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【英语】2011届高中考点精析精练:猜测词义(阅读理解)


命题点 4 本类考题解答锦囊

猜测词义

英语的一个显著特点是它庞大的词汇数量。即使一个拥有上万单词量的人在阅读英语读物中也难免会 遇到生词。如果每遇到生词,就查阅词典,不但会降低阅读速度,而且往往使阅读变得索然无味。据调查, 影响人们阅读理解的,首先是词汇。因此学习并掌握一些猜测生词词义的方法,对排除阅读时某些生词的 干扰,降低生词率是

十分必要的。 任何一个买词,只有在一定的上下文中才能表示一个确定的词义。NMET 阅读理解中猜测词义的考查内 容既可以是文中的生词,也可以是熟词新义、短语或句子。但都要求考生根据上下文线索(即具体语境)作 出推断。此类题的提问形式一般有: 1. Which of the following is nearest/closest in meaning to"... "? 2. The underlined word, means_______. 3. The underlined phrase, means_______. 4. Theun derlined sentence,means_______. 利用上下文的提示猜测词义的方法有如下几种: 1.根据定义或解释猜测词义 【例题】 (1)A calendar is a list of the days,weeks,months of a particular year. 根据定义, calendar 的意思是日历.。 (2)A biography is the story of a person's life written by someone else 根据定义, biography 的 意思是凡别人写的生平叫做传记。 (3)Some writers are no longer writing about the modern values of the USA--money, Success or expensive things to buy. 2.破折号后而的内容是对 value 一词的具体解释。 【例题】 (1)He replied quickly. But after he considered the problem more carefully, he regretted having made such a hasty decision.根据耻下文学语境意义,可悟出 quickly 与 hasty 同义。 (2)Although people in many countries consider raw meat a delicacy(美味), we Chinese people seldom eat any meat that is uncooked.根据上下文语境意义得知 raw meat 即是 meat that is uncooked. Raw 与 uncooked 表示相同意思生的,未煮过的。 (3)--1 think we are being watched. --Really? What makes you think we are under surveillance?根据语境,可判断出 being watched -15 under surveillance 是同义关系。 (4)During the concert, the children were quiet but afterwards, they became boiaterous. but 表示转折意思,因此 bomterous 是 quiet 的反义词,意思为吵吵嚷嚷的。 (5)Unlike her gregarious sister,Jane is a shy person,who does not like to go to parties,or to make new friends. unlike 是关键词, 它表示 Jane 与她的姐姐完全不同。 根据后面对 Jane 的描述 “?ashyper son,.. like .not to go parties or to make new froends',可得知 gregarious 的意思是好交际的。 3.根据举例 【例题】 (1)Scientists are studying how birds such ternsmigrate. 根据举例法(such as),得知 terns 是一种鸟。 (2)Today young couples whoare just starting their households often spend lots of their money on appliances?for example,washing--machines,fridges and color TVs.

根据举例法(for example),得知 appUances 是指 washing-machines,fridges and co1or TVs 这类家用 电器。 (3)Several other gases,such as argon,comprise the remaining one per cent of the vo1ume of dry air. SUChas 提示 argon 为某种气体。 4.根据因果关系。 【例题】 (1)She did not hear what you said because she was completely engrossed in her reading. because 之前的分句表示结果,之后的分句表示原因,可推理,她没有听见的原因是她完全被阅读吸引 住了或她正全神贯注地看书。因此 engrossed 的意思是被吸引的,全神贯注的。 (2)The noise was so faint that it was impossible to besure what it was or even where it came fronL So..that.. . .,结构引导的句子也表示因果关系。因此可判断出 faint 在此句中的意思是微弱的。声 音太弱,以致不能确认是什么声音或是从哪里发出的。 (3)ThiS kind of flower thrives in this area because the weather is warm,the Soil is excellent, and there iS a lot of rain。 because 一词决定了 flower 与 warm weather,excellent sOil,a10t Of rain 之间是因果关系。 因此 thdves 的意思是茂盛成长。 5.根据句意或上下文语境 例 1 If he think she can invitemeout,he is all wet.I don't like to be with the them. A. drunk B.sweating C.happy D.mistaken 【解 析】 根据第二句我不喜欢跟他在一起,可推断出,如果他认为他能约我出去,那他就错了。这两句 话实际上暗含因果关系。 【答 案】 D 例 2 At the age of 77,John was still playing a skill ful game of tennis,ran four miles everydday and seldom missed his daily swim.For a man of his age he was extremelyrobust. According to the short passage,the word“robust” ,probably means________. A。strange 【答 案】 C B.weak C.strong ninteresting 根据语境的意思, 一个 77 岁的人还能如此运动, 可以说是身体不错, 因此可以推断 robust

是 strong 强壮的意思。 由此可见猜测词义离不开上下文、离不开具体语境。 Ⅰ高考最新热门题 1. (典型例题,E 卷) T-shirts out; uniforms in School uniforms are becoming more and more popular across the U. S. A. That's no surprise, because they offer many benefits. They immediately end the powerful social sorting and labeling (标记) that come from clothing. "wrong'clothes. Some people are against the strict rule of school uniforms, but they do not realize that students already accept a kind of rule-- wanting to look just like their friends. The difference is that the clothing students choose for themselves creates social barriers; school uniforms tear those barriers down. As in other places, uniforms remind the wearers of their purpose and duties. For example, when a man or woman puts on a police uniform, he or she becomes, for a time, the symbol (象征) If all students are dressed in the same way, they will not pay too much attention to their clothing, and some of them will not be laughed at for wearing the

of taw and order. The uniform means to the wearer his or her special duties and sends the same message to everyone the wearer meets. People with different jobs wear uniforms of one kind or another. For students, the school uniform reminds them that their task for the six or seven hours they are in school is to get an education. Some parents are unhappy about uniforms, saying that school uniforms will affect their children's" creativity". First, as noted above, the clothes students choose to wear do not necessarily express their individuality (个性). They just copy their classmates. Second, students have the rest of the day to be as creative as they like. While they're in school, their job is to master reading, writing, and math; this should take up all the creativity they have. Mastery of those skills will be good for the students to build up their creativity in every way. 1. In Paragraph 1, the word "benefits"probably means________. A. tasks C. differences B. messages D. advantages

2. From the passage we learn that uniforms in general________. A. prevent the wearers from being laughed at B. help the wearers keep their duties in mind C. are seen as a symbol of power D. help to create social barriers 3. Some people are against school uniforms because ________. A. they fail to realize that students have accepted the uniforms B. they believe that uniforms will make students less creative C. they don't agree that uniforms can remove social barriers D. they think that school uniforms are too popular 4. The author would probably agree that A. it makes no difference whether to wear school uniforms or not B. students' individuality may not come from school education C. students' creativity is related to' the clothes they choose D. school uniforms help to create equality among students 命题目的与解题技巧:本文有关题考查学生猜测词义能力。做这类题的关键是学生根据上下文线索(即具 体语境)作出推断。 【解 析】 本文是一篇关于是否该穿校服的争论的议论文。有人认为校服会扼杀孩子的创造性,但很显 然作者是同意穿校服的,认为穿校服可以在学生中间培养公平意识。 【答 案】 1.D 2.B 3.B 4.D 猜测词义。从下文看,作者例数校服的诸多好处,显然“benifits"在此有“优点,好 处”之义。其他三词 tasks(任务),messages(信息),differences(不同),意思相差甚远。 细节推断。从第三段第一句话“AsinOtherplaces,uni forms remind the wearers of their purpose 细节题。从最后一段第一句: “Someparents.. .,sayin8 that school uniforms will affect their 主旨推断题。纵览全文,作者的观点是认为学生穿校服可以培养公平意识,对于创造性可以在其他 and duties"可推知,制服(unifontt)帮助穿衣者时刻记住其职责。 children'screatiVity"可直接选出答案。 时间和事件中培养。 Passage 1(典型例题 B) These days a green building means more than just the color of the paint. Green building can also refer to environmentally friendly houses, factories, and offices. Green building means "reducing the impact (影响) of the building on the land" Taryn Holowka

of the U.S Green Building Council in Washington, D. C. said. According to Holowka, buildings account for(占了) 65 percent of total U. $. electricity use. But green buildings can reduce energy and water use. Also, the buildings are often located near public transportation such as buses and subways, so that people can drive their cars less. That could be good for the environment, because ears use lots of gas and give off pollution. Green buildings are often built on developed land, so that the buildings don't destroy forests. Marty Dettling is the project manager for a building that put these ideas into action. The Solaire has been called the country's first green high-rise building. According to Dettling, "We've reduced our energy use by one-third and our water by 50 percent. ' The Solaire cuts energy in part by using so]ar power. "On the lace of the building we have solar panels which change the sun's energy into electricity,'Dettling explained. The Solaire also has lights that automatically turn off when people leave the room. In addition, the building has lots of windows, allowing people to use the sun for light during the day. The Solaire cuts water by reusing it. Not everyone is eager to move into a green building, however. Some people think that things like solar panels cost more money than more traditional energy sources. Anyhow, Holowka said, "It's going to be big." 1. In the second paragraph, the underlined words "the building" most probably refer to________. A. an ordinary building B. an. energy-saving building C. a green-colored building D. a building in Washington, D. C. 答案: A 指导: 文章第一段第二句首先介绍了当今的 Green building 的概念是环保型的 houses, factories 和 offices。第二段第一句指出环保型建筑就是要减少 thebuilding 所造成的(不良)影响。由此町判断 thebuiding 为普通建筑。 2. A green building is often built on an area of land________. A. which has thick forests around 13. which has already been used for building C. where people of high income live D. where traveling around by car is most convenient 答案: B 指导:根据第四段倒数第一句可知。第四段讲了 green buiding 对于环境等的优点,A、C、D 项 内容本段未提及。 3. When Holowka says in the last paragraph, "It's going to be big", she means that green buildings________. A. will be more comfortable B. will become popular in the future C. will be more environmentally friendly D. will take the place of traditional buildings 答案: B 指导:根据前面几段对于 green buiding 优点的介绍,再根据最后一句中的 anyhow 所表达的逻 辑关系进行推理,可知答案。 4. What is the main subject discussed in the text? A. Dettling designed the first green building in the U. S. B. Energy shortage calls for buildings of new design. C. Green buildings help save environment.

D. The Solaire serves as a model of high buildings. 答案: C 指导:文章第一段介绍 greenbuilding 是环保型的,下面又分段分绍它的优点,最后一段介绍其 前景,因此可判断 C 为正确答案。 Passage 2(典型例题 E) Every year more people recognize that it is wrong to kill wildlife for "sport". Progress in this direction is slow because shooting is not a sport for watching, and only those few who take part realize the cruelty and destruction. The number of gunners, however, grows rapidly. Children too young to develop proper iudgments through independ- ent thought are led a long way away by their gunning parents. They are subjected to advertisements of gun producers who describe shooting as good for their health and guncarrying as a way of putting redder blood in the veins (血管). They are persnaded by gunner magazines with stories honoring the chase and the kill. In school they view motion pictures which are supposedly meant to teach them how to deal with arms safely but which are actually designed to stimulate (刺激) a desire to own a gun. Wildlife is disappearing because of shooting and because of the loss of wildland habitat (Jfl~,~,J~). Habitat loss will contin- ue with our increasing population, but can we slow the loss of wildlife caused by shooting? There doesn't seem to be any chance if the serious condition of our birds is not improved. Wildlife belongs to everyone and not to the gunners alone. Although most people do not shoot, they seem to forgive shooting for sport because they know little or nothing about it. The only answer, then, is to bring the truth about sport shooting to the great majority of people. Now, it is time to realize that animals have the same right to life as we do and that there is nothing fair or right about a person with a gun shooting the harmless and beautiful creatures. The gunners like to describe what they do as character- building, but we know that to wound an animal and watch it go through the agony of dying can make nobody happy. If, as they would have you believe, gun-carrying and killing improve human character, then perhaps we should encourage war. 1. According to the text, most people do not seem to be against hunting because________. A. they have little knowledge of it B. it helps to build human character C. it is too costly to stop killing wildlife D. they want to keep wildlife under control 答案: A 指导:第四段第二句是解此题的关键句。 B. condition C. pain D. sadness 2. The underlined word "agony"in the last paragraph probably means________. A. form 答案: C 指导:通过画线词所在句子中的 but 所表达的转折关系可推出该词的含义。

3. According to the text, the films children watch at school actually ________. A. teach them how to deal with guns safely B. praise hunting as character-building C. describe hunting as an exercise D. encourage them to have guns of their own 答案: D 指导:第二段最后一句是解本题的关键。 4. It can be inferred from the text that the author seems to________. A. blame the majority of people

B. worry about the existence of wildlife C. be in favour of war D. be in support of character-building 答案: B 指导:本文最后一段反映出作者反对持枪捕措,从而揭示作者对于野生动物的生存的担忧之情。 Passage 3(典型例题) Millions of aircraft take off around the world every year. The skies they fly in seem limitless --miles of empty space. But, with the number offlights increasing each year, this emptiness no longer exists. Researchers in the world of aviation (航空) are worried about the increasing pressure on pilots and ground controllers. And increasing collisions, occurring at or near an airport, have called attention to the need for more aids (辅助设备) to aviation control. People who travel the skies are not certain about air safety. A great deal of money is spent on new and bigger aircraft and airports to deal with the vast increase in passengers travelling by air. Only a small percentage of this money is spent on navigation (导航) and other aids. Actually, suitable electronic equipment has long existed, and many companies market safety aids designed to make it safer for aircraft to take off, fly any distance, any land, whatever the weather. Yet, there are two problems to be solved. The first is to get governments, airlines and airport officials to agree to basic levels of safety aids. The second problem is to find a way of meeting