Unit 1 Great Scientists 知识要点探究 1. Who put forward a theory about black holes? Put forward [要点提示] 提出（建议等） ；提名 He put forward a new plan. 他提出一个新计划。 May I put your name forward as a
possible chairman of the committee? 我能否提名你当委员会主席？ [归纳拓展] put down 记下；镇压 put out 关掉；熄灭 put aside 放在一边；储存；保留 put off 推迟；延期 put up 建造；举起；张贴 put on 穿上 put away 收好 选词填空 （put off, put up, put forward, put aside, put out） ①The plan that you _____ at the meeting is wonderful. ②Many tall buildings were _____ along the road. ③Firefighters have been called to _____ the fire in the city center. ④He has a little money to _____ for a rainy day. ⑤Don’t _____ until tomorrow what can be done today. 2. Repeat if necessary. (1) repeat [要点提示] vt&vi 再说；再做；复述 to repeat a mistake 重复错误 to repeat that 再说一遍 Could you repeat the question? 你能把这个问题重复一下吗？ [归纳拓展] repeatability 可重复性；反复性；再现性；重复精读 repeatable adj. 可重复的 repeated adj. 重复的，再三的 repeat oneself 反复做同样的事情 (2) if necessary [要点提示] if necessary 是一种省略句式。在 while, when, until, unless, if, once 等引导的 状语从句中，如从句的主语和主句的主语相同，且从句的谓语部分含动词 be 时，可以省略从句的主语和动词 be。 When (I was) a boy, I looked at such things quite differently.
我小时候对这些事物的看法是完全不同的。 Don’t speak until (you are) spoken to. 别人没有跟你讲话，你就不要开口。 单项选择 Though _____ money, his parents managed to send him to university. A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in 3. But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. (1) exposed to cholera [要点提示] exposed to cholera 在句中是过去分词作后置定语，表示被动。意为“患霍 乱的” 。如： The book written by Luxun is very popular. 鲁迅写的书是很受欢迎的。 The man seen by us yesterday is Professor Smith. 昨天我们看见的那个人是 史密斯教授。 (2) expose [要点提示] ①暴露 He exposes his skin to the sun. 他把皮肤暴露在阳光下。 ②揭露 He exposed their plot. 他揭穿了他们的阴谋。 The crime of the corrupt officials must be exposed without any reserve. 对贪官污吏的罪行一定要毫无保留地予以揭发。 [归纳拓展] exposed adj. 暴露的，暴露于风雨中的，无掩蔽的 exposedness n. 暴露，显露 expose to 使易受，使受 expose sth. to the light of day 把某事暴露于光天 化日之下 expose a fraud 揭穿骗局 单项选择 The disc, digitally _____ in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night. A. recorded B. recording C. to be recorded D. having recorded 4. He got interested in two theories explaining how cholera killed people. (1) explaining how cholera killed people [要点提示] 本结构在此处为现在分词作后置定语，这个分词结构可以转化为一个定
语从句的形式。如： There was a terrible noise following the sudden burst of light. =There was a terrible noise which followed the burst of light. 突然来电之后有一阵可怕的噪音。 (2) get interested in [要点提示] 此结构意为“对……产生兴趣” 。get 为系动词。如： I got lost in the forest. 我在森林中迷路了。 I got separated from my friends when we were in the crowds. 在人群中我和我的朋友被分开了。 [归纳拓展] get 的用法归纳 ①get+sb. +sth. 为某人弄到某物 Will you please get me a ticket for the football match? 请给我弄张足球赛的门票好吗？ ②get+sth. +adj. 使某物处于某种状态 We have got everything ready for the sports meeting. 我们已经为运动会做好了一切准备。 ③get + sth. +done 使某事被做 You must get your homework done before you watch TV. 你看电视前务必把家庭作业完成。 You’d better go and get your hair cut. 你最好去理个发。 ④get + sb. / sth. +doing 让某人（物）行动起来 My duty was to get the four of us studying the subject. 我的责任是使我们四个人研究这个主题。 Who can get the machine running? 谁能启动这台机器？ ⑤get +sb. +to do 使某人做某事 My idea is that we should get a porter to carry our luggage. 我的想法是我们得请个搬运工来搬动行李。 ⑥get + adj. (get 是连系动词) In summer it doesn’t get dark until after eight o’clock. 夏天，直到八点过后，天色才暗下来。 单项选择 As we joined the big crowd, I got _____ from my friends. (NMET 2001) A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed
The flowers _____ sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. (2004〃上海) A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D. to be smelt 5. It seemed the water was to blame. (1) be to +动词原形 [要点提示] be +动词不定式，可以表示该做或不该做的事情，想当于 must, should, ought to 等。如： No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police. 没有警察的允许谁也不准离开这栋楼。 You are not to drop litter in the park. 公园里不允许乱丢垃圾。 (2) blame [要点提示] ①v. 责备；谴责；把……归咎于 It is I who am to blame. 应该受到责备的是我。 ②n. 过失，责任 lay / put the blame on sb for sth 单项填空 ①If you fail the exam, you will only have yourself _____. A. being blamed B. blaming C. blame D. to blame ②Who is _____ the fire in the kitchen? A. to blame for B. to blame C. blame for D. blame 同义句转换 ③She blamed him for the failure of their marriage. She _____ the blame for the failure of their marriage _____ him. 6. In addition, he found two other deaths in another parts of London that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. (1) in addition [要点提示] 本结构属副词用法，相当于 as well as，如接宾语，则用 in addition to。如： In addition, the course also produces practical experience. 此外这门功课还提供了实践的基础。 (2) link [要点提示] ①v. 把……与……连接；联系。如：
Fingerprints linked the suspect to the crime. 指纹证实了嫌疑犯的犯罪事实。 The two towns are linked by a railway. 这两个城镇由一条铁路连接起来。 These pieces of information link up to suggest who the thief was. 这些证据拼凑起来就提示出小偷是谁了。 ②n. 联系；连接；环 [归纳拓展] 下列短语均表示“将……和……连接或联系起来”之意： link… with… link… and …(together) link… up… link … to… 介词填空 ①Television stations around the world are linked _____ satellites. ②The newspaper linked his name _____ hers. ③This is the new road being built to link _____ the two motorways. 7. Nicolaus Copernicus was frightened and his mind was confused. confuse [要点提示] ①v. 使混乱；使迷惑 We tried to confuse the enemies. 我们试图迷惑敌人。 ②混淆；混同 Don’t confuse the black and white. 不要混淆黑白。 [归纳拓展] confusion n. 混乱，混淆 confusedly adv. 受困惑地，混乱地，慌乱地 confused adj. 困惑的，烦恼的 confusable adj. 易被混淆的 8. Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. (1) only if [要点提示]本结构意为“只有；只要” 当以 only 引导的知语或状语从句放在句首时，为了加强语气，句子需要 倒装，如：
Only if a teacher gives permission is a student allowed to enter the room. 只有得到老师的允许，学生才能进这房间。 Only by shouting and waving his hands could he be noticed. 只有靠大声呼叫和晃动手才能使人注意到他。 [归纳拓展] 辨析 only if 与 if only only if 表示“只有” only 则表示“如果……就好了” ；if I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了，我才会醒。 If only he comes early. 但愿他早点回来。 单项选择 Only when your identity has been checked, ______. (2003〃上海高考) A. you are allowed in B. you will be allowed in C. will you allow in D. will you be allowed in (2) make sense [要点提示] 本结构意为“讲得通；有道理” Here, read the sentence. It dones’t seem to make sense. 看这里，读这个句子，好像一点也讲不通。 Your story doesn’t make sense to me. 你编的故事我听不明白。 [归纳拓展] make out 勉强认出 make for 移向；走向 make up 化妆；担造，虚构 make up for 弥补；补偿 make of 理解；解释 9. Yet he could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. Would have done [要点提示] 本结构表示对过去的某种情况进行猜测， 或本来要做某事却因某种原因未 做成，通常用来说明某一情况，但不像 should 或 ought to 那样含有责备 之意。如： I guess the poet would have been about twenty when she wrote her first poem. 我猜这位诗人写第一首诗歌的时候，大概 20 岁左右。 Another worker wouldn’t have acted like that.想必另外一位工人不会那样做 的。 [归纳拓展]
①needn’t have+过去分词，表示做了不必做的事，相当于 didn’t need to do，译为“其实没必要……” ②should have+过去分词，表示应该做某事但实际上未做，译为“本应 该……”should not+have+过去分词，表示本不应该做某事但实际做了， 译为“本不应该……” ③ought to have +过去分词，表示动作按理该发生了，但实际示发生，译 为“该……” ，与 should 的完成式含义类似。 单项选择 ①I was really anxious about you. You _____ home without a word. (NMET 2001) A. mustn’t leave B. shouldn’t have left C. couldn’t have left D. needn’t leave ②Sorry I’m late. I ______ have turned off the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again. (NMET 2000) A. might B. should C. can D. will ③The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympics _____ by 2006. (2004〃北京春招) A. has been completed B. has completed C. will have been completed D. will have completed 10. He placed a fixed sun at the center of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth. With the planets going round it [要点提示] 本结构是 with+宾语+宾语补足语的结构，在句中作状语。这一结构在句 中常作定语或状语，作 宾补的可以是介词短语、过去分词、形容词、副词或动词不定式等。现 将其基本形式归纳如下： ①with+n. / pron. +介词短语 He sat there with a smile on his face. 他微笑着坐在那里。 She saw a brook with red flowers and green grass o both sides. 她看见一条两边是红花和绿草的小溪。 ②with +n. / pron. +副词 With Mr Smith away, we’ve got more room. 史密斯先生走了，我们有了更多的地方。
③with+n. / pron. +不定式 With nothing to do, we went to the cinema. 因无事可做，我们去了电影院。 With so much work to do, he could not go home. 因为有许多工作要做，他不能回家。 ④with+n. / pron. +现在分词 The street was quiet with no buses running. 街上静悄悄没有汽车行驶。 ⑤with+n. / pron.+过去分词 In came a man with his hands tied back. 进来一个人，手绑在背后。 She sat there with her head bent. 她坐在那里，低着头。 ⑥With +n. / pron. +形容词 He wore a shirt with the neck open, showing his bare chest. 他穿着一个开领的衬衣，露着胸膛。 单项选择 _______ two exams to worry about, I have to work really hard this weekend. (2004〃北京春招) A. With B. Besides C. As for D. Because of 学习目标自测 一、单词演练：根据中文或首字母提示，结合句意写出空白处各单词的正 确形式。 1. Only by __________ （科学） training can Liu Xiang make such rapid progress in the 110-metre hurdles. 2. The doctor __________（检查）the patient carefully but found nothing serious. 3. She __________（结束）her talk with a funny story. 4. He doesn’t know much about the subject, but he’s very __________(热心). 5. The __________（特点）I like best in him is his cheerfulness. 6. Einstein put forward his T__________ of Relativity in 1905, which has had great influence on the world of science. 7. They had a quiet wedding—only a few friends a________ it. 8. Your help was most v__________. Without it we couldn’t have finished the job. 9. Have they a __________ when the race will begin? 10. He’s very old, and his m__________ are getting slower and slower. 二、对号入座：用所给单词或短语的适当形式完成下列各句。
if only look up to make sense lead to in addition to defeat enthusiasm link attend cure 1. I don’t think your words __________. 2. __________ I were 10 years younger! 3. He draws well, __________ being an excellent writer. 4. We all __________ him because of his bravery. 5. His carelessness __________ an accident. 6. He __________ all the other players in the game. 7. There was no one to __________ on him but his sister. 8. It seems that nobody can __________ me of smoking. 9. They established trade __________ with Asia. 10. You don’t sound __________ about going to Spain. 三、句意转换 （一）词汇替换：从本单元选择合适的词语，根据句意用其正确形式替换 下列句子中或线部分的词语。 1. This is the plan which was suggested at the meeting. 2. The surrounding villages have been taken in the growing city. 3. The statue was taken away from the city center to the park. 4. I want to have my own car. 5. Besides some injuries to his face and hands, he broke both legs. （二）句型转换：在空白处填上适当的词，使其意思和所给句子相同，每 空只填一词。 6. A. She got someone to deliver the water to her home every day. B. She _______ the water _______ to her home every day. 7. A. He suggested examining the source of all water supplies. B. He suggested that the source of all water supplies _______. 8. A. He worked on his theory and gradually improved it until it was complete. B. He worked on his theory, gradually _______ it until it was complete. 9. A. He placed a fixed sun at the center of the solar system with the planets going around it. B. He placed a fixed sun at the center of the solar system _______ the planets go around it. 10. A. He only published his ideas as he was to die in 1543. B. He only got his ideas _______ as he lay _______ in 1543.
四、单项选择：从 A、B、C、D 四个选项中，选出最佳选项。 1. Sarah, hurry up, I’m afraid you won’t have time to ______ before the party. A. get changed B. get change C. get changing D. get to change 2. —How do you _______ we go to Beijing for our holidays? —I think we’d better fly there. It’s much more unfortable. A. insist B. want C. suppose D. suggest 3. The mother didn’t know _______ to blame for the broken glass as it happened while she was out. A. who B. when C. how D. what 4. As we joined the big crowd I got ______ from my friends. (2001 全国) A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed 5. _______ production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year. (2000 全国) A. As B. For C. With D. Through 6. A computer does only what thinking people _______. (1999 上海) A. have it do B. have it done C. have done it D. having it done 7. Cleaning women in big cities usually get _______ by the hour.（1998 全国） A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay 8. The Olympic Games, _______ in 776B. C., did not include women players until 1912. (1997 全国) A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing 9. While shopping, people sometimes can’t help _______ into buying something they don’t really need. (1996 上海) A. to persuade B. persuading C. being persuaded D. be persuaded 10. The first textbooks _______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. (1994 全国) A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written 五、根据括号内的提示，翻译下列句子。 1. 他以 5 分的优势获胜。 （win by） 2. 他们将责备你离开她。 （blame sb for） 3. 他对世界和平毫无贡献。 （contribute…to） 4. 大雾招致了这次严重车祸。 （lead to） 5. 她的失踪正由警方加以调查。 （look into）