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新视野大学英语第三版第三册视听说原文


Unit 1 Access to success
Listening to the world
Sharing Scripts V = Val; M1 = Man 1, etc.; W1 = Woman 1, etc. Part 1 V: Hi. There are a lot of things that I’d like to do but I’ve never done before. I’m not really a daredevil, so things like bungee jumping are not really my cup of tea, but I do know that trying new things makes you feel good. Today, I’m going to talk to people about trying new things and achievement. How do you feel about trying new things? Part 2 M1: I’m up for trying new things. Depends what they are, obviously, um, some things I wouldn’t try, but I’d give most things a go. M2: I always enjoy trying new things. I like to meet new people and, try new food, see new places, see different things. It’s always nice to see that. W1: I love to try new things. I love to travel. W2: If you try new things, you get more out of life, I think. M3: I’m always up for new things. I love traveling; I love trying exotic new foods, all that sort of stuff; seeing new cultures. Part 3 V: What stops you from trying new things? W2: Fear, probably. M2: Time and money complicates trying new things. It’s hard to find time to travel and it’s hard to afford enough money to travel as well. M1: Er, I suppose, if it was dangerous and I could get injured. M3: Probably, at the moment, school – I don’t have a lot of time; I’ve got a lot of work. Money, as well. W1: If it’s very dangerous; or … if my stomach just can’t handle it; or if I don’t have money. Part 4 V: What have you achieved in your life that makes you feel proud? M2: I’m very proud that I was able to go to Ethiopia and build houses for people who needed it. And, being a part of that team was really special to me. M1: I’ve written plays and people come to see the plays and enjoyed them. And um, I’ve gone out and performed in front of, er, I suppose, thousands of people now and they’ve laughed. W1: I guess um, finishing school, um, with a high level and – so far not a lot – but I’ve learnt French better than I thought I would, so, I’m proud of that, I guess. I’m still learning. M3: Probably proudest achievement is getting A grades in my end-of-year exams – helping me to get a place in university. W2: Well, I feel that I’ve become er, quite a good person and I guess I’m proud of that.

Part 5 V: Who do you admire for their achievements and why? M3: Probably business leaders such as Richard Branson um, as he started off, you know as, as hardly anything and then he built a huge business empire and he’s a multimillionaire. W1: I admire my grandmother, actually. She’s not around anymore, but she was a teacher like I want to be and she taught me so much about life. M1: Nelson Mandela, I admire him a lot because er, not only because he was imprisoned, which er, and he survived that for many years and wasn’t bitter. When he came out of prison, I was more impressed with him becoming Prime ... you know, leading South Africa … and holding the country together and changing a country. Not many people er, have the ability or the skills to do that. Listening Scripts T = Tim; J = John; P = Peggy T: P: J: P: J: P: So what about your memory, Peggy? How good is it? It’s OK, which is lucky ‘cause I need to remember lots of things. Like what? Well, I’m a sales rep for a publishing company so I’m usually out visiting schools, trying to sell books. So you need to remember ... what exactly? Oh, lots of things. The worst thing when I started was just trying to remember how to get to these schools in my car. I used to get lost all the time. I’m not very good at directions. Then once you’re there you have to remember the names and faces of the people you’re talking to. I once spent a whole hour calling this woman Sally when her name was Samantha. And she didn’t tell you? For some reason she didn’t tell me. And then there’s all the product information. Product information? What, the books? Yes. We sell about 500 different books and I have to know the difference between all of them. I mean, it gets easier, thank goodness, but I still make mistakes occasionally. What about you, John? You’re an actor, right? Yeah. The main thing I have to remember is my lines. Fortunately, I’ve got a good memory for words, and I don’t find it that hard to memorize them. So, I mean, yeah. And the other thing you have to remember when you’re in the theater is the er, blocking. What’s that? Blocking? It’s er, it’s where you stand or, or move to, you know? Er, like, when you say your words you might have to walk quickly across the stage or move in front of someone. It’s all planned and er, you have to remember it. Oh, I see. But it’s funny: For, for other things I have a terrible memory. I’m totally useless. I always forget birthdays and dates. I’m always late for things. It’s just ... yeah ... luckily, I’m OK with my lines. What about you, Tim?

T: P: J: P:

J:

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T: I’m probably the same as all other students. At least all other history students. I have to memorize dates and also names. But it’s not that difficult because you read about them so much you can’t really forget them. But for other things I have a really bad memory. I can never remember jokes or films. Sometimes I’m watching a film and after an hour I realize I’ve seen it already. I’m completely hopeless like that. J: Oh, oh, me too. Tell me... Viewing Scripts CB = Christine Bleakley; S = Supervisor; AC = Adrian Chiles CB: Oh ... I’m doing it for real today. S: This challenge is incredibly tough. She is gonna be operating in sub-zero temperatures for over 90 minutes. If she falls in the water too often ... the challenge is over. If she makes this, it will be a true achievement and a true landmark for Sport Relief. S: How are you feel (feeling)? CB: I feel like I am in some sort of a ... odd dream. I really do. AC: All those nerves, all that adrenalin, it’s all gonna come flowing out as soon as we get on the water. S: Yeah, yeah. So ... remove the fear and just keep focused on what you’ve gotta do and that is, land on that beach in Calais. CB: Now it’s just me against the Channel. S: Go! CB: I’m determined not to fall in but I soon realize determination might not be enough. After several falls into the freezing water I already feel like I can’t take much more. S: We’re just about a quarter of the way in and she’s already fallen five times – now that ... that is gonna take its toll without any shadow of a doubt in the later stages. Every time she goes in, I get a bit more worried. The weather’s not looking good. There’s white tops on the waves. CB: But despite my best efforts, the wind and waves mean I can’t stop myself falling. S: She’s fallen in 10 times in just 10 miles. That simply isn’t good enough for this challenge. She has got to dig in now and start to focus. CB: This could be an impossible challenge. S: She is focused. She is in the zone. She’s starting to fly now. Now we start to believe that she could truly make this challenge. CB: My arms and body hurt so much but I just don’t want to give up. S: The hands have gone, the back’s going, the legs are tired, but we’ve still got seven miles to go. AC: She’s turned it around here. The first half didn’t go well. She’s pulled it out of the bag. CB: I can see France. And nothing is going to stop me. AC: Five more minutes and you’re there. Just enjoy this. Keep smiling. Come on! We’re there! CB: I did it! I did it! I could see this from out there. I thought wow, that looks fabulous. S: Everybody around was worried whether she could make this or not. It is an incredibly tough challenge. CB: Oh, that is a very welcome sight.

S:

The first woman to water ski across the Channel in the winter, having only got on water skis four months ago. She is remarkable. It’s a truly outstanding achievement.

Speaking for communication
Role-play Scripts M = Man; W = Woman M: It’s interesting: One of the most intelligent people I know is a 10-year-old boy from Egypt. He, he doesn’t go to school and he works on a street in Cairo, in one of the touristy areas. And he sells things like small statues of the pyramids, things like that, to tourists. Now, the reason I say he’s intelligent is that he can sell you something in about 15 languages. I once spent an afternoon watching him, and it was incredible. Most of the time he uses English, but he guesses where you’re from by looking at you, and then he starts speaking. He can speak just a little bit of French, Spanish … Japanese, Italian, German, etc. It’s amazing. He knows just enough in all these languages to say hello and sell you something. W: How did he learn the languages? M: I asked him that and he said he learned them by talking to tourists. W: Ah, that is quite amazing. M: So anyway, that’s my example. Like I said, he doesn’t go to school. But for me, he’s super-intelligent. What about you? W: I can think of loads of people who don’t have any qualifications but are able to do really difficult things. I’ve got a friend, for example, who built his own house. He just taught himself how to do it, bought a piece of land, bought the materials and the equipment and just did it. No qualifications, no certificates, no university degree. In my view, that’s a real practical kind of intelligence. M: Yeah, I couldn’t do that. W: Let me give you another example. I’ve got another friend who takes parts of old cars and makes new cars from them. He does it at the weekend as a way to relax. And the new car actually works! M: I couldn’t do that either. W: I wouldn’t know where to start. And this is someone who left school at 15 to do an apprenticeship. But you know, having said that, I do think qualifications are useful in some ways. I mean, for one thing, they show that you are able to complete a course, that you’re motivated and committed enough. M: Yeah, I think that’s true. W: But I must say real-life experience, traveling, going out and meeting people, talking … I think these give you an amazing education, too. M: Exactly. That’s what I was saying. Just like the boy from Egypt. Group discussion Scripts T = Tracy Hackston

T: A couple of years ago, er, I learned how to scuba dive which was um, really exciting, really good experience and when you’re learning, half of the, the, the training is in the classroom and half is practical in a swimming pool. So the classroom stuff was fine. Um, I found it really quite easy. I was learning with my mum and she was really worried about doing the kind of more academic stuff and passing the exam but I found that part OK. It was the practical stuff that I had trouble with and she was really lucky. She was um, really good. But you go and you learn all the, the technical stuff, you know, how to go under the water, how to clear your mask if you get water in it, that kind of thing. And then you have to do two dives outside in a, in a kind of reservoir or a quarry or, you know, something like that. But obviously because I’m in the UK, it was really, really cold and we woke up on the morning of our dive and there was ice on the water, so when we got there we were very nervous and didn’t want to get into the water. But once I was in, it was so freezing that I tried to go under the water, but the more I tried the harder it got and then I got very frustrated and started to cry, and then all my ears got blocked up and I couldn’t get under. But eventually I managed it and um, went down, passed my test, did all of the skills that you need to do. Despite the fact that I was so terrible at it I managed to pass and um, now I’m passed, I can go anywhere I want, so I’ll make sure it will be somewhere very hot. So, um, to sum up, although it was a really difficult, really difficult challenge, I’m so glad I managed it. Um … For me, it was quite an achievement and, and I’m proud of myself for having done it.

Further practice in listening
Short conversations Scripts Conversation 1 W: Hello, Mr. Williams. This is John Barrett’s secretary. I’m calling to cancel his appointment with you at 10 today as he is not feeling well. M: Thanks for calling. It’s quite all right. We’ll arrange some other time to meet. Q: What is the man going to do? Conversation 2 M: I need to use more than just my math skills for these questions but I don’t have a calculator. Shall I go and buy one? W: Actually, I’ve got two. And I’ll let you have one for the price of a coffee. Q: What do we learn about the woman from this conversation? Conversation 3 M: Professor Smith, I’d like to have your advice as to my career development in the future. W: It’s my pleasure. I think you are good at abstract thinking. I am sure you’ll make it if you pursue your graduate work in theoretical physics. Q: What does the woman advice the man to do? Conversation 4 W: I can’t believe Ken missed such an important lecture even though I reminded him the day

before yesterday. M: You should know him better by now. He’s known for taking everything in one ear and straight out the other. Q: What does the man imply? Conversation 5 W: I hear you’re working as a market surveyor this summer. It’s got to be awfully difficult going to so many places in such hot summer days. M: Well, it is challenging, but I get to meet lots of new people and the pay is decent enough. Q: What does the man think of his job? Long conversation Scripts W: Thanks for meeting with me, Dr. Pearl. I need permission to drop your class, Literature and Writing. M: It’s only the second week of class, Stacey. Why are you giving up so quickly? We’ve only written one essay so far, and you won’t get your grade back until next Wednesday! W: I know, sir. But as a third-year engineering student, I don’t want to risk lowering my grade point average by scoring poorly in a writing class! M: OK … What’s worrying you? W: I spent two weeks reading Great Expectations, and then it took me 10 hours to write the three-page essay. Well, engineering courses are easy but important, as we know. But a writing course … I don’t know. I’ll just take a film class next semester, not hard at all – a two-paragraph review for each film. That will cover my humanities requirements. M: OK Stacey, listen: In college, I was the opposite. Math was hard; literature was easy. But later, when I opened my coffee shop, The Found Librarian, located on the 15th street, math helped me! W: Wait! You own The Found Librarian? That’s our favorite coffee place. We get coffee and screenplay at more than 30 different production dessert there every week – and work on math homework. M: Yeah, that’s my shop. Stacey, let’s reconsider. Success in life needs a variety of skills. Humanities majors need math. Engineering majors need writing skills. This writing class will serve you well. Go to the University Writing Center and sign up for free tutoring. Then stop by my office each Friday at 11 a.m. and I’ll work with you. Together you can succeed in becoming a strong writer. A good deal? W: Yes! Thank you, Dr. Pearl! Passage 1 Scripts In 1978, as I applied to study film at the University of Illinois, my father objected and quoted me a statistic, “Every year, 50,000 performers compete for 200 available roles on Broadway.” Against his advice, I boarded a flight to the US.

Some years later, when I graduated from the film school, I came to understand my father’s concern. It was nearly unheard of for a Chinese newcomer to make it in the American film industry. Beginning in 1983, I struggled through six years of annoying, hopeless uncertainty. Much of the time, I was helping film crews with their equipment or working as editor’s assistant. My most painful experience involved shopping a screenplay at more than 30 different production companies, and being met with harsh rejection each time. That year, I turned 30. Yet, I couldn’t even support myself. What could I do? Keep waiting, or give up my moviemaking dream? My wife gave me strong support. Her income was terribly modest. To relieve me from feeling guilty, I took on all housework – cooking, cleaning, taking care of our son – in addition to reading, reviewing films and writing scripts. It was rather shameful for a man to live this kind of life. Afterward, I enrolled in a computer course at a community college. At that time, it seemed that only the knowledge of computer could quickly make me employable. One morning, right before she got in her car to head off to work, my wife turned back and – standing there on our front steps – said, “Ang Lee, don’t forget your dream.” Sometime after, I obtained funding for my screenplay, and began to shoot my own films. After that, a few of my films started to win international awards. Recalling earlier times, my wife confessed, “I’ve always believed that you only need one gift. Your gift is making films.” And today, I’ve finally won that golden statue. I think my own perseverance and my wife’s immeasurable sacrifice have finally met their reward. Q1: When did Ang Lee come to understand his father’s concern about studying film? Q2: What was Ang Lee’s most painful experience according to the passage? Q3: Why did Ang Lee enroll in a computer course at a community college? Q4: What did Ang Lee’s wife think of him according to the passage? Passage 2 Scripts and answers Nothing succeeds like confidence. When you are truly and justifiably confident, it radiates from you like sunlight, and attracts success to you like a magnet. It’s so important to 1) believe in yourself. Believe that you can do anything under any 2) circumstances, because if you believe you can, then you really will. That belief just keeps you 3) searching for success, and then pretty soon you can get it. Confidence is more than an attitude. It comes from knowing exactly where you are going, and how you are going to get there. It comes from 4) a strong sense of purpose. It comes from a strong commitment to take 5) responsibility, rather than just let life happen. One way to develop self-confidence is to do the thing you fear and get a record of successful experiences behind you. Confidence does not equal self-importance. Self-importance is born out of fear and 6) insecurity, while confidence comes from strength and 7) integrity. Confidence is not just believing you can do it. Confidence is knowing you can do it, and knowing that you are capable of 8) accomplishing anything you want. Anything can be achieved through focused, determined effort, commitment and selfconfidence. If your life is not what you 9) are longing for, you have the power to change it, and you must make such changes on a moment by moment basis. Live with your goals and your plan

of action, and live each moment with your 10) priorities in mind, then you will have the life you want.

Unit 2 Emotions speak louder than words
Listening to the world
Sharing Scripts P = Pasha; W1 = Woman 1, etc.; M1 = Man 1, etc. Part 1 P: Hello. I’m in a really good mood today. The sun is out and that always brings a smile to my face. How are you feeling today? Part 2 W1: I’m feeling … stressed due to a lot of work. M1: I’m feeling quite happy and confident. The weather certainly helps: It’s a bright, sunny day, so I’m feeling quite optimistic. W2: I’m excited about my project for school. We’re doing a documentary on film. W3: I’m feeling pretty good. I’m feeling good ‘cause um, I’m on a day out with my friend; we’re having a fun time. M2: Very happy, very relaxed. Er, we have a day off, my wife and I. M3: I’ve er, had a good start to my day. I woke up early and I had a good breakfast, so I suppose I’m feeling well-balanced and optimistic about my afternoon. W4: Really good. It’s a beautiful day, the sun’s shining and er, I’m just wandering about London. It’s nice. Part 3 P: Would you describe yourself as an optimist or a pessimist? W1: One hundred percent optimist. I think that you always have to look on the bright side. And I know it’s cheesy, but it’s best to think what you can do, not what you could have done. M1: I think I am an optimist. I … I think generally I look on the bright side. I hope I see the best in people. I don’t expect bad, you know, disasters or, or … to be let down in things. M3: I’d say I swing between the two. I mean, I, I’m pretty optimistic about my, myself. W3: I’m very optimistic. Um, whenever I get um, in a tricky situation I might get a bit frustrated at first, but I always manage to pull myself through and think of the positives. M2: I consider myself to be more of a “functional pessimist”. Um, I do tend to plan and cater for the worst case, but more often than not I’m happily surprised when things go well. W4: Probably an optimist, but I like to be realistic about things and then I’m not disappointed. Part 4 P: What’s the best thing that’s happened to you this year? M2: The best thing that has happened to me in the last 12 months is the success of the business that my wife and I opened in Oxford last June. M1: The best thing that’s happened to me this year is the success I’ve had in the garden, growing vegetables and flowers. W1: I got all distinctions, all distinction stars and A stars in my er, last projects in Art.

W2: I went to Canada to visit my father with my boyfriend, um, a couple of weeks ago and that was really nice: We got to see lots of amazing sights. W3: Um, getting into university. It was really er, difficult ‘cause there was a, there’s (there were) a lot of applicants, um, at very high standard and I managed to er, get a spot. W4: The best thing that happened to me this year was getting a job um, as a trainee solicitor at a firm in London. I’m really excited about it: It’s very difficult to get into and it’s um, like, the culmination of a lot of hard work over a long time. So, I’m really happy about it. Listening Scripts R = Radio presenter; C = Clip; P = Professor; M = Man R: Welcome to Start the Day! C: Hello. Can I help you? Your call is important to us. Hello. Can I help you? Sorry, all our operators are busy at the moment. Please hold. M: They put you in a queue for ages, listening to this terrible music. When you finally speak to someone, you’re so angry, you just want to shout... R: Anger. We all know the feeling. A report out last year shows that people are getting angrier. One in 10 people say that they’ve trouble controlling their temper. Traffic jams, airports, call centers, computer crashes – they can all leave us feeling angry, and anger is difficult to control. Or is it? Professor Miller from the Metropolitan University is here to tell us about two very different therapies to help deal with stress. First of all, destruction therapy. What’s that about? P: Well, basically, the idea is that a lot of people, when they get angry, they don’t know what to do with their anger – they don’t deal with it very well. They just keep it inside. But, if you don’t deal with your anger, sooner or later it will explode. So, with destruction therapy, you use your anger to destroy something, but in a controlled way, and the idea is that if you do that, it helps you to feel better. R: OK, I get angry a lot. Can destruction therapy help me? P: Perhaps. We can try it. What we do is we take you to a place full of old cars. When we get there, I’ll give you a hammer, and you can use it to smash a car to pieces. R: Really? Is it that simple? If I smash the car to pieces, will I feel better? P: Yes, a little. But that’s only the beginning. Then, I’ll ask you to think about a situation in the past when you felt really angry. And when you think about that anger situation, you’ll hit the car much harder. And the therapy will be much more satisfying. When we finish the session, you’ll feel much better. R: That’s amazing, and businesses are using this kind of therapy in Spain, is that right? P: Yes, there are some old hotels in Spain. You can pay to go and destroy the hotel. So, some companies who feel that their workers are stressed, or they need to build a team, send their workers to destroy the hotel. And it’s a good way for them to get rid of that stress. It works. R: That’s incredible. But there’s another idea I want to ask you about. People say that laughter is the best medicine. And nowadays, laughter therapy is used in hospitals to help people with pain. P: That’s right. R: So, how does that work?

P: Well, if people laugh about something, they feel better. On average, children laugh up to 400 times a day, but when we grow up, we only laugh about 17 times a day. And it’s not enough, because when you laugh, your body produces chemicals – and these chemicals make you feel happier. And they also make you feel less pain. So, in Mexico, for example, they use laughter therapy in hospitals. A group of people go around the hospital, visiting the patients, and, basically, they make them laugh, by telling them jokes, or doing something funny. R: And does it really work? Do people feel better afterwards? P: Absolutely! They feel better, and they don’t need medicine. R: That’s brilliant. So, in Mexico, laughter really is the best medicine? P: Yes, it looks like it. That’s right … Viewing Scripts I = Izzy; M = Marion; AC = Angel Clare; R = Retty; T = Tess I: M: I: AC: I: AC: R: T: R: M: AC: I: T: I: T: I: AC: T: AC: T: AC: T: AC: T: AC: We can’t get there without walking through it. That’s that then. I’m going back to bed. Marion, get back here, now. Good morning ladies, and how lovely you all look. Now I see the problem. Perhaps I can be of assistance. Who’s first? First for what, sir? I’ll carry you across the water. And don’t go away. I’m supposed to put my arms around his neck and, put my face against his and, feel his arms around me and put my face against his … I don’t think I can. There’s nothing in it, Retty. That’s what you say. I think I’m going to burst. Thank you, Mr. Clare. Retty, a nice easy one this time. I’m going to kiss him. I don’t care what happens, I’m going to kiss him. You wouldn’t mind, would you, if I tried? I know that you’re his favorite and all. Izzy. But I’ve got to try, haven’t I? I might never get another chance. How do I look? Do I look pretty? Tell me, Tess. Very pretty, Iz. Here I go. Wish me luck. What are you doing? I think I can climb along the bank after all. Tess, no! Really I’m quite all right. Tess! And you must be so tired. I’ve undergone three quarters of the labor just for this moment. They are much better women than I, all of them. Not to me.

T: AC: T: AC: T: AC: M: I:

I’m not too heavy? Compared to Marion, you’re like gossamer; you’re a billow warmed by the sun. That’s very pretty – I seem like that to you. I didn’t expect an event like this today. Nor I. The water came up so quickly. That’s not what I meant, at all. Ladies. Come on, we’ll be late. I was sure he was going to kiss me.

Speaking for communication
Role-play Scripts Conversation 1 W = Woman; M = Man W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: We’ve got something to tell you. What’s that? We’re getting married. Wow! That’s fantastic. Congratulations! There’s one thing I’ve got to tell you though. Really? What’s that? I’m afraid you’re not invited. Oh, that’s a shame. It’s going to be a very small wedding. I see.

Conversation 2 W = Woman; M = Man W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: Hello. You came in for a job interview last week. Yes, that’s right. Firstly, I’d like to say that we were very impressed with your interview. Oh. Thank you. However, I’m sorry to have to tell you, but we’ve offered the job to someone else. Oh. That’s a shame. Thanks, anyway. I’m afraid the other candidate had more experience. I understand. But, we’d like to keep your details, in case another job comes up in the future. OK.

Conversation 3 W1 = Woman 1; W2 = Woman 2

W1: You’ll never guess what. W2: What? W1: I’ve just won some money on the Spanish lottery. W2: Oh, you’re joking?! W1: No, really. W2: That’s amazing! How much did you win? W1: One thousand Euros. W2: Oh, you lucky thing! How fantastic! How are you going to spend it? W1: Actually, I’ve got so many bills to pay. I’ll spend it on that. W2: Well, it’s good news anyway. Conversation 4 M1 = Man 1; M2 = Man 2 M1: M2: M1: M2: M1: M2: M1: M2: M1: M2: M1: I’m afraid I’ve got some bad news. What is it? I’ve crashed the car. Oh no. That’s terrible! Are, are you OK? Yes, I’m fine. That’s lucky. But, I’m afraid the car isn’t. Oh, that doesn’t matter. You can get the car fixed. Unfortunately, it was your car. My car? You mean you crashed my car? How did that happen? Well, you see, I ...

Conversation 5 W = Woman; M = Man W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: I’ve got some good news for you. What is it? You know, I was waiting to hear from the university? Yes. Well, I’m really pleased to tell you they’ve offered me a place. That’s wonderful news! Well done! I’m so pleased for you. There’s only one problem. What’s that? It means I’m leaving home. Yes, of course. But it’s fantastic news.

Conversation 6 W = Woman; M = Man W: Guess what!

M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W:

What? I got the promotion. That’s fantastic! Yes, but there’s something I’ve got to tell you. What’s the matter? I’m sorry, but we’ll have to cancel the holiday. What do you mean? Unfortunately, I can’t go on holiday. I’ve got too much work to do. Oh, no. That’s really annoying. I was looking forward to it. I know. I’m really sorry.

Conversation 7 W1 = Woman 1; W2 = Woman 2 W1: Bad news, I’m afraid. W2: What is it? W1: Steve’s lost his job. W2: Oh, no. That’s awful! I’m really sorry to hear that. W1: Do you want to hear the good news though? W2: Yes. W1: The company is paying him ?30,000! W2: Really? W1: He’s going to travel around the world. W2: That’s amazing! Group discussion Scripts SV = Stig Vatland SV: One of the most, er, memorable moments, or not moments rather events, in my life, er, was a couple of years ago. Um, it all started one day when I was at work, and my brother phoned me out of the blue and said um, “What are you doing the weekend of Sept 23rd?” or whatever it was. I said, “I don’t know.” He said, “Well, book a flight to Norway.” My brother lives in Norway, and I live in England, so I said, “Why?” He said, “Oh I’ll let you know when you get there – it’s a surprise.” So weeks went on, and I tried to work out what this could be, but I had absolutely no idea. So the weekend in question came about … I went to the airport, got on my flight, and er, I was met there by somebody I’d never met before. He just came up and said, “Are you Stig?” I said, “Yes.” He said, “OK. Come with me.” So I went with him to the car. We drove for a little while, and I tried to kind of get it out of him where we were going, but he wouldn’t tell me anything. He pulled up outside a hotel, and there was my brother, and my half-brother, and my two half-sisters there waiting for me. I was thinking “What on earth is going on?”And my brother just said, “I realize that we don’t spend enough time together, so I’ve gathered you all here and I’ve planned a weekend for you.” We’re like “Oh, cool! So, what are we doing?” “I’m not telling you.” “OK fine.” Next

thing we got on a boat and er, he took us out to a lighthouse. And the first night we spent er, eating Norwegian prawns, drinking beer, and we slept in the lighthouse. Next morning we got up, drove off in his car, we said, “Where are we going?” He said, “I’m not telling you.” He took us to a local shopping center and said er, “I realize I’ve done OK in life. I’ve done better than you guys. Here, have a load of money. I want you all to go shopping and buy stuff that you wouldn’t normally buy with this money.” He said, “The one condition is you’re not allowed to buy a gift for me or my family.” So off we went in different directions, spent all his money, and er, bought some very nice things, met back again. In the evening, he took us out to a blues concert, then he took us for a five-course meal. And er, we stayed that night in a very nice hotel. The next morning we had breakfast, I got back on a plane and went back to England. Yeah, that weekend is one of my happiest memories.

Further practice in listening
Short conversations Scripts Conversation 1 W: What’s up? You look so upset and tired. M: To be frank, I am getting a little tired of my sister’s vanishing without any explanation, especially when there is a lot of work to do around the house. Q: How does the man feel about his sister? Conversation 2 W: What’s wrong with Professor Smith? I can’t imagine that he lost his temper this morning. When I first met him, he looked so gentle and kind. M: Oh, don’t make a fuss about it. If you know him, then you’ll also know it’ll pass very soon. Q: What does the man say about Professor Smith? Conversation 3 W: You mean Horace is still angry about that joke you made about his name? M: Yes. But I couldn’t help it. It just occurred to me at that moment. I didn’t mean to offend him at all! Q: What do we know about the man? Conversation 4 W: By the way, did you hear that Jack failed his mid-term exam? It’s too bad because it will disqualify him for next year’s scholarship, and his parents will be really disappointed with him. M: He deserved it. He’s never really studied since last semester. Q: How does the man feel about Jack’s failing the exam? Conversation 5 W: I have been thinking about the interview all week. I’m so desperate for this job, I can’t afford any mistakes. M: Take it easy. You’ve made enough preparations. What you really need is a little bit of

confidence. I’m sure you’ll get the job. Q: What do we learn about the woman? Long conversation Scripts W: Happy Friday Chris! Isn’t that mountain beautiful today … Gosh Chris, are you OK? Are you crying? Did I say something? M: No, it’s fine, Sally. It’s just that today is the one-year anniversary of my father’s death. W: I’m so sorry. Today must be especially difficult. M: I woke up this morning, looked out at Mount Rainier for 45 minutes thinking about him. It was his favorite mountain, and from the time when I was seven years old until he died last year, every year, every year we would go hiking and camping together up that mountain at least three or four times. W: Wow. That’s my favorite place, too. I love all the blue and yellow flowers that cover the slopes in early summer. M: He loved those flowers, too, and we had baskets and bunches of them at the funeral. W: That sounds really special. Those little details can be such a comfort. M: Yes, it was a reminder of our happiest memories together. Honestly, I hope to die as peacefully as he did. We had just come home from a five-day hiking and camping trip in June. We had caught six fish for dinner and mom was preparing them in the kitchen. Dad sat down in his favorite green chair and had a heart attack and died quickly and peacefully. W: It’s tough to lose someone you love, but it sounds like he had a great life. M: He certainly did. He was 78 when he died. A good life, though, a very good life. W: Chris, take the day off. Maybe go hiking on Mount Rainier. It’s beautiful weather. It might make you feel better to hike up the mountain. M: Sally, you’re a good boss and a good friend. Thanks. Passage 1 Scripts With the fierce competition at work or in school, you are often stressed out and easily offended. How can you relieve such stress? Follow the following tips to reduce your stress to manageable levels! Avoid MUST think. You have to move away from the notion that you must do something in a certain way. For example, “I must get a great score on a test.” This thought pattern only adds to the stress you’ll feel. Evaluate your situation rationally and analytically, and not as a “life or death” situation. Clean up the mess. Don’t study in a messy or crowded area. Clear yourself a nice, open space that’s free from distractions. Set manageable goals. Break large projects into smaller parts and you’ll feel a positive sense of accomplishment as you finish each part. Imagine dumping your worries. Imagine yourself walking on a beautiful beach, carrying a sand bucket. Stop at a good spot and put your worries into the bucket. Drop the bucket and watch

as it drifts away into the ocean. Think good thoughts. Create a set of positive but brief assumptions and mentally repeat them to yourself just before you fall asleep at night, and you will feel a lot more positive in the morning. Imagine yourself succeeding. Close your eyes and remember a real-life situation in which you did well. Imagine facing your stressful situation with the same feeling of confidence. Use your bed for sleeping, not studying. Your mind may start to associate your bed with work, which will make it harder for you to fall asleep. Listen to relaxing music. If you want to play music, keep it low in the background. Classical music especially can aid the learning process. Apply these tips to your own life, soon you’ll find fewer and fewer situations to feel stressful about. Q1: What will happen if you always think that you must do something in a certain way? Q2: How can you make large projects workable according to the passage? Q3: What is the benefit of classical music mentioned in the passage? Q4: What is the best title for the passage? Passage 2 Scripts and answers Moods, say the experts, are emotions that tend to become fixed, 1) exerting an influence on one’s outlook for hours, days or even weeks. That’s 2) fabulous if your mood is a pleasant one, but it will be a problem if you are sad, anxious, angry or lonely. Perhaps one of the best ways to deal with such moods is to 3) talk them out. Sometimes, though, there is no one to listen. Modern science offers an abundance of drugs to deal with bad moods. But scientists have also discovered the practicability of several non-drug 4) approaches to release you from an unwanted mood. These can be just as useful as drugs, and have the added benefit of being healthier. So, the next time you feel out of sorts, don’t 5) head for the drug store – try the following approach. Of all the mood-altering self-help techniques, physical exercise seems to be the most 6) efficient cure for a bad mood. “If you could keep up the exercise, you’d be in high spirits,” says Kathryn Lance, author of Running for Health and Beauty. Obviously, physical activity 7) is linked with mood changes. Researchers have explained biochemical and various other changes that make exercise 8) compare favorably to drugs as a mood-raiser. Physical exertion such as housework, however, does little help, probably because it is not intensive enough, and people usually do it unwillingly. The key is physical exercise – running, cycling, walking, swimming or other sustained activities that 9) boost the heart rate, increase circulation and improve the body’s use of oxygen. Do them for at least 20 minutes a 10) session, three to five times a week.

Unit 3 Love your neighbor
Listening to the world
Sharing Scripts V = Val; W1 = Woman 1, etc.; M1 = Man 1, etc. Part 1 V: Hi. I live in a block of flats and I know a few of my neighbors really well. We like similar things so we socialize quite a lot. Today, I’m going to ask people about their neighbors. How well do you know your neighbors? Part 2 W1: Um, I know my neighbors quite well. I moved in a year ago and I live in the middle flat, and, it’s a house that’s broken into three flats. Um, the guys upstairs moved in a year ago as well and um, the guys downstairs have been there for a few years, but we all have a communal garden um, so we get to use that space together. W2: Er, virtually not at all. Um, I’ve er, I live in a flat and I moved into the flat about er, six months ago. M1: Yeah, I know them quite well, but I don’t, er, some I get on with and some I don’t. Some I want to get on with and some I don’t want to get on with. W3: Um, not at all. I’ve never even seen them. Um, no, I don’t know them at all, quite honestly. Part 3 V: What makes a good neighbor? W1: A good neighbor is someone that you can trust, that you could leave your key with, that you could ask to water your plants or feed your cat. W2: I think what makes a good neighbor is someone who looks out for you, er, and you look out for them as well. M2: Knowing when to interfere and not to interfere; being friendly at the right times but not being intrusive. W3: A good neighbor would be someone who’s considerate; um, who always keeps in mind that … they do have neighbors – whether it be noise or trash, just keeping up their property, making it a nice place that people will want to come home to. M1: Someone who you can trust and doesn’t cause you any grief. Part 4 V: What about a bad neighbor? W1: A bad neighbor is someone that forgets that you exist as well, and has loud music until 6 a.m. M2: Not respecting privacy, intruding; um, not understanding what your neighbor wants and not just in that sense, but in the sense of not participating, not doing things when a neighbor needs help. W3: Someone who is not considerate, who, whether it’s a lot of noise or a lot of trash, doesn’t upkeep their property, um, who’s not really friendly.

Part 5 V: Tell me about the best or worst neighbor you’ve ever had. W3: Um, she was a lady who lived above me and she was very quiet, very nice. She would oftentimes come and, kinda, check on me, see if I’m OK, so we would kind of chit-chat, so I got to know her pretty well, which was pretty nice. W2: The worst neighbor I’ve ever had lived next door to me er, in the last house I was in, er, and he was just very noisy all the time, day, day and night. You were constantly, constantly aware of him. M2: One night I was um, about eight o’clock, I heard a noise outside and I opened the windows and a loud voice said, “Get down, crouch down.” And it was clearly a policeman, um, and I had to stay crouched down and in my garden at the back three policemen shot in and shot over the wall and it turned out that I was living next to the “number two” in the main criminal gang in North London – and they were arrested and taken away. Listening Scripts L = Lynn L: In real life my husband and I are both artists, visual artists. We paint landscapes and portraits. Well, we’ve been using the website for about two years now. And about a year ago we started an artists’ colony on the Internet, and it’s been great. There are people like us who work in the arts, but also other people. And we show our paintings, and it’s brought some business for us. It’s a very creative kind of community, and we love it. We really do. R = Rick R: There is definitely a community of bloggers. It’s a very 21st-century community, which means no one knows one another personally. Bloggers might tell you their thoughts but, er, you don’t know them as people. The guy who wrote this, who says he’s a 50-year-old American university professor, might be a 16-year-old girl from Bombay – we just don’t know. But the best blogs have a following, who are very loyal readers. These are people who log on every day. And they get really engaged in the content. Well, that, to me, is a community. A = Abbie A: The website which I use the most is a social networking site. It’s like Facebook or MySpace. I put up pictures of me and my family and I write messages – but to be honest, I use it mostly to keep in touch with friends. And the thing that I like is you go onto your friend’s homepage to see what they’ve been doing … and er, well you, you can see pictures of all their friends. And then you see pictures of your friend’s friends, and it grows and grows so you meet new people. Um, I think it’s great. I check it at least once every day. Viewing Scripts

BP = Bruce Parry; A = Anutan BP: My name’s Bruce Parry. I’ve been traveling to some of the world’s most remote places to see how people there live, and how they’re adjusting to a rapidly changing world. I believe there’s only one way to really understand another culture, and that’s to experience it first-hand, to become, for a short while, one of the tribe. After four days at sea, we sight a speck of land on the horizon. Half a mile wide, 75 miles from its nearest neighbor. This finally is my first sighting of the island of Anuta. How do people survive in such an isolated place? And could this really be paradise on Earth? The island of Anuta is surrounded by a shallow reef. So our yacht anchors offshore and I’m paddled towards the beach. Anuta’s one of the Solomon Islands, which used to be under British rule, but even so, I didn’t expect this many people to speak English. The entire community is here to greet me and I’m told that I must shake hands with each and every one of them. This really is phenomenal. What a reception. Everyone is out, all smiling, and er, just a really warm feeling. And let’s face it, look around, what an amazing place. I’m in paradise. A couple of hundred handshakes later and I’m taken to meet the community leaders. So tell me, what is the protocol? I must go in on my … very low, on my, on my knees? I’ve heard it’s customary to greet the chief in the Polynesian way, with a nose kiss. OK. But I don’t kiss him with my lip, just with my nose. A: Yes, your nose. BP: OK. The chief tells me I can stay on Anuta. Well, this is gonna be an amazing day; it’s something I’m really looking forward to. It’s a community fish drive. And what’s happening is: Every single member of the island is gonna gather together, and we’re gonna go out and force the fish into this area here, where we dive and spear the lot of them. What could be more fun? Everyone’s gonna be out there. It’s a pretty obvious system but it’s deadly and productive at the same time. Essentially, this wall that we’ve all been rebuilding is here to stop the fish getting away so that when the wall of people beat towards us, the fish can’t escape here and they go into the killing area. And that’s where we spear them.

Speaking for communication
Role-play Scripts W = Woman; M = Man M: OK, so, tell me all about it … W: Well, in the beginning, I was at home, and … um … this was just one morning before a very important interview. M: Uh-huh. W: And … um … I didn’t feel well, so my mother had given me some pills, and um … and then I didn’t think anything more about it. So, anyway, um … I then got on to the tube, um … to go for my interview.

M: Right, and what happened then? W: Well, um … clearly I must have fallen asleep, because I wasn’t feeling great by this time. And um, I’m starting to feel sleepy, so I’m thinking I must have fallen asleep. Anyway, um, I was getting some funny looks, even before I fell asleep, but anyway, I fell asleep, and then I realized, um, before long, um, I must have been having a dream, I suppose, about my mother. Um, all of a sudden, I’ve woken up, but I haven’t just woken up, I’ve woken up shouting the word, “Mum!”. M: No! You’re joking! W: At the top of my voice, in a packed, quiet tube. M: Oh no! W: Yes, and everybody’s staring at me, and that did not help, er, matters. Anyway, I’ve got off the tube, and I’ve then arrived at my interview, put all that behind me, I’m not, still not feeling 100 percent perfect, um, but nevertheless arrived at my interview on time, and go in, and think, actually “This is going rather well. They’re not saying an awful lot…” and come to think of it, they’re looking at me in a rather strange way. M: Right … Then what? W: Well, the next thing I knew, I have left the interview, and said “Thank you very much for seeing me, blah-di-blah …” and gone to the ladies’ room. And there in the mirror, I could see what everybody was looking at, and why they couldn’t say anything. M: What was it? W: My face had swollen up! M: Ah! No way! W: And it was bright red … M: No! W: And covered in blotches, spots … M: Oh! You’re kidding! W: Yes, and the pills that my mother had given me were so out-of-date that they had caused an allergic reaction … M: Oh! How embarrassing! W: I know. Group discussion Scripts B = Ben Jacques; S = Sharon Hills B: S: B: S: So Sharon, um, imagine you had to start a brand-new community. Er … Yes? I know it’s a difficult question, but ideally where would it be? Um, I’d probably choose somewhere quite warm, um, so yeah, so you didn’t have any issues of flooding, or you know, um, too much snow to deal with, something like that. And then I’d choose um, another place that most people would probably choose, not an island … um … B: Where, where … where exactly? S: But, I think, hmm … somewhere in France, I don’t know why. B: Oh somewhere in France? OK and, and who would be there: the French only or a mixture of

S: B: S:

B: S: B: S:

B: S: B: S: B: S:

people? No, I … well, it would need to be a, a mix of people and they’d need to be able to help one another. So … In what way? Well, um … I’d like to take one person who’s an expert in one field, another person who’s an expert in another field, so you have, you know, arty people, um, manually skilled people, um, good orators, good writers … Ah, so a whole range of skills … Exactly! … all going into the melting pot. Yes, but, um, I wouldn’t have too many people to start with, although if it’s too small a group then I suppose you risk, um, falling out. But I think if you keep that group fairly small to begin with, then you can draw up your own special laws, um, you know, to govern yourselves. Would it, would it need laws do you think … this, this utopian society? Hmm … well, ideally there’d be no laws but because people are human, I think you would probably have to still come up with some ground rules, yes. What would be the most important one? Oh! Um, I think, um … not to physically hurt somebody else, I suppose. Right, so pretty much like we have at the minute … Yes, I suppose …

Further practice in listening
Short conversations Scripts Conversation 1 M: It’s considerate of the community to offer us old people so many chances. As you can see from my curriculum schedule, I have one music theory class and one piano lesson in the afternoon. W: I still have no idea which class I should choose. I think I may take music theory class with you. Q: What are the speakers doing? Conversation 2 W: Let’s talk about the preparations for the coming Christmas party. M: I think we really need a good plan and to arrange everything well in advance this time. Do you remember what a mess it was last year? Q: What do we know about the Christmas party last year? Conversation 3 W: John, could you look after the children for me while I go to the doctor? The only appointment I could get is at 11:00. M: All right. But I have to leave at 1 p.m. I’m going to a party in the afternoon. Q: What is the man supposed to do now according to the conversation?

Conversation 4 M: It’s said that you have a new handsome neighbor from Australia. How are you getting along with him, Mary? W: Oh, quite well. He is a person who always speaks his mind, and I guess he gets along well with the entire neighborhood. Q: What does the woman think of her new neighbor? Conversation 5 W: I’ve heard that Mr. Smith is moving to a new apartment house at the end of this month. M: That’s wonderful. He’s been looking forward to moving to a new house for a long time. Let’s give him a hand this weekend. Q: What is the man going to do this weekend? Long conversation Scripts W: Hello, Mr. Lucas, I’m here to ask for 10 days off work, next month, in August. Together with the two weekends, I’ll have a full 14 days off from work. M: Two weeks in August? Lucy, as the election season is coming, the news and stories are catching the eye of the public. We may need our best news producers – like you – to be here for interviews. What’s so important? W: I know it is a busy season, but I’ve been taking two weeks off every year to volunteer for Habitat for Humanity – it’s a commitment I’ve kept every year, no matter what. It’s such a great organization that builds low-cost homes for people in need. The work is all volunteering and most of the supplies to build the houses are provided for free. It’s a great way to build community and make friends. M: I love Habitat for Humanity! In 2005, after Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana, over 150,000 volunteers helped build more than 2,200 homes. My daughter worked with them in New Orleans and my brother has volunteered with Habitat for Humanity for five years. W: Wow! You know my husband and I have been volunteering for six years here in Seattle. When I started, I didn’t even know how to hold a hammer, but now I’ve learned how to paint, build roofs, and even install kitchen sinks! I love the feeling of community we develop with our fellow volunteers and with the communities that benefit from our work. M: Alright! We’ll work it out. I’ll give you the time off. Maybe this year you can learn how to install doors as well! Q1: Why is the woman asking for two weeks off from work? Q2: Which of the following statements is true? Q3: According to the woman, why is she willing to volunteer for Habitat for Humanity? Q4: What do we know about the man from the conversation? Passage 1 Scripts

The BBC’s iPM radio program asks its listeners for interesting questions. In response, a listener asked the following question: “I would like to ask a question about the relationships among neighbors. I mean those people who live in your immediate neighborhood. Many people we have spoken to have said they don’t know any of their immediate neighbors.” What about you? Do you know any of your immediate neighbors, in the sense of something more than exchanging “Good morning” or “Good afternoon”, for example? A research group carried out an investigation and asked people how well they know their neighbors and this is what the research group discovered. Surprisingly, 77 percent of people say they know their neighbors. It also emerged that if they live in a house, regardless of town or rural area, a massive 80 percent of them know their neighbors. However, the figure drops to 75 percent if they’re in a flat. The survey also revealed that people appear to get friendlier as they get older. In fact, only 64 percent of 18- to 24-year-olds know their neighbors, but for people aged 55-64 this number climbs to 88 percent. Interestingly enough, it turns out that men are a little less likely to say they know their neighbors than women, and the rich are closer to their neighbors than the less well-off. This topic was very popular with lots of BBC listeners and provoked plenty of comments on the BBC’s iPM website. One of the listeners said, “I only really got to know my neighbors when their house caught fire. We’re good friends now.” Another one recalled, “When we moved into our house three years ago, the first remark our neighbor made was, ‘So, you’re moving in? I hope you don’t have noisy kids.’ We reassured him we had no children and tried to make conversation but with no success.” Q1: What question did the research group try to find an answer to? Q2: Which age group is more likely to know their neighbors? Q3: Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? Q4: What do the website’s comments mentioned at the end of the passage imply? Passage 2 Scripts and answers Many neighbor disputes end up in court because of poor communication. If something dangerous or 1) illegal happens, the cops are the obvious solution. But if problems that arise are grayer, communication is the best way to save money and trouble. Here are some tips to be a good neighbor and deal with a bad one: ? Get to know each other. Being a good neighbor doesn’t mean 2) taking family vacations together. Just knowing them well enough to say hi, or maybe borrowing a cup of sugar or loaning a gardening tool, can build trust and understanding. Issues are much more likely to occur among strangers than even casual 3) acquaintances. ? Head off problems before they’re problems. If you are 4) throwing a party at your place, go to all

neighbors who might be affected and offer them two things: a 5) verbal invitation to the party and a card with your phone number. If they are not 6) tolerant of the noise or there are other problems, your neighbors can call you instead of asking the police to 7) intervene. ? Tell your neighbors what’s bothering you – don’t assume they know what the problem is. Be open and direct, not passive-aggressive. Ask for their opinions, and wherever possible, propose a solution that 8) splits the difference and demonstrates a willingness to compromise. Stay cool and positive, even if your neighbors are not. ? Check with other neighbors. See if anybody else on the block is having similar issues – they may be willing to help 9) resolve it. If one of the neighbors is close to the troublemaker, have them come with you when you 10) talk it out. Bottom line? As with any relationship, being a good neighbor – or dealing with a bad one – is all about communication.

Unit 4 What’s the big idea?
Listening to the world
Sharing Scripts V = Val; W1 = Woman 1, etc.; M1 = Man 1, etc. Part 1 V: Hi. I enjoy walking around the shops and I buy things like books and make-up on impulse, but I always do my food shopping online – it’s such a fantastic service and you get everything delivered to your door. Today I’m talking to people about shopping and innovative products. What items do you enjoy buying most? W1: Oh, I enjoy buying foods, and particularly food from farmers’ markets. I also like buying clothes for myself and I love buying plants for the garden. W2: Like most women I should say, like shoes, bags er, I think, and make-up. Yeah, three top things, yeah. W3: Quite diverse really, um, I love food shopping. I love going to food markets, fish markets. W4: Well, actually, I’m in the perfect place for me right now, which is er, markets: antique markets and vintage clothes. M1: Er, I enjoy buying, I probably enjoy, enjoy buying books the most, so er, and music as well, so anything where somebody’s given a recommendation. M2: I love to browse around bookshops and look at the latest books that are out and also CD shops. Part 2 V: What sorts of things do you buy on impulse? M3: Music, I suppose I buy that on impulse, um, clothes. W1: Clothes, but not as much as I used to. M2: Food. I decide when I’m walking down the street one day I want to cook this this evening, I jump in a, a market and get the ingredients and go and do that. W2: Well, I’m not that type of person that buys things on impulse. I’m actually very controlled, self-controlled. M4: Just now I was walking down um, the antiques market and I saw um, a pair of silver tongs um, which looked like a great bargain, so I bought those on impulse. W3: On impulse? Oh, dreadful! A handbag, that’s probably er, my biggest impulse buy. V: What sorts of things do you plan to buy? M3: Train tickets, plane tickets, ‘cause I have to travel a lot in my job, so I need to plan in advance so I get good value for money on the tickets. W4: Plan, I never plan, actually, in advance. No, I haven’t got the kind of money to plan. M4: Things like holidays. Um, anything over, like, ?100, I’d say was a planned purchase. Part 3 V: What recent product or service do you think is impressive? M3: Er, iPhone. Absolutely amazing! I, I … I bought one and it’s just, it’s really changed my life.

W3: Probably my mobile phone. I’ve just changed it to a BlackBerry Storm where I can get all my emails. W2: The new camera that I saw on television, on the commercial, so you’re taking a picture and you’re seeing yourself on the other side. V: If you could start a business or invent a product or service, what would it be? M3: Um, I don’t know. I’d like to sell joy. If you could sell joy that would be good. I don’t know how you could do it. W1: My fantasy business is to have a thing called Sophia’s Bakery and to make really fantastic cakes that you can’t buy in this country. W4: I love the arts, so anything that would, kind of, bring more creativity to people’s lives and expression, I think that would be great. Listening Scripts I = Interviewer; E = Expert I: We often hear that competition is beneficial, but how exactly does it work? E: OK. Let’s imagine a Coke machine somewhere, anywhere, selling 100 cans a day. Now, Pepsi comes along and puts up a machine next to it. How many cans would each machine sell? I: 50? E: That’s what most people think. In fact, each machine would probably sell 200 cans a day, unless the market was saturated. I: That’s hard to believe ... What’s the explanation? E: Well, what happens is this that the question in the consumer’s mind is no longer “Should I get a Coke or not?” but “Which soft drink should I get?” Choice makes people want things. I: Um, that’s interesting. What about pricing? E: Well, there are several schools of thought on this. People are expected to think, “If I see two similar products at different prices, I’ll buy the cheaper one.” But in fact, that’s often not how consumers behave. For example, if I were to introduce a new lipstick and I wanted to compete with a product priced at () 4.99, should I price mine above or below the competition? I: OK – I have a feeling you’re going to tell me above, but it seems natural to undercut your competitor. E: We’ve found that with certain types of products, if you price your product just above the competition’s price – so let’s say () 5.49 – you’ll actually end up with a bigger share of the market. I: Why’s that? E: We intuitively feel that if something costs more, it’s better. People will pay more provided the difference is small. They’ll think, “Well, why not? I deserve the best.” I: OK. Turning to the appearance of advertisements, what tricks are used to make products more appealing? E: Take this advertisement for a hamburger chain. A big picture of a juicy hamburger with fresh tomatoes and lettuce ... I: Makes me hungry just looking at it. E: Yes, it’s fine to look at … as long as you don’t eat it. It probably has 100 percent beef in it, real

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tomatoes and lettuce … But to make it so shiny, a food stylist has painted the meat with oil or maybe lacquer, and what appears to be steam rising off the meat is probably cigarette smoke blown onto the hamburger just before the picture was taken. I’ve just lost my appetite. And look at these advertisements for watches. What time is it on this watch? 10:10. And on these? 10:10 – in all of them. Why’s that? There are two theories. One is that with the hands in this position, the face of the watch conveys a smile. The other theory is that it’s a bit like a tick symbol. In either case, the consensus is that the message is positive. And if a watch showed 8:20 it wouldn’t sell as well? Presumably not. 8:20 is a very sad-looking time. That about color in advertising? It’s crucial. We have built-in associations for every color, for instance red is associated with risk and with energy so you see it in adverts for energy drinks cars and sports equipment. Green on the other hand denotes safety so it’s often used for medical products. Yellow and orange supposedly stimulate the appetite so they’re used for food ads; blue on the other hand suppresses the appetite ... It’s linked more to intellect and precision so you see it in adverts for high-tech products. And purple is an interesting one: Survey (surveys) show that around 75 percent of young children prefer purple to all other colors. So you’ll see bright purple in advertising for toys for example. Well, thank you. I’ll never shop the same again. And neither will our listeners.

Viewing Scripts V = Voice-over; T = Tanya; J = Jim V: Tanya Streeter is a world-famous diver but she’s afraid of sharks. So she decides to go for … shark therapy. At first, it isn’t easy. The sharks arrive. Tanya feels nervous as she watches the sharks from the boat. T: I didn’t think that there were going to be this many of them. And I didn’t think that they were going to be … quite so um, big. V: Tanya prepares to dive. She’s feeling very frightened. T: This isn’t good. I’ve got to get more brave. V: Tanya dives into the water, and the sharks swim towards her … the shiny suit attracts them. When she swims back to the boat, one shark follows her! T: OK. V: Not a good start for Tanya’s shark therapy … so she asks the shark expert, Jim Abernathy, to help. T: And how about my suit because I have noticed that the, the Caribbean reef sharks in particular seem to be quite interested in my rather shiny suit. J: I, I noticed the suit and I think we should change the suit completely, and er, I think we should

T: V:

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go with all black. All black. OK. And it’s time for the big dive – with the tiger sharks. Jim throws fish heads into the water to attract the sharks. And as Tanya dives, the sharks come to her straightaway. Jim gives Tanya a stick to protect herself. Oh, my gosh! Thank you. Tanya, there’s another one behind you. Keep the stick vertical. That’s a big shark. Tanya, it just turned back towards you. Tanya, Tanya … Tanya! Tanya, look behind you over on your left. Use the stick first. After some time, Tanya starts to feel more comfortable with the sharks. It’s just beautiful. Her fear has gone. The shark therapy has been successful. That was wonderful! Tanya did great. It’s a real relief to have done this today. I do feel like I’ve accomplished something. I’ve started to overcome my very real fear.

Speaking for communication
Role-play Scripts W = Woman; M1 = Man 1; M2 = Man 2 Part 1 M1: OK, let’s try to do this quickly. We’ve got just a few minutes. Who’s taking notes? M2: Er, I’ll do that. M1: Good. OK, let’s brainstorm. W: Color. Purple vegetables. M2: Purple vegetables. Yeah. M1: Or a competition. A prize to kids who eat their two veggies a day. M2: Hmm, OK ... M1: Or a gardening program in schools. M2: What do you mean? M1: If kids grow vegetables, they’ll want to eat them. M2: Right. W: Have the opposite? What happens if you don’t eat your veggies? M2: Er, I’m not sure about that. M1: Hey, we’re brainstorming. W: OK. How about this? Forbid them from eating vegetables, at school at least. No veggies allowed. Then they’ll want them. M2: Hmm, I’ll write it down ... Any more? M1: Something with recipes, like put vegetarian recipes on the back of cereal boxes. M2: Or on websites. M1: Viral campaign. Short video with a celebrity. A famous rap star rapping about eating vegetables.

W: OK. M1: Is that it? Part 2 M1: OK, let’s look at the list and cut it down. Here, I’ll put these up on the screen. M2: Hmm, how do you feel about this idea? The purple vegetables? You know kids, they love purple. W: Actually, that could be a problem. We’re trying to sell something healthy, and we put a chemical in it to make it look attractive. M1: Good point, yeah. What about having a competition? If the prize is right, children will do anything. W: Oh, so whoever eats the most vegetables in an hour wins? M1: No, I was thinking of whoever eats two vegetables a day for a week or something ... W: Hmm, to be honest, it wouldn’t be my first choice. M2: Hmm, it’s not original enough, and too difficult to organize. M1: Would you consider the gardening campaign? We set up little vegetable gardens near schools ... maybe even have a competition ... M2: Yeah, they could send in photos to a website, and ... W: Well ... frankly, I, I think it’s too complicated to set up. We need something that’s fairly simple in terms of organization. Something that we can control and monitor easily. M1: How does the recipe idea strike you? M2: Hmm, it doesn’t grab me. Sorry. W: Hmm, I was going to say the same. To put it bluntly, it’s all wrong. It wouldn’t mean anything to the kids, maybe only to their parents. M1: Fair enough. W: Er, with respect, I think we’re on the wrong track here. M1: Yeah? W: I think it’d be great if we could get kids into vegetarianism. M2: Hmm, what do you mean? W: Well, you know how all children love animals. We could use that to make them want to stop eating meat, maybe use cute pictures of animals next to meat. M1: Oh no, that’s gross! Anyway, the point is not to make children vegetarians, just to get them eating a more balanced diet. M2: Hmm, I agree. I know this sounds weird but we could go for a “negative” campaign. It could be done in a funny way. We could use fantasy characters in a cartoon ... M1: As a matter of fact, I was thinking of that myself. The ones who don’t eat their veggies are the weak ones ... W: Yeah ... M1: So what do we think? M2: At the moment I’m torn between the cartoon and the viral campaign ... A rapper would be perfect ... W: Suppose we try combining the two ideas, and have a viral campaign but not with a celebrity, with cartoon characters? M2: I like it.

M1: OK, let’s go with that. Group discussion Scripts W = Woman; M = Man W: We would like to introduce you to an idea that will change the way you eat: Yummy Utensils. As you can guess, we’re talking about knives, forks and spoons that you can eat. M: You’ll never have to throw plastic knives, forks and spoons in the rubbish again. At the end of your lunch, after you finish eating, you simply eat your utensils, like this. W: Er, Yummy Utensils are made of a special vegetable and flour mixture, are strong enough to cut meat and pierce salad, but easy to digest after you chew them. M: They’re tasty, too – a bit like pretzels. Here, would you like to try one? W: What makes our idea special is that it’s not just practical, and it’s not a simple gimmick. M: No, Yummy Utensils are not just practical and fun, they’re also environmentally friendly. Just think of all the resources that go into making plastic utensils, which are … well, just thrown into the rubbish and become a permanent part of the waste that we litter the planet with. Yummy Utensils are made from natural ingredients, using the same processes as are used to make bread products, and of course create no rubbish at all. Even if you don’t eat your Yummy Utensils and throw them in the rubbish, they dissolve within days. So there’s no damage to the environment. W: Um, we envisage this product being sold in supermarkets, in the same section where you buy picnic supplies. But don’t be surprised if they’re sold in the snack section – they taste better than some snack foods. And they’re certainly better for you. M: We think that Yummy Utensils will be a hit with families in particular, since they’re the biggest consumers of disposable utensils. W: And kids love having a fork or spoon they can eat. We’ve done some market testing and it was amazing how much the children enjoyed them. M: In the future, we are planning to develop a sweetened version which will make Yummy Utensils the perfect dessert. W: Um, thank you for your attention and we welcome any questions.

Further practice in listening
Short conversations Scripts Conversation 1 M: Ted said he’d made up his mind to quit school and set up his own computer company. W: He’s told many people about his plan but I wonder where he could get so much money. Besides, he never showed any real curiosity in our computer class. He is a complete layman as far as the computer is concerned. Q: What does the woman mean?

Conversation 2 W: It is reported that researchers have developed tiny engines which are able to break down the pollutants in wastewater to create clean water. I think that’ll be great news to people in areas lacking water. M: Well, I am thinking that whether people in those areas can afford the engines. Q: What is the man worried about? Conversation 3 W: Driving all the way to work and back every day really makes me exhausted. If only the cars could drive automatically. M: Well, haven’t you heard that some engineers are working on intelligent cars? I suppose that you will soon be able to purchase one as long as you can afford it. Q: What can we infer from the conversation? Conversation 4 M: A Dutch airline rolled out a new program recently. It enables travelers to choose their seat partners based on the online profiles of those sharing the flight. Passengers can make a match by offering their Facebook data, depending on whether they’re looking for a potential personal or business relationship. W: Aha, that’s really a fantastic idea. I’d like to have a try as early as possible. Q: What are they talking about? Conversation 5 M: I am thinking of starting my own business. But I haven’t got any idea of what to do. It seems that many young people are pouring into the online business. W: If I were you, I’d like to offer the online video editing service. Many people shoot videos but don’t know how to edit. Maybe this is the online business opportunity for you! Q: What does the woman suggest the man do? Long conversation Scripts M: Alas! This creative writing class is too much! I have to write a five-page short story by October 8th, and I have no idea what to write about. W: We’re already two months into the semester, you must have written stories before now. What did you write about last time? M: That’s just it – we’ve only had to write true stories so far, funny little things that happened to us or our families. My first three stories were about hunting or fishing with my childhood dog, Brownie, and visiting my grandmother during the summers when I was in high school. This time, it has to be fictional. Hey! You’re a great artist, how do you get your ideas? W: Thank you, but I’m not sure painting and writing are exactly the same. When I’m ready to start a new painting, I usually go for long walks along the beach or out in the woods. I find most of my inspiration in nature. M: Hmm … I don’t think that would really work for me. I need characters and a plot.

W: You should try hanging out at the train station. There are always interesting people with odd hats or accents coming and going, dramatic goodbyes and romantic reunions. Just sit in the lobby for an hour or two and watch everyone. Try to imagine who they are, where they’re going, why they’re in such a hurry. M: The train station? That’s actually a pretty good idea! How did you come up with such a great idea? W: I’m glad you like it, but I can’t take any credit. It’s an old trick I learned from many artists and writers. You just need something new and exciting to get those creative ideas flowing. Q1: What’s the problem with the man? Q2: How does the woman get her ideas before painting? Q3: What is the man’s attitude toward the woman’s way of getting inspiration? Q4: What does the woman suggest the man do at the train station? Passage 1 Scripts We may take the invention of the toilet for granted, but it is something many of us would have a hard time learning to live without. Public sanitation systems were invented long ago, but when was the toilet invented? The story of the toilet takes us back to 1596. The toilet was created by Sir John Harrington for his godmother, Queen Elizabeth I. Harrington called his design a “water closet”, and his water closet was installed in Queen Elizabeth’s castle in 1596. The original toilet, or water closet, had a knob on a chain that had to be pulled in order for the water to be released from a bowl. Underneath the bowl, there was a basin or collection bowl that had to be emptied and cleaned often. It is not the sanitary and pleasant way for removing waste that we know of, but it paves the way for later improvements. Over time, many inventors improved Harrington’s original water closet by improving the pipes that were attached to the bottom and the flush system that built upon the original toilet. By 1896, Thomas Crapper began to sell toilets. Crapper saw the importance and necessity of the toilet, and he used his admiration for the product to help promote and sell the toilet. Harrington’s invention is, without a doubt, one invention that would be hard to live without. Inventors will continue to develop upon Harrington’s original water closet. Q1: Who invented the first toilet according to the passage? Q2: What was one of the problems with Harrington’s water closet? Q3: How did inventors improve the original toilet according to the passage? Q4: Which of the following can best summarize the passage? Passage 2 Scripts and answers Scientific research should improve our overall quality of life. The government should provide financial and political support to any research that is likely to result in immediate and significant

benefits for the people. However, people’s ideas 1) vary when it comes to whether the government should support scientific research with no practical use. Still 2) a large portion of people believe that the government should distribute adequate funds to any scientific research that aims to improve the 3) well-being of people, even if it is of no practical use in the short run. Scientific research whose social benefits are immediate, predictable, and 4) profound should continue to be a high priority. For example, biotechnology research has been proven to help cure and prevent diseases; information technology enables education to be more 5) accessible; and communication technology facilitates global peace by improving mutual understanding among people and their participation in the democratic process. However, this is not to say that research whose benefits are less immediate or clear should be given a lower priority. It is difficult to predict which research will 6) ultimately lead to the greatest contributions to society. Reluctance to finance less practical scientific research could 7) have a harmful effect on the efforts to explore new knowledge. This is particularly true of the computer sciences. For instance, before the first computer was invented, public opinions 8) went against it, as most people saw nothing practical in computer research. However, computers transformed the way human society evolved and proved to be of great avail in the long run, especially in terms of scientific development in fields such as the military, medicine, 9) aviation, and education. Therefore, never should we think that scientific research whose benefits are unknown 10) is not worth pursuing since the purpose of any research should be to discover truths, whatever it might be.

Unit 5 More than a paycheck
Listening to the world
Sharing Scripts V = Val; W1 = Woman 1, etc.; M1 = Man 1, etc. Part 1 V: Hi. I’m a producer at the BBC and I really enjoy my job. I’m not sure it’s my dream job, because I’ve always wanted to be in a successful band, but it’s pretty good. Today, I’m going to be talking to people about dream jobs. What do you do? Part 2 W1: I’m a school teacher. M1: I am a, a minister with the Salvation Army. M2: I’m a stand-up comedian. M3: I make French horns – the musical instrument – and I repair other brass instruments. M4: I’m an architectural technologist and I design and build houses. W2: I finished my degree in education and I will be teaching history and math. M5: I’m a student. W3: Um, I’m a student nurse. Part 3 V: What did you dream of doing or being when you are (were) younger? W1: I’ve always wanted to be a teacher. My dad was a teacher; my brother is a teacher. M2: I wanted to be a footballer. That’s what I wanted to do. I wanted to play for Liverpool or Arsenal, and I was quite good, but not good enough. M3: When I was a child, I dreamt of being a professional cellist and performing to whatever audience I could, within orchestras or on my own as a soloist. M4: I always wanted to build things and design houses. And so now it’s part of my everyday life and it’s kind of good. W2: When I was a child, er, most of the time I wanted to teach. For a while I wanted to be a pediatrician – so, a doctor for children. W3: I wanted to be a vet, um, and then a solicitor. M5: As a child, I used to play a lot of guitar. So, I dream, dreamt of becoming, starting a band and becoming a world-famous guitarist. M1: When I was younger, I loved sports and I envisioned some kind of a career in sports – professionally, perhaps. Er, later on, I was thinking of business, in the business realm and finally I came away with er, serving people – that was my dream job and I get to do that through the Salvation Army. Part 4 V: Would you describe your job as a dream job? M2: Yeah, it’s a dream job, especially when it goes well.

W1: Every day is a different day and we do different things every day, so yeah, I would say it was a dream job, really, yeah. M3: To be working within the music industry, for me, is a dream. And I’m working with a lot of professional musicians and I see it as it’s helping me achieve my overall dream. So, yes. W3: I would say nursing can be hard work but it is um, a dream job because you get quite a lot of satisfaction, job satisfaction. M4: Yes, definitely. I, I feel that it allows me to be creative and I get to do what I always wanted to do. Part 5 V: Are you ambitious? M4: Yes, I am ambitious. I like to take control and make things happen for myself and in this profession I get to do a lot of things like that. W2: I like to think I am. Um, I’m living in Paris right now and that was always a dream of mine. W1: Um, I was once, I think, but not so much now. I mean, I, I’m more ambitious for myself now, in, in developing my own art rather than developing other people’s art. W3: I want to get quite high up in my job. I want to be on good money and live in a nice house. Listening Scripts A = Angie; P = Pauline; M = Monty A: As a child, I always wanted to be a model. I used to look at all of the beautiful women in the magazines and on television. And I used to think it looked so exciting, to spend all day wearing beautiful clothes and going to exciting locations for photo shoots. And I’ve always loved fashion, so the idea that I could go to fashion shows in Paris, New York, etc. was just amazing for me. What I didn’t realize is that actually being a model is really, really hard work. The hours are very long, especially when you have to travel. Sometimes, we travel for 15 hours or more, and when we arrive, we need to start work straightaway. And the problem is that you need to look good all the time. But often, you’re feeling terrible. P: I have a passion for food, so being a restaurant critic seemed like the perfect job for me. I could spend my days sitting in some of the best restaurants, eating delicious food, and get paid for it. The only problem, which I didn’t realize at the time, is that actually you can get bored of eating restaurant food. I used to eat three-course meals every day, or sometimes twice a day. And I would often cook at home. So I put on loads of weight. I was furious! I used to spend hours in the gym, doing exercise to try and work off the food I was eating. But it was impossible. So, in the end, I gave it up. M: I used to work in a bank, so when I lost my job I decided it was time to do something that I would really enjoy. To follow a dream, if you like. I had this wonderfully romantic idea of owning my own vineyard, making wine, and spending my life in the beautiful Tuscan countryside. But the reality is very different. I had no idea how tiring the job would be. For a start, there’re no holidays. For five months of the year, you don’t even have weekends. You work seven days a week and you’re exhausted all the time. And the other problem is the weather. Bad weather can ruin everything. So, in the winter, you have to get up at two o’clock

in the morning when it’s freezing outside, to turn on the frost control. And in September, a bad storm can ruin the grapes in just a few minutes. At least when I worked in an office, I didn’t use to worry about the weather. Having said that, I love my life. And the science of making wine is absolutely fascinating. I wouldn’t change my job for anything. Viewing Scripts N = Narrator; TW = Toyah Willcox; B = Boss; T1 = Tourist 1, etc. N: On Holiday: Fasten Your Seatbelt, a number of famous people try different jobs. This job is for a chalet girl, for Crystal Holidays in the skiing resort of Verbier. And our applicant is: TW: Toyah Willcox. N: Your job, please? TW: Chalet girl. N: Essential? TW: Catering experience, outgoing personality and basic French. N: And salary? TW: ?56 a week, plus tips, accommodation, insurance and ski pass. N: Applicant accepted. Toyah Willcox works as a TV presenter, but this week she has a new job as a chalet girl in Switzerland. N: Toyah arrives at Verbier to start work and her boss shows her some of her jobs. B: OK. In the bathroom, clean the sink, mirror, bath … TW: OK. N: Toyah starts her work with a trip to the supermarket to buy food for the week. B: Um, Toyah, how much did you spend? TW: Um … 174. B: I was thinking more along the lines of … the list would cost perhaps about 100 francs. TW: Oh … N: Two hours later, the guests arrive. TW: Hello. Welcome! N: Toyah welcomes them. They’ve traveled by plane and then by bus from England. They want to ski, relax and eat some very good food. Toyah makes soup … TW: Uh! Oh no! N: And a cake. TW: This is my first cake. T1: It looks good! T2: Did you know that Rosemary is a professional cook? TW: Oh, gosh oh … Oh no! N: Early morning and Toyah is up to get fresh bread for breakfast, … but then there’s a problem. TW: Mistake number three. I haven’t got a key. Trish Brian, it’s Toyah. Sorry. T3: No need to apologize. No! TW: Go back to bed and I’ll bring you a cup of tea. N: A little later, Toyah makes breakfast for the guests. TW: Um, the plate is hot.

T2: I don’t … I, I want to have an egg. TW: Oh, sorry. N: After breakfast, the guests go skiing, and Toyah is alone … but there’s no time to rest. Toyah hoovers the rooms, she makes the beds, cleans the bath and washes the floor. But it’s not all housework for Toyah. She goes out with her guests, gives them a hot drink and tries out a new sport! Off she goes … TW: And I’m not coming back!

Speaking for communication
Role-play Scripts W1 = Woman 1, etc.; M1 = Man 1, etc. W1: First of all, we need to decide what food we want to sell. M1: OK, well … the way I see things, the most important thing is to make sure, in the catering industry, what we want to do, is we want to make sure that we make a 70 percent profit on everything we sell, right? So, we need to think about food that doesn’t cost very much to produce … M2: OK, so no smoked salmon, or … W2: Exactly. But I think we should decide on a name for the company first, like “Lotus foods” or “Saffron”, something which sounds exotic. W1: Hmm. I’m, I’m not sure that I agree. Let, let’s focus on the issue of a theme for our food, you know, like Indian or Mediterranean first, because that will influence the name. M2: That’s a good point. Also, I suggest we think about how we’re going to sell. Because if we’re going to events, then the type of food we cook might change, but we could have a name like Food4events. W1: Good idea. M1: Sorry, I missed that. M2: We could call the company Food4events, and cater for events, weddings and parties, that kind of thing. W1: I think that’s a great idea. Does everyone agree with that? ALL: Yeah. That’s fine. Yup. That’s fine by me. W1: OK. So, moving on to the next point, where do we work from? M1: We need to be somewhere central, like in central London, and then we can travel to events from there. W2: Sorry, but I’m not sure that central London is a good idea. It’s very expensive. I suggest we look outside the city, where it’s cheaper to rent office space. M2: Yes, I see what you mean. You’re right – we don’t need to be based in the center of the city. W2: Exactly. W1: OK, so let’s recap: The company is called Food4events and we sell at parties, events, weddings, etc. We’re based outside London. Um … What else do we need to think about? M2: How, how is our company going to be different from others? W1: Ah … I think we need to come back to the kind of food we want to sell. I really feel that we need to specialize, so perhaps we could be Italian.

W2: M1: W1: M2: M1: W1:

How about Mediterranean? Yes, Mediterranean’s really popular. OK, good point. I like the idea of Mediterranean actually. OK. Why don’t we call it Italy on the Move? Or Buon Appetito? I like that. It sounds good. Oh, let’s go with Italian, so it’s an Italian catering company, and it’s called Buon Appetito. And that will make us different from the others, and we can have Luca as our head chef! So, let’s sum up what we’ve decided. The company is going to be based …

Group discussion Scripts CP = Candace Parker CP: I’m a kindergarten teacher with a class of two-year-olds. So, um, my daily routine … Well, I wake up about six thirty, take a shower, and have breakfast with my husband. I have to be at the Child Development Center by seven thirty so I leave home by twenty past at the latest. Luckily, I don’t have far to drive. The first thing I do is check my mail at work to see if there are any messages. Then I go to the classroom and switch on the lights, and I check everything is ready for the children. They usually start coming in about eight. The first hour is playtime, so we’re on the floor with the toys. At nine o’clock we get the children seated at the table for their breakfast, which is usually muffins and apple sauce, or bread and cheese, and fruit juice. Then we clean up. If the weather’s good we take the children out to the playground. This is probably the best part of the day because everyone’s happy to be outside. We try to do this at least once a day. We have lunch at midday and then most of the children have a little nap for about an hour. After that, we do some art work or play music to the children or read to them. Then it’s snack time around three thirty, just biscuits and more fruit juice. Then the parents usually arrive at four to take the children home. When all the children have gone, I write down what we did during the day and clean up a little, and then I make plans for the next day. And that’s it! I’m usually home by five. Then I relax by reading or watching TV. It’s a lovely job.

Further practice in listening
Short conversations Scripts Conversation 1 W: I just want to burst into my boss’ office and tell him that I quit. He promised to give me a promotion, but he went against his word. M: Well, if I were you, I’d bite my tongue and wait until I get a better job. Q: What is the man’s advice for the woman? Conversation 2 M: Now suppose I was to stay at home and do all the housework and look after the children while

my wife went out to work. What would you think about that? W: Well, you know … I’d rather do it the other way round. Q: What does the woman imply? Conversation 3 M: I am really sorry for this, but I hope that you can understand my reason for deciding to leave, Mrs. Smith. W: Well, do I have to remind you that we have invested a lot of time and money in your career here? Q: What does Mrs. Smith imply? Conversation 4 W: It looks that you are a bit tired. I’ve noticed that you’ve been sitting in front of the computer for an hour. Why don’t you stop and have a coffee break? M: I’ve got to finish this report and I can’t leave it until the deadline. Q: What does the man mean? Conversation 5 M: When Jane told me that she was going to quit her job, I just thought she was kidding. You know, it’s a good job and she is well paid. W: I see your point, but she said she was tired of counting other people’s money. Q: What can we learn about Jane from the conversation? Long conversation Scripts M: Michelle, I really wish I could quit this awful job – today – if I could afford to pay my rent without it. Just think of working outside in this terrible heat the whole summer … I dream of my future when I’m rich! W: Oh Mark, it’s not that bad! I’ll admit, it’s crazy hot, and I’d love some ice-cold lemon juice right now. But you’re only a gardener, how do you think you’ll ever get rich? Do you think you’ll plant a money tree and harvest bags of gold? M: I may be only a gardener now, but I’ll be rich some day. I’ll start my own business and make millions! I’ll have a corner office in a big building with a big black leather chair and a view of the whole city! W: Well, I have no idea it is so easy to be a millionaire! If it’s as simple as that, I think I’ll be rich, too. But I’m not going to work in some boring office. M: Oh no? Where then? If you could have any job in the world, what would it be? W: Any job in the world? I suppose I’d want something fun. Hmm … maybe play video games for a living … or maybe I could be a pilot … or a professional ballroom dancer! That’s it! I could be a dancer, waltzing around the floor in beautiful evening dresses! M: You, dancing? I’m not so sure about that … You ballroom dancing … hmm … W: Oh, please. I’ve taken ballroom dancing for seven years and I’m really good! You should see me … Want to go dancing next Thursday at 8 p.m.?

Q1: What is the man complaining about? Q2: What does the man dream of being? Q3: What is the woman’s attitude toward the man’s dream? Q4: What does the woman dream of doing? Passage 1 Scripts Once I had a wonderful job at a marvelous firm. I had flexibility, an understanding boss, and a high salary. I loved my job. But after six years of trying out various professional roles, I felt that I had grown beyond the fixed positions available at the company. I must admit that having a lot of money is nice. Money can buy you things, nice things. However, the popular saying is true – money cannot buy you happiness, and having it doesn’t mean that you are a successful person. After several years, I realized that the more money I made, the less satisfied I became. Days started to blend into one another, time flew by, and I deeply longed for something with more meaning. Upon realizing that I was trading my time for money, I started experimenting with other income sources. I’ve started and ended businesses, I’ve turned hobbies into professional pursuits, and I’ve tested out different investment strategies. In the end, I’ve learned that it doesn’t matter what you are doing. As long as you are doing something that expresses your passion, you will feel great and you will gain satisfaction. I’ve also learned that starting something from scratch and watching it grow is deeply rewarding. Through my quest for passion, I’ve discovered blogging as a platform where I can share ideas and lessons learned that are closest to my heart, as a way to serve others. For the first time in my life, I feel that I am living my life’s purpose. Q1: Why did the speaker get tired of her job at the company? Q2: Which of the following is true about money according to the speaker? Q3: What can bring satisfaction according to the speaker? Q4: What does the speaker find most suitable for her now? Passage 2 Scripts and answers A poorly trained manager can make an employee’s life miserable. In 99 out of 100 cases, employees may 1) suffer from low spirits and then gradually become no longer 2) enthusiastic about their jobs just because they have a boss who doesn’t approve of them, doesn’t listen to them, or generally 3) erodes their self-esteem. Three basic skills that every manager should use in order to be 4) competent on the job are: being specific, enhancing others’ self-esteem and listening effectively. Being specific means giving 5) clear-cut instructions about what is to be done and the results to be achieved. Being specific also means describing the behavior of people rather than 6) labeling people. It includes giving both positive feedback that tells them what to repeat and corrective feedback that is firm, yet not critical. Then it 7) comes down to evoking in the employees self-esteem. Self-esteem is a

private, individual matter. It is not fixed, but goes up and down from day to day, or even from hour to hour. Thus, building self-esteem is no easy task. Managers can’t MAKE people feel good about themselves, but rather, they need to help people develop their own self-esteem as self-esteem is like a door that’s locked from the inside. A final skill that today’s managers need more than ever is listening. Listening may seem like a 8) commonplace skill, but it’s not practiced as much as it should be in business today. People 9) tend to think about what they are going to say in response when another person is talking, instead of 10) focusing on what that person is saying and what he / she means.

Unit 6 Histories make men wise
Listening to the world
Sharing Scripts P = Pasha; W1 = Woman 1, etc.; M1 = Man 1, etc. Part 1 P: Hi. I enjoy reading about the past but I’m very happy to live in the modern world with all its freedom and the opportunities we have. Today I’m talking to people about the past and how history has influenced our lives. Do you think life is better now than in the past? Part 2 W1: As a woman, it’s infinitely better now. You know, you, you’ve got birth control; you’ve got education; you’ve got the right to vote. There’s no way I’d want to live in the past. M1: I do think life is better now. Um, I think the, the improvements in technologies, er the general infrastructure, (the) Internet, um, you know, cars, roadways, health, health improvements and scientific improvements in medicine have kind of enabled us to, to have a better life now than in the past. W2: I’m a person of today and I enjoy my life today. W3: Probably in the past. It’s got more values in the past than it has now. Everything’s all far too fast now. M2: I think life is better, was, was better in the past. Um … today, I don’t really think there’s, there are many great causes to believe in, whereas in the past people’s imaginations were a lot more fired up. W4: I think our society’s become much more … materialistic and consumption-focused and I think that’s a bad thing. Because at the end of the day people think it’s all about money but actually it’s not, it’s about your health and your friends and your family. Part3 P: If you could have lived through a different age or decade, which would you choose and why? Wl: If I could have lived in another age I’d like to have lived in the 18th century. I think it was a, they had beautiful houses; they had beautiful clothes; the furniture was fantastic, but also the world was opening up, people were exploring it. W2: I would have loved to live in the 1950s, in all this Christian Dior era. I know it was a very ladylike look and in terms of fashion that’s something that I would have died to live in that era. M1: Coming from the United States I would probably say the er, late 60s, 1970s. Um, there was a major cultural revolution there, er, improvements in music, a lot of movement (movements) there. W4: I would, definitely, love to have lived in the 20s as a “flapper”, drinking martinis. That would have been excellent, dancing to jazz. M2: The 60s was a decade I would like to have lived in. I think there were ... a lot more causes to believe in than there are nowadays – things aren’t as inspiring.

Part4 P: In your opinion, what historical events or people have changed the course of history? W3: People off the top of my head would be Winston Churchill, quite definitely, um, Princess Diana. M2: The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. I think the way he thought about um, why we believe certain things, why we behave in certain ways, transformed the way people live their lives. W4: Um, I think a key historical event was the moon landing because it gave people a bigger focus than just the earth. Ml: For me I would say the American er, War of Independence, just because it helped define America as a nation and created our identity, you know, to the rest of the world which can be seen through to today. W2: Oh, definitely, the er, September 11. The world is something before, and after, September 11. Listening Scripts 1 Yeah, I grew up in the 90s. Um, for me film and music are two important er, important aspects of my life, and it was a fantastic decade for both of those. In terms of films, there were some er, excellent ones that came out, um, my favorites being Forrest Gump, Pulp Fiction, and The Shawshank Redemption. In terms of the music, probably the most famous bands of the time was (were) Oasis and Blur. Er, one of the most memorable moments for me of the 90s was Euro 96, obviously the football tournaments. I was lucky enough to go to the opening ceremony myself. Obviously, as we were entering the end of the millennium, the celebrations towards the end of the 90s were huge, as were the actual celebrations on the nights. Tony Blair was elected, um, so he was the first of Labor er, government for, for a long time. Um and also Mother Teresa died, sort of Mother Teresa was the famous um, charitable missionary. 2 Ah, the 70s, well, they were wonderful I think if, if I’m asked, you know, were they, was it a good decade or a bad decade, personally I have to think it was a good decade to grow up in. I think it’s very lucky, I think of it er, as a very lucky experience when generally, the world that I lived in, which was London and England, which was the post-war period and therefore an era of a, a certain amount of er, restriction was all ending and things were freeing up and that happened just at the time that I was leaving home and finding my own independence. It all seemed as though it happened at the same time. Um, technology er, was changing and improving, um, everything seemed to be developing and getting better in many ways. The fashion was getting rid of short hair and, and regimented kind of looks, um, individuality was very much the order of the day. Great people were emerging in the arts. John Lennon, for example, was an icon for me, I think, as a creative artist with a message as well in his work. Great artists in film, er, Scorsese, Taxi Driver, um, Spielberg, Duel – these were emerging um, artists of tremendous er, skill and artistry, but they were just starting out then. 3 I was a teenager in the 80s and I remember thinking that um, I didn’t like a lot of the fashion and the music from back then, but now it’s obvious in retrospect that I, I did quite like it. I love looking back on like a nostalgia trip at the way we used to dress and how much hair gel I used

and how much hair spray the girls used, and er, now in the 2000s there’s like a sort of a, a trip back into that time you know, girls are wearing big earrings again and geometric patterns on their clothes. Um, the music in the 80s became quite um, computerized sounding, quite electronic and er, disco faded away, although we did still have soul, although people like Luther Vandross and Billy Ocean, um, making soul music. Er, New Romantic was another style that came out in the early 80s where er, the men started wearing lots of make-up and had big shoulders and small waists and er, there was Madonna who was a big trendsetter for girls, and er, at one point she cut her hair really short in the mid 80s and almost like a boy’s, and er, then all the girls started cutting their hair short, too. Um, I wasn’t very fashionable myself, I used to spend most of my money on records not clothes. Um, there were some good films around in the 80s too, things like Back to the Future with Michael J. Fox, Desperately Seeking Susan with Madonna, E.T., Police Academy … Um, I’m going to be 40 this year and er, I reckon my birthday party is probably going to be a big nostalgia trip back to the 80s. Viewing Scripts V = Voice-over; A = Actor V: This is the story of a superstar, a sculptor, a painter, an architect who strides the history of art like a colossus. He was a tempestuous genius who would let nothing stand in the way of his quest for eternal fame and riches untold. A: He doesn’t know perfection when he sees it. V: He was an outsider who created works so big and so beautiful that nobody believed they were produced by a mere mortal. A: I’ve just created a giant. V: He claimed he was divinely inspired ... A: Heaven’s own art. V: His name was Michelangelo. Five hundred years ago, Michelangelo created three of the wonders of the world: the David, the most famous sculpture in history; the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, the most awe- inspiring painting; and the dome of St. Peter’s, the jewel in the crown on the Roman skyline. But what sort of man was capable of these incredible feats? A: What do you think I am? An ordinary laborer? You think I’m the er, honest, simple stone-cutter who makes a living with his hands? Well, look at that. What simple artisan could create something like that? Her face will live forever, not just from this century to the next, but on and on and on and on and on. Heaven’s own art. Not mortal, but divine. V: Within a month of Michelangelo’s birth, his family moved to Florence. He had an unhappy childhood. His mother died when he was six, leaving his father Ludovico with five sons to bring up. Money was always tight. Ludovico was a lowly-paid local official with aspirations of grandeur. He was appalled by the young Michelangelo’s love of the arts. A: Moreover, he thought I would bring disgrace on the family. Of course this distressed me. But I would not turn back. V: But for all his father’s opposition, Michelangelo persevered and produced works which showed an extraordinary talent. From the dome to the David, from the Pietà to the Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo had created a unique vision of heaven on Earth.

Speaking for communication
Role-play Scripts W = Woman; M = Man W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: Er, what about this first one? Who was once kidnapped in France? I have no idea. Maybe Isabelle Allende? It was Chaucer. I think he worked for the British government. Did he? I didn’t know that. OK, er, what about the next one? Who was messy? Um … probably Machiavelli. It was Karl Marx. Oh really?

W: And the third one: Who was stopped by the US government from entering the States? M: I’m not 100 percent certain, but it might be Chaplin. I read somewhere that he had some political views that they didn’t like in the States. I’m fairly sure it’s Chaplin. Is that right? W: You’re right. It was Chaplin. M: Yeah, I read something about that. W: M: W: M: OK, number four: Who played the violin? I haven’t a clue. I’ll guess it was Galileo. It was Einstein. He was a very good violinist, apparently. Was he? That’s interesting.

W: And the last one? M: Um, well, I’m sure it isn’t Picasso. Oh, it’s da Vinci. He invented lots of stuff but never actually produced any of it, like um … oh … I can’t remember, but I know he was an inventor as well as an artist. W: Correct. It was da Vinci. He invented the parachute. M: Oh yeah, I was just about to say that! Group discussion Scripts What if Chinese explorers had landed in the Americas first? Once, China led the world in technology. Centuries before Europe, they had printing and gunpowder. They also had the compass, which meant they could navigate without relying on the position of the moon. Furthermore, they were brilliant shipbuilders. This ability to build large, strong ships went hand in hand with their other talent: exploration. In 1405, a Chinese called Zheng He went on a journey. The idea was to create new trade routes for China. On his first trip, he took about 28,000 men in over 200 ships. Zheng He altogether made seven westward journeys. He landed in more than 30 countries and brought home

many things that were new to the Chinese: plants, animals, etc. If he had continued to explore, he would probably have reached the Americas before Columbus and the Europeans. Now, let’s imagine Zheng He had reached the Americas first. What would have happened?

Further practice in listening
Short conversations Scripts Conversation 1 M: That’s a big assignment we got for the English class this week, and for the European History course, we still have a presentation about artists in the Renaissance to prepare. W: Well, it’s not as bad as it looks. The assignment isn’t due until Friday morning. Q: What does the woman imply? Conversation 2 W: Are you coming with me to the history museum, Jack? The TV program I saw last night reminded me of some important historical figures I like. M: I saw that, too. Maybe next time, because I already have my hands full with this book report. Q: What is the man’s reply to the woman’s suggestion? Conversation 3 W: Today on History says that Ford Model T which was introduced in 1908 was regarded as the first affordable American automobile. M: Yeah. The country has become “a nation on wheels” since the last century. I was reading that there are about four million miles of roads and highways in this country now. It seems as if we were married with cars. Q: What does the man mean? Conversation 4 W: We usually think of history as the story of important people and events, but some historians in the 20th century are also interested in the daily lives of ordinary people. M: That’s true. They can even learn a lot from studying old family pictures. For example, the number of children in a picture indicates the size of the family; the clothes they wore suggest the popular fashions of the time. Q: What does the man think of historians? Conversation 5 W: Hi, Sam. Are you ready for the history test this Friday? I see you are still playing games. M: Well, that’s my way of dealing with stress. You know, I’m afraid of memorizing all those odd names and dates. I shouldn’t have taken this course, to be frank. Q: What does Sam imply? Long conversation Scripts

W: It is hot outside! M: Hi Daisy! What is it, 75 degrees Fahrenheit? W: It’s over 100 Grandpa! You’re just cool because you’ve had the air conditioning on! I’ve been working in the yard all morning. I’m so hot and I feel like I’m melting! M: At least you can come inside and have a nice cool glass of lemon juice. W: And I sure need it! I’ve been baking in the Arizona sun for two hours now, and I can’t imagine anything better than standing in the cool air enjoying an ice-cold drink. M: Back when I was your age, we didn’t have any air conditioning. Willis Carrier didn’t invent air conditioning until 1902, and it wasn’t available in people’s homes until after World War II. W: Wow! What was life like for you? M: I worked as a farmhand for the neighbors, building fences all day. You should have seen me when I was 13, sunburned and dirty. W: And you still lived in Arizona back then? M: No, I was in Texas. We survived the heat by swimming all the time. There was a stream running through the farm, and every few hours, I would leap into the water! Even with my clothes completely soaked with water, the sun would still dry me off in 10 minutes! W: I know you didn’t have cell phones and computers, but I forget about the little comforts like the air conditioning. M: Yes, a lot has changed, but not this summer heat! W: I wonder what scientists will come up with in the next century to keep us cool. M: I’d like a weather machine to make it rain during these long dry spells. W: Personally, I hope someone invents a personal ice cream machine! It could follow me around all day making chocolate ice cream! Q1: What was the girl doing on such a hot morning? Q2: What do we know about the air conditioning from the conversation? Q3: What can we learn about the man when he was 13? Q4: What would the girl like to have in the next century to keep cool? Passage 1 Scripts Almost 70 years ago the idea of disabled people doing sports was never heard of. But when the annual games for the disabled were started in England in 1948 by Sir Ludwig Guttmann, the situation began to change. Sir Ludwig Guttmann, who left Germany because of the Nazi persecution of the Jews, was asked by the British government to set up an injuries center at Stoke Mandeville Hospital near London in 1943. His methods for treating injuries included sports for the disabled. In the first games just two teams of injured soldiers took part. The next year, 1949, five teams took part. From those beginnings, things have developed fast. In 1960 the first Paralympic Games were held in Rome, in the same place as the normal Olympic Games. Since then, the Paralympic Games have taken place in the same year as the Olympic Games. The 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul was a landmark for the Paralympic movement. It was in Seoul that the Summer Paralympic Games were held directly after the Summer Olympic Games, in the same host city and

using the same facilities. This set a precedent and was eventually formalized in an agreement between the International Paralympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee in 2001. The Paralympic Games have been a great success in promoting international friendship and understanding, and in proving that being disabled does not mean you can’t enjoy sports. One small source of disappointment for those who organize and take part in the Paralympic Games, however, has been the unwillingness of the International Olympic Committee to include disabled events in the Olympic Games for the able-bodied. Perhaps a few more years are still needed to convince those fortunate enough not to be disabled that their disabled fellow athletes should not be excluded. Q1: What was Sir Ludwig Guttmann’s greatest contribution to the disabled? Q2: When were the first Paralympic Games held? Q3: What was special about the 1988 Seoul Paralympic Games? Q4: What do we know about the Paralympic Games from the passage? Passage 2 Scripts and answers The Sultana was a Mississippi River steamboat destroyed in an explosion on April 27, 1865. An 1) estimated 1,800 of the 2,400 passengers were killed, and the Sultana sank not far from Memphis, Tennessee. This disaster received little public attention, as it took place soon after the President Abraham Lincoln was 2) assassinated. The wooden steamboat was constructed in 1863 and 3) was intended to be used for the lower Mississippi cotton trade. Registering 1,719 tons, the steamboat was built to carry no more than 376 people. For two years, it ran a regular route between St. Louis and New Orleans. Sometimes it was asked to carry troops. The Sultana left New Orleans on April 21, 1865. Most of the passengers were Union soldiers who had recently been 4) released from Confederate prison camps. The US government had 5) made a contract with the Sultana to transport these former prisoners of war back to their homes in the north. At 2 a.m. on April 27, about seven miles north of Memphis, at least one boiler 6) gave way, causing a huge explosion that destroyed the center portion of the boat, throwing sleeping men high into the air before landing in the river. Confusion and chaos 7) ensued as men tried to save themselves and others. Many drowned while others burned to death. The direct cause of the explosion was later determined to be the leaky and poorly repaired steam boiler. Passengers who 8) survived the initial explosion had to risk their lives in the icy water of the Mississippi or burn with the ship. Many died of drowning or coldness. Bodies of 9) victims continued to be found downriver for months. Many were never recovered. Some of the Sultana’s crew, including the captain, were among those who 10) perished.

Unit 7 For every question there is an answer
Listening to the world
Sharing Scripts P = Pasha; W1 = Woman 1, etc.; M1 = Man 1, etc. Part 1 P: Hi. I’m not a very practical person. I don’t like DIY or fixing problems with my bike. I do help my friends to sort out their emotional problems, though. Today, I’m talking to people about solving problems. Would you describe yourself as a practical person? Part 2 W1: Yeah, I think I am a practical person. Yeah, I do quite a lot of DIY around the house – I’ve just um, done up my er, flat, so I’m, quite “hands-on”. And I’m quite practical in my job as well. M1: I work for a charity, so I think um, I’m er quite “solutions-focused” and I like to think I’m practical. W2: Yes, I would. I don’t like um, just thinking about things. I like having a practical solution. M2: Um, yes, I’m a practical person. W3: Um, yes, I’m a very practical person, I think, yeah. M3: With some things, yes. W4: Most of the time. Most of the time I’m quite practical, yeah. Part 3 P: What kinds of problems are you good at solving? W1: Um, well, I’m a project manager in my role in an advertising agency, so, um, the problems I suppose I’m good at solving are other people’s problems. W2: For example, if we go on holiday, um, fitting lots of different things into the car boot. My husband will sit and waffle about it or think about it and not do it, whereas I’ll just go and get on and fit all these different things in. M2: When things break down, like machines, domestic appliances er, really, I’m a handyman. M3: Anything that isn’t mechanical, I suppose. W4: Um, interpersonal problems and, sort of, psychological things is usually what I’m best at solving. W3: I’m good at solving a wide range of problems and that includes emotional problems for family and friends. P: What kinds of problems are you not so good at solving? W2: I’m not so good at solving problems that involve difficult people that you can’t change. M1: My own problems, you know, relationships and problems at home and, you know, the stuff that you can’t avoid. W3: I’m not good with um, problems with cars and I’m not good with um, reading maps. M3: Anything to do with cars or machinery.

Part 4 P: If you could have one “super power”, what would it be and why? M1: Wow! If I could have anything at all? I think I’d like to know when people are telling the truth. W2: I think I’d like to be able to see into the future and not make the mistakes that I have made. W3: I would love to make everybody nice. M3: I think it would be something to do with being able to predict the future of financial markets. W4: Um, invisibility, um, so I can avoid problems! W1: The superpower I would love to have at the moment is to be able to do 10 things at the same time. Um, that’s because I’ve just had a baby um, so I’m always running around. M2: I guess it would be a power to heal every disease because I don’t like to see people suffering. Listening Scripts W1 = Woman 1, etc.; M = Man Wl: Why are the windows round on ships? M: Er, round windows are stronger, aren’t they? W2: Are they? I’ve no idea. Wl: That’s right. According to the book, they’re less likely to break. W2: Ah. M: There you go. Wl: That about this second one? How many hairs are there on the human head? W2: Um ... A million? M: No, it’s not that many, is it? W2: It depends whose head, doesn’t it? On my dad’s there are about three. Wl: The answer is about 10000. M: Oh, really? W2: I think that’s a bit of a stupid question because it depends, doesn’t it? M: Well, it was a four-year-old who asked the question. W2: Oh yeah, that’s true. W1: Next question: What happens when your plane flies over a volcano? W2: Um … M: Nothing happens, does it? Well, it depends on whether the volcano is erupting? Or whether it’s active. W2: Yeah. W1: Well, according to the book, Jamieson asked a pilot. And the pilot said as he was flying over the volcano, his engines shut down, stopped working completely. W2: Scary! Did he get hot? W1: Hmm, it doesn’t say. But he obviously survived. So there you go. Anyway, what about this one? Why did the Beatles break up? W2: Dunno. They got old, didn’t they? M: No, John Lennon went off with Yoko Ono, didn’t he? W1: Well, Jamieson wrote to Yoko Ono and she replied, “Because they all grew up, wanted to do

things their own way, and they did.” W2: Oh, that’s interesting. M: I’m amazed she replied. W1: Me, too. OK, last one. After watching a violent video game, the little boy asked, “Why is there war?” W2: Great question. M: That’s a really good question. W2: Hmm, er, because men like fighting? M: Political reasons. One country wants the land or the oil or the gold. W1: Well, Jamieson asked lots of experts. Most of them didn’t or couldn’t answer. Then he asked an American army colonel, who said there are four big reasons: different ideologies, a sense of honor, economic reasons, and fear. M: Uh-huh. W2: Good question for a four-year-old. M: And a good answer. Viewing Scripts DA = David Attenborough DA: Winter in the Arctic. The northern lights flicker across the sky. It’s a land of continuous night, where temperatures plummet to minus 40. Polar bears are in their element, hunting for seals on the frozen sea. But the long night is coming to an end. In February, the sun rises for the first time in four months. In the coming weeks, the strength of the sun will power an enormous change, but for now its rays offer only a little warmth. At the height of summer, even the permanent ice caps are touched by the power of the sun. As July draws on, the great melt reaches its peak. The greatest seasonal change on the planet has taken place. The sea ice that once extended all the way to the horizon is now open ocean. In just three months the sun has won its battle with the ice. Over seven million square kilometers of ice has melted away, uncovering thousands of islands surrounded by open ocean. But in recent years the scale of this melt has been growing. And for one animal, this is a critical issue. A mother bear and her adolescent cub rest on a fragment of sea ice. With the melt, they’re forced to swim ever greater distances to hunt for seals. Their Arctic home is increasingly vulnerable to a changing climate, and this year there has been even less ice than normal. If future melts are as extreme as this one, bears like these may starve or drown, lost at sea. This is one of the last pieces of ice now adrift in the open ocean. The polar bear’s icy world has melted away.

Speaking for communication
Role-play Scripts M = Man; W = Woman Conversation 1 M: Argh! Oh no.

W: What’s the matter? M: Oh, um, this cash machine is not working. Do you know if there is another machine somewhere? I really need to get some money. W: Hmm ... I’m not sure. There might be one in the shopping center. M: Thanks. Conversation 2 W: Argh! M: What’s the matter? W: My laptop’s just crashed again. That’s the third time it’s happened. Would you mind looking at it for me? M: Sure. W: Thanks. It’s so annoying. I keep losing my documents. Do you know what the problem is? M: Let me have a look. There’s a lot of stuff on here. Why don’t you save the documents onto a memory stick? W: That’s a good idea. M: And then do you want me to try … Conversation 3 W: Customer Services. Good Morning. M: Oh, yes. I’ve got a problem with my vacuum cleaner. W: Could you tell me what the problem is, sir? M: Yes, I can. It keeps making a funny noise. And it’s just not working properly. W: You say it keeps making a funny noise … M: Yes, that’s right. W: OK. Let’s see if I can find someone who can help you. Could you hold the line, please? M: Yes, of course. Conversation 4 M: Oh. I don’t believe it! Excuse me, this machine is not working. It’s just taken my money. Could you give me a refund? W: I’m afraid I can’t do that. M: Why not? W: Well, I’m not allowed to give refunds. M: But I’ve just lost my money. And I still need a ticket. W: I can sell you a ticket, but I can’t give you a refund. M: Well, could you tell me who I should speak to? W: Yes, of course. You need to speak to the manager. M: OK. Would you mind calling him for me? W: Of course not. I’ll just call him. Group discussion Scripts JC = James Carn

JC: I’m going to tell you about Robo-Chef. Basically, Robo-Chef can prepare and cook all your favourite recipes. It works like this. First of all, it washes and prepares all the vegetables, then it prepares your dish, and cooks it for you on your cooker. Robo-Chef comes complete with hundreds of menus already programmed. But you can also program Robo-Chef with your own recipes, or, if you want to try something new, you can download new recipes whenever you like. All you have to do is choose the dish you want, decide how many people you want Robo-Chef to cook for, and what time you want the meal to be ready. So, let’s say you would like a vegetable lasagna for six people, ready by eight o’clock. Then, just make sure you have all the ingredients in the kitchen, press the button, and that’s it. You can go out to work, and when you come home in the evening, your delicious supper will be ready. What could be easier? Robo-Chef is the chef of the future.

Further practice in listening
Short conversations Scripts Conversation 1 W: Can you help me check if I damaged my laptop? I spilled coffee on it yesterday. I need to email some important business partners this afternoon. M: Of course, but I’m not sure I can help you. With spills, sometimes problems don’t always show up right away. Q: What does the man say about the woman’s laptop? Conversation 2 M: Well, I think the heating unit in my living room has stopped working because I have turned the switch all the way up but it is still freezing in here! W: Oh. Have you tried turning it completely off for a while and then restarting it? There should be a little red light glowing next to the power switch to indicate that it is working. Q: How can the man solve the problem of the heating unit according to the woman? Conversation 3 W: Professor Lee said that the mid-term exam would cover the first eight lessons. M: Really? I thought it would only include the first five lessons. If that’s the case I must spend the weekend going over the rest of the lessons. Q: What can be inferred from the conversation? Conversation 4 M: We have had trouble with the project because my partner and I had totally different ideas about how to move forward. Could you give me some suggestions please? W: Why don’t you meet each other halfway? Q: What does the woman suggest the man do? Conversation 5 W: You know, I’ve got another job offer recently. But I don’t know how to decline the former one.

M: You can simply tell the employer that you have found another job that is more suitable for your current situation. Just be as polite as you can and of course you must thank them as well for their consideration. Q: What does the man suggest the woman do? Long conversation Scripts M: Megan? Um … Can I ask you a few questions? … I need some help. I’m really worried about my Intro to Psychology class. W: What’s wrong Tim? I thought you loved that class … Are you having trouble with the essays? M: No, writing essays is fine … But I’m really struggling with the test. I read the textbook over and over, but I just can’t get a handle on some of the concepts. I understand the words, but I can’t seem to understand how the concepts fit together … W: Have you tried talking to the professor? I’ve heard that Dr. Smith is really helpful. My friend Maggie took that class and said that she would have failed it if she hadn’t met with Dr. Smith every week during his office hours on Wednesday at 11 a.m. M: No, no! I’m way too shy. Every time he calls on me in class, I’m so nervous I can’t speak. I’m just so worried, and I don’t know what to do. W: You could try talking to the teaching assistant, Jane. She is known for making the complex ideas of psychology easy to understand, plus she’s really easy to talk to, because she is a great listener. Maybe she can help! Jane’s office hours are on Thursday at 1 p.m. M: OK. Teaching assistant, Jane, Thursdays at 1 p.m. Any other ideas? W: Yeah. Don’t forget about the Internet. Try doing a little research online. A lot of university professors post video lectures that are free to watch. For a class like Intro to Psychology I bet you can find some great lectures online that will be a big help. M: Thanks Megan! I’ll try it! Q1: What is the man’s problem according to the conversation? Q2: Why is the man afraid of asking the professor for help? Q3: What can we know about the teaching assistant from the conversation? Q4: What else will the man probably do in addition to talking to the teaching assistant? Passage 1 Scripts Every relationship in our life – friendships, family ties, romantic and professional relationships – can potentially be destroyed by conflicts. The solution is not to ignore the conflicts or keep moving around hoping to find a set of perfect people. Resolving conflicts in relationships is one of the most important life skills we should develop and it is something we need to value. So how to resolve conflicts? First, if we have a difficult issue, it is important to see the problem from the other person’s perspective. This does not mean we have to agree with their viewpoint; it means we try to see the issue from a different perspective. This empathy can at least help us understand where they are

coming from, and why they have their particular attitude. If we only look at things from our own perspective, conflicts will be much more likely to occur. Second, we need tolerance. A major cause of conflicts in relationships is when we expect people to behave in a certain way. The problem with expecting certain behavior from others is that we get upset when they fail to live up to our expectations. We need to be tolerant of other people’s mistakes and limitations. We have to respect their decisions on how to live their life. Third, we should talk. When tense situations arise, talking can be the most effective way of moving past the problem. When talking we should try to focus on positive issues and look for things which we agree on and can work together on. Some things are best left unsaid; it is inadvisable to bring up old conflicts unless absolutely necessary. No conflict is unsolvable. If we are willing to change our attitude we can develop harmony even with difficult people. If we can develop harmony in our relationships, it will definitely make a big difference to our life. Q1: Why is it important to “see the problem from the other person’s perspective” according to the passage? Q2: What is a major cause of conflicts in relationships according to the passage? Q3: How should we solve the problem by way of talking? Q4: Which of the following can best summarize the main idea of this passage? Passage 2 Scripts and answers Research shows a close relation between reading speed and understanding that in most cases an increase in rate 1) was accompanied by an increase in comprehension and a decrease in rate brought decreased comprehension with it. However, simply speeding the rate especially through forced 2) acceleration may actually result in making the real reading problem more 3) severe. The obvious solution, then, is to increase rate as a part of a total 4) endeavor of the whole reading process. Then how? You can prepare for maximum increase in rate by establishing 5) practicable habits, such as avoiding rereading and whispering while reading, learning to adjust reading rate to increase comprehension. Rate adjustment may be overall adjustment, or internal adjustment within an article. As an 6) analogy, imagine that you plan to take a 100-mile mountain trip in three hours, averaging about 35 miles an hour. This is your overall rate adjustment. However, in actual driving you may slow down to 15 miles per hour on some curves, while 7) speeding up to 50 miles per hour on relatively straight sections. This is your internal rate adjustment. Poor results are inevitable if the reader 8) attempts to use the same rate for all types of material and for all reading purposes. A good reader adjusts his / her reading rate from article to article, or even within a given article. So you need to 9) foster a good reading habit by daily training until a flexible reading rate becomes 10) second nature to you.

Unit 8 Communication: then and now
Listening to the world
Sharing Scripts P = Pasha; M1 = Man 1, etc.; W1 = Woman 1, etc. Part 1 P: Hi. I have too many friends to stay in touch by phone, so I use a lot of social networking sites instead. Today I’m finding out how people feel about modern communication. How do you like to stay in touch with your friends? Part 2 M1: The main way that I keep in contact with my friends is via email, um, and I also use mobile phone. W1: I like face-to-face contacts best, um, so that’s always my preference, but otherwise um, I speak on the phone, um, write letters, send emails. M2: I think it’s really important to stay in touch with friends, so, I, I’ve got a really close group of friends that we have dinner once a month. We do a kind of “round robin”, you know, we each take, take turns to cook for each other. So, we do that regularly. W2: I keep in contact with my friends via email. W3: Well, I used to use an awful lot of postcards and letters, but of course that’s now email. W4: Email. I still write letters, um, send text messages, and phone calls. W5: Um, my phone. My phone is my lifeline. Use it for everything. I hate computers. Part 3 P: Has modern technology helped us to communicate better? W1: No. I think we think we can communicate better but I think it just masks our er, fear of um, communicating in an honest and open way. M1: We’re able to make contact with someone via mobile phone instantaneously. M2: It’s given us more options. Um, I’m a bit of a technophobe though. Um, I don’t use social networking sites, er, I haven’t got on the whole, kind of, Twitter bandwagon. Um, so I know that that’s there for me to use if I wanted to, but I tend not to bother. W3: In theory, it should be better, but in practice, sometimes you just have to speak to somebody on the phone. W4: It has, if it comes to just um, communication like remote communication, it has helped greatly. But on the flip side, I think it hasn’t because it’s reduced a lot of physical contact, face-to-face contact and I think that a lot of people still feel isolated even though we communicate a lot more than ever before. W5: No. I think it’s probably made it a lot worse as people don’t talk face-to-face as much and they just rely on “text speak” and things and points don’t get put across as well if you’re not speaking face-to-face.

Part 4 P: What kinds of problems can modern communication cause? W2: I think modern communication can cause a lot of different problems. Um, a common one would be to email the wrong person, I think. I’ve done that a few times myself. W5: Emails. I, I tend to, between my teachers … I always write the wrong things and don’t send the right work and send all the wrong stuff to all the wrong people and get all my contact lists wrong. M2: It’s so much easier to be misunderstood, you know, if you’re just writing an email, for example. W1: When I was working, I remember sending a really important email to the chair of governors at the school where I worked and I was typing quickly at the end and I was signing it my name, which is Sarah, and I typed Satan by mistake and sent it. Listening Scripts Conversation 1 W1 = Woman 1, etc.; M1 = Man 1, etc. W1: Um, so there are many, many ways we communicate with people at the moment and um … in the near future. I want to talk about something that, um, is going to be with us, which is, er, a system for translating foreign languages. Um, so potentially you could be on the phone talking to someone from another country who’s speaking in a different language and it’s being, um, translated into your ear so you can communicate that way. What do we … M1: By intermediary or something? W1: Um, yes … M1: Or by technology? W1: By technology, so you can do this on Skype, you know, where you’ve got the um, the camera filming you and you, you are talking to someone um, in another country … How, how do we feel about that? M2: Well, it might, it might work in the future but it certainly doesn’t work at the moment. I mean if you go to a website that’s in a foreign language and you can get these, you know, these online translation services … it, um … W2: It’s not quite right. M2: It’s very funny. M1: It gets it wrong. M2: It gets it completely wrong, especially English to Japanese and back from it. W1: See, you see, will this type of communication affect the way we work, and … and …? W2: Well, businesses. I mean it works very well for businesses because you will be able to communicate with someone from a different company in a different country and maybe … um, that will stop barriers in that way. Conversation 2 W: I heard a TV program the other day and they said that they don’t think that handwriting will

exist in the next 10 years. What do you think about that? M: Oh really? What, what did they suggest would take its place? W: Er, well, for things like, um, signatures, you know, for bank cards, or whatever, or signing things, um, they suggested that we would use thumbprints or er, digital … M: Kind of retina scans, things like that? W: Yeah, that’s it, yeah. M: Well, I personally think that handwriting will be with us, you know, for a, a long time. Um, I think in years to come, people will still carry a pen around in their top pocket rather than anything else, and um, that will be the quickest, easiest, and most straightforward way to communicate. W: Well, maybe in the short term, but if you think about – I don’t know – sort of kids, 10, 12 years old, they’re using more and more, you know, computers at school and things, and they might actually just stop writing, stop the practice of writing. Conversation 3 W1: Well, before I give my opinion, I’d like to know what you all think about the future of television. M1: Well, it won’t be on a television set. That’s for sure. W2: No, it’ll be on a computer. M2: Absolutely. M1: Through broadband on a, on a computer, and it’ll be on-demand, you know, the difference between push and pull technology. W1: Yes, I absolutely agree that it will be on-demand, but I don’t think that it will still be ... I don’t think ... I think there’ll be a place for computers, for YouTube, all those things, but ultimately it will not replace a very large screen in your living room. M1: But the large screen in your living room will still be there. It’s just the method of delivery and whether or not it’s broadcast to you when you don’t want it or whether you … W2: Oh, I absolutely agree. M1: … pick it up when you do want it. M2: How soon do you think it’ll change? I mean are we talking long term? Short term? M1: It won’t be in a month ... It won’t be in a month or two, and it, it won’t be in the, in the short term, but certainly in, in the long term, this will be the future. W1: I think, I think it will be in the short term, actually. I would say in the next … W2: Everything’s so quickly changing, isn’t it? W1: Yes, absolutely. M1: You’ve already got, you know, on-demand, with the iPlayer and … W1: Yes … M1: And YouTube where, you know if you want to see it you can go and see it when you want to see it. W1: And that is phenomenally successful. Viewing Scripts AK = Aleks Krotoski; BG = Bill Gates; SW = Steve Wozniak; AG = Al Gore;

MZ = Mark Zuckerberg; SF = Stephen Fry AK: The Web is the defining technological revolution of our lifetimes. Almost two billion of us are now online, and in the 10 years that I’ve been studying the Web and writing about it as a journalist, I’ve seen it take our world and shake it apart. The Web has created unimaginable wealth, yet encouraged millions to work for nothing. It’s challenged authority, yet allowed regimes to spy and censor as never before. And it’s been blamed for creating a generation of Web addicts. It opened up new realms of knowledge. In this series I’ll be meeting all the pioneers and key players: everybody from Google to Facebook, Twitter to Amazon, the people who’ve helped bring about this seemingly unstoppable leveling of power, culture and values that’s having such an impact on all of our daily lives. BG: Well, the Web is how mankind communicates nowadays. SW: It’s like the Internet has become a brain. It’s the smartest brain in the world. AG: It is an empowering tool that has more potential than any other that human civilization has ever developed. MZ: The world is just gonna keep on getting more and more open and there’s gonna be more information available about, about everything. SF: This is astounding technology and we should just take a moment to celebrate the power and the reach that it gives us. AK: And so this is the story of the Web. But it’s more than that. This is also the story of how the Web is remaking our world. A quarter of the planet now uses the Web. On any given day in the British Isles, over 35 million of us will log on. The Web is where we spend our money – around a billion pounds a week. Britain’s most active e-shoppers? In Swansea, with Kirkwall in the Orkneys in second place. It’s where we fall in love, with five million of us using a dating website every month. Manchester and central London have proportionally the most online lonely hearts. And the Web is where we express opinion: Eighteen million of us read blogs, Dumfries the least, west London the most. The Web is a revolution.

Speaking for communication
Role-play Scripts Conversation 1 W: Hi. Me again. I’ve sent an attachment with all the figures for the last six months. That should be all you need. M: Sorry, I didn’t catch any of that. W: I’ve sent the figures in an attachment. Is that Tom? M: You’ve lost me. Who is this? W: This is Ana Lucia. Is that Tom? M: No, this is Willy’s Burger Bar. What number are you trying to get? W: 8456795. M: I think you’ve got the wrong number. W: Oh, I’m sorry.

Conversation 2 M: I’ve got a reservation in the name of David Cullinan. W: Just one moment. Er, could you repeat the last name? M: Cullinan. C-u-l-l-i-n-a-n. W: Cullinan … I can’t find the name. Did you make the reservation over the phone? M: Yes, just yesterday. W: Sorry, let me just see if there are any messages here. I won’t be a moment. I’m sorry. We’ve got no reservations in the name of Cullinan, and we’re fully booked tonight. M: So you’re saying I can’t stay here. This is the Sheldon Hotel, yes? W: No, this is the Felton, with an “f”. M: Really? So I’m in the wrong hotel. W: The Sheldon is on Queen’s Road, just around the corner. M: Oh no. Sorry, can you say that again – where is it? W: On Queen’s Road, just around the corner. Conversation 3 W: You’ve missed the best bits. You’re late. M: What exactly do you mean? The show starts at seven, doesn’t it? W: No, it finishes at seven! M: Didn’t you say it starts at seven? W: No, it starts at five and finishes at seven! M: So what you mean is I’ve missed the whole show! W: Yes. Conversation 4 M: We’ve got nothing for you, I’m afraid. W: I don’t get what you’re saying. You’re a car rental company, right? M: Yes, but today is a holiday and all the cars have been booked already. W: Do you mean to tell me that there’s nothing at all? No cars available? M: There’s nothing till tomorrow, I’m afraid. W: But I definitely booked a car for today, the third of July. M: It’s the fourth of July today. In other words, your booking was for yesterday. W: It can’t be. Is it? M: It’s the fourth today, madam. W: Oh no, I’ve got the date wrong. Group discussion Scripts LB = Lisa Brown LB: I use the Internet all the time to communicate, but I think for giving good news it’s much, much nicer to be there and to do it face-to-face, though obviously it depends on what type of good news it is. Maybe the news is for someone you don’t know personally or someone in a different country or city so you can’t deliver it face-to-face. If that’s the case, an email or a

phone call are (is) fine. I’d say the same thing about giving bad news. If you know the person, it’s much better to give it face-to-face. On the other hand, some bad news can be really difficult to give face-to-face. It can be embarrassing if someone’s going to start crying in front of you or if they’re going to get upset. So in those circumstances I’d rather send an email because it’s less personal. I don’t think I’d ever give bad news by text. For arranging social activities I usually text my friends or do it over the phone. It’s more convenient. People have such bad memories we kind of need to see the arrangements written down. Also, we’re always changing our plans at the last minute so we really need our phones switched on all the time. Hmm, for sending a thank-you message I think it’s really nice to send a letter or, in my case, usually a card. I still send handwritten cards sometimes, and I think people really appreciate them because it shows you made an effort, whereas just sending a text or something isn’t much of an effort. And it’s not like they’re going to keep the message for more than two minutes. But they might keep a card.

Further Practice in Listening
Short conversations Scripts Conversation 1 W: Mobile phones are changing campus life. Almost everyone is carrying one in our dorm, texting friends all the time. M: That’s true. In classrooms, the untimely ringing interrupts lectures and destroys the atmosphere of study. The mobile phone users themselves also suffer. Q: What’s the man’s opinion of mobile phones on campus? Conversation 2 M: Hi, what instant messenger do you usually use? I want to add you to my contact list so that we can chat online. W: Sorry, I don’t use any chatting software. I still prefer the traditional face-to-face contact, and I think that makes me feel safer. Q: Why doesn’t the woman have an instant messenger? Conversation 3 M: Elizabeth, could you do me a favor and send this email to all the faculty members of our department? W: Sorry, the network in our company is down, and the engineers are trying to locate the problem, but they promised that the network will be recovered before three in the afternoon. Q: What does the woman imply?

Conversation 4 M: I was frustrated yesterday at the party where my classmates were having a get-together five years after graduation. I just couldn’t stand that almost everybody was checking their cell phones for emails or texts constantly without concentrating on our conversation. W: Well, you are not alone. But actually I am trying to adapt myself to this new way of life. Q: Why was the man frustrated with the get-together yesterday? Conversation 5 W: You know what? Jenny found her boyfriend through an online dating. That’s really amazing. But why couldn’t I find my love in the cyber world? M: I guess you would probably change your mind if you hear that they already broke up last week. Q: What does the man imply? Long conversation Scripts W: Oh! My letter came! Finally! I wrote to Beth over two weeks ago and I’ve been checking the mail for the past four days waiting for her response. M: Who’s Beth? And why are you jumping up and down like a puppy dog because of her letter? W: She’s my pen pal in Sydney, Australia. We met in Granada, Spain last summer when we were both there on vacation. She works as a nurse in the emergency room at a hospital in Sydney and has a five-year-old son just the same age as my daughter. M: A nurse in Sydney, Australia? You’re an accountant in Miami, Florida. What on earth do you guys talk about? I mean, you can’t talk about politics or local events, or even the weather … W: Oh, there’s more to people than their jobs or the weather! We’re friends! We both love to collect seashells, we both have a five-year-old child, and we’re both huge fans of old cowboy movies! M: Well, if you’re so excited to hear back from Beth in Sydney, Australia, why not just email? You could send and receive emails within the hour, instead of waiting 10 days to two weeks for the mail. W: Of course, it’s much faster to send emails, but there’s something exciting and wonderful about receiving old-style letters – to feel the paper in your hands, to read and reread the thoughtful words and ideas … It’s like a surprise gift arriving in the mail from a faraway place. M: Um, I can understand that. It’s a wonderful kind of waiting when I order a new book in the mail. I love it when it arrives … Well worth the wait! Q1: Why is the woman so happy? Q2: What is the woman’s job? Q3: Which of the following would be most likely to be talked about between the woman and her pen pal? Q4: Why is the woman more willing to receive old-style letters instead of emails from her friend?

Passage 1 Scripts New technology and social media sites are constantly changing, evolving and developing, which means the face of personal communication is also changing. These changes, however, often mean people are having less and less face-to-face interaction. Email, texting, and Facebook are just a few examples of media that have diminished verbal communication; verbal communication has decreased dramatically from just 20 years ago, when most of the technology used today did not even exist. Email, starting during the 1970s but not becoming popular in the public sphere until the 1990s, was one of the first forms of online communication technology to come about that is still used today. Email is currently the most popular form of online communication, even after discounting the large volume of spam messages sent. According to a survey, about 188 billion emails are sent out per day, and 79 percent of people use their smart phones to check their email, a much higher percentage than the 43 percent who use them to make phone calls. Texting has also increased dramatically since it first came about in the 1990s and is now used for communication more than making phone calls. More than 70 percent of people use their smart phones to text, according to a survey. Sending messages through social media sites, such as Facebook, is also taking the place of verbal communication. More than four billion messages are sent daily over Facebook. Although this is far behind the rate of emails being sent, it is almost equal to the number of texts sent per day in the US, making up a large portion of the way people communicate. It is no secret that time spent on new technology and social media sites is increasing immensely, creating less time for real-life interactions. Likewise, there is no doubt that as these numbers continue to rise, face-to-face and verbal communication will continue to decrease and possibly even become a mere trend of the past. Q1: Which of the following is the most popular form of communication according to the passage? Q2: How many people use their smart phones to text, according to the passage? Q3: What do we know about the number of messages sent daily over Facebook? Q4: What is probably the speaker’s attitude toward the trend of decreasing face-to-face and verbal communication? Passage 2 Scripts and answers The most useful bit of the media is disappearing. In North America, newspapers are now an 1) endangered species. The business of selling words to readers and selling readers to advertisers, which has sustained their role in society, is 2) falling apart. Of all the old media, newspapers have the most to lose from the Internet. Circulation has been falling in many countries. But in the past few years the Web has hastened the decline. In his book The Vanishing Newspaper, Philip Meyer 3) calculates that the first quarter of 2043 will be the moment when newsprint dies in America as the last exhausted reader 4) tosses aside the last crumpled edition.

Advertising is following readers who 5) turn to the Internet. The rush is intense, largely because the Internet is an attractive medium that 6) unprecedentedly matches buyers with sellers and proves to advertisers that their money is well spent. In Switzerland and the Netherlands newspapers have lost half their 7) classified advertising to the Internet. Newspapers have not yet started to 8) shut down in large numbers, but it is only a matter of time. Over the next few decades half of North America’s general papers may fold. Jobs are already disappearing. According to the Newspaper Association of America, the number of people employed in the newspaper industry fell by 9) approximately 18 percent between 1990 and 2004. Moreover, this year Morgan Stanley, an investment bank, attacked the New York Times Company, because its share price had fallen by nearly 50 percent in four years. This may suggest, to some extent, that tumbling shares of listed newspaper firms have prompted 10) fury from investors.



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