outside, it doesn't change what they look on the inside. They still have the same feelings! 2. Don't blame everyone because of one! 'So let's-say someone from another culture is being mean and you decide to avoid everyone from that culture. Well, think about it Why are you blaming them for something they didn't have anything to do with? Put yourself in their shoes. How would you feel? Trying, to understand how a person thinks can be a very good way to understand why they are acting that way. Remember, other people may not think the same way. 3. Try to make friends with people from other cultures. You could ask them what they know about their culture, or what it was like in their country. Try foods from that culture, or ask them if they know any words in that language. You might be surprised at how pure other cultures can be! You call have great discussions and have lots of fun doing new things. 4. Know that people always judge other people. If you know what you are thinking then you can help make things easier. Pay attention to what you think about other people. 1. What is mainly discussed in this passage? A. Why there are differences between people. B. What to do to understand other cultures. C. How people feel when they meet people from other cultures. D. Where differences between people lie. 答案:B 指导:主旨大意题。本文第一段总起提出面对文化差异人们所产生的错误认识的问题,然后就此 提出建议。 2. In the author' s opinion, one mistake about how we treat cultural differences is that we_________. A. cannot see and share what people have in common B. believe that other people may certainly thin badly of us It helps!

C. don't want to learn anything valuable in other cultures D. try to find the reason for the differences 答案:B 指导:细节理解题。作者在第四段建议我们要 find common ground.可见他认为不能做到这一 点是人们的错误所在。故选 A 3. The underlined word "celebrate" here most probably means_________. A. to feel proud of B. to express ideas to C. to praise and enjoy D. to pay attention to 答案: C 指导: 词义猜测题。 celebrate 通常的意义是 “庆祝” 但这里应是 , “赞赏” 之意。 celebrate variety 意即要把文化的差异看作是一件好事。 4. By saying "... then you can help make things easier. "the author means you will_________. A. make more friends B. know more about the world C. have more fun in life D. find fewer differences between you and others 答案:D 指导:猜测句意题。从作者的总体论述中不难看出,他的观点是“只要我们能换位思考,有文化 包容心理,那么一切事情都好办” ,换言之, “你就会发现不同文化间无所谓有什么差别了。 ” Passage 14 Just put on your special clothes in the morning and you could jump 3 meters into the air and even carry more than 60 kilograms without getting tired. The walk to school would be very, very easy. Such sophisticated clothing is one of the products that could be created using "wearable robotics"technology. Designed to improve a person's senses and skills, the device (装置) could be as simple as a hearing aid. Or it could be a full-body suit that senses what you're going to do, then helps you do it better. Robot legs help a man carry a heavy load. "A Superman suit would be the final result in wearable robotics, "said Francois Pin, head of robotics and energy systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (橡树岭国有验室), US. While these suits are at least ten years away, in some are- as the technology is already in use. Researchers are developing artificial arms and legs that allow old, disabled or injured people to move freely. A robot is a device that responds to a command. You've probably played with simple robots, such as toy cars or airplanes that respond to buttons you push on a remote control (遥控). Wearable robotics goes further. Instead of just receiving information through a wire or remote control, the robotic de- vice can send information back to its controller. Suppose you wore a sleeve (袖子) that has sensors where your joints (关节) are. Every time you move your arm, the sleeve senses your movements and sends the information to a robot, which then moves its arm just as you did. When the robot hits or touches something, it sends a signal back to the sleeve and you sense the action. In this way, scientists are working to wrap the robot around the person. Their goal is to make the sleeve, shoe or suit help you do what you want to do. 1. Which of the following can replace the underlined word "so phisticated"in Paragraph I? A. Expensive B. Super-new

C. Advanced 答案:C

D. Full of electricity

指导:词义猜测题。文章字里行间都表明这种衣服非常超前。 B. Hearing Aids D. Supersuits

2. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage? A. Remote Controls C. Robot Legs 答案:D

指导:主旨大意题,整篇短文讲述的是 supermanSuits 问题。

3. Which of the following statements shows the difference between robots and wearable robotics? A. Toy cars or planes can respond to buttons you push on a remote control. B. Robots can receive information through a wire. C. Some day supercharged clothes will be able to wrap around your body. D. Some day your robot-powered shoes will be able to report back as well as you give them orders. 答案:D 指导:推断题。C 选项没说出区别,从倒数第三段及全文可推断出 D 项正确。 4. From the passage, we can infer thatv_________. A. it will be 10 years before robotic devices are in use B. the wearable robotics technology is quite mature in some areas C. the robots in the robotic devices will do whatever you want to do D. people must become lazier and less healthy in the future 答案:B 指导:细节题。由第四段最后一句可知。 Passage 15 Without most people realizing it, there has been revolution in office work over the last ten years. Before that time, large computers were only used by large rich companies that could af ford the investment. With the advancement of technology, small computers have come onto the market which are capableof doing the work which used to be done by much larger and expensive computers, so now most smaller companies can use them. The main development in small computers has been in the field of word processor system, or WPS as they are often called. 40% of British offices are now estimated to have a word processor and this percentage is growing fast. There are many advantages in using a word processor for both secretary and manager. The secretary is freed from a lot of daily work, such as retyping letters and storing papers. He or she can use this time to do other more interesting work for the boss. From a manager's point of view, secretarial time is being made better use of and money can be saved by doing daily jobs automatically outside office hours. But is it all good? If a lot of daily secretarial work can be done automatically, surely this will mean that fewer secretaries will be needed. Another worry is the increasing medical problems related to work with visual display units (显示器). The ease of a slow loss of sight among people using word processors seems to have risen greatly. It is also feared that if a woman works at a VDU for long hours, the unborn child in her body might be killed. Safety screens to put over a VDU have been invented but few companies in England bother to buy them. Whatever the arguments for and against word processors, they are a key feature of this revolution in office practice. 1. Ten years ago, large computers were only used by large companies because_________. A. small companies did not have enough money to buy such expensive computers B. large computers could not do the work that small compa C. large computers did not come onto the market nies can do today

D. small companies did not need to use this new technology 答案:A 指导:推理判断题。根据文章第一段第二句我们可以逆向推理,小公司不用大型电脑是因为他们 work over the last ten years is 出不起这笔钱。 2. According to the writer, the main progress made in office _________. A. the saving of time and money B. the use of computers in big companies C. the wide use of word processors D. the decreasing number of secretaries 答案:C 指导:细节判断题。由第二题内容可知。 3. We can infer from the passage that with the use of word processors,_________. A. some secretaries will lose their jobs B. all jobs can be done automatically outside office hours C. medical problems related to work with a VDU must have increased D. the British companies will make less money 答案:A 业。 4. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. There are both advantages and disadvantages in using a word processor. B. The British companies care much for the health of the people using word processors. C. The technology in the field of computers has been greatly advanced over the last ten years. D. Using word processors, secretaries can get more time to do more interesting work for their bosses. 答案:B 指导:推理判断题。运用排除法或从第四段最后一句可知选项 B 的说法不当。 Passage 16 It is difficult for doctors to help a person with a hurt brain. Without enough blood, the brain lives only three to five minutes. Sometimes the hurt brain gets better by itself. More often the doctors can't fix the hurt. Sometimes they are afraid to try something to help. It is dangerous to work on the brain. The doctor might make the person worse if he works on the brain. Dr Robert J. White, a famous professor and doctor, thinks he knows a way to help. He thinks doctors should try to make the brain very cold. If it is very cold, the brain can live without blood for 30 minutes. This gives the doctors a longer time to do something for the brain. Dr White tried his idea on 13 monkeys. First he taught them to do different jobs. Then he operated on them. He made the monkeys' blood go through a machine. The machine cooled the blood. Then the machine sent the blood back to the monkeys' brains. When the brain temperature was 50 degrees, Dr White stopped the blood to the brain. After 30 minutes he turned the blood back He warmed the blood again. After their operations, the monkeys were like they were before. were healthy and busy. Each one could still do the jobs the doctor had taught them. Dr White's idea works well on the monkeys. Are there other problems with human beings? Dr White thinks doctors will use his idea on human beings. He thinks it will help people who have heart problems, too. A person doesn't have to die when his heart stops. Doctors can start it again. The problems come when the brain is without blood for three to five minutes, the person has a living body, but a dead brain. Maybe in the future, doctors will try Dr White'.s ide~ When the They 指导:推理判断题。根据第四段第二句,我们可以推测,使用文字处理系统会导致更多的秘书失

person's heart stops, the doctors will quickly trY to cool the brain. They will have 30 minutes to start the heart again. Maybe there will be no problem with the brain. 1. People probably die when_________. A. their brain dies B. their heart stops C. they stop breathing D. their brain becomes very hot 答案:A 指导:推理判断题。由短文最后一段可知,心脏停止跳动,医生还能让它重新跳动,但是大脑死 了,空有活的身体也是没用的。从而得出答案 A. 2. Dr White thinks his idea about cooling the brain will work because_________. A. he has tried it on people B. he has tried it on monkeys C. he has tried it on heart problems D. he has tried it on himself 答案:B 指导:细节理解题。由短文的第四段可知,Dr White 冷却大脑的方法在猴子身上做了实验,并 达到了预期的目的。 3. Which of the following is NOT true? A. Doctors may start the heart again in 30 minutes one day. B. Doctors can start the heart again after 30 minutes. C. The brain can't live without blood. D. The method works on monkeys. 答案:B 指导:细节判断题。由整篇短文可知,Dr White 的实验最多能给医生提供 30 分钟的时间,否则 就准以让心脏重新跳动。 4. According to the writer,_________. A. it is not difficult to repair the brain damage B. doctors' working on a hurt brain may make things worse C. brain is not an important part in one's body D. brain doesn't need blood 答案:B 指导:推理判断题。由第一段最后两句可以推知在大脑上出差错比在其他部分出差错都要糟糕。 Passage 17 During the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the London District of South-wark was prosperous (繁荣的), and a very important and farreaching development was happening at Bankside, an area situated just beside the church now known as Southwark Cathedral. The Rose Theatre, the Swan, the Hope Playhouse and Bear Garden were set up here along with the famous Globe Theatre, in which Shakespeare acted. William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright whose body of works is considered the greatest in English litera ture. He is commemorated (纪 念) in Southwark Cathedral today by the modern memorial window in the south aisle (通道). The window was designed by Christopher Webb in 1954, after an earlier window had been destroyed in the war. Below it is a figure of Shakespeare, carved by Henry McCarthy in 1912, set against a background of seventeenth-century Southwark in relief ( 浮 雕 ), showing the Globe Theatre, Winchester Palace and the Tower of St. Saviour's Church. This memorial was provid- ed by public support and was dedicated (奉献) in 1911, and every year a birthday service, attended by many great actors and actresses, is held here in honour of Shakespeare's genius. Shakespeare's brother Edmund was buried here in 1607, and, although the position of Edmund's grave is unknown, he is

commemorated by an inscribed (刻写的) stone. 1. In Shakespeare' s lifetime, Bankside in Southwark was well known for_________. A. the style of its buildings B. Shakespeare's performances at the Globe Theater C. its influence on public taste D. the number of plays produced there 答案:B 指导:推理判断题。由第一段最后一句可知莎士比亚曾经演出过的著名的 Globe Theatre 就在 Bankside,从而得出答案 B. 2. The original memorial window to Shakespeare in Southwark Cathedral was___________. A. designed in 1954 B. destroyed by enemy action. C. replaced during World War. D. carved in 1912 答案:B 指导:推理判断题。由第二段第三句可知,以前建造的窗子毁在战争中,即答案 B. 3. Under the window there is a_______. A. painting of seventeenth-century Southwark B. wooden picture C. carved figure D. grave of Shakespeare's brother 答案:C 指导:细节考查题。由第二段第四句可得出答案 C 4. This information would most likely be found on_______. A. an advertisement B. a historical stone C. a tourist guide D. a notice 答案:C 指导:推理判断题。因为本文主要介绍了莎士比亚曾经演出过的剧院,所以应属于旅游指南。 Passage 18. In the United States the most popular form of folk dancing since the earliest days has been squa,redancing. In early times, when men and women worked in gr6ups to build a bam(牲口) or harvest crops, they danced when the work was done. The music coming from a violin formed the most part, but if there was no one to play an instrument, clapping was used to produce the rhythm by which to dance. The early settlers danced in a store, in a Dam, or in a farm kitchen. A square is formed by four couples who stand facing the center of the square, Each couple stands on one side of the square, the boy on the left and the girl on the right. The caller is an important part of the dance, since he tells the dancers which steps to do. If the dancers do not know the steps, he teaches them. It takes time to learn to be a good caller, and good callers are always in demand. These are the names of some of the steps the dancers do: Form a square; Circle; Honor your partner; Promenade (walk about slowly); Swing your partner; Form a star. There are many more. As the caller tells the dancers what to do next, they move to form the pattern he calls. Large or small numbers of people can dance at one time. Sometimes 800 or 1,000 people may be dancing at the same time. Or there may be only one square of eight people. Costumes are worn by some who square-dance, This makes the dancing more colorful to watch. The costumes vary from place to place. Women often wear full skirts of variouscolors with a pretty

blouse, Men have colored shirts and west- ern trousers that they wear only when square-dancing. In some country areas, everyone wears his best clothes. 1. From the passage we know that squaredaneing originated from_______. A. the schools C. big cities 答案:B B. the countryside D. factories

指导:细节判断题,由文章第一段第二句可知。

2. In the first paragraph, the underlined word “clap” means“_______”. A. hit the hands together to make a sound B. a kind of thing like a radio C. shout at the top of one's voice D. knock something to make a sound 答案:A 指导:猜测词义题。前面说“if there was no one to play an instrument",此处接着说“就 用 clap 的方式打节奏(rhythm)",由此可推知其为“拍手”之意。 3. If 1,000 people dance at the same time, how many squares can be formed? A. Only one big square, B. 1,000 squares. C. More than 100 squares. D. Less than 100 squares. 答案:C 指导:计算题。由第二段可知,每一个 square 由八个人组成,由此可推知。 4. We can know from the passage that spuare-dancing _______. A. is a nationwide custom of the US B. varies from one place to another C. is perforrmed only by people with colorful dresses D. has changed Arrericans' dressing customs 答案:A 指导:短文第一段第一句可知。 二、Passage l A Shanghai boy, Chen Yinhua, is going to take part in theGlobal Young Leaders Conference in Washington, D. C. and New York from July 4--15. It is organized by the Congressional Youth Leadership Council (CYLG). "I'm very lucky to get this opportunity to make friendswith so many excellent students.' said Chen, who attends Shanghai Nanyang Model High School. "It is a once-in-a-life-time experience." The 18-year-old will join 350 secondary school students from across the world, all of whom have shown leadership po- tential and academic ability. As well as trying out simulations (模拟) designed to develop leadership and decision-making skills, the students will communicate with influential figures in politics, finance, culture and the diplomatic (外交的) world. Chen knew nothing about CYLC until last March, when the organization invited him to take part in the conference. It was his SAT application form that caught CYLC's eye at the end of last year. "I was totally surprised but felt very honored after I learned about it from the Intemet," he recalled. As monitor of his class, he was involved in a wide range of school affairs. His many activities included debating, basketball, robot research and producing his class newsletter. "Although these things took up plenty of time, I enjoyed the feeling of making decisions.

And I still worked very hard in the classroom as well as at home,'Cben said proudly. Besides passing SAT1 and SAT2, he scored 663 in the TOEFL exam while only in Senior 1. Chen will continue his studies at Fudan,a University. After that, he hopes to build on his interest in international relations, working for an organization like the United Nations. 1. What's the purpose of the Global Young Leaders Conference? A. To discuss some important matters in the world. B. To develop young people' s leadership skills. C. To compete and decide who will be the best to be leaders. D. To offer chances for young people to communicate with 答案:B 导能力。A 不符合事实,C、D 是中心目的的附带活动。 2. By saying "It's a once-in-a-lifetime experience" Chen Yinhua means"____________" A. this is the first time for him to have such experience B. he will value this chance to perform excellently C. this kind of chance is seldom given to a school student D. he is the only one to get such an opportunity 答案:B 指导:细节理解题。once-in-a-hfetxme“一生中只有一次的” ,ChenYinhua 如是说,说明他对 此机会的重视和珍惜。其他意义都不合乎此种环境的心理。 3. Chen Yinhua was invited to the conference because________. A. he is a rather famous person among the students invited B. he has in him 答案:C 指导:细节推理题。根据第五段第二句可知。 4. Form the last three paragraphs we know Chen Yinhua _________. A. does well only in public activities B. has no interest in school C. studies English the best of all his lessons D. has the nature of being a leader 答案:D 指导:推断题。A、B,C 与原文意思不符。可推知。是后一段最后一句。 Passage 2 There is one foreign product the Japanese are buying fasterthan others, and its popularity has caused an uneasy feeling among many Japanese. That product is foreign words. Gairaigo--words that come from outside--have been part no longer understood by native speakers. But in the last few years the tfi. ckle (涓涓细流) of foreign each other and could lead to many people forgetting the good 的) Japanese. "The popularity of foreign words is part of the Japanese interest in anything new, "Days university lecturer and writer Takashi .%alto. "By using a foreign word you can make a subject seem new, which makes it easier for the media (媒体) to pick up. ' words has become a flood, and people fear the increasing use of foreign words is making it hard for the Japanese to understand qualities of traditional (传统 of the Japanese language for centuries. Mostly borrowed from English and Chinese, these terms are often changed into forms special skills of leadership in his school C. he did quite well in his SAT application form sore influential people take much interest each other. 指导:细节理解题。从文中第三、四自然段可知,这次会议的中心目的在于培养和发展学生的领

"Experts (专家) often study abroad and use English terms president of the National Language Research Institute. "Foreign words find their way easily into announcements made should really be explained in Japanese.”

when they speak with people in Kal,

their own fields. Those terms are then included in government white papers,'said Muturo

to the general public, when they the stud)rd their own

Against the flow of new words. many Japanese turning back to off booksellers'shelves.

language Saito's Japanese to Be Read Aloud is one of many language books that ate now flying "We were expecting to sell the books to young people," said the writer, "but it turns out they are more popular wii the older generation, who seem uneasy about the future of Jal anese." 1. What advantages do foreign words have over traditional Jal nese terms? A. The ideas expressed in foreign words sound new. B. Foreign words are best suited for announcements. C. Foreign words make new subjects easier to understand. D. The use of foreign words makes the media more popular. 答案:A 指导:第 5 段末提到原因, “用外来词语你可以让一个话题看上去很新鲜,而这样一来媒体更容 易感兴趣。 ” 2. In the opinion of Takastii Saito, Japanese people _________. A. are good at learning foreign languages B. are willing to learn about new things C. trust the media D. respect experts 答案:B 指导:还是第 5 段, “外来词语受欢迎部分原因是日本人对任何新东西都感兴趣” ,因此选 B. 3. Which of the following plays an important part in the spreace of foreign words? A. The media and government papers. B. Best-selling Japanese textbooks. C. The interest of young Japanese. D. Foreign products and experts. 答案:A 指导:第 6 段谈到这些词语的来历,出现在政府公文、广播中,即 A。 4. The book Japanese to Be Read Aloud _________. A. sells very well in Japan B. is supported by the government C. is questioned by the old generation D. causes misunderstanding among the readers 答案: A Passage 3 On May 13,1787, a fleet of English ships set sail for Aus tralia with about 750 people. These men and women were not ordinary passengers, They were convicts being sent to Austial ia as punishment for their crimes. Laws in England during this period were very hard, and people were punished severely for even the smallest crimes. A man could be sentenced to death for hunting on another man's punishment was property or he could be put to death for chopping down someone else's tree. For many other crimes, the "transportation". The guilty person was shipped to a distant land where he was and children were shipped to other lands too. forced to work without pay. Often women 指导:关于这本书。作者说“are now flying off booksellers’s he lves” ,因此选 A.

In 1770, Captain Cook had discovered the continent of Australia and claimed it for England. At first, England found no use for this vast land on the other side of the world, but then the American Revolution took place. England could no longer ship her convicts to the American colonies (殖民地). So she turned to Australia as a good place for her prisoners. A former naval captain was picked to accompany the convicts to the new colony. His job was to help them build a settlement which he would govern. The captain was glad to go. He believed the convicts could learn to live in peace. He felt they would obey the laws in the new country. In January 1788, the English fleet and its cargo--the convicts landed on Australia. After days of searching, the captain found a good harbor. The land nearby had trees and streams. The convict colony made a new beginning here. Australia's history thus began. 1. The article tells us mainly about___________. A. a fleet of English ships B. hunting on other people's property C. a convict settlement in Australia D. how Australia was discovered 答案:C 指导:纵观全文,本文讲述英国政府在发现澳大利亚后一直没有利用这块土地,美国独立战争之 后它不能将罪犯流到美国,于是将澳大利亚作为其流放地,因此选 C 2. The underlined word "convict'(in Paragraph 1) most probably means ________. A. a person who lost his family B. a person who has done crimes and is sent to prison C. a native living in the area D. a person who is sentenced to death 答案:B 指导:由上下文可知,convict 指犯了罪(crimes)受罚(punishment)的人,英国政府将其流放到 “agood place for prisoners",因此选 B. 3. Why did England send convicts to Australia? A. It wanted to make Captain Cook happy about Australia. B. It wanted convicts to find a good harbor and good land. C. It could not feed its overpopulation. D. It could no longer send convicts to America. 答案:D 指导:从短文第三段的描述中知,由于美国发动了独立战争取得独立,英国政府不能将罪犯流放 到美国,这才将目光投向澳大利亚。 4. Which statement seems true according to the passage? A. Former naval captains always started new colonies. B. The American Revolution had something to do with the convicts. C. A great country may grow from a small colony. D. Convicts are not easy to be governed. 答案:C 指导:文中只提到“aformernaval captain” 项显然太武断;B 项说美国的独立战争与那些罪 ,A 犯有关系,这种说法太牵强,综合判断,C 项是正确的。 Passage 4 You would like to take good photographs of real-life situations but you have few ideas for pictures. I suggest you look a- round you. The everyday world is full of scenes being played by an ever-changing group of actors. You probably passed a dozen picture situations without noticing on your way to work this morning.

The realistic approach (态度) to photograph has been perfected in the past by such masters as Henri Cartier-Bresson and Bill Brand. But while you can learn a great deal from looking at the works of others, any success you can hope to achieve in this field has to come from developing an individual approach. The main requirement for any photographer has little to do with technical matters. You must develop an awareness (观察) of the world around you and the people who live in it, and you should learn to notice when a situation may develop to a point where you will be able to take a good picture. Those who have reached this happy state will be prepared when that moment comes, and will simply raise their camera quickly and shoot. Others who are not so aware will be struggling with the camera cases and lens (镜头) caps. Film manufactures must be delighted at the'thought of the inexperienced photographer setting out in search of the right situation and the right moment. Many miles of costly material have passed through thousands of cameras as this endless search continues. But although this waste must be put down to inexperience, you'll find that even the professionals have to use a lot of film when they are out shooting. Not every shot is going to be a winner. If you look at the works of even the best photographers, you'll notice dozens of pictures have had to be taken only because they lead up to the successful shot of a situation that the photographer has obviously been observing through the lens. You may find that you have taken one or two pictures after the right moment has pas- sed as well There is seldom more than one shot which stands out. There is just one point where it all comes together, and often you have to waste film to catch that precious moment. 1. According to the passage, one can become a better real-life photographer by________. A. watching the photographers at work B. learning about famous photographers C. just taking a great many photographs D. developing skills and ideas for yourself 答案: D 指导: 从文中的描写可以获知, 作者谈到如何才能成为一个好的摄影师, 谈到要注意身边的素材、 观察周围的世界、还要注意摄影技巧,因此选 D. 2. The writer thinks that a photographer is required to________. A. be able to tell when a good situation might come B. go out and search for unusual situations C. be highly skilled in camerea techniques D. have a camera which is easy and quick to use 答案:A 指导:文中作者谈到生活中处处有 picturesituations(B 错),第三段的首句告诉我们 C 不对, 最后一句表示不在于照相机好不好用,在于摄影师对生活的 aware(D 错),从该段中间的讲述可知 A 对,文 中有"will be prepared when that moment comes". 3. Most likely, to catch the right moment, one must ________. A. take pictures without too much preparation B. take a whole series of similar pictures C. take great care to set up the situation D. take one picture just at the right moment 答案:B 指导:从文中最后两段的讲述可知,即使是专业人士,他们为了捕捉瞬间往往要浪费很多胶卷, “dozens。f pictures have had to be taken for the successful shot, ”因此选 B. 4. The passage is ________.

A. an introduction to photography B. an advertisement for film C. a history of photography D. part of a book of camera instruction 答案:A Passage 5 A few years ago it was popular to speak of a penetration gap, a disagreement between young people and their elders. Parents said that children did not show them proper respect and obedience, while children complained (抱怨) that their parents did not understand them at all What had gone wrong? Why had the generation gap suddenly appeared? Actually the generation gap has been around for a long time. Many people argue that a gap is built into the fabric (结构) of our society. One important cause of the generation gap is the chance that young people have to choose their own ways of life. In more traditional societies, when children grow up, they are expected to live in the same area as their parents, to marry people that their parents know and agree to, and to continue the family occupation (职业). In our society, young people often travel great distances for their education, move out of the family home at an early age, marry or live with people whom their parents have never met, and choose occupations different from those of their parents. In our easily changing society, parents often expect their children to do better than they did; to find better jobs, to make more money; and to do all the things that they were unable to do. Often, however, the strong desire that parents have for their children are another cause of the disagreement between them. Often, they discover that they have very little in common with each other. Finally, the speed at which changes take place in our society is another cause of the gap between the generations. In a traditional culture, elderly people are valued for their wisdom, but in our society the knowledge of a lifetime may become out of date overnight. The young and the old seem to live in two very different worlds, separated by different skills and abilities. No doubt, the generation gap will continue to be a feature (特点) of American life for some time to come It’s causes are rooted in the freedom and changes of our society, and in the rapid speed at which society changes. 1. The main idea of the first paragraph is that________. A. the generation gap suddenly appeared B. the generation gap is a feature of modern social life C. people can reduce the generation gap D. many critics argue over the nature of the generation gap 答案:B 指导:本段最后一句。从语篇层次考虑,文章最后一段第一句意义相同。 2. The word "around'in Paragraph I means________. A. on all sides C. in every direction 答案:D 指导:存在。 3. Which cause of the generation gap is NOT mentioned in the passage? A. Young people like to choose their own life styles. B. American society is changing very fast. B. near D. in existence 指导:全文讲述摄影师必须注意观察生活,捕捉 real-life situations,不要担心浪费胶卷, 为了捕捉 that precious moment,often you have to waste film,不难看出其写作宗旨是 A.

C. Parents place high hopes on their children. D. Modern education makes them think differently. 答案:D 短文没提到 D 项信息。 4. In American society, young people often________. A. depend on their parents to make a life B. stay with their parents in order to get a chance for C. seek the best advice from their parents D. have very little in common with their parents 答案:D 第三段最后一句。 Passage 6 Some English words are made up of the same part and have different beginnings and different endings, such as import, ex- port, report and transport. All these words, you can see, have the same root "port", which comes from the Latin (拉丁文) word, meaning "to carry'or "to movenfrom one place to another. And according to the bit at the beginning which we call the prefix (前 缀),the meaning changes: "import"means "to carry in", or "to bring into a country"; "export" "exn,means "out of" so this word means "to carry out of a country";"re"means "hack", so the word "report"means "to tell somebody, to bring1 back information to somebody"; "transport", "trans" means "across'and it means "to carry across one place to another" ! Let's look at the following words; supporter, reporter, importer and exporter. You can see that in this case these words are nouns which are made up of the verbs. Adding a suffix "er'to a verb means a person who does this thing. So supporter means somebody who supports. A reporter is somebody who reports. Importer is somebody who imports and exporter is somebody who exports, and so on. 1. "Some English words are made up of the same part... ", in the sentence "part"means ________. A. different beginnings and different endings B. the same part which has several meanings C. the root of a word D. the same root which has different meaning 答案:C 指导:这个相同的部分为“词根” 。 2. Which of the following is not true?________. A. Besides "port", most English words have the same root which comes form the Latin word. B. "port"is the root forming some English words. C. The root "port"means "to carry". D. "port"is the root meaning "to move"from one place to another. 答案:A 指导:并非大多数英语词汇都有来自拉丁文的同一词根。 3. By adding a prefix of a suffix to a root, we can get a word which has________. A. the meaning of a Latin word B. a different meaning C. the meanings of "in"or "out of" D. a lot of meanings 答案:B 指导:通过前后缀使词义改变。一般说来英语中前缀改变意思,后缀改变词性。 4. We can get a noun A. just by adding "er"to a verb B. by changing a prefix higher education

C. only by adding "er'to a root D. by adding a suffix to a verb 答案:D 指导:通过在动词上加后缀构成名词。其余选项均为错项。 5. According to the passage, if we talk about a repairman, you may guess that he must be ________. A. somebody who has regained (恢复) health B. a person who can repair something C. somebody who was good health D. a person who can do only simple things 答案:B 指导:repairman 是合成名词,可解释为“A man who can repair something"。 Passage 7 In 1847 she asked to be accepted at a small medical school in New York. Largely (主要的) as a joke, the school accepted her. The teachers and pupils were all men. They waited for Elizabeth to make a fool of herself (为了愚弄她) and then go away. But Elizabeth felt she could learn anything a man could learn. And she proved it. No one laughed at her. The jokes stopped, but none of the town's people would speak to her. They thought she was wrong to study medicine. As a student, Elizabeth helped treat (医治) sick poor people during her summer holidays. She found out that she had much more to learn as she tried to help them. "I must learn more "she said "there is so much work to be done among the sick (病人). Somehow (以某种方式) I must get (劝说) other woman to help me!" That autumn she returned to school. Elizabeth Blackweel became a doctor in 1849. She was the first woman in the United States to become a doctor. 1. At first it seemed that it was impossible for Elizabeth to find a school to attend because________. A. there were no medical schools in her hometown in B. Elizabeth wanted to teach herself medicine at home C. a few doctors helped her to study medicine D. most people of her day didn't think that women should 答案:D 女没有与男人同等的机会。 2. A small medical school in New York accepted Elizabeth because________. A. she asked to be aeeepted many times B. she was good at telling funny jokes C. the school didn't take the matter seriously(严肃认真对待这件事) D. the teachers and pupils wanted to have a try 答案:C 指导:由第——段第二句, “Largely as a joke,the school accepted her。以及下面接下来 的 The teachers and pupils were all men.They waited for Elizabeth to make a fool Of herse“ and then go away” .可知学校并不是严肃认真地对待 Elizabeth 在医学院学习这件事。 3. Some time later, no one in the school laughed at her because________. A. she did an experiment to prove that she was quite right B. she stopped telling jokes and began to work hard C. they thought she was wrong to study medicine D. Elizabeth proved to be a success as a medical student 答案:D 指导: “And she proved it No one laughed at her. ”由于她证明了自己与男人一样成功,没有 人再取笑她了。 have the same chance 指导:由第一段可知对于 Elizabeth 来说,进入一个医学院学习是不可能的,因为许多人认为妇 those days

4. Elizabeth began to help treat sick poor people_________. A. as soon as she graduated from the medical school B. when she was still a medical student at that school C. when the weather was very hot in the summer D. as she found out that she had much more to learn 答案:B 指导:由短文的第三段可知。 5. Choose the best title for the passage from among the following. A. The First Woman Doctor in the USA B. Elizabeth Became a Doctor after Years of Hard Work C. Elizabeth --Pioneer in the Study of Medicine in America D. Women Should Have the Same Chance to Work as Men 答案:A 指导:本文讲述的是美国第一个妇女医生的成长故事。所以 A 项是最理想的标题。 Passage 8 NEW ZEALAND WEATHER CHART Temperatures and Rainfall for Summer and Winter 1. The maximum temperature in Wellington in winter is about_________. A. 12℃ C. 15℃ 答案:A B. 14℃ D. 19℃

指导:图表左边的纵坐标表示气温,右边的纵坐标表示降雨量,

四个城市 Auckland,Welington,Christchurch 和 Queenstown 夏季和冬 季的最低气温、最高气温分别在两个图表中用□■从左到右依次表示。从 右边图表可看出:表示 Wellington 冬天最高气温的■顶点在靠近 10℃~ 15℃的中间位置偏下,即大约 12℃. 2. The city whose temperature varies (变化) from about 4℃ to 11'C in winter is_______. A. Auckland C. Christchurch 答案: C B. Wellington D. Queenstown

指导: 从右表看, 表示 Christchurch 最低气温口的顶点不到 5℃。 表示最高气温■顶点超过 10℃.

3. The cities whose rainfall varies LEAST from summer to winter are_______. A. Queenstown and Auckland B. Auckland and Wellington C. Wellington and Christchurch D. Christchurch and Queenstown 答案:D 指导:通过左、右两图表中各城市冬、夏两季降雨量的差别的比较可知:C 城和 Q 城冬、夏两季 降雨量的差别最小,即 变化最小,故选 D. 4. From summer to winter the greatest difference between the maximum and minimum temperature is experienced in_______. A. Auckland C. Christchurch 答案:D 城市中差别最大的。 5. Which of the following is true? The temperature is_______. A. lower in Auckland than Wellington in stmmer B. higher in Wellington than Christchurch in winter C. lower in Christchurch than Queenstown in winter B. Wellington D. Queenstown

指导:从左、右两图表看:Q 城夏季最高气温超过 20℃, 而冬季最低气温近 10℃左右,是四个

D. higher in Queenstown than Auckland in summer 答案: B 指导: 从所提供的四个选项中, 只有 B 项符合图表所示: 即冬季 Wellington 的气温比 Christchurch 高(见图)。 Passage 9 Dolphins (海豚) are not fish, but warm-blooded animals. They live in groups, and speak to each other in their own language. In this they are like other animals, such as bees and birds. But dolphins are very different from almost all land animals. Their brain is nearly the same size as our own, and they live a long time--at least twenty or thirty years. Like some animals, dolphins use sound to help them find these sounds to talk to each their way around. They also make use their other and to help them find food. We now know they do not

ears to receive these sounds, but the lower part of the mouth, called the jaw. Strangely, dolphins seem to like man, and for thousands about the dolphin and its friendship with people. There is a story about sailors in the 19th century. In a coast of New Zealand, they 题 The penguin shot and wounded dangerous part of the sea off the learnt to look for a dolphin called Jack. From 1871 to 19 典型例 Jack. He recovered and for nine years more continued to guide all of years there have been stories

met every boat in the area and showed it the way. Then in 19 典型例题 assenger on a boat called

ships through the area except for The penguin. Today, some people continue to kill dolphins, but manycountries of the world now protect them and in these places it is against the law to kill them. 1. Dolphins are different from many other animals in that they_______. A. live in groups C. are warm-blooded 答案:B 人类的一样大而且生活时间长。 2. Which of the following does the dolphin use to help it find its way around?_______. A. Its nose. C. Its mouth. 答案:C B. Its ears. D. Its eyes. B. have large brains D. have their own language

指导:根据第一段最后两句话可知,海豚区别于几乎所有的陆地动物,是因为它们的大脑几乎和

指导,海豚是靠声音探路的,而接听声音的地方却不是耳朵而是嘴的下部。

3. Why did the sailors off the coast of New Zealand look for Jack? A. He was lonely and liked to be with people. B. They enjoyed playing with him. C. He was seriously wounded. D. They wanted his help. 答案:D 指导:由于这片水城十分凶险,所以水手们需要杰克的帮助。 4. By telling the story of Jack the writer wanted to show that_______. A. dolphins are friendly and clever B. people are cruel to animals C. Jack is different from other dolphins D. dolphins should be protected'by law 答案:A 指导:文章大部分篇幅都在讲述海豚与其他动物的不同,它们与人类的友谊的故事,说明了海豚 是一种友好而又聪明的动物,所以 A 为最佳选项。 Passage 10 Allan goes everywhere with Birgitta Anderson, a 54-year-old secretary. He moves around her

office at work and goes shopping with her. "Most people don't seem to mind Allan," says Birgitta, who thinks he is wonderful. "He's my fourth child,"she says. She may think of him and treat him that way, buying his food, paying his health bills and his taxes, but in fact Allan is a dog. Birgitta and Allan live in Sweden, a country where everyone is expected to lead an orderly life according to rules laid down by the government, which also provides (提供) a high level of care for its people. This level of care costs money. People in Sweden pay taxes on everything, so aren't surprised to find that owning a dog means yet more taxes. Some people are paying as much as 500 Swedish kronor in taxes a medical treatment year for the right to keep their dog, money that is spent by the government on dog hospitals and sometimes for a dog that fall sill. However, most such treatment is expen sive, so owners their dog does. A Swedish Kennel Club passing often decide to pay health and even life insurance (保险) for their dog. In Sweden dog owners must pay for any damage (损坏) car, you, as the owner, have to pay for any damage killed in the accident. 1. Birgitta pays taxes for Allan because _________. A. he is her dog C. he follows her everywhere 答案:A B. he is her child D. he often falls ill official explains what this means: if your dog runs out on the road and gets hit by a

done to the car, even if your dog has been

指导:这是一道细节题。从文中此句"People in Sweden pay taxes on everything,aren't

surprised to find that owning adogmeansyetmoretaxes, ”不难得出正确答案,另外从第 一段末句也可 得出此答案。 2. The money paid as dog taxes is used to _______. A. keep a high level of care for the people B. pay for damage done by dogs C. provide medical care for dogs D. buy insurance for dog owners 答案:C 指导:这也是一道细节题。文章第三段给出了正确答案。 “Some people are paying as much as 500 Swedish kronor in taxes a year for the right to keep their dog,money is spent by the government on dog hospitalandsometimes medical treatment fora dog that falls ill. ” 3. If a dog causes a car accident and gets killed, who should pay for the damage done to the car?_______. A. The owner of the car. B. The owner of the dog. C. The insurance company (公司). D. The government. 答案:B 指导:这仍然是一道细节题。从文章最后一段那位俱乐部官员的解释可以看出,狗主人必须赔偿 一切损失,即使他的狗为此送命也必须如此。 4. From the text it can be inferred that in Sweden_______. A. dogs are welcome in public places B. keeping dogs means asking for trouble C. many car accidents are caused by dogs D. people care much about dogs 答案:D 指导:这是一道推理判断题。从文中给出的信息看,瑞典人,包括瑞典政府都为狗投入很大,但 是瑞典人仍然把狗当作自己的孩子般受护。

Passage 11 We walked in so quietly that the nurse at the desk didn't even lift her eyes from the book. Mum pointed at a big chair by the door and I knew she wanted me to sit down. While I watched mouth open in surprise. Mum took off her hat and coat and gave them ko me to hold. She walked quietly to the small room by the lift and took out a wet mop. She pushed the mop past the desk and as the nurse looked up. Mum nodded and said. "Very dirty floors." "Yes, I'm glad they've finally decided to clean them, "the nurse answered. She looked at Mum strangely and said, "But aren't you working late?" Mum just pushed harder, each sweep (拖一下) of the mop taking her farther and farther down the hall. I watched until she was out of sight and the nurse had turned back to writing in big book. After a long time Mum came back. Her eyes were shining. She quickly put the mop back and took my hand. As we turned to go out of the door, Mum bowed politely to the nurse and said, "Thank you." Outside, Mum told me "Dagmar is fine. No fever. “ "You saw her, Mum?" "Of course. I told her about the hospital rules, and she will not expect us until tomorrow. Dad will stop worrying as well. It's a fine hospital. But such floors! A mop is no good. You need a brush." 1. When she took a mop from the small room what Mum really wanted to do was_______. A. to clean the floor B. to please the nurse C. to see a patient D. to surprise the story-teller 答案:C 指导:这是一道推理题。从表面上看,拿拖把当然是拖地。但是读到最后,我们就知道妈妈拖地 的目的是探视病人。因此正确答案是 C 2. When the nurse talked to Mum she thought Mum was a_______. A. nurse 答案:D 正确答案是 D. 3. After reading the story what can we infer about the hospital? A. It is a children's hospital. B. It has strict rules about visiting hours. C. The conditions there aren't very good. D. The nurse and doctors there don't work hard. 答案:B 指导:这是一道推理题。根据妈妈为了探视病人,煞费苦心地扮成清洁工这一点,我们可以推断 出这个医院的制度非常严格。因此正确答案是 B. 4. From the text we know that Dagmar is most likely________. A. the story-teller's sister B. the story-teller's classmate C. Mum's friend D. Dad's boss 答案:A 指导:根据妈妈与“我”的对话, “Dagmar”应该是个孩子,妈妈还提到爸爸也不用担心了,因 此我们可以推断妈妈探视的病人应该是“我”的妹妹,所 k2JE 确答案是 A. B. visitor C. patient D. cleaner 指导:从值班护土与妈妈的对话中,我们看出护士没有拦妈妈,因为她认为妈妈是清洁工。所以 the

5. Which of the following words best describes Mum? A. strange C. clever 答案:C 答案是 C Passage 12 The United States. Fliers may want to have their tickets in hand before catching their planes, but the airline companies are doing everything they can to bring forward cost-saving ticketless flight -- nopaper needed, just a ticket number and a photo ID (带照片的身份证). Anyone who buys a Northwest E-ticket through the airline's computer service by June 16 will get an a- ward (奖 励). Next time you fly, you can buy another ticket for a friend for $ 99, going anywhere in the US or Canada through Feb. 12, 2000, along with the lowest ticket prices. Some airlines offer extra frequent flier miles for the ticketless crowd. And there are rising punishments for paper lovers. Arnerican, Northwest, United, and last week, US Airways have raised the cost for lost-ticket replacement (替换) to $ 70 from either $ 60 or $ 50. The airlines insist that the increase in price is not meant to push travelers toward E-tickets but onlyi eovers the increasing cost of replacing and tracking a missing ticket. 1.Why is the new ticketless flight introduced? A. It is cheaper for air travelers. B. It helps reduce the cost for airlines. C. It can use computer to plan air traveling. D. It helps prevent fliers from losing their tickets. 答案: B 指导: 参考 the airline companies are doing everything the ycan to bring for ward cost-saving ticketless flight 从这句话上来看,无票飞行能节约钱。 2.To encourage people to take ticketless flights, the airlines________. A. sell their tickets for $ 99 from June to February the following year B. let travelers go to both the US and Canada with the same tickets C. allow each traveler to have an extra $ 99 ticket for a friend of theirs D. offer ticket[ess travelers free miles to fly in the US 答案:C 指导:选项 D 错的原因是①向无票乘客提供短途(miles) 免费游是部分航空公司的举措,不是所 有航空公司所为;② 只对常客提供这种免费游,不是对任何乘客。 3.Who are the paper lovers mentioned in the,text? A. People who like to have paper airplane tickets. B. People who love paper products of various kinds. C. People who travel with paper on a plane. D. People who have lost their ticket and buy a second one. 答案:A 指导:这里的 paperlovers 指喜欢持票乘机的人。 4. The airline companies say that they have raised the lost-ticket replacement price in order to ________. A. attract travelers to take tieketless flights B. punish those who insist on using paper tickets C. do better than other airline companies D. pay for the work to deal with lost tickets 答案:D 指导:虽然文章中有这样一句话 And thereare rising punishments for paper lovers,但这 B. warm-hearted D. hard-working

指导:从妈妈的控视病人方面所表现出的智慧来看,文章应该着重表现了妈妈的聪明。所以正确

不是航空公司所说的话,惩罚持票者也不是航空公司的目的,故不选 B。文章的最后一句说出了机票挂失 提价的真正目的,也就是为了填补因为挂失而查找失票所造成的花费,这与选项 D 一致。 passage 13 Reading is the key to school success and, like any skill, it takes practice. A child learns to walk by practising until he no longer has to think about how to put one foot in front of the other. A great athlete practises until he can play quickly, correctly, without thinking. Tennis players call that "being in the zone". Educators call it "automatieity (自动)". A child learns to read by sounding out the letters and get the meanings of the words. With practice, he speaks with fewer and fewer pauses and mistakes, reading by the phrase. With automatieity, he doesn't have to think about getting the meaning of the words, so he can pay attention to the meaning of the text. It can begin as early as first grade. In a recent study of children in Illinois schools, Alan Rossman of Northwestern University found autonfatic readers in the first grade who were reading almost three times as fast as the other children and scoring twice as high on comprehension tests. At fifth grade, the automatic readers were reading twice as fast as the others, and still outscoring them on correctness, comprehension, and vocabulary. "It's not L Q ,but the amount of time a child spends reading that is the key to automaticity, "according to Rossman, any child who spends at least 3. 5 to 4 hours a week reading books, magazines or newspapers will most probably reach automaticity. At home, where the average child spends 25 hours a week watching television, it can happen by turning off the set just one night in favour of reading. You can test your child by giving him one paragraph or two to read aloud something unfamiliar but suitable to his age. If he reads aloud with expression, with a sense of the meaning of the sentences, he probably is an automatic reader. If he reads hesitatingly, one word at a time without expression or meaning, he needs more practice. 1. The main idea of the first paragraph is________. A. what is automaticity B. how correctness is obtained C. how 'a child learns to walk D. how an athlete is trained 答案:A 指导:通过事例解释 automaticity. 2. The Illinois study shows that the automatic reader's high A. costs him a lot of work B. affects his comprehension C. leads to his future success D. doesn't affect his comprehension 答案:B 指导:由“scoring twice high"说明效果好, “是??分数的两倍” 。 3. From the passage, it can be inferred that a bright child A. also needs practice to be automatic reader B. always achieves great success in comprehension tests C. becomes an automatic reader after learning how to read D. is a born automatic reader 答案:A 指导:作者说“自我阅读”来源于大量的练习。 4. The main idea of the whole passage is ________. A. how to score high on comprehension tests speed ________.

B. reading is the key to school success C. how to test your child's reading ability D. automaticity is important for efficient reading 答案:D 指导:本篇告诉读者应通过大量阅讯培养“自动阅读” ,并列出了几个事例,说明“自动阅读” 对有效阅读是非常有帮助的。 Passage 14 There was great excitement at Thorby police station. The Inspector had received a phone call froman informer(通报者). The man said that a gang (帮,伙) intended to rob the main post office. He even told the Inspector the date and time for which the robbery was planned. The Thorhy police were not used to serious crimes (罪). Except for occasional cases of ap- ple stealing, their peace was seldom disturbed. Hardly did anything more serious happen. The robbery was going to take place at two o'clock on market day. The informer said that one of the gang would have a revolver. This worded the Inspector most of all. On market days, the street near the post office was always crowded. There was danger that someone might be killed. It was the most difficult case the Inspector had ever had. The Inspector wanted to make sure the gang was caught and he made preparation carefully. He ordered .his men to wear ordinary clothes so that some of them could mix with the people in the post office. Others were to be in the street outside to prevent the gang from escaping. On the day that the robbery was to take place, all was ready. At two o'clock, a large black car was parked in front of the post office. Three men, with handkerchiefs over their faces, jumped out and ran into the post office. Two of them stayed by the door. The third went up to the counter and pulled out a revolver. No sooner had he done this than the Inspector blew his whistle. The man standing at the counter immediately put the revolver back in his pocket and pulled the handkerchief from his face. "Could I have a five-penny stamp, please?'he said. "You will have to tell a better story than that to the Judge, "She Inspector said. "And anyway, there is no parking in front of the post office. ” 1. From the story, we may conclude that the Inspector was a very ________man. A. funny and careful B. humorous and careful C. exciting and hardworking D. strict and serious 答案:B men to 指导:从“The inspector wanted to make sure thegang was wear ordinary cauSht” ,及“he ordered his clothes”与“Othermenweretobeinthestreet"可以看出他从思想上、行动上

都做了充分的准备。 最后, 当蒙面人突然说要买邮票时, inspector said, You'll have to tell a better The “ story than that to the Judge” ,这都说明了 The Inspector was a humorous and careful man. 2. The Inspector was worried most of all because________. A. he was not used to serious crimes B. it was a very difficult case C. the robbers had a revolver D. the post office was in a busy street 答案:B 指导:因为案情棘手。 3. What do you think a "revolver"is? It's________. A. a bomb C. a wireless phone set B. a hand gun D. a wallet

答案:B

指导:从“A gang intended to rob.. .”和“The lnspector wanted to make sure to catch the

gang”可猜测出他们身上带 了手枪。 Passage 15 We find that bright children are seldom held back by mixed-ability teaching. On the contrary (相反), both their knowledge and experience are enriched. We feel that there are many disadvantages in streaming (近能力分班) pupils. It does not consider the fact that children develop at different rates. It can have bad effect on both the bright and the not-so-bright children. After all, it can be quite discouraging to be the bottom of the top grade. Besides, it is rather unreal to grade people just according to their intellectual (智力 的) ability. This is only one aspect of their total personality. We care much about the development of all the pupils' abilities to the full, not just their study ability. We also value personal qualities and social skills, and we find that mixed-ability teaching does good to ill these aspects of learning. In our classrooms, we work in various ways. The pupils often work in groups: this gives them the chance to learn to work together, to share, and to develop leadership skills. They also learn how to deal with personal problems as well as learning how to think, to make decisions, to analyze (分析) and evaluate (评价) and to communicate effectively. The pupils learn from each other as well as from theteacher. Sometimes the pupils work in pairs; sometimes they work on individual (个人的) tasks, and they can do this at heir own speed They also have some formal class teaching when this is proper. We encourage our pupils to use the library, and we teach them the skills they need in order to do his well An advanced pupil can do advanced work and it does not matter what age the child is. We expect our pupils to do their best, not their least, and we give them every enouragement to achieve this goal. 1. By "held back"(Line 1) the writer means"________". A. made to remain in the same class B. forced to study in the lower class C. drawn away from their studies D. prevented from advancing 答案: D 指导: 仔细理解 “held back” 出现的语言环境.. . aresel—dom held back.. the contrary.. . On . are enriched 可猜出“阻止”之意。 2. The writer argues that what a teacher mainly cares about should be the development of the student's________. A. personal qualities and social skills B. total personality C. learning ability and communicative skills D. intellectual ability 答案:B 指导:由全文可知。 3. The writer's purpose of writing this passage is to________. A. argue for teaching bright and not-so-bright pupils in the same class B. advise pair work and group work for classroom activity C. offer advice on the proper use of the library D. tell us the importance of proper formal classroom teaching 答案: B 指导: 从第一、 二段可判断作者写此文章的目的是 argue for teaching bright and not-so-bright

pupils in the SalTle class.B.C、D 三项是下面各段提供的论据。 4. What would be the best title for the text? A. Pair work. C. Mixed-ability. 答案:C B. Group work. D. Individual tasks.

指导:文章第一句话就提出了论点。整篇文章围绕 mixed-a-bilityteaching 这一中心来叙述的。

A、B、D 三项是综合教学能力的一部分。 Passage 16 Do you find getting up in the morning so difficult that it's painful? This might be called laziness, but Dr Kleitman has a new explanation. He has proved that everyone has a daily energy cycle. During the hours when you labour through your work you may say that you're "hot". That's true. The time of the day when you feel most energetic is when you cycle of body temperature is at its peak. For some people the peak comes during the forenoon. For others it comes in the afternoon or evening. No one has discovered why this is so, but it leads to such familiar monologues as "Get up, John! You'll be late for work again!"The possible explanation to the trouble is that John is at his temperature-an&energy peak in the evening. Much family quarrelling ends when husbands and wives realise what these energy cycles mean, and which cycle each member of the family has. You can't change your energy cycle, but you can learn to make your life fit it better. Habit can help. Dr. Kleitman believe~ May- be you're sleepy in the evening but feel you must stay up late anyway. Counteract your cycle to some extent by habitually staying up later than you want to. If your energy is low in the morning but you have an important job to do early in the day, rise before your usual hour. This won't change your cycle, but you'll get up steam and work better at your low point. Get off to a slow start which saves your energy. Get up with a leisurely yawn and stretch. Sit on the edge of the bed a minute before putting your feet on the floor. Avoid the troublesome search for clean clothes by laying them out the night be- fore. Whenever possible, do routine work in the afternoon and save tasks requiring more energy or concentration for your sharper hours. 1. If a person finds getting up early a problem, most probably________. A. he is a lazy person B. he refuses to follow his own energy cycle C. he is not sure when his energy is low D. he is at his peak in the afternoon or evening 答案:D 指导:根据第二段,有些人的精力高峰出现在下午或晚上,所以让他早起很困难。 2. Which of the following may lead to family quarrels according to the passage? A. Unwareness of energy cycles. B. Familiar monologues. C. A change in a family member's energy cycle. D. Attempts to control the energy cycle of other family members. 答案:A 指导:第二段最后一句话说“当夫妻意识到什么是能量循环以及每个家庭成员的循环状况时,他 们就会停止吵架。 ” 3. If one wants to work more efficiently at his low point in the morning, he should________. A. change his energy cycle B. overcome his laziness

C. get up earlier than usual D. go to bed earlier 答案:C 指导:第三段最后一句话给出答案。早起有助于你在精力低落时仍然高效工作。 4. You are advised to rise with a yawn and stretch because it will________. A. help to keep your energy for the day's work B. help you to control your temper early in the day C. enable you to concentrate on your routine work D. keep your energy cycle under control all day 答案:A 指导:第四段第一句话说,慢点起床可节省能量。 Passage 17 Polly Jones lived on a farm. She had lived mere all her life, all twelve years of it. Her father, who managed the farm, had just lifted the potato crop. Prices were high: he wanted to sell the crop as quickly as he could. Polly wandered over the rough field looking for the smaller potatoes that the pickers had accidentally missed. She found one, then another, then a handful. She was pleased. They were delicious once cooked. Then she caught sight of something else. It looked like a piece of coloured stone. Polly picked it up and thought bow pretty it was. She could see a pattern on it: a picture of a fish and a part of a leaf. She scraped (擦去) the soil away around her feet and found that she was standing on what seemed to be a piece of pavement (铺路石). Stuck to another piece of stone was something small and round like a button. She realized it was an old coin. The field was busy the next morning though not with potato pickers. In front o{ the house where the farm machinery usually stood were several cars and a police van. A group of distinguished-looking men and women had appeared the morning after her father's telephone call. The local television station had shown some pictures of the field with Polly pointing to the place where she had found her pavement. It was proving to be of Roman origin and was being described as the most exciting thing that had happened in the area since the end of the Second World War. In those days an American airhase had occupied the site of the potato field. A week later about forty students arrived from the local university. That afternoon a truck with equipment arrived. The excavation (挖掘) was officially under way. Permission had been given and the "dig" as it was called, was expected to last several months. Polly wondered how the everyday work of the farm would get done with so many strange people around and cars coining and going all day long. All the unusual activity had made the cows and sheep restless. Her father said their cows produced less milk. Still, it was interesting and great fun. They had let her keep the gold coin. From then on, Polly would walk carefully over potato fields. 1. There were still potatoes in the field because the pickers A. had left them for Polly on purpose B. thought they were too small C. would pick them later D. had failed to notice them 答案:D 指导;这是一道细节题,第二段“Polly wandered over..missed. . ”告诉我们,地里仍然有土 豆的原因是人们没有注意到这些土豆丢失在地里。 2. When Polly was looking for potatoes, her attention first is________.

A. a part of leaf C. a piece of pavement 答案:C Polly 注意到有一条铺路石。

B. an old coin D. a button

指导:细节题。第二段“She scraped the soilaway. .to be a piece Of pavement” . .说明

3. Why did the findings cause great excitement? A. Because the coin was priceless. B. Because an ancient Roman site was discovered. C. Because few old coins had been found since the war. D. Because such old coins had been found in American airbases. 答案:B 指导:这个发现引起人们激动的原因是他们发现了古罗马的遗迹。 4. How did the "dig"affect the life on the farm? A. It reduced milk production. B. It prevented Polly from attending class. C. It attracted more farmers to the potato fields. D. It brought the farmers wealth overnight 答案:A 指导:倒数第三段中, “Her father said their cows produced less mild”说明了“挖掘”造 成了奶牛少产奶。 Passage 18 Recycling Resources Increased population increases the need for natural resources and also increases waste products. Making a new useful product out of a waste product decreases (减少) our need for natural resources. Recycling means using something over again after it has been used once. Have you ever seen a piece of recycled paper? About one third of all the paper products made each year are made from waste paper. For example, recycled paper is usually used to make paper sacks. Recycling paper, such as newspapers, re- duces the number of trees that must be cut each year to make new paper. Each person wastes a lot of solid waste. In the United States, the average is eight kilograms of waste per person each day. Most of the waste is garbage and rubbish. Finding places to dispose (处理) of solid wastes is a major problem. In many cities solid wastes are collected and the rubbish is burned in incinerator plants (焚化厂). Air pollution control devices' are used to prevent pollution. Heat produced in the burning may be used to generate electricity. Waste that is not burned is taken to a dump. One kind of dump for the disposal of solid wastes is a sanitary landfill (废渣处理法). This method involves (包含) burying the wastes and bulldozing (平整) soil over them. Parks, baseball fields, airports, and other developments may be built on completely filled landfills. Recycling solid wastes decreases our need for methods of disposal. The metal in broken cars can be recycled and made into new steel Worn-out rubber tires can be turned into new ones and used again. Plastics and other rubber products can be recycled. Metal cans and glass bottles can also be recycled. Increased recycling can help meet the increased demand for natural resources. By recycling resources, people imitate ( 模 仿 ) nature. Elements important to life are naturally recycled. Nothing lasts forever. Wood decays (腐烂) ,iron rusts (生锈), and concrete (混凝土) is worn away by wind and rain. All natural resources used by people eventually (最终) go hack into the air, water, and earth. 1. What is the main cause of the increased waste according to the passage?

A. Expansion of cities. B. Development of the paper-making industry. C. Increased population. D. Lack of recycling methods. 答案:C 指导:根据文章的第一名话,人口的增长增加了废弃物。因此,这是导致废弃物。增多因此,这 是导致废弃的增多的 一个主要原因。 2. According to the passage, recycling paper is important because________. A. better paper sacks can be made out of waste paper B. the prices of new paper are very high C. trees are no longer available in the developed countries D. more trees on earth can be saved 答案:D 指导:根据第二段最后一句话, “纸的再生可以减少每年 树木的砍伐” 。 3. A big problem of solid waste disposal is that________. A. solid wastes are poisonous B. it is difficult to find places to dispose of solid wastes C. the disposal process is too backward D. we don't have enough manpower to dispose of solid wastes 答案:B 指导:根据第三段最后一句话, “找地方来处理固体废物是个大问题。 ” 4. Which of the following can NOT be called recycling? A. Making new paper from used paper. B. Using worn-out rubber tires to make new ones. C. Burying metal cans and glass bottles. D. Producing new steel from metal in broken cars. 答案:C 指导:从"recycling”字面理解为循环再利用,即将一种东 西制为新的东西再加利用。其余三 个选项全符合,但选项 C 只是把金属罐、玻璃瓶埋在地下,并不能产生新的可再利用的东西。


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