修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语 从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修 饰的先行词之后。
which, who, whom, whose, as等 关系副词有: when, where, why
A.引导定语从句； B.代替先行词； C.在定语从句中担当一个成分。 The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman.
1.who 指人，在定语从句中 作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning.
Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way.
That is the teacher who teaches us physics.
2. whom 指人，在定语从句中 做宾语，常可省略。
Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus. Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to see.
The professor ( whom ) you are waiting for has come.
The girl ( whom ) the teacher often praises is our monitor.
注意：关系代词 whom 在口语 或非正式文体中常可用 who 来代替，也可省略。
The man ( whom / who ) you met just now is my old friend.
3. which 指物，在定语从句中 做主语或宾语，做宾语时常可 省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys.
The factory which makes computers is far away from here.
He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers. The house which is by the lake looks nice. This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not interesting at all.
4．that 指人时，相当于 who 或 whom；指物时，相当于 which。在定语从句中作主语 或宾语，作宾语时常可省略。
The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million.
Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? The person that /whom you introduced to me is very kind. The season that / which comes after spring is summer.
Yesterday I received a letter that / which came from Australia.
5. whose 通常指人，也可指物， 在定语从句中做定语。 I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. He has a friend whose father is a doctor.
I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in.
注意：指物时，常用下列结构 来代替： The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired.
Do you like the book whose cover is yellow?
Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow?
关系代词在定语从句中作介词 宾语时，从句常常由“介词+ 关系代词”引出。 The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous.
The school in which he once studied is very famous. Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine (which / that) you asked for. Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine for which you asked.
This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday. This is the boy with whom I played tennis yesterday. We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom / who / that) we have often talked about.
We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.
The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our working conditions. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions.
注意： 1.含有介词的短语动词一般不 拆开，介词仍放在短语动词的 后面。如：look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for.
This is the watch for which I am looking . The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy.
２.若介词放在关系代词前，关 系代词指人时只可用whom，不 可用who, that；关系代词指物 时只可用which，不可用that。 关系代词是所有格时用whose。
The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour.
The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbour. × The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. √ The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable. ×
３.“介词+关系代词”前还可 有some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each , few 等代词或者数词。 He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him.
In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities.
Up to now, he has written ten stories, three of which are about country life.
（四）关系副词引导的定语从句 1.when 指时间，在定语从句中 作时间状语。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school.
The time when we got together finally arrived.
October 1, 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded.
Do you remember the years when he lived in the countryside with his grandparents.
2. where 指地点，在定语从句 中作地点状语。 Shanghai is the city where I was born. The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down.
I visited the farm where a lot of cows were raised .
Is this the place where they fought the enemy?
3.why 指原因，在定语从句中 作原因状语。 Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. The reason why he was punished is unknown to us.
I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 注意：关系副词引导的定语从 句经常可以用“介词+关系代 词”引导的定语从句来表示。 From the years when / in which he was going to primary school in the country he had known what he wanted to be when he grew up.
（五）限制性定语从句和非限 制性定语从句 A.限制性定语从句形式上不用逗 号“，”与主句隔开。用逗号 “，”与主句隔开。意义上是先 行词不可缺少的定语，如删除， 主句则失去意义或意思表达不完 整。
B.非限制性定语从句只是对先 行词的补充说明，如删除，主 句仍能表达完整的意思。译法 上译成先行词的定语 “．．．的” 通常译成主句的 并列句。
A．作宾语时可省略 B．不可省略 A．可用that B．不用that A．可用who 代替 whom B．不可用who 代替 whom
Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live.
The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear.
限制性定语从句举例： The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. China is a country which has a long history. In the street I saw a man who was from Africa.
His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful.
Last summer I visited the People’s Great Hall, in which many important meetings are held every year.
1. Her brother who is now a soldier always encourages her to go to college. 她那当兵的哥哥总是鼓励她上 大学.（意含：她还有其他哥 哥。）
Her brother, who is now a soldier, always encourages her to go to college.
她哥哥是当兵的，他总是鼓励 她上大学。（意含： 她只有一 个哥哥。）
2. All the books that have pictures in them are well written.
所有里面带插图的书都写得很 好。（意含： 不带插图的书则 不一定写得好。）
All the books, which have pictures in them, are well written. 所有的书都带插图，这些书都写 得很好。（意含： 没有不带插 图的书。）
（一）限制性定语从句中只能 用that 引导定语从句的情况 1.当先行词是everything, anything, nothing (something 除 外), all, none, few, little, some等 代词时，或当先行词受every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much等代词修饰时。
Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said?
There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world.
All that can be done has been done.
There is little that I can do for you. He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed.
All the guests that / whoawere Any man that / who has invitedof duty wedding such a sense to her won’t do were important people. thing. Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing.
2.当先行词被序数词修饰时。 The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben.
This is the best film that I have ever seen.
4．当先行词被 the very, the only 修饰时。 This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns.
注意：当先行词指人时，通常 用关系代词 who。
Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting.
5.当先行词前面有who, which 等疑问代词时。
Who is the man that is standing by the gate?
Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?
6.当先行词为人与动物或人与 物时。 They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street.
（二）关系代词as和which 引 导的定语从句 as 和which 引导非限制性定语从 句时， 其用法有相同之处，也 有不同之处。具体情况是
1. as 和which都可以在定语从句 中做主语或宾语，代表前面整 个句子。
He married her, as / which was natural. He is honest, as / which we can see.
2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句 可以放在主句之前、主句之后， 甚至还可以分割主句。 which引 导的非限制性定语从句只可放 在主句之后。另外，as 常常有 “正如、正像”的含义。
As is known to all, China is a developing country.
He is from the south, as we can know from his accent.
John, as you know, is a famous writer. Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don’t believe.
注意：当主句和从句之间存 在着逻辑上的因果关系时， 关系词往往只用which。如： Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry. These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy.
3.当先行词受such, the same 修饰 时，关系词常用as。
I’ve never heard such stories as he tells.
He is not such a fool as he looks.
This is the same dictionary as I lost last week.
注意：当先行词受the same 修 饰时，偶尔也用 that引导定语 从句，但与as引导的定语从句 意思有区别。 She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore.
(三) 以the way为先行词的限 制性定语从句通常由in which 或that引导，而且通常可以省 略。 The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising.
I don’t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her.
用关系代词还是关系副词引导 定语从句主要看关系词在定语 从句中的作用（即所担当的成 分）.
Compare : A.
I know a place where we can have a picnic.
I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery.
I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together.
I will never forget the days that / which we spent together.
This is the reason why he was dismissed. This is the reason that / which he explained to me for his not attending the meeting.
（五）but 有时也用作关系词 引导定语从句。
There are very few but admire his talents. （but = who don’t）
1．定语从句修饰限定先行词， 它与先行词是修饰关系；同位 语从句说明先行词的具体内容， 它与先行词是同位关系。 The plane that has just taken off is for Paris.
The fact that he has already died is quite clear.
2．定语从句由关系代词或关 系副词引导，关系词在从句 中担当相应的句子成分，关 系代词在从句中作宾语时经 常可省略。
同位语从句主要由连词that 引导，在从句中一般不担当 成分；有时也由where, when, how, who, whether, what等连 词引导，这些连词则在从句 中担当成分。
The news that he told me is true. The news that he has just died is true. The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money. The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve.
The question that he raised puzzled all of us.
The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer.
3．同位语从句与先行词一般可 以用动词 be 发展成一个完整的 句子, 而定语从句则不能。 A. The idea that he we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful. The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice.
B. The fact that the earth moves around the sun is known to all.
The fact is that the earth moves around the sun.
C. Pay attention to the problem how we can protect the wild animals. The problem is how we can protect the wild animals.
1. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, of course, _____ made the others unhappy. A. which B. who C. this D. what
2. After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town _______ he grew up as a child. A. which B. when C. that D. where
3. The gentleman _______ you told me yesterday proved to be a thief. A. who B. about whom C. whom D. with whom
4. Please take any seat ____ is free. A. which B. where C. in which D. that
5. The old man has two sons, _______ is a soldier. A. one of whom B. both of them C. all of whom D. none of them
6. This is the ship _______ we crossed the Pacific(太平洋). A. by which B. by that C. where D. in which
7. New York is famous for its sky-scrapers(摩天大楼)_____ has more than 100 storeys. A. the higher of them B. the highest of which C. the highest of them D. some of which
8. My home village is no longer the same _____ it used to be. A. which B. as C. where D. when
9. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., ______ many people have gone home. A. whose time B. that C. at which D. by which time
10. The boy ______ composition won the first prize is the youngest in the group. A. who B. whose C. that D. which
11. The weather turned out to be very good, ______ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it
12. Mr. Wang is a boss, ______ factory Li Ping worked. A. in whose B. whose C. in whom D. of which
13. I don't like the way_____ you speak to her. A. / B. that C. in which D. All A, B, and C
14. I shall never forget the years _______ I lived in the country with the farmers, —————— has a good effect on my life. A. that, which B. when, which C. which, that D. when, who
15. _____ is known to all, China will be an advanced and powerful country in 20 or 30 year’s time. A. What B. That C. As D. It
16. Is this book _____ you want to borrow from the library? A. that B. which C. the one D. /
17. Such a book ______ you showed me is difficult to understand. A. that B. which C. as D. like
18. The speaker spoke of some writers and some books _____ were popular then. A. / B. that C. which D. who
19. This is the store ______ we visited the famous shop assistants. A. where B. there C. that D. which
20. I’m going to spend my holiday in Beijing, _____ live my old parents. A. which B. that C. where D. there
21. If a shop has chairs ______ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop. A. that B. which C. when D. where
22.—why does she always ask you for help? —there is no one else ______, is there? A. who to turn to B. she can turn to C. for whom to turn D. for her to turn
23.The place _______ the bridge is supposed to be built should be ______ the crossriver traffic is the heaviest. A. which; where B. at which; which C. at which; where D. which; in which