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我的收藏-高考英语冲刺复习-完形填空解题技巧2


完型填空 考查综合运用语言的能力:
1) 词语辨析能力
2) 语法结构分析能力

3) 语篇理解能力
4) 逻辑推理能力

5) 文化背景透析能力
6) 作者意图剖析能力

7) 生活常识综合运用能力

近几年高考的完形填空题在命题设计上出现了重大突 破,一

改过去对语法,句式关系及固定句型的考查,而侧 重于考查学生的逻辑思维能力和对具体语境的把握,尤其 是对整体语义的理解能力。它要求考生不但要有比较扎实 的语言知识,较大的词汇量,而且要具有一定的语篇分析 能力及逻辑思维能力。要做好这种题型,考生除了必备的 语言基础知识和基本技能之外,还应了解其命题特点,掌 握一定的解题技巧。 做完形填空时要注意文章开头提示句的点题作用和短 文中完整句的启示作用。首先要快速浏览全文,弄清各段 落之间,各层次之间的内在联系,把握文章的完整性。只 有这样才符合这种题型的解题思路。具体的讲,还应注意 以下几个方面:

一、完形填空要考查的几个方面: 1. 根据上下文语境来确定最佳选项近年来的完形 填空试题在选项的设置上越来越淡化语法结构, 重在文意的干扰,即把具体的语言知识溶进具体 的语言情景中去,考查考生通过上下文的前后提 示或暗示,对整体文意进行把握的能力。这种考 查方式所占的比例较大,且难度也大,若单纯从 句子或个别段落来分析,或许所给的四个答案在 语法和结构上都是正确的,若放在全局,则不一 定正确。因此,快速浏览全文,领悟文章主旨, 通过上下文的语境来选择答案是解决这类题的关 键。

例1: I climbed the stairs slowly, carrying a big suitcase, my father following with two more. By the time I got to the third floor, I was 1 and the same time feeling lonely. Worse still, Dad 2 a step and fell, sending my new suitcase 3 down the stairs. 1. A. helpless B. lazy C. anxious D. tired 2. A. took B. minded C. missed D. picked 3. A. rolling B. passing C. dropping D. turning

分析:在把握上文“我提着衣箱缓慢地上楼梯”的情况下, 可知1题答案为D. tired,即当我到达三楼时,已经很累了; 再从爸爸“提着两只衣箱跟在我后面”以及下文的信息词 “fell”可知此句的意思是:爸爸少跨了一步摔倒了,衣 箱滚下了楼梯。因此2、3题的答案分别为C、A,尽管其 它选项在语法上均无错误。

例2: But Ella Fant, who was filed with 1 , shouted at the top of her voice, 〝Look at 2 ﹗ They‘re all out of 3 except my John﹗ Isn’t he the best﹗〞 1. A. sadness B. happiness C. surprise D. regret B. happiness 2. A. them B. those C. that D. him 3. A. sight B. order C. mind D. step
分析:考虑上下文的语境,第一个空的后边既然“是声嘶 力竭的喊叫”就不能是A、D项,特别是通过最后一句 Isn't he the best﹗推知母亲此时的感觉是“幸福”的。 所以1题的答案选B。2题的答案选A. them是因为其后用 了they're。3题通过全篇语境知道此时描述的游行队伍里 一个人的步伐与其他人的不同,答案应与“步伐”有关, 所以答案选D. step。

2. 根据生活常识及文化背景知识进行逻辑推理 NMET完形填空往往以自身的内容提供完整的语 篇信息,其间交织渗透着各类相关的文化背景知 识和生活常识,考查考生灵活运用该方面知识的 能力。解决这类题目,考生不仅要有广博的知识、 丰富的生活经历,还要能够驾驭全文,不仅理解 文章的表层意义,而且要弄清文章的深层意义。 当对语言的把握不很准确时,可充分利用社会文 化知识和生活常识来帮助判断。

例1: It was an early morning in summer. In the streets, sleepy-eyed people were moving quickly, heading towards their 1 . This was the beginning of another 2 day in New York City. 1. A. jobs B. homes C. buses D. offices A. jobs 2. A. working B. hot C. same D. ordinary 分析:从信息词“early morning”和“sleepy-eyed” 来判断,B. homes不符合逻辑,按生活经验,他们是去 上班。这时有些考生也许会认为,既然上班,就要去“挤 公交车”或“去办公室”。但上班的方式也有步行的、骑 车的或坐地铁的,也有自己开车去的。人们上班有去农场 的、煤矿的,还有去工厂车间的,不一定去办公室。因此, C. buses和D. offices不符合生活实际。1题只有A. jobs 才是最合乎逻辑的选项,人们起床后,各自奔向自己的工 作岗位。而这种情况是天天发生,是平平常常的,因此2 题答案是D. ordinary。

例2:(NMET1998)Every morning she would give him breakfast 29 bed and bring him the papers to 30 . 29. A. to B. at C. in D. by 30. A. check B. read C. keep D. sign B. read

分析:29题的答案是C,bed的前面应当用介词in。至于 30题,就要用到相应的文化背景知识:外国人有早上读 报的习惯,句中papers即报纸(newspapers)。这是理 解文章细节的关键。有了这些文化背景知识,便可迅速推 断出最佳选项B. read。因为生活中过分溺爱孩子的母亲, 让儿子“在床上”吃早饭,“读”早报是很自然的事情, 这也正与文章的主旨相吻合。

3. 根据词语的习惯用法和固定搭配来选择答案词 的固定搭配,特别是动词的搭配在完形填空题中 出现的比例也是比较大的,多数题目涉及到动词 的用法和各种搭配关系,这是由动词在句子中的 重要性决定的。动词在搭配关系上与名词、介词、 副词的用法紧密相关。 解决这类题目要求考生多读、多记,对所学习 语或固定搭配牢固掌握,并能灵活运用。?

例1:(NMET1992)Mrs. Clark was 38 tea at the time. 38. A. cooking B. making C. burning D. serving B. making
分析:从动词与名词的搭配关系角度考虑,“沏茶”用 make tea, “上茶”用serve the tea,这是语言使用过程 当中约定俗成的习惯用法,所以该题正确答案是B. making,考生也不应受汉语思维习惯的影响而误选A。

例2: The other day I was sitting in a small restaurant 1 a quiet drink and a talk with a few friends when it suddenly 2 me that almost everyone in the restaurant was smoking. It wasn’t long 3 the whole room was filled with smoke. 1. A. have B. had C. having C. having D. have had 2. A. seemed B. struck B. struck C. sank D. showed 3. A. ago B. after C. before D. now2 C. before 分析:解题1选C,是因为它这里是表伴随。解题2选B是 因为struck的意思有”使…想到”,其它几个意思不符, 搭配也不合理。解题3选C,it isn‘t long before是一个 固定搭配的句型。

4. 根据词汇的意义及用法辨析词义从而确定答 案完形填空题的考查虽然越来越淡化语法,但对 语言点的考查依然存在,不过主要体现在词汇搭 配和语义辨析两个方面。要做好这种题目,必须 尽量将词语辨析与情节推理和逻辑推理结合起来, 从词汇意义入手,抓住情节线索解决问题。

例1:Dad taught me a lot about life, especially its hard times. I remembered one of his 1 , one night when I was ready to quit (退出) a political campaign(运动)I was losing, and wrote about it in my diary. Tired, feeling the months of 2 , I went up to my study to make some notes. 1. A. classes B. advice C. lessons C. lessons D. talks 2. A. struggle A. struggle B. working C. battle D. defence 分析:class(课,班级,阶级)advice(忠告,建议,不可数名 词)lesson(课程,教训)talk(谈话,讲演),根据短文中提供 的信息,应该是作者准备退出一场失败了的政治活动时,父亲“教 训”了他一顿,所以1题的答案是C. lessons。2题的选项B. working(工作,劳动), D. defence(防卫,辩护)明显不合乎 逻辑,A. struggle意为“斗争,战争”,C. battle是指大型战役中 的小规模“战斗”。作者在这次政治活动中经历了数月的艰辛,为 争取某种权利而进行了艰苦的“斗争”,根据文章的情节线索我们 可以确定最佳选项是A。这两个题的解决都借助了词义的辨析,同 时也离不开对短文情节发展的把握。

例2:She noticed how nervous he was and suggested he should stand near the stage where he could watch and follow the play. It was a good 1 of getting rid of his nervousness, she said. She was right, it seemed to 2 . 1. A. idea B. way C. path D. plan B. way 2. A. do B. win C. work D. act C. work 分析:句中“她”注意到“他”很紧张,建议“他”观看 表演以消除紧张。显然,“她”所建议的是一种消除紧张 的“方法”。1题的四个选项A. idea(想法,意见) B. way(路线,方法) C. path(小路,路线) D. plan (计划,规划) 中只有B选项有此含义,无疑是最佳答案。 紧接下来的一句话是“她说得对,这个方法似乎有 效。”2 题的四个选项A.do(做,尽力) B. win(获胜, 夺得)C. work(工作,起作用) D. act(行动,表演) 中只有C选项有“奏效”这个含义,自然应该是最佳答案。 这两个题的解答也是在考虑上下文的前提下,从词汇意义

二、做完形填空题应从以下方面入手
(一)、首先要以很快的速度浏览全文,掌握文章的主 旨,不要急于看选项。浏览全文时要重点了解文中所叙 述的人物、时间、地点、事件,即who,when, where, what。完形填空命题的原则一般是第一句话不挖空, 目的是使读者进入语境,因此一定要认真阅读这句话。 (二)、根据故事情节的发展选词,确定所填的词与文 中哪个词有关系以及动作是在什么场合发生的。 (三)、试填之后将所选定的词放到文章中复读检查。 (“字面译、通逻辑、搞代入、全文译”)

具体操作中应注意的问题
1. 看清上下文,找准定位词充分利用文章的上下文和前 后句,找到对选择有提示作用的词或句。这些词有时可 能是同义词或反义词。例如: 1)Some parts of the water are very shallow. But in some places it is very very_____. B. high C. cold D. dangerous A. deep 2)Mrs O’Neill asked_____questions and she didn’t scold us either. A. no B. certain C. many D. more A. no 分析:1.根据转折连词but的提示,所填入的词应与 shallow相反,因此答案为A。 2. and是一个并列连词;either为副词,用在否定句或否 定词后加强语势,由此可以确定所填的词也应是一个否定 意义的词,因此答案是A。

2. 通顺逻辑,寻求搭配 注意固定的搭配,包括动词与介词的搭配、动词与名 词的搭配以及形容词与名词的搭配等,同时要根据内容选 择正确的短语。例如: Here’s a fellow who just walked into a bank and helped himself_____so much money. A. for B. by C. to D. of C. to 分析: 表示“自取,随便拿”这个意义的短语是help oneself to…?故答案为C。

3. 扎实基础,搞清辨异 Soon I heard a_____like that of a door burst in and then a climb of feet. A. sound B. cry C. voice D. shout A. sound 分析: 选项中的四个词都表示不同的声音,但B,C,D项 的三个词都是指从嗓子里发出的声音,而sound则表示各 种各样的声音。因此答案是A。

4. 看清执行者,确定所选词 And video cameras can be used to_____people’s actions at home. C. record A. keep B. make C. record D. watch 分析: 句中动作的发出者是video cameras?因此答案是 C,意思是“记录”。

5. 寻求上下逻辑,从容确定关系 It has been many years since I was last in London?_ ____I still remember something that happened during that visit. A. and B. for C. but D. as 分析: 根据句前的many years和句后的still remember答 案应选表示转折的连词but.

6. 了解生活常识,确定相关知识 (Immediately) the officers jumped into their cars and rushed to the_____hospital. A. animal B. biggest C. plant D. nearest D. nearest
分析: 在这样的紧急情况下,人们的第一个反应是到最近 的医院就医,因此答案为D。

三、解此类题主要从以下四步做起:

第一步 重视首句,把握开篇。完形填空一般无标题, 首句一般不留空白,是完整的一句,全文信息从此开始。 细读首句,可判断文章体裁,预测全文大意和主旨。 第二步 速读全文,掌握大意。速读全文要一气呵成, 尽管有空格、生词或不明白的地方,仍要快速读下去。 读时要注意找出关键词、中心词,划出某些代表人物和 情节的词,以便于形成思路。要注意不要在未掌握大意 的基础上,边阅读,边做题,这样速度慢、准确率低。

第三步 瞻前顾后,灵活答题。“瞻前顾后”,即先 读所填词的句子,回顾上一句,兼顾下一句。如果一句 中有两个空白待填,在初定答案时要“双管齐下”,在 两处同时试填,然后通读全句,确定答案。答题方法: 1)择优法:根据文章及结构边读边填,如果能够立刻 判定最佳答案的,不必再去逐个考证其余答案。2)排 除法:如答案一时难以确定,可按空格位置,从语法结 构、词语搭配、上下文语境、习惯用法、词义辨析等方 面,对选项逐项分析试填。排除干扰项,从而确定正确 答案。

第四步 复核全文,调整答案。把填好的短文通读一遍, 进行核查同时注意以下三点: 1.上下文的一致性:即时态语态的一致;代词、名词、 单复数的一致。 2.从语法和惯用法及习惯搭配、甚至语感入手,看是否 符合上下文的逻辑。 3.段与段、句与句之间的衔接是否连贯。 这次复核至关重要,常能纠正一两处甚至多处错误。同时 对极难确定的答案,也要凭语感任猜一个,决不可不选。

根据以上方法确定所选的词。 Harry Field also studying biology said they wanted to make as much 1 as possible to force the 2 to realize what everybody was having to 3 . 1. A. effort B. time C. trouble D. noise 2. A. townpeople B. other students C. government officials D. truck drivers 3. A. stand B. accept C. know D. share A. stand

做题三忌:
?急于求成,未通读全文便忙于答题,不了 解文意,无整体概念边读边填,两眼忙于空 白与选项之间,欲速则不达。 ?只抠字眼,语法,不顾文意,抓不住关键。
?断章取义,就题论题,不管前后联系,互 不照应,前后矛盾。

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一、语法 This autumn was the wettest since records began in the U.K. Floods _____ large parts of the country. A. covered B. covered by C. covered with D. rushed away

二、语法 + 常识 More and more factories pump CO2 into the air , and atmosphere across the world _______. A. burns B. hot C. warm D. heats up
三、四个答案对比 In Australia folds(羊栏) have covered an area the_____ of the whole of the Britain . A. width B. large C. length D. size

四、翻译: The village of Yaluma 1 in the mountains of Chipas, a province of Southern Mexico. 2 people are many Indians. 1. A. lies B. place C. lays D. soon 2. A. Their B. It’s C. Its C. Its D. Its’

Rock stars’ admirers (崇拜者)who love rock music 1 about a billion dollars a year for records. They pay 150 million to 2 rock stars in person (亲自). 1. A. take 2. A. meet D. spend B. cost C. waste D. spend B. interview C. call D. see D. see

五、连接词 ★They are some of the poorest people in a poverty stricken country. ____ now they have an extra source of income (收入). A. But C. However B. And D. Therefore

★ Rock stars’ admirers who love rock music spend about a billion dollars a year for records. In 1956, Mclean , 1 wrote and sang “American Pie” , 2 he earns an additional two cents on every single 3 of the song. 1. A. who B. he C. that D. as 2. A. and B. but C. so D. yet B. record 3. A. copy C. singing D. performance

★ Many rock stars 1 like Grace Slick and Jefferson. Those performers return from a tour, pay their bills, and buy new toys. 2 when they need money again , they do another 3 . They save 4__ money and live from hand to mouth. 1. A. play B. live C. perform D. behave 2. A. But B. Then C. And D. So 3. trip B. tour C. travel D. journey 3. A. no B. much C. some D. plenty

★English people seem very quiet ____ reserved (缄默的), usually. A. though B. and C. even D. but ★It was just getting dark; there was a touch of fog and I was on a lonely stretch of road. _____ I was going along cheerfully. A. But B. And C. Otherwise D. So

One evening Jackie was on his way home from the railway station. When he turned round a 1 he heard footsteps behind him and he thought 2 was coming near. He began to walk 3 . The footsteps became faster, too. He slowed down. The footsteps also 4 down. 1. A. corner B. park C. street D. way 2. A. no one B. someone C. anyone D. everyone 3. A. slowly B. more slowly C. fast D. faster 4. A. put B. slowed C. became D. turned

六、词组与翻译 ★In 1990 , leader of all big nations met in Japan and agreed to reduce 1 CO2 they put into the atmosphere. Ten years 2 , in Nov. 2000, they met again in Holland to assess ( 评估 ) the situation and decided what to do next. 1, A. many B. a number of C. the amount of D. a good many 2. A. after B. late C. later D. soon

★……. But I was going along cheerfully, thinking about the dinner I would eat when I 36 to Salisbury.
36. A. reached C. got B. arrived D. led

七、比较四个答案,翻译文章 Projects (工程) 1 this go over under the name of “ Carbon Trading”. The basic 2 is that governments and companies can buy the 3 to pump CO2 into the air by investing ( 投资)in green 4 that take it out again. 1. A. as B. like C. the same as D. except 2. A. fact B. meanings C. idea D. things 3. A. forests B. projects C. right D. debt 4. A. projects B. plants C. materials D. trees

八、前提示 Young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. At least fifty _______ stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year. A. film B. rock C. jazz D. movie

★Neil Young who performs 1 torn blue jeans, sometimes sings to an audience of 10,000,each of whom has paid five dollars for a ticket. 2 paying expenses, Young leaves with about $18,000 in his blue 3 at the end of an evening. 1. A. in B. with C. for D. on 2. A. Before B.Beside C. After D. Except 3. A. shirt B. trousers C. coat D. jeans

九、抓住主要信息词(主体---核心) , 比较四个答案,最后排除不可能的选项。 “It doesn’t make 1 ,” said one of he old music millionaires, who made a million dollars a year when he was popular , in the 1950s. “performers aren’t worth this kind of money. In fact, 2 is.” 1. A. efforts B. progress C. sense D. money 2. A. everybody B. nobody C. somebody D. anybody

十、形容词的选择(并列连词的作用) ★If we make a noise on the bus they look _____ and uncomfortable . A. untouched B. worried C, moved D. excited ★Hellen was an old teacher with a warm smile and _____eyes. A. bursting B. freezing C. friendly D. lively

十一、后暗示 In this __1__, professors always take every opportunity to push textbooks aside and expose students to real ___2__. 1. A. classroom B. means C. university D. hall 2. A. facts B. lessons C. adventures D. experiences

He was sure that he was being followed. He tried to hide, 1 the steps followed him. He didn’t know 2 to save himself. 6. A. Still C. Often 7. A. when C. why B. Sometimes D. Seldom B. where D. how

①….I raised the pistol and fired. The animal fell backwards with an angry cry. Father took the _______ smoking pistol from my hand , and fired another shot, which killed the gorilla. A. still B. yet C. even D. already

②He certainly looked the part all right, he thought as he admired himself in the mirror. He _______ thought of going out into the street to see whether he could pass as a policeman out there…..

A. just C. still

B. even D. already

③The shop had to agree. They knew that no fire on earth can ________ damage a perfect diamond. A. almost B. even C. just D. ever ④….At times, he would turn, sit down , and _______ go on his knees. A. almost B. even C. often D. rather

⑤….After a hard day in the laboratory, she goes home. There she plays with her toys. She ______ enjoys watching television before going to bed. A. quite C. even B. already D. still

⑥……..Thirty years after being introduced to Macaulay’s words, they ______ seem to me the best yardstick (码尺), because they give us a way to measure ourselves rather than others . A. even C. always B. still D. almost

⑦…….First of all he was a window-cleaner and in his first week he managed to break at least six windows. He ______ lost his job as a postman because he sent off all the letters when he should have taken them to people’s houses….. A. thus B. even C. once D. only

⑧…….Finally I turned the key in the lock and pushed the door open, with Dad ______ complaining (抱怨 ) about a hurting knee or something…. A. yet C. even B. only D. still

⑨The native people said they knew of this animal and called it the “ Yeti” , and they said that they had _____ caught Yeti on two occasions (场面 ) though none has ever been produced as evidence (证据 ). A. even C. certainly B. hardly D. probably

十二、逻辑推理 Students generally appreciate ( 认可 ) these special 50 opportunities (机会) . They are almost always fun and interesting , and professors 51 them too because students learn so much in just a few short months.

50. A. working B, living C. teaching D. learning 51. A. hold B. like C. dislike D. discover

十三、关连词的重要性 No one denies the 1 of classroom learning. But it can only take the students this 2 . Slides and textbooks may do a good job of carrying facts and details, but creativity of thought cannot be 3 . They can only be developed through 4 experience. 1. A. deed B. value C. effect D. success 2. A. far B. long C. way D. direction 3. A. got B, found C. taught D. practiced 4. A. self-educated B. self -service C. first-hand D. up -to -date

十四、抓住中心意思----围绕什么话题 (在文章中出现频率最多的词)

Every Thursday afternoon, my art history class meets not in our usual lecture hall but in our university Art Museum. We spend our one-hour class discussing two or three of the 1 , many of which are by artists that we have already studied in class. 1. A. subjects B. paintings C. speeches D. lectures

The professor begins by selecting one 2 of art. After giving us a quick background on the artist , he will open up for class 3 . 2. A. book C. text 3. A. discussion C. argument B. passage D. work B. activity D. consideration

Everyone is encouraged to give 4 on the work. Not every piece we study is 5 famous or striking in appearance and subject matter, yet we always manage to make some interesting observations.
4. A. questions C. comments 5. A. necessarily C. nearly B. ideas D. thoughts B. rather D. too

①He develops a friendship with an ___ friend ---a volleyball called Wilson. A. unusual B. good ②He realizes that he hasn’t been a very good friend ______he has always been thinking about himself. A. because B. so ③ He understand that ____ is about feelings. A. friendship B. man

④A volleyball is certainly a(n) ____ friend. A. real B. unusual B. important ⑤My friend is ____. He never tells lies. A. honest B. happy C. glad D. kind ) ⑥____ father and I often argue with each other, we are good friends. A. If B. Although C. When D. As if

⑦There will be many people at the theatre, so we will go there early in order to get _____ seats. A. good C. sad B. happy D. worried

中档题 ①I surf the internet all the time and I like playing ____ games. A. computer B. TV C. musical D. machine ②I am fond of singing. I sing a lot, ____ when I am not singing, I listen to rock music. A. and B. but C. so D. or

③Chuck is a businessman who is always so busy that he has___ time for his friends. A. many B. much C. little D. few ④He is a ____manager in a company that sends mail all over the world. A. successful B. exciting C. happy D. foolish

⑤He is on a ___ across the Pacific Ocean when suddenly his plane crashes. A. ship B flight C. boat D. car ⑥He learn to survive all alone. He has to learn how to collect water, hunt for food, and make fire. 1 the most difficult challenge is how to live 2 fiends. 1. A. Perhaps B. Surely C. Certainly D. But 2. A. with B. instead of C. without D. and

⑦E-mail is faster and cheaper than letters, ___ you can write to your e--pals every day. A. so B. and C. but D. therefore ⑧---- Could I use your bathroom ? ---- You don’t need to ask , ___ make yourself at home. A. just B. only C. already D. even

⑨I found the bathroom, ________ I didn’t find what I was looking for! A. but B. and C. so D. and yet
⑩English is a language spoken all _______ the world. A. around B. of C. among D. between

⑾There are more than 42 countries where the 1 of the people speak English. Most 2 speakers of English are found in the United States of America, Canada , Australian ,South Africa, Ireland ,United Kingdom, New Zealand. 1. A. majority B. few C. mostly 2. A. foreign B. native C. English

高档 题 ①More than 375 million people English is their mother tongue. An equal number of people learn English as a ______ language. A. foreign B. native C. second D. first ②_______ in the world children go to school to learn English . A. Everywhere B. Somewhere C. Anywhere D. Where

③In China students learn English at school as a 1 language, except for those in Hong Kong, where many people speak English as a 2 or a 3 language. 1. A. foreign B. native 2. A. first B. foreign 3. A. native B. second ④English has developed into the language most ____ spoken and used in the world. A. widely B. quickly C. highly D. well

⑤Businessmen and tourists often come to China ___ being able to speak Chinese. A. without B. with C. of D. from ⑥Make something clear or 1 to understand by describing or 2 information about it. 1. A. easy B. difficult C. sound 2. A. taking B. giving C. telling

Thank you


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