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(江苏专用)2016届高考英语二轮复习课件:第二部分专题七 动词时态和语态


⊙怎么考

在语境中考查各种时态与语态形式。
⊙怎么学 在平时的阅读、写作训练中,认真体会动词的各种时 态、语态形式,不拘泥于语法。 ⊙怎么解

1.通过“时态定义”解题;2.通过“固定结构”解题;
3.通过“语境暗示”解题。

Ⅰ.体验考向
1.(2015· 北京卷,22)—Did y

ou enjoy the party? —Yes.We ________ well by our hosts. A.were treated C.treated 答案 A B.would be treated D.had treated [考查时态和语态。句意:——你们在晚会上玩得

开心吗?——很开心,主人把我们招待得很好。根据问句中

的did可知用一般过去时;且we和treat是动宾关系,应用被动
语态,因此该空应用一般过去时的被动语态,故选A。]

2.(2015· 重庆卷,1)—Is Peter coming?

—No,he ________ his mind after a phone call at the last
minute. A.changes C.was changing 答案 B B.changed D.had changed [ 考 查 动 词 的 时 态 。 句 意 : —— 彼 得 要 来

吗?——不来了, 他接了一个电话后,在最后时刻改变
了主意。句中的“after a phone call at the last minute”表明动

作发生在过去,故用一般过去时。]

3.(2015· 重庆卷,13)In my hometown,there is always a harvest supper for the farmers after all the wheat ________ cut.

A.will have been
C.was 答案 D

B.will be
D.has been

[ 考查动词的时态。句意:在我的家乡,当所有

的小麦被收割完毕,农民们总会吃一次丰收晚餐。after引导 的时间状语从句不能用将来时,故排除A、B两项。再根据

前文的is可知,应用与现在相关的时态。故选D项。]

4.(2015· 浙江卷,8)Albert Einstein was born in 1879.As a child,

few people guessed that he ________ a famous scientist whose
theories would change the world. A.has been C.was going to be 答案 C B.had been D.was

[考查动词时态。句意:阿尔伯特· 爱因斯坦生于

1879 年。孩提时,很少有人会猜想到他能成为其理论会改 变世界的著名科学家。由语境可知,此处指在爱因斯坦小

时候人们所猜想的,表示 “ 从过去看将来 ” ,要用过去将
来时态,用 would/should do , was/were to do 或者 was/were going to do表示,故C项正确。]

5.(2015· 天津卷, 9)Despite the previous rounds of talks , no

agreement________ so far by the two sides.
A.has been reached B.was reached C.will reach D.will have reached

答案

A

[ 考查现在完成时的被动语态。句意:尽管之前

进行了多轮会谈,但到目前为止双方还没达成任何协议。 根 据 时 间 状 语 so far 可 知 此 处 要 用 现 在 完 成 时 , 主 语 agreement 与动词 reach 之间为动宾关系,故要用现在完成时 的被动形式。]

6.(2015· 湖 南 卷 , 28)He must have sensed that I ________ him.He suddenly glanced at me and said quietly,“Why are

you staring at me like that?”
A.would look at C.was looking at 答案 C B.looked at D.am looking at

[考查时态。句意:他一定感觉到了我正在看他。

他突然瞥了我一眼 ,轻轻地说: “ 你为什么那样盯着我

看? ” must have done 是对过去发生的情况的推测,因此
“我正在看他”也是发生在过去,而且是正在进行,故用过 去进行时。]

7.(2014· 重庆卷,4)You'd better write down her phone number
before you________it. A.forget C.forgot 答案 A B.are forgetting D.will forget [考查动词的时态。句意:趁你还没忘你最好把

她的电话号码记下来。 before引导时间状语从句,在条件 或时间状语从句中要用一般现在时代替将来时。]

8.(2014· 重庆卷,8)James has just arrived,but I didn't know

he________until yesterday.
A.will come C.had come 答案 B B.was coming D.came

[考查动词的时态。句意:詹姆斯刚刚到达,但

我直到昨天才知道他要来。根据James has just arrived可知,

昨天才知道他将要来,所以要用过去将来时,此处进行时
表将来,相当于would come。]

9.(2014· 福建卷,23)—Haven't seen you for ages! Where have

you been?
—I went to Ningxia and________there for one year,teaching as a volunteer. A.stayed C.had stayed B.stay D.am staying

答案

A

[考查时态。句意:——好久没见到你了!你去

哪里了?——我作为志愿者去了宁夏教学并且在那里待了 一年。去宁夏教学和待在那里是并列结构,并且动作都是 发生在过去,故用一般过去时。]

10.(2014·湖 南 卷 , 28)Since the time humankind started gardening , we________to make our environment more

beautiful.
A.try C.are trying 答案 B B.have been trying D.will try [ 考查动词时态。句意:自从人类从事园艺以

来,我们就一直试图把我们的环境打造得更美丽。结合

语境及题干中的关键词since,应用现在完成进行时态。]

11.(2014· 浙江卷,11)Sofia looked around at all the faces;

she had the impression that she________most of the guests
before. A.has seen C.saw 答案 B B.had seen D.would see [考查动词时态。句意:索菲亚看了下四周所

有的客人,她感觉大部分客人以前都见过。根据谓语动
词 looked , had 和时间状语 before ,可知是过去的事情, 而“ 以前见过 ”应该发生在这些动作之前,即 “过去的 过去”,故用过去完成时。]

12.(2014· 四川卷,9)She________someone , so I nodded to her and went away. A.phoned C.was phoning 答案 C B.had phoned D.has phoned

[ 考查动词的时态。句意:她正在打电话,所

以我朝她点了点头就离开了。根据so可知,造成“我朝她

点了点头就离开了 ” 的原因是 “ 她正在打电话,无法跟
我说话”,故要用过去进行时。]

13.(2014· 北京卷,31)—What time is it?
—I have no idea. But just a minute,I________it for you. A.check C.will check 答案 C B.checked D.would check [ 考查动词时态。句意: —— 几点了? —— 我不

知道。等等,我帮你看一下。看表的动作还没有发生,因
此选择将来时态。]

14.(2014· 安徽卷,30)People are recycling many things which
they________away in the past. A.had thrown C.were throwing 答案 D B.will be throwing D.would have thrown

[ 考查时态。句意:人们正在循环利用许多过去

他们将扔掉的东西。由in the past可知动作发生在过去,表 示从过去某个时间看将来某时之前已经完成的动作,故用

过去将来完成时,故选D。]

15.(2014· 大纲版全国卷,22)Unless some extra money________,

the theatre will close.
A.was found C.is found 答案 C B.finds D.found [ 考查动词的时态和语态。句意:如果不能多筹

集一些钱,这个影院就要关闭。主句是一般将来时,unless

引导的状语从句通常用一般现在时表示将来。此处从句中
主语money和find之间是被动关系,所以选C。]

Ⅱ.语境感悟 用所给词的适当形式完成下列短文,然后朗读或背诵,

体会动词时态、语态的用法。
When he was a little boy , Christopher Cockerell once watched his mother turning the wheel of her sewing-machine with her hand. “Wouldn't it work quickly if the machine __1__ (turn) the

wheel for you?”he asked.
“I suppose it would,”said his mother,without paying any attention to him.

Christopher __2__ (know) she always had a lot of work,
and he wanted to help.In his bedroom there was a toy steam-engine which his father __3__ (buy) him as a gift.“I __4__ (make) better

use of it , ”little Christopher said to himself.So , when his
mother __5__ (not use) her sewing-machine,he fixed the toy steam-engine onto it.When the job __6__ (finish),he was quite

pleased,thinking his mother __7__ (like) it.
“Very clever,”his mother said,when she saw it.Then she sat down and went on turning the wheel by hand.“I __8__ (work) like this for too many years,” she explained. This taught Christopher the lesson that anyone who __9__ (try) to improve anything __10__ (have) to learn:Many people don't like new ideas.

答案 1.turned [表示对现在的虚拟,用一般过去时。]

2.knew [一般过去时表示过去的动作。]
3.had bought [表示“过去的过去”用过去完成时。] 4.will/shall make 排。] 5.was not using [过去进行时表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间 [ 此处用一般将来时表示临时的决定或安

内正在进行的动作。]

6.was finished [一般过去时的被动语态。] 7.would like [过去将来时,相对于过去某一时刻而言即将发

生的动作或存在的状态。]
8.have been working [用来表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持

续到现在(还要继续下去)的动作。] 9.tries [ 一般现在时表示经常发生的、习惯性的动作、客观

真理、科学事实等。]

10.has [同上题。]

Ⅲ.正反探究

1.【误】—Hi ,Lucy,you look tired.—I'm really tired.I have
painted the living room all day. 【正】—Hi,Lucy,you look tired.—I'm really tired.I have been painting the living room all day. 解析 现在完成进行时态,表示过去发生的动作持续到现

在并有可能会继续下去。这一点是从时间状语 all day (整天)
看出来的。

2.【误】Nancy is not coming tonight.But she has promised!

【正】Nancy is not coming tonight.But she promised!
解析 南希“答应要来”这个动作应该发生在过去,是过去作 出的承诺,前文已告诉我们“她不来了”,因此诺言已跟现在 没有关系,只是过去的一个动作。 3.【误】 When Tony phoned me I had just finished my work and started to take a shower. 【正】 When Tony phoned me I had just finished my work and was starting to take a shower.

解析 从关键信息 I had just finished my work 可以看出是
“正要开始洗澡”应该是将来时,was starting 可以表示马 上就要进行的动作;而 started 表示“开始了”。

4.【误】 I don't really work here;I just help out until the new

secretary arrives.
【正】 I don't really work here;I am just helping out until the new secretary arrives. 解析 一般现在时表示现在的、经常性的行为或状态,而

现在进行时表示正在进行的、暂时性的动作。本句是用现

在进行时的形式表示将来时,此处表示 “ 我 ” 现在只是在
临时帮忙,是现阶段正在进行的动作。

5.很多的鸟类正被人们捕杀。

【误】 Many birds are killed now.
【正】 Many birds are being killed now. 解析 现在进行时的被动语态结构要完整,不能遗漏其中

的助动词,导致时态错误。

Ⅳ.考点确认 一、常考各种时态的用法

1.一般现在时
(1)表示经常发生的、习惯性的动作,通常用usually,often, always,sometimes,every day,once a week等作时间状语。 I usually have my hair cut once a month. The students often do their experiments in the lab.

(2)表示客观真理、格言以及不受时间限制的客观存在。
The earth moves around the sun. A bird in hand is worth two in the bush.

(3)表示按时间表、计划、规定发生的动作。 The train leaves at 2:35 this afternoon. (4) 将主句是一般将来时的时间、条件、让步状语从句中代

替将来时。
You will succeed if you try your best. Even if it rains tomorrow,the football match will take place.

2.现在进行时 (1)表示说话时正在进行的动作或存在的状态。

Our friends are waiting for us outside now.
(2)表示现阶段正在进行的动作或发生的事情。 She is learning English at college.

(3) 某些短暂性动词 ,如 come , go , start , open , close , arrive , return , begin , leave 等用于进行时,表示按计划、

安排即将发生的动作。
My father is coming to see me this Saturday. He is leaving for Beijing next week. (4)某些动词的进行时表示慢慢地、渐渐地发生变化。 I'm forgetting English.

She is losing her eyesight.

3.现在完成时

(1) 表示过去的动作对现在的影响或结果,常用 recently ,
lately , ever , never , once , before , yet , just 等作时间状语。 He hasn't heard any news from his son lately.

Have you ever been to London?
(2) 表示开始于过去某一时刻,一直持续到现在而且还有可 能继续下去的动作。常用so far,up till now,since,for a long time,in the past/last few years,these days等作时间状语。 So far no life has been found outside the earth. He has learned 5,000 English words since he went to college. (3)“This/It is+the+序数词+time+that...”句式中,that后 的从句用现在完成时。 This is the second time that I have visited the university.

4.现在完成进行时 (1) 表示开始于过去某个时间、一直持续到现在而且会继 续进行下去的动作。

I am very tired.I have been painting the house all the afternoon.
(2)表示到目前为止的一段时间里一直反复进行的动作。 I have been calling him several times this morning,but there is no answer.

5.一般过去时 (1) 表示在过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常用

yesterday,last year,in 1995,the other day等作时间状语。
It was a terrible piece of work you turned in yesterday. He came to work here two weeks ago. (2)在时间、条件从句中代替过去将来时。 He said he would not go if it rained.

(3)有些句子,虽然没有明确的表示过去的时间状语,但 实际上指的是过去发生的动作或状态,也要用一般过去

时。常见的此类动词有 know , think , expect 等,表示
“本来认为”。 I didn't expect to meet you here. I thought he had heard the news.

6.过去完成时
(1) 表示在过去某一时间或某一动作发生之前已经完成的 动作,即“过去的过去”。 By the end of last term,we had learned 2,000 words. He had left before I got home.

(2)hope , expect ,think , intend , want , suppose 等用于过
去完成时,表示未实现的希望、打算或意图,意为“原 本??”。 We had expected that you would be able to win the match.

(3)“It/This/That was+the+序数词+time+that...”句式中,

that后的从句用过去完成时。
It was the third time that he had made the same mistake. (4)“hardly/scarcely...when...” 和 “no sooner...than...” 结构中, 主句用过去完成时。 Hardly had the game started when it started to rain.

7.过去进行时

(1)表示过去某一时刻或阶段正在进行的动作或发生的事情。
She was writing a book about China last year,but I don't know whether she has finished it. (2)表示过去一个动作发生时另一个动作正在进行。 It was raining as the medical team made its way to the front.

He was watching TV in the living room when someone knocked
at the door. (3)短暂性动词come,go,leave,arrive,begin等用于过去进 行时,表示按计划、安排在过去某个时间将要发生的动作。

8.一般将来时

一般将来时表示将来某个时间将要发生的动作或存在的状
态,也表示将来经常或反复发生的动作。 (1)“shall/will+动词原形”表示将来,往往指客观上势必 要发生的事情或没有计划,临时做出的打算。shall用于第 一人称,will用于第二、三人称。

When will you be able to give us a reply?
We shall have a lot of rain next month. —Where is the telephone book? —I'll go and get it for you.

(2)be going to do形式表示将来,一般指按计划、打算要做某事,

或有迹象要出现的情况。
I am going to buy a computer this summer. It is going to be fine tomorrow. (3)be to do表示将来,一般指按计划或安排要做某事,或按职 责、义务和要求必须去做某事。 She is to get married next week. I am to buy some books this afternoon.

(4)be about to do表示将来,多指不久或即将要发生的动作,不
强调主观,不能与表示具体时间的状语连用。 The train is about to leave.

9.过去将来时
过去将来时表示从过去某个时间来看将要发生的动作或 存在的状态。这种时态通常有个过去时间或动作作参照。 He said he would wait for us at the bus stop. She was about to open the door when the telephone rang. Every morning he would climb to the top of the hill in those days.

10.将来进行时

将来进行时由will/shall be doing形式构成,表示将来某个
时间正在进行的动作。 Please don't come at ten tomorrow morning.I will be having a meeting. What will you be doing at six tomorrow evening?

二、被动语态 1.使用被动语态的情况

(1)不知道或没有必要知道谁是动作的执行者时。
The young man was injured in the car accident. (2)需要强调动作的承受者时。 Books and newspapers in the reading room mustn't be taken away.

(3)为了使语气婉转,避免提及自己或对方时。 Everybody is expected to obey the following rules.

(4)动作的执行者不是人而是无生命的事物时。
The windows were broken by strong wind. (5)有些习惯用法只以或常以被动语态形式出现。 I am determined to take medicine.

2.没有被动语态的动词

一些表示状态及拥有的及物动词,以及 have , get , owe ,
belong to,cost等动词没有被动语态形式。 This hall can hold 500 people. The house belongs to my uncle. His careless driving cost his life.


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