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Learning about language unit1


人教课标版 高二 选修7 Unit 1

Learning about language

Discovering useful words and expressions
1. Fill in the table below. Noun ambition absence suitability benefit annoyan

ce Adjective ambitious absent suitable beneficial annoyed/annoying

Noun clumsiness firmness

Adjective clumsy firm noisy psychological encouraging

noise
psychology encouragement

Answer key for Exercise 2 on Page 4: 1. lap 3. dictation 2. annoyed 4. entry

5. microscope
7. fellow

6. outgoing
8. conduct

Answer key for Exercise 3 on Page 4: in many ways, sit around, made

fun of, adapt to, out of breath, All
in all, cutting out, In other words

Exercise 4:
Sample dialogue: S1: All in all Xie Li’s confidence has grown. In other words she is more outgoing. S2: In many ways she is becoming more active and happier. S3: She’s not so often out of breath after training. She has adopted to it well.

Grammar
动词不定式 动词不定式由“to+动词原形”构 成,可以在句中作主语、宾语、表 语、定语、状语、补足语等, 但不能 作谓语。不定式可以有自己的逻辑 主语, 即for sb. to do sth. 。

想一想! 1. 不定式作主语 To finish this report took him a week. My job is to help the poor person. ?单个不定式作主语时,谓语动词用 单数 ?若不定式太长,往往用it作形式主语, 不定式置后

2. 不定式作表语 To see is to believe. What I would suggest is to put off the meeting.

3. 不定式作宾语

I decided to ask for my money back.
4. 不定式作宾补

1) 带to的不定式作宾补。很多动词如:
allow, order, force, permit, tell, want, wish, forbid, advise, persuade, warn等 后面作宾补的不定式都带to。

e.g. He didn’t allow us to smoke in his house. 他不允许我们在他的家里吸烟。 2) 不带to的不定式作宾补。使役动词make, have, let; 感官动词see, watch, observe, hear, listen to, notice等后面作宾补的不定 式不带to。 e.g. He made a face and made everybody laugh. 他做了一个鬼脸, 逗得大家都笑了。

注意 : 如果上述结构变为被动语态, 不 定式就由原来的宾语补足语变为主语补
足语, 此时第2类动词 (let, have无被动语 态) 后原来不带to的不定式要加to。 e.g. He was seen to go upstairs. 有人看见他上楼去了。

Be careful!

不定式用在介词but, except, besides 后时如果这些介词前有行为动词do的 各种形式, 那么介词后的不定式不带to, 相反则带to。 (1) She could do nothing but cry. (2) I have no choice but to go. (3) What do you like to do besides sleep.

5. 不定式作定语
Do you have anything to say on the question?
注意: 作定语的不定式如果是不及物 动词, 或者不定式所修饰的名词或代 词是不定式的地点、工具等, 不定式 后面须有相应的介词。

He is looking for a room to live in. There is nothing to worry about. 不定式作定语时,应放在被修饰词的 后面,而且放在其他后置定语之后。 A. 不定式做定语与所修饰的词之间有 三种关系: (1) 动宾关系 I have a lot of work to do. 我有很多工作要做。

(2) 主谓关系 He is always the first to come. 他总是第一个来。 (3) 同位关系 We all have a chance to go to college. 我们都有上大学的机会。

B. 作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词, 或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定 式动作的地点工具等,不定式后面须有 相应的介词。
He is looking for a room to live in. 他在找一个房间住。 C. 不定式所修饰的名词如果是time, place或way,不定式后面的介词习惯 上要省去。

He had no money and no place to live. 他没钱没地方住。 D. something, anything, nothing, everything等复合不定代词常用不定 式做后置定语。 Do you have anything to send? 你有什么东西要寄吗?

6. 不定式作状语 I stayed there to see what would happen. We were very excited to hear the news.

7. 独立结构 To tell the truth, I don’t agree with you. 实话告诉你,我不同意你(的看 法)。 类似的结构:

to be frank, to be honest…

动词不定式的时态和语态

Identify its function.

想一想

1. It is good to help others. (subject) 2. It is my ambition to make sure that the disabled people in our neighborhood have access to all public buildings. (subject) 3. My ambition is to work in the computer industry when I grow up. (predicative)

4. I don’t have time to sit around feeling sorry for myself. (attribute) 5. I am the only student in my class to have a pet snake. (attribute) 6. A big company has decided to buy it from me. (object) 7. My fellow students have begun to accept me for who I am. (object)

8. I have had to work hard to live a

normal life. (adverbial)
9. Some days I am too tired to get out of

bed. (adverbial) 10. We must call on local government to
give financial assistance to disabled people. (object complement)

The following verbs are normally

followed by the infinitive.
afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, care, choose, claim, come, consent, dare, decide, demand, deserve, determine, elect, endeavor Remember!

expect, fail, get, guarantee, hate, help, hesitate hope, hurry, intend, learn, long, manage, mean, need, offer, plan,

prepare, pretend, promise refuse, say,
seem, tend, threaten, want, wish

The following verbs are normally
followed by V-ing.

avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike,
endure, enjoy, escape, forgive, finish, imagine, keep, mind, miss, pardon, prevent, resist, suggest, understand, can’t help
Remember them!

The following verbs are normally followed by V-ing or the infinitive. love, like, hate, prefer, dislike, begin, continue, intend, attempt, propose, want, need, remember, forget, regret, try,

deserve, start
Bear them in your mind!

重点!
动词后面跟V-ing还是不定式, 含义不相 同, 总的来说, 表示习惯的, 一般性的动 作多跟V-ing, 一次性的具体的被动动作

多跟不定式。
1) I like to go with you.

我想和你一块儿去。

I like reading.
我喜欢阅读。 He promised to help her. 他答应过要帮助她。 We love watching VCD. 我们喜欢看VCD。

2) remember, forget, regret后面跟V-ing时, 表示过去的动作, 后面跟不定式时, 不定 式表示将来的动作。 I remember meeting him in the street. 我记得在街上见过他。 I remember to write a letter to my parents. 我想起来要给我父母亲写信。

3) “stop + V-ing”表示停止做某事, “stop + 不定式”表示停下来做某事。 Stop smoking, please.

请不要抽烟 。
Let’s stop to have a rest.

咱们停下来休息一下吧。

4) mean to do 打算做某事 mean doing 意味着…… I meant to catch up with the early

bus.
This means wasting a lot of money.

5) try to do 设法尽力做某事 try doing 试着做某事 You should try to overcome your shortcomings. Try working out the physics problem

in another way.

1. She said she ___ her uncle very much and hoped ____ him. A. missed, to hear from B. missed, to hear C. misses, hearing from D. misses, hearing

2. ______ a living, she had to work

from morning till night.
A. To make B. made

C. Making
A. beated C. beat

D. To have made
B. beating D. beaten

3. Mrs Brown regretted ____ his son.

4. I often hear him ___ about the great writer. A. to talk C. speaking B. talk D. to tell

5. Missing the last bus means ___ home.

A. to walk
C. walked

B. walking
D. walk

6. Paul doesn’t have to be made ____. He always works hard. A. study B. to study C. studied D. studying 7. It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just ____ a look at the sports starts. A. had B. having C. to have D. have

8. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him __. A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not 9. --I didn’t hear you come in last night. --That’s good. We tried ___ noisy. A. not to B. to be not C. to be D. not to be

10. --I hear that you and Francis will spend your vacation in Nepal next spring. --Yes, we are planning _____. A. to C. it B. to be D. to do it

11. The Emperor ordered the wonderful cloth _____ for him without delay. A. to have woven B. to be woven C. to be weaving D. to weave 12. — The light in the office is still on. — Oh, I forgot ______. A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off

13. ---What do you think of the school? ---It is a very good _____. A. school to study in B. school for children to study C. studying school D. school to study

14. ---Did you get a job? --- No, I ___, but it’s no use. A. expected B. managed to C. tried to D. planned 15. It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows ____. A. it what to do with B. what to do with it C. what to do it with D. to do what with it

II. 用所给词的适当形式填空。 1. More and more people do not like watching TV; the programs seem ____________ to be getting (get) worse all the time. 2. The poem is said to ___________________ have been translated (translate) into many languages in the past decade. 3. The flu is believed ___________ to be caused (cause) by viruses that like to reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and throat.

4. The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of Liu Xiang, who was reported _____________ to have broken (break) the world record in the 110-meter hurdle race. 5. You are said ___________________ to have been writing (write) a new novel these years. Have you finished it?

III. 根据汉语提示, 用不定式完成下 列句子。 1. ___________ To save time is to lengthen life. (节约时间就是延长生命。) 2. She is easy _______________. to get along with (她很好相处。) 3. When I called him, he happened ________________. to be taking a bath (我给他打电话时, 他正在洗澡。)

4. The book is said ___________ to have been ____________________________. translated into several languages (据 说这本书已经被翻译成好几种语言。) 5. The experience makes us realize that much of the world remains ____________. to be explored (这次经历使我们意识 到世界上有很多东西仍有待探索。) 6. The teacher asked us not ______________. to be so noisy (老师叫我们不要如此吵闹。)

7. The news reporter hurried to the only to be told the film star airport, ________________________ had left (这位新闻记者急匆匆赶到机 _______. 场,结果被告知电影明星已经走了。) 8. I don’t think it possible ___________ to remember _______________________. 100 English words at a time (我认为一 次记住100个英语单词是不可能的。)

9. Students are not allowed _________________. to smoke and drink (学生不允许吸 烟和饮酒。) 10. _________________________, To find out more information call (920) 746-3789. (若要了解更多信息, 请拨打电话(920) 746-3789。)

11. They are reported ____________________. to have arrived safely (根据报道他们已安全到达。)

12. _____________________ To love and to be loved are both great happiness. (爱和被爱都是最大的幸福。)

Answer key for Exercise 3 on Page 5: to have spent, To free, to see, to treat, to help pass, to abolish

短语讲解 never mind 不必担心 never mind 单独使用时意为“没关系”, “不要紧”, “不用费事”, 习惯用语以下场 合: 1) 当别人向你道歉。 e.g. — Sorry to have kept you waiting. 很抱歉, 让你久等了。 — Never mind.没关系。

2) 请人放心、安慰人家时。 e.g. — … but please go before the enemy comes. 请在敌人到来之前离开。 — Never mind, my boy. It won’t take long. 不要紧, 小伙子, 用不了多长时间。 3) 当别人要帮忙或为你做某件事情时。 e.g. — Let me carry the bag for you. 让我给你拿包。

— Never mind.不麻烦你了。

— I’m sorry I’m late. I got held up in the traffic on my way here. — ________. A. Don’t be late next time. B. You should be blamed. C. It doesn’t matter. I’m also late. D. Never mind. Come and sit down.

更多mind短语: make up one’s mind (to do sth.)

下决心 (做某事)
lose one’s mind 发疯; 脑子不正常 keep one’s mind on … 把心思放在……上 have …in mind 有……想法, 想到

change one’s mind 改变主意

Homework
Go over words and expressions. Go over the grammar. Finish Ex 1 on Page 49.

Thank you for listening


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