tceic.com
简单学习网 让学习变简单
当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

2011高中英语高考常考知识点总结大全


2011 高中英语高考常考知识点总结大全
第一部分:语音辨音(5 分) 考点一:a,e,i,o,u 五 个 元 音 字 母 的 发 音 : 注 意 元 音 字 母 在 重 读 开 音 节 、闭 音 节 中 的 读 音 ,非 重 读 音 节 中 的 读 音 及 特 例情况: 开音节有两种: 1) 一 种 是 在 重 读 音 节 中 元 音 字 母 之 后 没 有 辅 音

字 母 , 叫 绝 对 开 音 节 。 如 : go no me pape r 2) 另 一 种 是 在 元 音 字 母 之 后 有 一 个 辅 音 字 母 ( r 除 外 ) 而 后 面 又 跟 上 , 一 个 不 发 音 的 元 音 字 母 e, 叫 相 对 开 音 节 。 如 : home na me fac e 在重读开音节中,元音字母一律读它的字母音,即长音。 闭音节: 以 一 个 或 几 个 辅 音 字 母 结 尾( r 除 外 ) ,而 中 间 只 有 一 个 元 音 字 母 的 音 节 叫闭音节。在闭音节中,元音字母一律读它的短音。 但是: a. 字 母 a 1) 在 /w/后 常 发 短 音 [ ? ]??如 wash,what, want ; 2) 在 water一 词 中 , a 发 长 音 / [?;]:?? 3) 在 danger s trange change中 发 /ei/; 4) 在 class ca n't fa ther after中 发 /a: / b. 字 母 e 在 ever even eve 这 三 个 单 词 中 的 发 音 分 别 为 : /e/ /i:/ /i :/ 。 c. 字 母 i 发 /i:/ p oliceman m achine d. 字 母 o 发/u/ woman /i/ women 在m,n,v,th前发 /Λ / come,son,love,does,mother e. 字母u 发/i/ busy 不发音 build (built) 考点二:以 -ed 结 尾 的 单 词 的 词 尾 正 确 读 音 ; 清 辅 音 后 读 作 / t / .looked h op ed 浊 、 元 音 后 读 作 / d / cleaned a ns wered t,d 之 后 加 e d, ed 读 / id /sta rte d decided 考点三:以 -s, -es 结 尾 的 单 词 的 词 尾 正 确 读 音 ; 清 辅 音 后 读 作 /s/ . ma ps cakes 浊 、 元 音 后 读 作 /z / bananas do gs 在 /s/ 、 /z/、 /d?//∫ / 音 之 后 读 / iz / classes bridges washes houses 考点四:常 见 字 母 组 合 的 读 音 ; (字 母 组 合 包 括 :元 音 字 母 组 合 和 辅 音 字 母 合 ) 考点五:不 符 合 读 音 规 则 的 常 用 词 的 读 音 。 1. 词 性 变 化 引 起 读 音 变 化 (1) 同 形 而 不 同 词 性 的 单 词 读 音 变 化 excuse n./s/ v. /z/

separate v./ei/ ad j./i/ breath n. /θ / v ./ ?/ record n ./e/ v. /i/ absent a dj./ ? / v./ ? / abstract adj./ ? / v./ ? / bow n./ ?u / v. /au / ( 2) 有 些 词 加 后 缀 时 引 起 读 音 的 变 化 nation /ei/---nat io nal/ ? / know/ ? u/----kn ow ledge /?/?? south /sauθ /---- /s outhern / ? sΛ ?? n/ 2. 词 形 变 化 引 起 读 音 变 化 (1) 可 数 名 词 变 复 数 的 读 音 变 化 mouth /θ / - --mo ut hs / ?z/ house /s/---house s /ziz/ woman / ? wum ? n/- --women / ? wimin/ (2) 词 过 去 式 中 的 读 音 变 化 will----would /wu d/ shall---should / ∫ u d/ can---could /kud/ eat---ate /et,eit / mean---meant /;me nt hear---heard /h ? : d/ (3) 词 在 否 定 缩 写 中 的 读 音 变 化 cannot---can`t /k a: nt/ shall not---shan` t /∫ a:nt/ will not---won`t /w ? unt/ do not---don`t /d ? unt/ 3 .复 合 词 的 读 音 变 化 break/ei/---break fa st/e/ head/e/---forehea d/ rid/ hand / d /---hand so me/ / room /u:/----clas sr oom /u/ news /z/----newsp ap er /s/ 4. 同 源 词 的 读 音 变 化 know / ? u/---kno wl edge /?/?? nature/ei/---natu ra l / ?/ nation /ei/----na ti onal / ?/ breath /θ /---bre at he / ?/ bath /ba:θ /---ba th e /be?/ cloth /kl???θ /---clo thes /kl? u?z/ worth /θ /---wort hy / ?i/ real /ri? l/---re al ity /ri ? ?l? ti/ political / ? /— po litics /?/?? say /sei/---said /s ed/

handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。 handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。 第二部分:单项选择(15 分) 考点六:名词 I. 概念 名词是表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称的词,有专有名词和普通名词之分,还有可数 名词与不可数名词之分. II.相关知识点精讲 1. 名词变复数 1) 以-s, –x, –ch, -sh 结尾加-es Buses,boxes,watches,brushes (stomach-stomachs) 2)以辅音字母加 y 结尾的名词,变 y 为 i 加 es Factories, countries 3) 以-f 或 fe 结尾的名词,变 f 或 fe 为 v 加 es leaf--leaves life—lives 但:roof,chief,gulf,serf,belief,proof, 加 s handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。 4) 以 o 结尾的名词,变复数时: a. 加 s,photo---photos piano---pianos radio---radios zoo---zoos; b. 加 es,potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes c. 上述 a 和 b 两种方法均可,如 zero---zeros / zeroes。 5) 名词复数的不规则变化 a. child---children foot---feet tooth---teeth mouse---mice man---men woman---women 注意:由一个词加 man 或 woman 构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women, 如 an Englishman, Englishmen。 German 不是合成词, two 但 故复数形式为 Germans; Bowman 是姓,其复数是 the Bowmans。 b. 单复同形,如 deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese ,li,jin,yuan,two li, three mu,four jin 等。但除人民币的元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复 数形式。如:a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters。 c. 集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。例如: people police cattle 等本身就是复数, 不能说 a people,a police,a cattle, 但可以说 a person,a policeman,a head of cattle, the English,the British, the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时, 作复数用,如 The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。 d. 以 s 结尾,仍为单数的名词,如: maths,politics,physics 等学科名词,一般是不可数名词,为单数。 news 为不可数名词。 the United States, 应视为单数。 The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是 1945 年组建起来的。 e. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。例如: The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》是 一本非常有趣的故事书。

表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes 等,若表 达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers 等。 g. 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods 货物,waters 水 域 fishes(各种)鱼。 h. 复合词变复数,以中心词为主 film-goer — film-goers sister-in-law — sisters-in-law grown-up – grown-ups 2. 不可数名词量的表示 1) 物质名词 a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时为可数。 比较:Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数) These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数) b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,可数。例如: This factory produces steel. (不可数) We need various steels. (可数) c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。例如: Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。 Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。 2) 抽象名词表示具体的事例时也可数。例如: four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations 四个现代化 物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量,如 a glass of water 一杯水 / a piece of advice 一则建议。 3. 定语名词的复数 名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。 1) 用复数作定语。例如: sports meeting students reading-room talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系 2) man, woman, gentleman 等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。例 men workers women teachers gentlemen officials 3) 有些原有 s 结尾的名词,作定语时,s 保留。例如: goods train (货车) arms produce 武器生产 customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush 衣刷 4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。例如: two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋 a ten-mile walk 十英里路 two-hundred trees 两百棵树 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划 4. 名词的格 1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有 s,也要加"'s",如 the boy's bag 男孩的 书包,men's room 男厕所。 2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加" ' ",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。 3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词, 都可以用"名词 of 名词"的结构来表示所有关系, the title 如: of the song 歌的名字。

f.

4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名 词,如:the barber's 理发店。 5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。 John's and Mary's rooms(两间) John and Mary's room(一间) 6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。例如:a month or two's absence 考点七:冠词 I. 不定冠词的用法 不定冠词有 a 和 an 两种形式。 用在以辅音音标开头的词前,an 用在以元音音标 a 开头的词前。 a house, a useful book an hour, an umbrella 不定冠词的用法主要有: 1) 泛指某人或某物,不具体说明其为何人或何物。 在行文叙述时,第一次提到某个人 或事物时,通常使用不定冠词,此为“泛指”。例如: A girl is asking for you on the phone. My mother works in a hospital. 2) 用在单数可数名词前,表示一类人或事物,即以一个个体代表整类人或事物,此为 “类指”。例如: A plane is faster than a train.飞机比火车快。 A snake is a cold-blooded animal.蛇是冷血动物。 3) 表示“一”,但数量概念没有 one 强烈。例如: They waited there for an hour.他们在那等了一个小时。 Rome wasn't built in a day.罗马非一天能建成。(即:冰冻三尺非一日之寒。) 如特别强调数量,应使用 one。例如: I have only one dictionary and I need it myself. 4) 用在表示时间、速度、价格等计量单位的名词前表示“每一”,相当于 per 或 every。例如: The plane can get 300 kilometers an hour.飞机的速度是每小时 300 公里。 The doctor told her to take the medicine three times a day.医生叫她一 天服三次药。 We work five days a week.我们一周工作五天。 5) 用于抽象名词、 物质名词前(特别是这两种名词有定语修饰时),使之意义具体化, 表示“一种”、“一件”、“一份”等。例如: It is an honour for me to be invited to the party.我被邀请参加聚会是 一种荣誉。(honour 是抽象名词,an honour 指一件荣誉的事) There was heavy rain last week.(rain 为物质名词,这里指一场雨) 6) 用于序数词(后加名词)前,表示又一个,又一次。例如: He tried a sixth time and succeeded.他又试第六次,结果成功了。 When I sat down,a fourth student rose to speak.当我坐下时,又有第四个 同学起立发言。 7) 用于某一个人名、地名前,使专有名词普通化。例如: A Mr.Li has been waiting for you.一位姓李的先生一直在等你。 Chongqing is known as a Shanghai of the west.重庆被称作西部的上海。 (Shanghai 是专有名词,本句中 a Shanghai 指和上海一样繁华的城市)

8) 用于某些固定词组中,是这些词组不可缺少的组成部分。例如: in a moment 立刻,马上 once upon a time 从前 as a result (of)作为(??)的结果 in a hurry 急忙地 in a word 一句话,总而言之 once in a while 偶尔地 have a good time 过得很愉快 have a word with 与??说句话 have/take a look (at)看一看 have/take a rest 休息一下 take an active part in 积极参加 (比较:take part in 参加,不能说 take a part in) do sb.a favour 帮某人的忙 put an end to 结束 at a mouthful 一大口地 all of a sudden 突然地 II. 定冠词 the 的用法 ① 表示上文提到过的人或事物。 He bought an English-Chinese dictionary this morning. The dictionary is very good. ② 用于单数可数名词前,表示整体或类别。 The panda is a rare animal. 此句等于:A panda is a rare animal. = Pandas are rare animals. ③ 用来表示世界上独一无二的事物。 the sun, the moon, the sky, the earth, the world ④ 用于表示阶级、党派的名词前。 the Chinese Communist Party, the working class the proletariat 无产 阶级 ⑤ 常用于含有普通名词或形容词的专有名词前。 A. 用于许多江海,山脉,群岛等名词前: The Yellow River The East Sea the Himalayas the Pacific Ocean B. 用于由普通名词构成的国名: The People’s Republic of China the United States C. 用于机关、团体、朝代、时代、报刊杂志等名词前: the United Nations the State Council the Tang dynasty the People’s Daily the Summer Palace the Peace Hotel the British Museum ⑥ 用于表示方位的名词前。 the east the southwest the middle the Far East on the left ⑦ 用于乐器名词前,但汉语拼音的乐器前不用冠词。 play the piano play the violin play erhu ⑧ 用于复数的姓氏前,表示两夫妇或全家,在此情况下,这类名词作复数对待。 The Smiths watch TV every day. ⑨ 用于某些形容词或过去分词前,表示一类人或事物。 the poor the rich the living the young the wounded the oppressed the beautiful ⑩ 用在形容词的最高级前或序数词前。 Shanghai is the biggest city in china. After the game, the first thing they wanted to do was to take a hot bath. III 零冠词用法

表示某一类人或事物的复数名词前,不用冠词。 Now people are living a happy life. Trees are planted everywhere. ② 不含普通名词的专有名词,表示泛指的物质名词和抽象名词前,不用冠词。 We are studying English. He is leaving for America this year. It is pleasant to walk in soft snow. Love is always stronger than hatred. ③ 名词前有指示代词、物主代词、不定代词或名词所有格修饰,不用冠词。 I like this picture better. Is that your book? Take their chairs away! I do not have any money on me. As time went on, Einstein’s theory proved to be correct. ④ 季节、月份、星期等名词前,一般不用冠词。 She likes spring while I like summer. We have no classes on Saturday. The Long March started in October 1934. ⑤ 表示只有一人担任的职务、头衔的名词前,不用冠词。 We have elected him our monitor. ⑥ 三餐饭的名词前,一般不用冠词。 When do you have lunch? After supper we usually take a walk. ⑦ 节假日等名词前,不用冠词。 Children all wear their best clothes on National Day. People give gifts to each other on Christmas Day. 注意:在 eve 后有 of 短语则要加定冠词: on the eve of National Day on the eve of New Year’s Day ⑧ 球类和棋类运动的名词前,不用冠词。 play basketball play chess ⑨ 作表语用表示程度的形容词最高级前,不用冠词。 Your help was most timely. This method is most effective. 注意:如果有比较范围,形容词最高级前必须加定冠词: Of all methods, this is the most effective. ⑩ 在某些固定词组里,名词前不用冠词。 on foot by train/ boat / plane? in fact as a matter of fact in class in church in danger in hospital in town in bed at home at school at daybreak at sunrise at dusk at sunset at night at noon go to school go to class go to bed from morning till night from victory to victory from door to door V 注意事项 ① 当 man 作人类讲时,用零冠词。 Man will conquer nature. ② 某些抽象名词具体化时是可数名词,其前可加 a。surprise, fire, joy, He is a success as a teacher. Long Jing is a famous tea in China. ③ a 用于姓氏前表示某个只知道名字而不不熟悉的人。 A Mr Liu is waiting to see you outside. ④ 在某些句型中可加 a It is a pity that you have missed the chance. It is a shame / a pleasure / a honour for sb. to do sth.



⑤ word 作消息讲时,用零冠词。 Word came that he would go abroad.gg 考点八:虚拟语气 对虚拟语气的测试主要涉及以下方面: 1) 主语、表语、同位语、宾语从句中虚拟语气的用法 2) wish , would rather 虚拟语气结构的用法 3) if 条件句中虚拟语气的用法, 应特别注意省略 if 的倒装结构是考试的重点 4) if only 结构中虚拟语气的用法 5) but for , or, otherwise 等含蓄条件句的用法 6) It’s time (that) 等结构中虚拟语气的用法 一、虚拟语气在虚拟条件句中的运用! 条件从句有两类,一是真实条件句,另一是虚拟条件句。如果假设的情况可能发生,是真实 条件句,这种情况下谓语用陈述语气。如: If time permits, we’ll go fishing together.如果时间允许,我们就一起去钓鱼。 如果假设的情况是不存在的或不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如: If you had come yesterday, you would have met that famous professor.如果你昨 天来,你就会见到那位著名的教授了。(隐含的事实是:你昨天没来,也没见到那位著名教 授)。 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气,现将其形式列表如下: 1.虚拟语气现在时,表示与现在事实相反的假设和结果。 条件从句 动词过去式(be 用 were) 主句 Would/should/could/might + 动词原形

If I were you, I should(would ,could, might)tell him the truth. 要是我是你,我就 会告诉他真相了。(事实上我不是你) If she had time, she would(could, might)help me.如果她有时间,她就会帮我了。 (事实上她没有时间) 2. 语气过去式 表示与过去事实相反的假设和结果。 条件从句 Had +过去分词 主句 Would/should/could/might + have+过去分词

If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t(couldn’t) have failed in the exam.如 果你听了我的建议,你就不会考试不及格。(事实上你根本没听我的。) 3. 虚拟语气过去式 表示与将来事实可能相反的假设和结果 条件从句 should+动词原形 were to+ 动 词 原 would(could/should/might)+动词原形 形 主句 Would/should/could/might +动词原形

If it should rain, the crops would(could, might)be saved.假如天下雨,庄稼可能 就收获了。 注:在表示与将来事实可能相反的条件从句中,were to + 动词原形比较正式,常用于书面 语中。如: If you were to go to Beijing, you would (could, might) have a chance to visit Tian An Men Square. ★★条件从句中省去 if 的情况 在 if 引导的表示虚拟的条件状语从句中,常可以省略 if,将 had, were 或 should 提

至句首。如: Had I seen the film, I would have discussed it with them last night. 假 如我看了那部电影,昨晚我就可以和他们一起讨论了。 Were I a bird, I could fly freely. 假如我是一只小鸟,我就能自由翱翔。 Should it rain next week the farmers would have a good harvest. 要是下周能 下雨的话,农民们就能有个好收成了。 4.主从句时间不一致情况下的虚拟语气(混合条件句) 有时条件从句中的动作和结果与主句中的动作,发生的时间不一致,这时动作的形式 应根据它所表示的时间加以调整。如: If you had followed my advice, you would be able to finish the work now.如果 你当时听了我的话,现在就能完成这份工作了。(从句说明过去,主句说明现在。) If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party.如果我是你,我就去参 加她的生日晚会了。(从句说明现在,主句说明过去。) If you hadn’t lent me some money, I couldn’t have bought the new house and most likely I would be still living in the dangerous house now.假若你不借钱给我, 我不可能买下这幢新房, 很可能现在还住在危房里。 (从句说明过去, 主句说明过去和现在。 ) 5.含蓄条件句 非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表出来,只暗含在上下文中,这种句子叫做含蓄条 件句。含蓄条件句大体有三种情况; Eg. W hat would I have done without you? 如没有你,我会怎么办呢?(条件暗含 在分词短语 without you 中) But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment. 如果 没有你的帮助,我们的实验是不会成功。 (暗含条件是 but for your help) He must have the strength of a hippopotamus, or/otherwise he never could have vanquished that great beast. 他一定是力大如河马,否则他绝不会击败那只庞大的野 兽。(暗含条件是连词 or) 二、虚拟语气某些从句中的运用! 1. 虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法。 在“It is important (strange, natural, necessary) that?”这类句型中,that 所引导的主语从句中的谓语动词常用 “(should)+动词原形”结构,表示某事是“重要”, “奇怪”,“自然”,“必要”等意义。如: It is important that every Beijinger (should) be able to speak English. 重要 的是每个北京人能说英语。 It is necessary that he (should) be sent to hospital at once. 有必要马上把他 送医院。 2. 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的用法。 (1) 在动词 wish 后的宾语从句中, 表示与现在或过去的事实相反, 或对将来的主观愿望, 从句通常省略连词 that。 a.表示对现在情况的虚拟: 从句动词用过去式或过去进行式(be 的过去式用 were )表示。 如: I wish I knew the answer to the question. 我希望知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道。) b.表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用 had+过去分词。如:

I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time. 我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。(实 际上已经 浪费掉了。) c.表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为 “would/could/might+动词原形”,此时 要注意,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能否实现, 取决于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动作名词除外)。如: I wish it would stop raining.但愿雨能停止。 I wish you would be quiet.我希望你安静一些。 (2)在 suggest(建议), demand(要求), order(命令), propose(建议), insist(坚持 要做), command(命令), request(要求), desire(希望)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词 用 “(should)+动词原形”,表示建议,要求,命令等。如: I suggest that we (should) start the meeting at once.我建议马上开会。 The undergraduate insisted that he (should) go to work in the south.这位即将 毕业的学生坚持要到南方去工作。 ★★ 当 suggest 表示暗示,主语为 something;insist 表示坚持观点时,后接的宾语从 句当用真实语气。比较: His silence suggested that he agreed with my decision.他的沉默暗示着他赞成我的决 定。 He suggested that I (should) stick to my decision.他建议我坚持自己的决定。 He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people’s health. 他坚 持认为做早操对健康有益。 He insists that he (should) do morning exercises every day.他坚持他每天都要 早操。 3. 虚拟语气在表语从句中的用法。 当主语为 advice, suggestion, order, proposal 等词时后接表语从句,表语从句中 的谓语动词常用“(should)+动词原形”结构,表示某人建议、劝告、命令等的内如: My advice is that you should practise speaking English as often as possible. 我的建议是你尽可能经常地练习说英语。 4.特殊的虚拟语气结构。 (1)虚拟语气用在状语从句中 由 as if 或 as though 引导的状语从句表示比较或方式时,从句中的谓语动词用虚拟 语气。 (用法与 wish 相同) The teacher treats the student as if he were her own child.这位老师带这位学 生就象她的亲生孩子一样。 He speaks as if he had been to the United States.他说得好象他真的到过美国似 的。 (2)在 It is time (that)从句中,谓动词常用动词过去式或 should+动词原形 表示虚拟 语气 (3)I’d rather (that)?句型中从句中虚拟语气, Eg. I would rather you did it now. I would rather you did it tomorrow. I would rather you had done it yesterday. 5. 用在 if only 引起的感叹句中 (用法与 wish 相同)

If only the driver didn’t drive so fast! 6.在由 for fear that, in case, lest 等引导的状语从句中,用 should+动词原形 考点九:情态动词 1.情态动词的基本用法 (1)can、be able to 和 could ①can 和 be able to 都表示能力, 意思上没多大区别。 can 只有现在和过去时, be able 但 而 to 则有更多的形式。但当成功地完成某一具体动作时,通常不用 could 而用 was/were able to 来表示。这时 was/were able to 相当于 managed to,表示经过一番努力,终于能够完 成某事。如: Can you use chopsticks? The wounded man still was able to get to the village and was saved in the end. ②can 和 could can 和 could 都可以表示能力、技能、许可、建议或请求和可能性。但比较委婉客气地提出 问题或陈述看法,一般用 could,回答时则用 can。如: Could you help me carry the bag? Can I help you? (2)may/might ①may/might 表示可能,但 may 比 might 可能性大。 Eg.---Why isn’t he in class? ---- He may be sick.(生病的可能性较大) —--He might be sick.(生病的可能性较小) ②may/might 表示“允许”,may 用于现在时或将来时,might 常用在间接引语中表过去时, 但 might 也可用于现在时间,表示比较委婉的语气,回答用 may。如: He says we may leave. He said we might leave. ③may / might 表示建议或请求,但 might 比 may 更客气,意思更肯定而无过去时态的含 义。 —May / Might I use your bike? —Yes, you can / may. ----No, you mustn’t (3)must ①must 表示必须,应该,没有时态变化。如: You must do everything as I do. ②must 表示肯定的推测。如: The light is still on, so he must be at home. ③mustn’t 表示禁止做某事。如: You mustn’t smoke in the office. (4)have to have to 表示“必须、不得不”,是由于某种外界(客观)原因而“必须”,“不得不”做 某事,也可表示经常的或习惯性的事“必须”做。have to 的否定形式表示不必。have to 可用于多种时态中。如: You will have to clean your own boots when you join the army. I have to be at my office every evening.

(5)should / ought to ①should 和 ought to 表示应当、应该,前者比后者语气轻。如: You should / ought to work hard. ②should / ought to 的否定形式表示禁止之意。如: Children shouldn’t smoke. ③should 可表示陈述意见,推出建议或请求;而 ought to 可以表示劝告之意。如: You ought to respect your parents. He suggested that they should leave at once. ④should 可以用来表示说话者“吃惊”的语气, 常翻译成“竟然”。 You can’t imagine such a well-dressed man should be so rude to a lady. (6)will / would ①will 用于各种人称表示“意志”、“意愿”或“决心”等,否定式 won’t + 动词。如: I will tell you all about it. Tom won’t do such a thing. ②will 用于疑问句中,常用在第二称时表示说话人向对方提出“请求”或“询问”如: Will you please tell her the news when you see her? ③will 表示习惯性的动作,有“总是”、“惯于”的含义。如: Fish will die out of water. ④would 表示客气的请求、建议或意愿。如: Would you please be quiet? Would you like coffee? ⑤would 表示过去反复发生的动作。如: When I passed my school I would see my teachers who taught me 5 years ago. (7)need need 作“必要”讲,既可作情态动词,也可作实义动词。作实义动词时后面的动词不定式 要带 to,其变化与一般动词相同。如: I need to think it over. ---Need you go now? --—Yes, I must./No, I needn’t (8)dare dare 表示“敢”的意思。作为情态动词时,主要用在疑问句和否定句中。dare 若作实义动 词,后面可带 to 的不定式,此时 to 也可以省略。dare 与 need 的用法相似。如: How dare you say that? She doesn’t date(to)ask her father. (9)used to used to 表示过去常常发生的动作或存在的习惯,但现在已不复存在了。如: He used to smoke. (10)shall ①shall 作为情态动词用于第二、三人称,表示说话人的意愿,有“命令”、“警告、威胁、 强制”和“允许”等意思。如: We shall do as our teacher says. You shall have the book as soon as I finish it. ②在疑问句中,shall 用于征求对方的意见或请求指示,常用于第一、第三人称。如: Where shall he wait for us?

Shall we go out for a walk? 2、情态动词表示推测或判断的用法 下表即是表示推测的情态动词使用的场合: 情态动词 对现在和未来的推测 对过去的推测 使 用 场 合 must + 动词原形 must+ have done 肯定句 may / might + 动词原形 May / might+ have done 肯定句、否定句 can /could +do Can / could+have done 否定句、疑问名(could 可用于肯定句) should 用来表示一种估计的情况“按理会/估计会”should do/be should have done 肯定 句、否定句、疑问句 例如: It must have rained last night. She may not be at home. = It is possible that she is not at home. She can’t be at home. = It is impossible that she is at home. They should be there right now. 3、情态动词在虚拟语气中的用法 情态动词用于虚拟语气中表示责备的感情色彩,用法如下: (1)should have done 表示“本来应该做某事而实际上未做”,而 shouldn’t have done 则表示“本不应该做某事而实际上做了”。如: You should have told me about it earlier. You shouldn’t have said such words to your parents. (2)ought to have done 也表示“本应该??”而 ought not to have done 则意为“本 不应该??”。如: You ought to have told me about it earlier. You ought not to have said such words to your parents. (3)needn’t have done 表示“本无必要做某事而实际上做了”。如: You needn’t have walked so quickly since time was enough. (4)could have done 表示“本来有可能??而事实上未做到”。如: I could have come on time, but my car broke on the way. 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. I was really anxious about you. You________home without a word.(NMET 2001) A.mustn’t have B.shouldn’t have left C.couldn’t have left D.needn’t have 解析:答案为 B。本题考查的是情态动词在虚拟语气中的用法。题目给出的条件是“我确实 非常担心你”,因此后面可知应是责备 you 不应该没说一句话就离开了。 2.—Are you coming to Jeff’s party? —I’m not sure. I__________ go to the concert instead.(NMET 2000) A.must B.would C.should D.might 解析:答案为 D。本题考查情态动词的基本用法。由题目中“I’m not sure”,表明我可能 去 Jeff’s party,也可能去音乐会,故用 might。 3. —Will you stay for lunch? —Sorry, ____________. My brother is coming to see me.(NMET 99) A.I mustn’t B.I can’t C.I needn’t D.I won’t 解析:答案为 B。本题考查表示请求的英语口语,用 will 来向第二人称提问的疑问结构,

是表示一种请求和意愿,是用疑问的形式来表达较为婉转的祈使语气,意思是“请你??, 好吗”,对于这种问句的肯定回答是:Suree! Gertainly! Yes, of course. I’d be glad to 等;否定回答通常是:I’m sorry, I can’t. No, I’m afraid I can’t. I’m sorry, but ? I’d like to, but ?等。注意情态动词表客气的用法及其在一般疑问句中的问与 答。 考点十:倒装句 1. 完全倒装 表示方式或方位的副词或介词短语置于句首 eg. In the dark forest _______, some large enough to hold several English towns. A. stand many lakes B. lie many lakes C. many lakes lie D. many lakes stand Key: B 2. 部分倒装 a. only 修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句,且放于句首时 eg. Only then ______ how much damage had been caused. A. she realized B. she had realized C. had she realized D. did she realized Key: D b. 否定副词 never,nor,not,hardly,little,seldom,rarely 等置于句首时 eg. Little _____ that we were watching his every move, so he seemed to be going his own way in this business. A. he realized B. he didn’t realize C. didn’t he realize D. did he realize Key: D c. 几个重要句型 So + be/情态/助 动词 + 主语 Neither + be/情态/助动词 + 主语 So + adj/adv ? + that ? Neither ?, nor ? Not only ?, but also ? Not until ? eg. If Joe’s wife won’t go to the party, ___________. A. he will either B. neither will he C. he neither will D. either he will Key: B 3. 形式倒装 as 引导让步状语从句,必须把所强调的信息放在句首 eg. _______, his idea was accepted by all the people at the meeting. A. Strange as might it sound B. As it might sound strange C. As strange it might sound D. Strange as it might sound Key: D 考点十一:强调句 1.强调句型 It is/was + 被强调部分 + that + 句子其他成分

a. 强调句变为一般疑问句或特殊疑问句 b. not?until 的强调句型 eg. It ______ we had stayed together for a couple of days _____ I found we had a lot in common. A. was until; when B. was until; that C. wasn’t unitl; when D. wasn’t until; that Key: D c. 强调句中含有定语从句或其他从句 eg. It is not who is right but what is right ______ is of importance. A. which B. it C. that D. this

Key: C d. 强调句中强调时间装状语和 It is +时间+ when 定语从句等句式的区分 2. 谓语动词的强调 强调谓语用 do/does/did 。 考点十二:省略句 1. 不定式的省略 a. 省略动词不定式后的动词,保留 to。常在 expect, forget, intend, like, love, mean, prefer, seem, try, want 等后面 b. 在 have, need, ought, be going , used 等的后面 c. 否定形式的省略用 not to d. 如果不定式中含有 be, have, have been, 通常保留 be, have, have been 2. 状语从句中的省略 a. 当状语从句的主语和主句的主语一致时,可以省略状语从句中的主语和 be b. 当从句的主语是 it,谓语动词中含有 be 时,可以省略 it 和 be c. 用 so 和 not 代替上文内容 考点十三:介 词 介词是表示它后面的名词、代词、短语、从句等与句子其他成分的关系的词。在句子中 它不能单独使用,只能由名词、代词、数词、动名词等构成的介词短语作句子的成分。介词 分为简单介词、复合介词、双重介词、短语介词和分词介词五种类型。高考介词主要考查点 如下: 1、常见介词的用法。 2、介词的固定搭配: 1)介词与其后的名词或代词构成介词短语,在句中作状语、宾语、表语、宾补语后置定 语。 2)介词与其前面的动词或形容词构成动词词组,后面要有宾语。这时的词组相当于一个 及物动词。 3、最常见表示时间、地点与方式介词的用法。 4、某些意思比较相近的介词用法辨析。 5、同一介词可表达多种意义,同一场合意义不同则介词不同;; 6、复合介词及双重介词的使用 解题策略: ● 牢记固定的介词词组

●正确把握重要介词的用法 ● 辨析意义相近的介词 【要点点拨】 复习时要把握三点: A. 要注意理解情景意义:同一介词可表达多种意义,同一场合意义不同则介词不同。 He hasn’t come for a month. (for 持续时间) The day is warm for April .(for 就??而言) B. 要突破几个关键介词 in , on , at , with , by , from , of , to , for . 1 . 表示时间的:at; in ; on , since , from , to , after , within , during , throughout , towards , over , by , till ; 2 . 表示穿越的:through , across , over 3.表示地理位置的:in ; on; to ; 4. 表示原因、目的的:for ;with ; from ; 5. 表示关于的:about , concerning , regarding , with regard to , as for ,as to ; 6. 表示根据:on ; according to ; 7. in the corner ;on the corner , at the corner 的区别 8.between 和 among 9.besides ;except ; but ;except for 10.in 和 with C. 要注意介词搭配,集中归纳,反复练习。 1. 固定与 to 构成搭配的名词:key , answer , visit , apology , introduction ,note , etc. 2. 与 on 有关的:mercy , congratulations 3. 与 at 有关的:angry , good , bad , clever , terrified , surprised ; 4. 与 of 有关的:afraid , sure , full , tired , fond , proud , worthy , certain ; 5. 与 with 有关的:angry , strict , careful , busy , poplar ; 6. 与 to 有关的: next, good , polite , kind , cruel , rude , known , anxious , married , close , near , similar, due ; 7. 与 for 有关的:sorry , good , free , fit , unfit , eager, anxious , hungry ; 8. 与 from 有关的:far , different , free, safe , absent , tired . 几组介词的区别: 一、 表示地点时 at, in, on 的区别 ★ at 表示在较小的地方(村庄, 小城镇,门牌); 在某物旁(不确定的地方) ★ in 表示在较大的地方(国家,城市); 在某物范围内.(地点的排列顺序是由小到 大). ★ on 表示在某物上(表面接触); road 前用 on, street 前用 in/on; 楼层用 on; farm 前用 on, field 前用 in. 二、 表示时间时 at, in, on 的区别 ★ at 表示时间点(在几点,中午;午夜;夜里;某日期或一段时间的开头或结尾)(at sunrise; at the weekend; at Christmas) ★ on 表示在特定的某一天或某天的上午,下午,晚上等 ★ in 表示一段时间.后接月,年,季等表一段时间的名词. 三、 表持续时间的 since, for, in, after 的区别 ★ since 接过去的某时间点, 常用于完成时. ★ for 接一段具体的时间, 常用于完成时. ★ in + 一段时间与非延续性动词连用,表一段时间以后,多用于将来时; 与延续性动 词连用,表一段时间内,时态不限. ★ after + 一段时间,常用于过去时. 四、 表方位的介词 in, on, to, off 的区别

★ in 表示在境内. ★ on 表示相邻或在边界上, 不在境内. ★ to 表示在境外, 不接壤. ★ off 表示在海面上靠近海岸的地方. 五、 表示运动方向或目的的介词 ★ across 表示穿过物体表面,或横过. ★ through 表示在某一空间通过,或纵向穿过. ★ along 表示沿着一条线平行. ★ up 表示向上,由南到北,由东到西,由沿海到内陆,由小地方到大地方,由农村到城市. 反之则用 down. ★ to 表示动作的目的地; towards 指朝向,无到达的意思; for 表示前往的目的,连用 的动词有 leave, start off, set out, head, sail 等. 六、 表示除---- 之外的介词 ★ besides 表示包含, 除 --- 之外还有--★ except 表示排除, 除 ---- 之外 ★ but 表示排除, 多与 nobody, none, no one, nothing, anything, everyone, all, who 等连用. ★ except for 表示除去整体中的部分, “只是, 只不过” 七、 介词 among 和 between 的区别 ★ among 表示三个或以上的人或物之间,后接复数名词或集体名词. ★ between 用于两者之间, 或三个以上的两两之间(具体的名词已经列出) 八、 表示价格,比率,标准,速度的介词 ★ at 表示价值,价格, 比率或速度, 表单价. ★ for 表示交换, 指总价钱 ★ by 表示度量单位或标准. 后接表计量单位的名词一般是单数,前面需加定冠词 the. 数词或复数名词前不加. 九、介词 with 后面加上 doing/done/adj./prep/prep-phrase 的复合结构作定语或状语。 考点十四:形容词和副词 ·高考形容词考查项目 1)形容词作定语、表语和宾语补足语的用法; 2)比较等级:原级、比较级、最高级。 副词考查项目 1)时间、地点、方式、程度、疑问、连接、关系等副词的用法; 2)比较等级:原级、比较级、最高级。 ·解题策略: 高考题中多次出现对形容词、副词考点的考查,而侧重语境考查的题目占较大比重。答 此类题目时不仅仅要理解形容词和副词的词义,而且对语境的正确理解更为重要。 ·知识盘点 * 形容词及其用法 1.形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常,可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙 述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。 1)直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副 词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。

2)叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不 可用程度副词修饰。大多数以 a 开头的形容词都属于这一类。 这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep, awake 等。 3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing 为字 尾的词语时,要放在这些词之后。例如:something nice. 2. 以-ly 结尾的形容词 1) 大部分形容词加-ly 可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely, lively,ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。 2) 有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词, 也为副词, daily, 如 weekly, monthly, yearly, early 等。 3. 用形容词表示类别和整体 1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接,如 the dead, the living,the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry 等。 2) 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用,如 the British,the English,the French,the Chinese 等。 4. 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序 多个形容词修饰名词时,限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大 小、长短、高低等形体+新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词,如 those + three + beautiful + large + square +old + brown + wood + table。 下面的口诀可帮你记住这一先后顺序,也是解题的关键。 限定描绘大长高, 形状年龄和新老; 颜色国籍跟材料, 作用类别往后靠; 其中,“限定词”包括:冠词、物主代词、指示代词、或数词,它位于各类形容词前。 它本身分为三位,即:前、中、后。前位限定词有 all、half、both、分数和倍数;中位 限定词有冠词、指示代词、物主代词等;后位限定词有基数词和序数词,但序数词位于基 数词前。如:both my hands、all half his income 等。“描绘”性形容词如:beautiful、 bad、cold、great 等。“大长高”表示大小、长短、高低等一些词。表示“形状”的词如: round square 等。 “国籍” 指一个国家或地区的词。 “材料” 的词如: wooden, woolen, stone, silk 等。“作用类别”的词如:medical, college,writing desk,police car 等。 还有一句最简单的口诀更容易记记:限观形龄色国材 * 副词及其基本用法 副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。 一、副词的位置 1) 在动词之前。 2) 在 be 动词、助动词之后。 3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。 注意: a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。 b. 方式副词 well,badly,hard 等只放在句尾。 二、副词的排列顺序: 1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。

2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用 and 或 but 等连词连接。 3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。 注意:副词 very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。 注意:副词 enough 要放在形容词的后面,形容词 enough 放在名词前后都可。 三、兼有两种形式的副词 1) close 与 closely close 意思是"近";closely 意思是"仔细地"。 2) late 与 lately late 意思是"晚";lately 意思是"最近"。 3) deep 与 deeply deep 意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply 时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"。 4) high 与 highly high 表示空间高度;highly 表示程度,相当于 much。 5) wide 与 widely wide 表示空间宽度;widely 意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"。 6) free 与 freely free 的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"。 * 形容词与副词的比较级 大多数形容词 (性质形容词) 和副词有比较级和最高级的变化, 即原级、 比较级和最高级, 用来表示事物的等级差别。 原级即形容词的原形, 比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化 两种。 1) 规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est 来构成比较级和最高级。 构成法 一般单音节词末尾加 -er,-est 以不发音的 e 结尾的单 音词和少数以- le 结尾的双 音节词只加-r,-st 以一个辅音字母结尾的 闭音节单音节词,双写结尾 的辅音字母,再加-er,-est "以辅音字母+y"结尾的 双音节词, y 为 i, 改 再加-er, -est 少数以-er,-ow 结尾的 双音节词未尾加-er,-est 其他双音节词和多音节 词,在前面加 more,most 来 构成比较级和最高级 2) 不规则变化 原级 good well(健康的) 比较级 better worse 最高级 best worst row important/ easily 原级 tall nice 比较级 taller nicer 最高级 tallest nicest

big

bigger

biggest

busy

busier

busiest

clever/nar

cleverer/ narrower more important/ more easily

cleverest/ narrowest most important/ easily most

bad ill(有病的) old much/many little far older/elder more less farther/further oldest/eldest most least farthest/furthest

* 一些固定结构的用法 1.as + 形容词或副词原级 + as 1)在否定句或疑问句中可用 so? as。 2)当 as? as 中间有名词时采用以下格式:as +形容词+ a +单数名词/ as + many/much +名词。 注意: too 和 so 也可以构成 too+形容词+ a +单数名词 结构 3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在 as 的前面。 4)倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ the ? + of。例如: This bridge is three times as long as that one. 这座桥的长度是那座的三倍。 This bridge is three times the length of that one. Your room is twice as large as mine. 你的房间是我的两倍大。 Your room is twice the size of mine. 2.比较级形容词或副词 + than 。 注意: 1)要避免重复使用比较级。 2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。 3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。 4)要注意定冠词在比较级中的使用。 3. 可修饰比较级的词 1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even 等。 2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。 3)以上词(除 by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。 4. many, old 和 far 1) 如果后接名词时,much more +不可数名词,many more +可数名词复数。 2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和 elder/eldest。elder,eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。 3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further。一般 father 表示距离,further 表示进 一步。 5. the + 最高级 + 比较范围 1)形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。 形容词 most 前面没有 the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。 注意:使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。 2) 在比较级前可以使用 much,(a)little, a lot, far, even, still, any, a great deal, rather 等副词表示比较的程度,many,(a)few 只能用在表示数量比较的 more 前。 另外,在 too, very, quite, so, rather 等后应用原级。例如: 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost。

注意: a. very 可修饰最高级,但位置与 much 不同。 b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。 3) 最高级的意义有时可以用比较级表示出来。 4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so? as"结构也可以表示最高级含义。 6. 和 more 有关的词组, 1) the more?the more? 越??就越??。 2) more B than A=less A than B 与其说 A 不如说 B。 3) no more? than? 与??一样??,不比??多。 no less? than? 与??一样??。 4) more than 不只是,非常。 7..the+形容词/副词比较级+of the two “两个中更??的那一个” 。 8.最高级后表示比较范围的介词使用。例如: Han Meimei is the youngest ______ all the students. A. in B. than C. of D. over 在最高级后通常会用一个 in 或 of 引导的介词短语来表示比较的范围。in 表示在一定 场所、范围内进行比较,of 则表示与同类对象进行比较,故该题选 C。 考点十五:动词时态语态考点盘点 1、动词时态考查要点简述 (1)一般现在时考点分析 ①表示客观事实或普通真理(不受时态限制) The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun. Water boils at 100oC. ②表示现状、性质、状态时多用系动词或状态动词;表示经常或习惯性的动作,多用动作动 词,且常与表频率的时间状语连用。 Ice feels cold. We always care for each other and help each other. ③表示知觉、态度、感情、某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时:see、hear、smell、 taste、feel、notice、agree、believe、like、hate、want、think、belong seem 等。如: I know what you mean. Smith owns a car and a house. All the students here belong to No.1 Middle School. ④在时间、条件状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。但要注意由 if 引导的条件状语从 句中可以用 shall 或 will 表“意愿”,但不表示时态。 If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased. 如果你愿意接受并参加我们的舞会,我的家人会非常高兴。 ⑤少数用于表示起止的动词如 come、go、leave、arrive、fly、return、start、begin、 pen、close、end、stop 等常用一般现在时代替将来时,表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发 生的动作。当 be 表示根据时间或事先安排,肯定会出现的状态,只用一般现在时。 The shop closes at 11:00 p.m. every day. Tomorrow is Wednesday. (2)一般过去时的考点分析(考核重点)。 ①一般过去时的基本用法: 表示过去的事情、 动作或状态常与表示过去具体的时间状语连用 (或有上下文语境暗示);用于表达过去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到或希望的

事通常用过去式。如: I met her in the street yesterday. I once saw the famous star here. They never drank wine. I thought the film would be interesting,but it isn’t. ②如果从句中有一个过去的时间状语, 尽管从句中的动作先于主句发生, 但从句中的谓语动 词连用过去式。如: He told me he read an interesting novel last night. ③表示两个紧接着发生的动作,常由以下词语连接,用一般过去时。如:but, and, when, as soon as, immediately, the moment, the minute。 The moment she came in, she told me what had happened to her. He bought a watch but lost it. ④常用一般过去时的句型: Why didn’t you / I think of that? I didn’t notice it. I forgot to tell you I had been there with my brother before. I didn’t recognize him. (3)一般将来时考点分析。 ①表示未来的动作或状态常用 will / shall + 动词(常与表示将来的时间状语边用如 tomorrow、next week 等)。 ②表示一种趋向或习惯动作。 We’ll die without air or water. ③表示趋向行为的动词如 come、go、start、begin、leave 等词常用进行时的形式表示将来 时。 ④be going to 与 will / shall, be to do, be about to do 用法及区别: be going to 表示现在打算在最近或将来要做某事,这种打算往往经过事先考虑,甚至已做 了某种准备;shall / will do 表示未事先考虑过,即说话时临时作出的决定。 be going to 表将来,不能用在条件状语从句的主句中;而 will 则能,表意愿。如: If it is fine, we’ll go fishing.(正确) If it is fine, we are going to go fishing.(错误) be to do sth.表按计划、安排即将发生的动作,还可表示吩咐、命令、禁止,可能性等。 A meeting is to be held at 3:00 o’clock this afternoon. be about to do sth.表示“即可,就要”,后面不能接时间状语或状语从句。 Autumn harvest is about to start. (4)现在进行时考点分析。 ①表示说话时正在发生着的一个动作; 表示现阶段但不一定是发生在讲话时; 表近期特定的 安排或计划;go、come 等起止动作可用进行时代替将来时。如: It is raining now. He is teaching English and learning Chinese. I am meeting Mr. Wang tonight. We are leaving on Friday. At six I am bathing the baby.(I start bathing the bady before six.) The girl is always talking loud in public.(与 always、often 等频度副词连用,表经 常反复的行动或某种感情色彩)

②下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时。(A)表示心理状态、情感的动作:like, love, hate, care, remember, believe, want, mind, wish, agree, mean, need。(B)表存在的状态 的动词:appear, exist, lie, remain, seem belong to, depend on。(C)表示一时性动 作的动词:allow, accept, permit, promise, admit, complete。(D)表示感官的动词: see, hear, notice, feel, smell, sound, taste, look。 (5)过去完成时考点分析(考核重点)。 ①常用过去完成时的几种情况:(A)在 by、by the end、by the time、until、before、 since 后接表示过去某一时间的短语或从句以前发生的动作。如:By the end of last year, we had produced 20,000 cars. The train had left before we reached the station. (B) 表示曾实现的希望、打算、意图、诺言等。常用 had hoped / planned / meant / intended/ though / wanted / expected 等或用上述动词过去式接不定式完成式表示即:hoped / planned ? + to have done。(C)“时间名词 + before”在句子中作状语,谓语动词用 过去完成时;“时间名词 + ago”在句中作状语,谓语动词用一般过去式。如:He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago. (D)表示“一??就”的几个句型:Hardly / No sooner / Scarcely had + 主语 + 过去 分词 + when / than / before + 一般过去时。如:We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. = No sooner had we been seated than the bus started. ②在 before 或 after 引导的时间状语从句中用一般过去时态代替过去完成时。 After he (had)left the room, the boss came in. We arrived home before it snowed. (6)过去将来时考点分析。 参照一般将来时对比:用 would do、was / were going to do sth.表过去将来;come、go、 leave 等过去进行时表过去将来时;was / were to do sth.和 was / were about to do sth. 表过去将来。 (7)过去进行时考点分析。 ①过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或某一阶段内发生或频繁发生。 ②某一动作发生时另一动作正在发生, 其中一个在由 when 或 while 引导的时间状语从句中。 (8)现在完成时考点分析。 ①现在完成时除可以和 for、since 引导的状语连用外,还可以和下面的介词短语连用: during / in /over the last(past)few years (months, weeks)、in recent years 等。 ②下列句型中常用现在完成时 It is (has been) + 一段时间 + since 从句 This(That / It)is the first(second?)time that + 完成时 This(That / It)is the only ? + that + 完成时 This(that / It)is the best / finest / most interesting ? + that 从句 + 完成时 ③在时间或条件状语从句中,现在完成时可以代替一般将来时。如: I shall post the letter as soon as I have written it. If you have done the experiment, you will realize the theory better. Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped. (9)注意几组时态的区别: ①一般过去时与现在完成时:时间上有差异:凡有过去时间的均用过去时态,不能用完成时 态,如含有 ago、last year、just now、the other day 等。 结果上有差异:现在完成时强调的是对“现在”的影响和结果,动作到现在刚完成或还在继 续;一般过去时强调的是动作发生在“过去”,和现在毫无关系。

②过去完成时与一般过去时:过去完成时强调的是“过去的过去”;如出现同一主语连续几 个动作(“连谓”)形式则只用一般过去时即可。 2、被动语态考查要点简述 被动语态的构成方式:be + 过去分词,口语只也有用 get / become + 过去分词表示。被 动语态的基本用法: 不知道或没必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态。 强调或突出动作 的承受者常用被动语态(by 短语有时可以省略)。 (1)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。 ①主动变化被动时双宾语的变化。看下列例句。 My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday. An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday. I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday. ②主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变);(作补语的)不定式前需加 to。 The boss made him work all day long. He was made to work all day long(by the boss) ③短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴”。 The children were taken good care of (by her). Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to. ④情态动词和 be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better 等结构 变被动语态,只需将它们后面的动词原形变为 be +过去分词。 ⑤当句子的谓语为 say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report 等时, 被动语态有两种形式:(A)谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。(B)用 it 作形式 主语,真正的主语在后面用主语在后面用主语从句来表示。如: People say he is a smart boy. It is said that he is a smart boy. He is said to be a smart boy. People know paper was made in China first. It is known that paper was made in China first. Paper was known to be made in China first. 类似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that ? (2)不能用被动语态的几种情况。 ①所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中。 ②表示状态的谓语动词,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、 last、look like、consist to 等。 ③表示归属的动词,如 have、own、belong to 等。 ④表示“希望、意图”的动词,如:wish、want、hope、like、love、hate 等。 ⑤宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。 ⑥宾语是同源宾语,不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。 ⑦有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义, 特别是当主语是物时, 常见的动词有 sell、 write、 wash、open、lock 等。 (3)主动形式表被动意义。 ①当 feel、look、smell、taste、sound 等后面接形容词时;当 cut、read、sell、wear、 write 等词带状语修饰语时;当动词表示“开始、结束、关、停、转、启动”等意义时。 This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗。 These novels won’t sell well.这些小说不畅销。

My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅。 The door won’t lock.门锁不上。 The fish smells good.鱼闻起来香。 ②当 break out、take place、shut off、turn off、work out 等动词表示“发生、关闭、 制定”等意思时。 The plan worked out successfully. The lamps on the wall turn off. ③want, require, need 后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。 ④be worth doing 用主动形式表示被动含义。 ⑤在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。 This kind of water isn’t fit to drink. The girl isn’t easy to get along with. 另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。 (4)被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。 ①be seated 坐着 He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上。 ②be hidden 躲藏 He was hidden behind the door.(He hid himself behind the door.)他藏在门后。 ③be lost 迷路 ④be drunk 喝醉 ⑤be dressed 穿着 The girl was dressed in a red short skirt. (5)被动语态与系表结构的区别 被动语态强调动作;系表结构表主语的特点或状态。如: The book was sold by a certain bookstore.(被动语态) The book is well sold.(系表结构) 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. Visitors ________not to touch the exhibits.(NMET 2001) A.will request B.are requested C.are requesting D.request 解析:答案为 B。此题的时态是不难判断的,因为说的是一条规定,所以用一般现在时,而 visitor 与 request 之间是动宾关系,即 request visitors not to touch the exhibits, 究竟是谁要求他们这样做呢?不清楚,也不必知道,因此需要用被动语态。分析 visitors 与 request 之间的关系是此题的解题关键。 2. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology __________ so rapidly.(NMET 2001) A.is changing B.has changed C.will have changed D.will change 解析:答案为 A。此题考查现在进行时态的用法。句意为“选择一部移动电话不是一件容易 的事,因为科技发展得十分迅速。”本句的主句一般现在时表达的是目前的情况,而“科技 发展迅速”也是现阶段正存在的一种状态,不是在过去,也不是在将来,因此只能用现在进 行时表达。 3. All the preparations for the task ___________, and we’re ready to start.(2000

年春季高考) A.completed B.complete C.had been completed D.have been completed 解析: 答案为 D。 现在完成时表示过去年做的事对现在的影响。 and we’ ready to start 从 re 句意可知,一切准备工作已经就绪,可以开始工作了。complete 是及物动词,与句子的主 语是被动关系,所以需要用被动语态表达。注意①分清 complete 与主语之间的关系;②结 合语境选择正确时态。 考点十六:动词短语考点盘点 1.break vt. A. 打破、打碎、打断 Who broke the window into pieces? He fell and broke his leg. Try not to break the silence. B.违反 He often breaks his promise/his word/ the law/ the rule. C.习语 break away 突然离开 break away from sb.脱离、离开、背弃 break down 中断、粉碎、发生故障、(身体)跨了、(机器)坏了 break forth 迸发、爆发、发泄 break in 闯进、打断 break in on sb.打断某人的谈话 break into?闯入、侵占 break?into pieces 打碎 break off 折断、突然中断 break?open 撬开 break out 爆发 break through?突破 break?up 开垦、破碎、解散、分解 break with sb.与某人断交 break sb's heart 使某人心碎 2.bring A. vt. 带来、拿来(由远而近) Bring me the paper, please. He forgot to bring his umbrella. May I bring her to see you? Shall I bring the books upstairs? After we were seated, she brought out dishes. B.习语 bring?about 造成、导致 bring? down 打落(飞机、禽鸟等)、降低(物价、温度等) bring? forward 提出 bring?in 引进、介绍、收获 bring?into being 实现、使产生 bring?into effect/practice 实行、贯彻 bring?out 出版、发表

bring?to an end/ a stop/ a close 使终止、结束 bring? to mind 使想起、回忆起 bring?together 集合;召集 bring?up 养育、呕吐 bring?to victory 使走向胜利 bring?to safety 带到安全地带 3.catch A. vt. 抓住、逮住、挂住 He caught my hand and held it tightly. We caught ten monkeys in all. The nail caught my coat. 但是 vi. 挂住 His coat caught on a nail. The kite caught in a tree. B.赶上、搭上 We'll hurry and catch the 10:30 bus. C.听懂 Pease repeat it. I didn't quite catch you. Do you catch my meaning? D.染上 He caught a bad flu. E.(出其不意地)撞上、碰上 She caught him smoking. Some boys were caught stealing flowers from the garden. F. 给撞上、碰上 The ship was caught in a hurricane. One night we were caught in a thunderstorm. Hurry up and don't get caught in a storm. G.习语 catch at sth. 想抓住、设法抓住 catch sb. by surprise 出其不意抓住 catch/get/seize/take hold of?(突然)抓住、抓牢 catch sb's attention/eye 吸引某人注意 catch sight of?看到、发现 catch the point of?抓住?的要点 catch up 赶上 catch up with?赶上? 补上 COME 4.Do A. aux. v. (1) 帮助构成一般过去时或一般现在时的疑问或否定式 They do not believe it. When id they arrive there? (2) 用在肯定句和祈使句中加强语气 I do miss you, Mum. She does sing well. Do be on time. So she did come after all. (3) 用来表示前边提到的动作(以免重复) ---May I come round in the evening? ---Yes, please do. I knew he would help us, and he did. (4) 用于某些倒装句中

Only then did I realize he had been wrong. Never did he know anything about it. B. 做 vt. Can I do anything for you? We often do our homework together. The glass is broken. who did it? We did some reading last night. She did most of the talking. C. vi. (1) 表示生活、学习等情况 How do you do? They did very well in English but badly in maths. How did you do in the exam? How are you doing? (2) 行了、够了、可以 Talking with your mouth full won't do. On e piece of bread will do. (3) 做、办 Do as you are told to. When in Rome, do as the Romans do. Let her do as she likes. D.习语 do?with?处理 What have you done with my bike? can do with?将就用 I can do with the old bed. do something about?对?采取措施 do sb. a favor=do a favor for sb.帮某人个忙 do away with?废除、破除、去掉 do sb. good/harm/wrong= do good/harm/wrong to sb. 对某人有益/有害/冤枉某人 do one's best/ bit/part=do everything/all/what one can 尽力 do ?up 包扎、扣(纽扣) do without?没有?也行、不需要 have something to do with?与?有关 do right/wrong 做得对/做错了 come A. vi.来 She is coming in no time. Here comes the soup. He came running all the way. 逐渐 He has come to love the stories by William Shakespeare. He has come to realize the importance of good English. B. link v. His dream finally came true. C.习语 come about 发生

come across?偶遇;偶尔发现 come along 一道来;一起去;进步;赶快 come at?袭击 come by? 获得 How did you come by these pictures? come away 脱离;折断 come back 回来;复员;恢复 come down 倒下;跌落;传下来 come down with?患(病) come (in) first/second 得第一/二 come forth 出来;涌现 come forward 前进;自告奋勇;涌现 come from? 出身于;来自 come in/ into sight 出现;被看见 come into being/ existence 发生;产生;出现 come into effect/ force 开始生效;开始实施 come into power/ office 上台;掌握政权 come into use 开始使用 come off 脱落;发生 come on(风雨等)到来;演出;赶快 come out 长出来;出版 come out against? 起来反对 come out with? 讲出;泄露(秘密等) come to= come to oneslef 苏醒过来 come to ?总计;谈到 His earnings comes to $182,000 a year. When it comes to football, everyone likes David Beckham. come a conclusion 得出结论;告一段落 come to a sto/ an end 停止 come to nothing 毫无结果;失败 come to the point 说到要点;抓住关键 come up 走近;长出;流行 come upon?碰见 5.feel 感觉、觉得 A. (1) vt Do you feel any pain when I press here? Facing this situation, they felt both joy and fear. (2) link v. I don't feel very well today. The busier he is, the happier he feels. The desk feels smooth. (3) vt. 接复合宾语 I felt someone go upstairs. I felt a great weight taken off my mind after the exam. She felt their eyes watching her when she came to the stage.

She felt herself (to be) right. I felt it my duty to help you. He felt it necessary to talk about his own shortcomings. (4) vt. 宾语从句 He felt strongly that we should take some action about the bad practice. B. vt. 摸 He felt the pot and it felt very hot. C.习语 feel like doing sth.想要 feel one's way 摸索前进 feel sb's pulse 切脉 feel as if/ as though 感觉似乎 She felt as if she were a member of the family. feel quite oneself 觉得身体很好 6.find A. vt. (1) 发现 I found a wallet on the street corner yesterday. He found her in danger.=He found that she was in danger. I found him (to be) a tough guy.=I found that he was a tough guy. This method was found to be practical.=It was found that the method was practical. I find it interesting to read these stories.= I find that it is interesting to =read these stories. I found a dog killed in the park.= I found that a dog had been killed in the park. I found a man breaking into a warehouse.= I found that a man was breaking into a warehouse. (2) 找到 Have you found the book you have been looking for? B.习语 find?out 查清楚;弄明白;了解;打听 find one's way to sp.设法赶到;进入 They found their way to the front of the crowd. The news found its way to a lot of people. find fault with sb. 对某人吹毛求疵;挑剔 find oneself?发现自己?、不自觉地? They found themselves in a difficult situation. Then I found myself surrounded by some boys. He found himself walking in the direction to the park.他发现自己不知不觉地在往公 园的方向走。 7.get A. vt.得到、弄来 Where did you get these good ideas? Let me go get the doctor. Will you get me a ticket?=Will you get a ticket for me? He got a poor wage. Let's get something to eat. B.习语 get about(消息)传开

A rumor(谣传) got around that Fu Biao was ill in hospital. get?across 讲清楚;渡过 I wonder how to get my new ideas across. get ahead of?领先 get along 进展、过活、相处 get away 逃掉 get away from?避免、摆脱、离开 get back 回来 get?back 收回、找回 get behind 落后 get ?down 记下来 get down to (business/ work/ studies)认真做 get to know/ realize/love/like 逐渐地了解/爱上 get in 进来 get?in 收进来、请来 get off 起飞、下车、出发 get?off 脱下 get on?上车/船/飞机等;继续进行;相处 get?out 拔出、洗掉、出版 get out 传出 News got out that you were leaving. get over?克服、摆脱 get rid of?消灭、摆脱、除掉 get round?绕过、回避 get somewhere 有结果/成就 get through?做完、结束;看完、用完 get together 聚会、联欢 get up 起床、举办 The students are going to get up a concert on May Day. have got=have 有 have got to=have to 不得不 8.give vt. 给 Who is going to give the talk? He was given a good beating last night. 习语 give?away 泄露、送掉、分配 give?back 归还、报复 give...forth 发出;发表 give in 屈服、让步 give?in 交上 give in to sb./ sth.屈服于;对?让步 give?off 放出、发出(光、热、气味等) give oneself up to doing sth. 献身于、专心于 give up 放弃、投降 give?up 停止、戒掉 give way to sb.让步;让位于 As winter gave way to spring, days were getting longer. given that 假定;已知 give sb. a hand 帮某人忙 give rise to 导致 9.go

A. vi. 走 He has gone back home a newspaper. Pride goes before a fall. B. link v. He went hungry for a week. His face went pale when he heard the news. This guy went wild/ crazy/ mad after the loss of his wife. Don't ever eat the bread. It has gone bad. C.习语 go after?设法得到;追求 go along 向前发展 We'll learn as we go along. go back on one's word/ promise 失信 go back to?追溯到 This custom goes back to Roman times. go beyond?超过 go down 下落;减弱 go up 增长;提高 go into?研究;从事 go off 爆炸;(电、水等)停掉 go ahead 继续进行;去做吧 go all out 全力以赴 go and do sth.= go to do sth. go down on one's knees 跪下 go in for 喜爱;从事 go on 发生;持续 go on to do sth.接着做(另一件事情) go on doing sth.继续做(同一件事情) go on with sth. .继续做(同一件事情,可以有间隔) go out 熄灭;过时 go over sth.浏览;复习;审阅 go through?经历;检查; go shopping/ fishing/ skiing/ skating/ begging/ boating/ swimming/ fox hunting/ sightseeing/ mountain climbing go from bad to worse 每况愈下 go from door to door be gone 丢了;走了;一去不复返 Gone are the days when we studied together happily. have a go 试一下 go out of one's way to do sth. 不辞辛劳去做??. go to hell 见鬼去吧 go to sleep 睡着 go through with?.把??.进行到底 go well with?与??相配/协调 go without?不吃/用??过日子 Sometimes they went for days without washing their faces. 10.have 句型 1 have sb./ sth. do sth. Let's have them stand facing the wall. 句型 2 have sb./ sth. doing We had the fire burning all night.

I won't have you talking to your dad like that! 句型 3 have sb./ sth. done I will have my radio fixed. He had his wallet stolen. 句型 4 have sth. to do I have a letter to write. 句型 5 have to do sth. I have to get up early every day. 习语 与动词同行的名词连用,表示动作:have a talk with? have a look/ glance/ glimpse at have a meeting/ discussion/ operation/ haircut have an English lesson have a swim/ wash/ rest/ try/ smoke/ taste/ dream/ walk have a cold/ cough/ headache/ pain have lunch/ some beer have a good/pleasant/ tough/ bad/ hard/ difficult terrible time They had a hard time solving the problem. have fun have a word/a few words with sb. have words with sb. have something/ nothing/ a lot to do with? have sth. on had better (not) do sth. have something with sb.随身携带 have a baby have a test/ talk/ speech/ lecture/ chat have had enough of 厌倦 have sth. back 要回 have one's own way 按照自己的意思办;我行我素 have sth. to oneself 完全由自己使用 You can have the house entirely to yourself. 11.hold A. vt.拿着;握着 Holding my hand, he tried to calmed me down. Hold the line, please. 容纳 How much water can the tank hold? 拥有;占有 He held the position for years. 举行 Chinese film weeks will be held in other places. B.习语 hold?back 阻碍;忍住;保留 hold?down 控制; 镇压 hold?forth 提出; hold?in memory 记住 hold on 坚持下去;(电话)别挂 hold on to?抓住不放 hold out 坚持到底;维持;伸出 We must hold out, and the enemy will give up. They were ready to hold out a friendly hand. hold to sth.紧紧抓住;坚持(路线、道路、看法等) hold?together 合在(一起);团结(在一起)

hold?up 举起;耽搁;耽误 The storm held us up, so we were late for the meeting. Their wages were help up or reduced for no reason. 12.keep A. vt. (1)保留 I'll keep a seat for you. (2)养活;饲养 He has a large family to keep. He keeps some chicken. (3)使??处在??状态 Sorry to have kept you waiting. Let's keep the door open but keep the windows closed. You must keep us well informed Mr. Xue always keeps us busy. Close the door to keep the cold out. Let's keep the room in order. B. link v. 保持 We must keep fit.=We must keep in good health. Keep calm in time of danger. C.习语 keep a record of 登记;记录 keep a secret 保密 keep watch 注意;提防 keep one's promise/word 履行诺言 keep the law/rule 遵守法律/法规 keep?apart 使分离 keep away 不接近;避开 keep?back 扣下;阻止;留下;忍住(眼泪等) keep birthday/ Christmas 庆祝生日/圣诞等 keep body and soul together 维持生活 keep?down 控制;缩减 keep sb. doing sth. 使??.坚持做 keep silence 保持安静;保持沉默 keep sth. to oneself 把??据为己有 keep sb. from doing sth. 阻止;使免于;抑制 keep hold of?抓住不放 keep ?in mind 记住 keep doing sth. 继续做;不断地做 keep on doing sth. 不停地做;反复地做 keep?out 不许??.入内 keep out of?不参与 keep sb. company 与某人做伴; 陪伴某人 keep to sth.坚持;固守(习惯等) keep?under control 使得以控制 keep in touch with?与保持联系 keep up 坚持;继续 keep up with?跟上 keep watch 守望;站岗 13.know A. vt.

(1)知道 I have known him since childhood. (2)懂得 Do you know Japanese? B.习语 be known as?通称为;以著称;被认为是 be known for?因而出名 be known to sb.为某人所了解 become well known 出名 for all/anything/ everything I know 据我所知 It is well known that?众所周知 know about/ of 了解;知道 know?for certain 确实知道 know sb. by name 仅知道某人的名字(不认识) know sb. by sight 与某人面熟(不熟悉) know/learn ?by heart 背诵 make?known/public 公告;发表;表示 know/ tell right from wrong 辨别是非 know no limits 是无限的 A man's life is limited, but service to the people knows no limits. 14.leave A. vi.离开;离去 He left in a hurry without telling anyone. When are you leaving? B. vt.(1)留下 She asked us to leave our address. (2)使处在某种状态 Sorry to have left some questions unanswered. He left the window open. She left the baby crying bitterly. The illness left him rather weak. (3)剩下 We have only three months left. C.习语 leave?about 乱放 leave?alone 放任不管 leave?behind 留下;遗下 leave A for B 离开 A 去 B leave hold of?放弃;松手 leave nothing to be desired 尽善尽美 leave ?off 停止 leave ?out 省去;遗漏 leave?over 留下;剩下 leave room for 留下??余地 15.look A. vi. 看 He looked happily at his great grandchildren playing about him. B. link v.看起来 He looks cheerful and carefree. C.习语 have/take a look a?看一看 have a look of?好像;仿佛

look about 四下环顾 look about for?四下寻找 look after?照看;目送 look ahead 考虑未来;预做准备 look as if?似乎;好象 look at?看 look away from?转移目光 look back 回头看 look back on/ upon?回忆;回顾 look down on/ upon?俯视;蔑视 look for?寻找 look forward to doing sth. 期待;展望 look in(随便)看望 He looked in on Mr. Smith on his way to work. He went to look in at the fish farm. look into?窥视;调查 look like?看起来像 look on 旁观 look on A as B 认为 A 是 B look out 向外看; 注意;警戒 look out for?提防 look ?over 审阅; 翻阅 look through?透过??看去; 彻底调查;从头看到底 look up to sb. 尊敬/仰望某人 look up 仰视;胸怀大志 look sth. up 查阅 look sb. in the eye/ face 直视某人 16.make A. vt. (1)做;制造 Cell phones are made in this factory. (2)和表示动作的名词连用,表示动作或活动 make a study of= study make use of= use make an examination of= examine make an explanation of= explain make a fool of=fool make fun of make repairs make a suggestion= suggest make an attempt= attempt make an answer= answer make a decision=decide make preparations for=prepare for make a guess at=guess make a speech make arrangements (3)使(做);使(成为) He made us work day and night. We were made to work day and night. Praise make good men better and bad men worse. We made you our monitor. What made you so frightened? This machine makes it possible for us to finish the work in a short time.

He made it a rule to get up at six every morning.(规定) (4)有条件成为 She will make a good housewife. Cold tea makes an excellent drink in summer. B.习语 be made from 由??原料制成 be made of 由??材料制成 be made out of 由??制成 be made up of 由??所组成 be made into 被制成?? be made to do sth. 被迫去做 make for=head for =make towards 走向;冲向 make oneself understood/heard 使自己被理解/听到 make?out 理解;看清楚;辨认 make?up 弥补;补偿;起草;捏造;化装;构成,占;言归于好,和解 make a living 谋生 make bed 铺床 make?clear 表明;说明 make ends meet 应付开支;维持生活;使收支相抵 make friends with 与??交朋友 make one's way to sp.向??走去 make room/ way for 为??让路 make sure/certain 一定要;保证做到;核实 Make sure that you get there in time. We must make certain they will come in time. make the best/most of 尽量利用;充分利用 make up one's mind 决心;决定 to make a long story short 长话短说 make sb.'s hair stand on end 使??毛骨悚然 make a fire 生火 17.put A. vt. 放 He put the book where he found it. B.习语 put?across 清楚地表达 put an end/a stop to sth.结束;消灭 put?aside 把放在一边;抛弃;积蓄 put?away 把收起来;储存备用; put?back 把放回原处;拨回(钟表的指针等) put?down 放下;镇压;记下;削减 put?forth 发表;提出 put?forward 提出;建议;拨快(钟表的指针等) put?in 插话;伸进 put?off 推迟;延期;脱(衣服等) put?on 穿上;增加(体重等);上演 put?out 放出;熄灭;出版;生产 put?right 改正(错误);整理;治愈

put sb. at ease 使某人放心、安心、宽心 put through?完成; put A through to B 把 A 接通 B(电话) put?together 合计;装配(机器等);把??放在一起 put?up 举起;挂起;搭起;上演;陈列;张贴 put up with?忍受 put?into practice 把应用到实践中去 put sb. to bed 打发睡觉 put sth. to/into use 使得以应用 put?into English 把翻译成英语 put in a word for sb.为某人进言 put sb. in charge 使某人负责 put sth. in order 使井井有条 put on airs 摆架子 put sb. to death/test 处死/考验 18.run A. vi. (1)跑 They came running to meet us. (2)行驶 The train was running at 80 miles an hour. (3)流 All the rivers will run into the sea. We mustn't let the water run to waste. His nose is running all day because he has a bad cold. B. vt. 管理;经营 They have run six factories. He runs the school well. C. link v. 变得 The river began to run dry. Our food supply is running low. His blood ran cold at the news. Their money is running short. The garden was running wild. D.习语 run a fever 发高烧 run after sb./ sth.追求 run away 逃跑 run for?竞选 run into?邂逅;偶遇 run on 滔滔不绝往下说 run out(某物)用完 run out of?用完(某物) run short(某物)短缺 run short of?短缺(某物) run up to?合计为;高达 run a risk 冒险 run across?邂逅;偶遇 run ahead of?领先于 run away with?带??而逃走 run against?邂逅;偶遇;违反 run at?袭击;冲向 run over 溢出; run over?.过目;浏览 run smooth 进展顺利 run through?花光;用尽;略谈 run up 迅速成长;(物价)上涨 run upon?邂逅;偶遇

19.see A. vt. (1)看到;看见 I saw the accident with my own eyes. I've never seen you look so well. Just now I saw someone going upstairs. When we got there, we saw a house being built. Last night I saw a dog killed by a car. I'm glad to see all of you happy. I could see that they need my help. *The year 1949 saw the founding of the People's Republic of China. (2)看望;接见 I went to see a friend of mine last Sunday afternoon. I'll be seeing you this evening. (3)了解;明白 He asked to look and see if he missed anything. Now you see what I mean? B. 习语 see sb. home 送某人回家 see about sth.负责处理?? I'll see about the tickets for the concert. see?for oneself 自己看;体验一下 see into?了解;调查 see much/a lot/nothing/little of?常/很少/从不见到 see sb. off 送行 see through?看穿;识破 see sb. through 支持某人到底 see to sth.处理;料理 There was much to see to. He has to see to the luggage. see to it that?注意做到;务必要 See to it that you do not fall when skating. as far as I can see 踞我所知 see sb. out 送某人出门 see that 因为,从??一点来看 20.send A. vt. (1)寄(信),发(电报) They sent me some pictures. I have a telegram to send to Bob. (2)(派人)送 Let's send the radio there to be repaired. He sent his regards to you. (3)派遣 He asked to be sent to work in Tibet. (4)使??.变得 The bad news sent him mad/ out of mind. The sight of the Red Army sent the enemy running in all directions. B.习语

send for 去请 send A for B 派 A 去请 B send?forth 发出 The sun sends forth light and heat. send?off 送行 send?out 发出(光、热、气味、烟雾等) send?up 发射 send sb. away 解雇;逐出 send?over 播出;播送 21.set A. vi. 下落 It will be cooler when the sun has set. B. vt. (1)放置;摆设 She set the dish on the table. Let's set the clock by the radio signal. (2)规定;确定 He set a strict rule for himself. Have they set the time for the meeting? (3)使某人做事或处在某种状态 With only a few words he set us laughing. What he said set me thinking. He set all the prisoners free. That set all our doubts at rest.这消除了我们所有的怀疑。 C.习语 set about doing sth.= set out to do sth.开始做 set an example 做出榜样 set?apart 拨出;留出 A room has been set apart for the purpose. set?aside 拨出;积蓄;不理会 set?back 往回拨;使倒退 set?down 放下;写下;制定 set fire to sth.= set sth. on fire 放火烧 set foot in?进入;踏上 set?forth 列举;提出;动身;起程 set?in order 整顿 set?loose 释放;解开 set off 动身 set?off 燃放(鞭炮、烟花等);引起 set one's mind/ heart on?下定决心 set out 动身;出发 set?out 列举 He set out his reasons for what he had done. set sail 启航 set? to work 使开始工作 He set to work at once writing the book. He set everyone to work together. set?up 立起来;成立;修建 set?upside down 颠倒过来 22.show

A. vt. (1)拿给人看 Show me your ticket, please! Can you show me a bigger one? (2)说明;表明 Her eyes showed that she was lying. Show us how to use this machine. That shows how ignorant we are. (3)表现;显露 He showed courage in face of danger. (4)放映;展出 A new film is being shown at this cinema. (5)带领 Show them in, please. I'll show you into my room. B.习语 show off 炫耀;表现自己 This guy likes showing off. show?off 炫耀 I don't like the way he shows off his knowledge. show one's face 露面 show oneself 出席;显露出来 His anger showed itself in his voice. show up 出现;出席 show?up 暴露,揭露 This only served to show up their weakness. 23.speak A. vi.说;发言 He spoke with me about his childhood. He was too hurt to speak to us. I've never spoken of these things to anyone before. He spoke at the meeting yesterday. Action speaks louder than words. She spoke in broken English. B. vt.说 She speaks good French. Trust me that I am speaking the truth. C.习语 speak for?代表??说话;为??辩护 I can only speak for myself. speak out 大胆讲出来 speak out against?发言反对 He spoke out against what he thought was unjust. speak up 坦率说出自己的看法;说话大声些 speak highly/well/highly/ill/badly of?称赞/非议 generally/strictly/broadly/roughly/frankly speaking=to speak generally, etc.一般 来说,严格地讲,广义地讲,严格地讲,老实地说 be spoken of as?被说成为 nothing to speak of?不值一说;没有说的价值 24.stand A. vi. (1)站 Come and sit by my side if you love me. (2)立于 The house stands between the two large trees.

There stood a strange man right behind me. B. vt. (1)放 Stand the ladder against the wall. (2)忍受 If you can't stand the heat, get out of the kitchen. C.习语 stand against?反对 They all stood against the war. stand at attention/ease 立正/稍息 stand behind sb. 支持 stand by 支持;袖手旁观;准备行动 We'll stand by you through thick and thin. You mustn't stand by and do nothing about it. stand for?代表,表示;主张 X often stands for an unknown number. We stand for self-reliance(自力更生). stand on one's own feet 依靠自己 stand out 突出;显著 Her talent stood out in comparison with the others. stand aside 站开;不参与;靠边站 stand back 向后退 stand still 站住;停顿 stand up 站起;起立 25.take A. vt. (1)拿 Taking a sheet of paper, she began to write. (2)带(往某处) After that she took us to Rome. (3)吃、喝、吸 Take a little more bread. He took some medicine. (4)乘坐 They took a taxi home. (5)采取,接受,选择 He took a doctor's degree. After lots of thinking, she took the job. (6)测量;照(像);记录 Let me take your blood pressure. We took a few pictures of the hill. (7)对待;接受 You cannot take this too seriously. (8)需要 How long does it take to finish washing these dishes? (9)攻下 They took the town by surprise. B.习语 take a chance 碰碰运气 take one's seat 坐下;就座 take advantage of 利用;占便宜 take aim at?瞄准 take?apart 拆开;拆卸 take part in?参加 take A as B 当成 take?back 收回 take?away 拿开 take?by surprise 突然袭击 take care 当心 take care of?照顾;负责 take charge of?负责 take delight/ pleasure/ interest /pride in?喜欢、以??自豪 take?down 记下来;记录 take effect 生效

take A for B=take A to be B 认为 A 是 B take?for granted 视为当然,想必是 Some students take it for granted that English is easy to learn. take hold of?抓住;握住 take?in 订阅;欺骗;领会;接(活干) take?into consideration 把??纳入考虑范围内 take it easy 别紧张;放开些;放松些 take note/notice of?注意;留心 take notes 记录 take?off 脱掉;起飞;打折扣 take office 上任;就职 take on?雇佣;呈现 take one's time 从容从事;慢慢来 take?out 取出;洗掉 take pains/trouble to do sth.不辞辛劳地做 take place 发生;举行 take root 生根 take shape 成型 take the chair 主持会议 take the place of?代替 take turns to do sth.= take turns in doing sth.轮流做 take?up 拿起;从事;接受;占(时间、空间、注意力等) take warning from?引以为戒;吸取教训 be taken ill/sick 生病 take a short cut 走捷径 26.talk A. vi. 谈话;讲话 He is talking loudly in the front of the classroom. B.习语 talk away 不停地讲;通过谈话消除 talk back (to sb.)还嘴;顶嘴 talk big 吹牛 talk sb. into doing sth.劝说干 talk sb. out of doing sth. 劝说不干 talk out 说完 talk to sb.与谈话;责备 talk ?over 讨论 talk of?谈到 talk about?谈论;讲 talk together 商量;谈判 27.tell A. vt. (1)告诉;讲 Tell me your name. He told us what had happened to him. I'll tell you what to do next. Don't tell me. Let me guess. Do as you are told to. (2)判断 I really can't tell the differences between them. I can hardly tell Kate from her twain sister. =I can hardly tell Kate and her twain sister apart. B.习语 tell A and apart= tell A from B 区分开 A 与 B to tell the truth 说老实话

tell sb. about/ of sth.向某人讲起?? tell the world?公开讲;宣扬 tell a lie 说谎 tell a white lie 说善意的谎言 tell it like it is 实话实说 there is no telling?难以预料 There is no telling when he will return. I'll tell you what.让我告诉你真相/怎么去做。 Never tell me!别瞎扯了! You are telling me!还要你告诉我(我早知道了)! 28.think A. vi.想,思考 Give me some time to think. He told us to try to think in English. B. vt.认为;想 I never thought you could complete the work so soon. I don't think I can get away now. Where do you think we can get this book? She isn't as slow as you think she is. I think the book worth reading again. This kind of computer is thought (to be) too hard to operate. We all think her a good learner. I thought it our duty to offer them some medical care. I think it a great honor to speak here. C.习语 think about?考虑 think of?想到;想起;为着想;打算 This picture made us think of the days in the army. He couldn't think of anything to say. She is always thinking of others. She is thinking of going downtown this afternoon. What do you think of this movie? think highly/well/a lot/ a great deal/much/poorly/ill/badly/little/nothing of 对 评价高/低 think of A as B 认为 A 是 B think?out/up 想出 think?over 仔细考虑 think twice before?要三思后再?? just think?想想看(表示惊讶) Just think of the price! wouldn't/couldn't think of?绝不能考虑/想象(做这样的事) I couldn't think of disturbing them at this our of night. think hard 沉思 29.turn A. vi. 转弯,转身,转动 The planet turns round the sun. I turned and saw a boy running away.

B. vt. (1)转向,转动 Please turn your eyes this way. Nothing can turn us from our purpose. (2)翻转;翻身 The doctor turned him over and looked at his back. C. link v.变得 Her face turned pale at the news. His hair is turning grey. The weather suddenly turned cold. Later he turned doctor. D.习语 turn a deaf ear to sth. 不听;不理睬 turn a blind eye to sth. 不看;不理睬 They turned a deaf ear to the people's sufferings. They turned a blind eye to our demands. turn? aside 避开;转变方向 turn?away 转变方向;(转脸)不睬;打发走 turn back 转过身来;赶回去 turn?down 拒绝;驳回;旋小 turn?in 归还;缴还 turn A into B 把 A 变成 B turn?off 解雇;关上 turn?on 开;攻击 turn out 关上;解雇;证明是,结果是,实际情况是 The day turned out fine. He turned out to be a traitor. It turned out that he had never been there. turn one's back on?对不理睬 turn one's head 使头晕/昏 turn one's stomach 使作呕 turn?over 移交;打翻;翻阅 I turned over the keys to Mr. Smith. He turned over all the tables in anger. He turned over one page or two and gave up. turn to sb. for help/advice 求助于 turn to?翻到 turn up 露面。出席 turn?up 旋大;查(字典等) He turned up the dictionary and found the explanation. turn?upside down/ inside out 颠倒, 翻过来 30.work A. vi. (1)工作 He was forced to work from morning till night. (2)(机器等)开动 Soon the machine worked a gain smoothly. (3)(办法、计划等)行得通,进行(情况) His method worked. It's a good idea, but it won't work. The treatment works like magic. B.习语 work at?干(某活动),研究等 She is busy working a new invention. work away 不停地干 work on?从事

We're working on some wood-cuts. work?out 制订;想出;计算 work?up 准备,酝酿 work on?对起作用;激发 work with?对??行得通 考点十七:`数词 一.概念: 数词分两类:基数词和序数词.表示数目的词叫基数词,表示须序的词叫序数词. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.基数词 1)基数词一般可写成如 345 或 three hundred and forty-five. 2)基数词一般是单数形式,但遇下列情况,常用复数: a. 与 of 短语连用,表示概数,不能与具体数目连用,如 scores of people 指许多人; b. 在一些表示"一排"或"一组"的词组里.例如: They arrived in twos and threes. 他们三三两两的到了. c. 表示"几十岁". d. 表示"年代",用 in +the +数词复数. e. 在乘法运算的一种表示法里,如 Three fives is(are)fifteen. 2.序数词 序数词的缩写形式如 first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st 等. 3.数词的用法 1)倍数表示法 a. 主语+谓语+倍数(或分数)+ as + adj. + as.例如 I have three times as many as you. 我有你三倍那么多. b. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ the size (amount,length?) of?.例如: The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 地球是月球的 49 倍. c. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ 形容词(副词)比较级+ than?.例如: The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year. 今年比去 年粮食产量增加 8%. d. 还可以用 by+倍数,表示增加多少倍.例如: The production of grain has been increased by four times this year. 今年粮食产量 增加了 4 倍. 2)分数表示法的构成:基数词代表分子,序数词代表分母.分子大于 1 时,分子的序数词用单 数,分母序数词用复数.例如: 1/3 one-third; 3/37 three and three-sevenths. 考点十八:代词: 命题规律 1.五年高考有关代词考点分布: it 用法,替代词,不定代词,其他代词 2.近五年代词的考点仍集中在不定代词上,考查角度有两个: 1) 考查他们在特定结构中的用法,如 anyone, both, neither, nothing 等于定语从句 相结合。 2) 考查 any, some, all, none, other, another 等不定代词在特定语境中的意义和功 能差别。

3.试题注重了情景干扰,注重了特定语言环境中上,下文的联系,而且题干的语义结构趋 于复杂,强调与其其他相关语法知识相结合。正确把握句意,分析句试结构在解题中起着很 重要的作用。 命题趋势 1. 过去的热点仍在,新热点逐步呈现。如对不定代词的考查,而对 it 的考查热点在逐步 形成。 2. 加强在特定语境中代词与其他相关语法的综合考查。 3. 2008 年高考预测 各地在对单项选择的语法考查中对代词则百考不“厌”。分析各类考题尤其是高考题,可以 看出对代词的考查一直是一个热点,且考查手法更加灵活,要求更高,所以在 2008 年高考 中, 代词仍将为考查的热点。 不定代词 one, the one, ones, the ones 与指示代词 this, that, these, those, it 的用法区别、代词的肯定与否定、全部与部分的用法以及反身代词的惯 用语(例如 help oneself, please yourself, by (for, of) oneself, enjoy oneself 等 将会是未来高考的命题重点。 突破方法 代词在具体的语境中运用起来往往具有很大的灵活性, 高考英语试题对代词的考查更是灵活 多变。我们应从以下几方面入手来把握代词的解题规律 1.明确指代。在解答代词题目时,我们应首先分析前后文,明确代词所指代的对象,从而避 免误判。具体说来应从以下几方面考虑:(1)代词指代的是人还是物;(2) 代词指代的 是可数名词还是不可数名词;(3)代词指代的是特指还是泛指概念; (4) 代词指代的概 念是表示两者之间还是三者或三者以上。(5) 代词所表示的是肯定还是否定概念。 2.理清逻辑。 需要通过分析上下文所蕴涵的逻辑关系才能做出正确判断。 具体说来应从以下 方面去考虑:(1) 代词所表示的范围;(2) 代词表示的是全部否定还是部分否定。 3 吃透语境。 考查的是代词在具体语境中的灵活运用, 这样的题目须分析在具体的语境中运 用起来往往具有很大的灵活性,高考英语试题对代词的考查更是灵活多变。 2008 年高考预测 各地在对单项选择的语法考查中对代词则百考不“厌”。分析各类考题尤其是高考题,可以 看出对代词的考查一直是一个热点,且考查手法更加灵活,要求更高,所以在 2008 年高考 中, 代词仍将为考查的热点。 不定代词 one, the one, ones, the ones 与指示代词 this, that, these, those, it 的用法区别、代词的肯定与否定、全部与部分的用法以及反身代词的惯 用语(例如 help oneself, please yourself, by (for, of) oneself, enjoy oneself 等 将会是未来高考的命题重点。 知识清单 代词是用来指代人或事物的词。代词可分为下列八类: 一、人称代词( Personal Pronouns ) we , I , you , they, us, me, etc. 二、物主代词( Possessive Pronouns ) our, my ,your, their, his, her, etc. 三、 反身代词(Reflective Pronouns) ourselves, myself, yourselves, yourself , herself , etc. 四、相互代词( Reciprocal Pronouns ) each other ,one another , etc. 五、指示代词( Demonstrative Pronouns ) this , that , these , those , such , etc. 六、疑问代词( Interrogative Pronouns ) what, when, who, where, whose, etc. 七、关系代词( Relative Pronouns) what, when, who, where, whose , etc. 八、不定代词( Indefinite Pronouns ) any , some ,every , many , much , a little , etc.

一.人称代词: 人称代词分主格和宾格两种, 前者在句子中担任主语, 后者担任动词或介词的宾语。 They study German. / Please pass me the ruler. ①人称代词的用法: a.当代词成对地使用或一个代词与一个名词搭配使用时, 两个部分的句法功能必须一致。 Li Hong and I went shopping yesterday. It was our teacher who smoothed away the difference between you and me. 注:人称代词的排列一般为:第二人称,第三人称,第一人称。 you, he and I them and us 如有其他代词时,其他代词排列于人称代词之后,如:he, I and some others b.人称代词用作表语时,如说明主语,一般要用主格,如说明宾语则要用宾格。 If I were she, I would take your advice. I would share the room with you if you were him. ②"It"的用法。 a.用作人称代词,代替前文提到过的事物。 Where is the cat? It's in the kitchen. Jack is ill. Have you heard about it? My book is missing. I can't find it anywhere. b.用以代替指示代词 this, that。 What's this? -- It's a frog. /Whose pen is that? -- It's mine. c.表示时间,天气,距离等。 A lovely day, isn't it? /It's two o'clock. It's about two li from here to our school. d.用作形式主语,形式宾语,代替不定式短语,动名词或从句。 It's no use talking with him about that. It took me twenty minutes to get there. We think it important that college students should master at least one foreign language. e.用在强调结构中。为了强调句子的某一成分(通常是主语,宾语或状语),常用强调结构 "It is (was) + 被强调成分 + that(或 who)?"。 It was Liu Ming that I saw in the street this morning. It was in the classroom that he told me about it. 二.物主代词 形容词性物主代词只能作定语,例: My brother often does his homework in his room. 我的弟弟常在他房间里做作业。 The newly-built house is our laboratory. 那幢新建的房子是我们的实验室。 Anything has its character individually. 任何事物都有其各自的特征。 名词性物主代词则可以在句中充当主语、宾语、表语。它的意义= 形容词性物 主代词+名词;或者说它相当于名词。例: His dictionary is English-Chinese, but mine is English-English. 他的词典是英汉的, 我的是全英的。 We each bought a new book. Yours is about management and mine is about the American history. 我们一人买了一本书。你的是关于管理的,我的是关于美国历史的。 三。反身代词的作用

反身代词在句子中可作宾语: 当它作动词宾语时, 动作的执行者与承受者往往是同一个人或 同一件事物;当它作介词 by 的宾语时,则表示强调。例: The prisoner killed himself by taking poison. 犯人服毒自杀了。 He finished the work by himself. 他独自完成了那件工作。 反身代词在句子中也可作同位语,用来加强名词或代词的语气,强调某人亲自、 本人;这时它可能在名词、代词之后,也可能在句子末尾。例: The students will clean the classroom themselves. 学生们将自己打扫教室。 I myself heard him say it . 我亲耳听他说的。 四.相互代词 each other ,one another.前者通常指两者之间的“相互”,后者侧重三者或 三者以上的“相互”,也可指两者之间的“相互”。 五.指示代词 this/these 一般用来指时间和空间上较近的人或物;that/those 常指时间和 空间上较远的人或物。 进行比较时,that 可代替不可数名词或单数名词以避免重复;those 可代替复数名词以 免重复。 六。疑问代词: 用于构成特殊疑问句,其中 what, which, whose 兼有形容词特征,可以和名词连用。 What job do you want to find? /Whose girl is she? Which subject is your best one? 所有疑问代词都可以起名词作用,在句子中担任成分。 Who told you? /Whom are you waiting for? Whose are those books? 在学习疑问代词时,对以下几组词注意区别: 1) which 和 what 两者均可与名词连用,就人或物提问。但是 which 一般用于有一定选择范围的情况,what 用于无选择范围或究竟是什么还不清楚的情况。 Which colour do you like-green, red, yellow or brown? What colour is her dress? What writers do you like best? 2)which 和 who 两者都可作代词,它们的区别是不管选择的范围是大还是小,which 一般 用作指物。 Which would you like to eat -steak or fish? Who won the game -Smith or Johnson ? 当有一定选择范围时,which one 代替 who 作宾语. Which one do you like better, your mother or your father? Which of 可和人称代词或指人的名词连用,如: Which of you has taken away my English book? 3)连接代词 who, whom, whose, which, what, whatever, whoever 等,除起连接作用外, 还可以在从句中担当主语,宾语,定语,表语等成分。如: The question is who can operate the new machine.(引导表语从句--作主语) They asked whose idea this was.(引导宾语从句--作定语) When you are older, you can watch whatever programme you like. (引导宾语从句--作定语) I'll give my ticket to whoever wants it. (这里 whoever 可看成"anyone who",or"the person who").

七.关系代词 关系代词是一种引导从句并起连接主句和从句作用的代词.关系代词有 who, whose, whom, that, which. 它们在句中可用作主语,表语,宾语,定语. 在主句中,它们还代表着从句所修 饰的那个名词或代词. 八。 不定代词: ①all / both a.both 用于两个人或事物,all 用于两个以上的人或事物,均可作主语。 All (of us) like fruits. /Both (of them) are good at English. b.用作同位语。作主语同位语时须注意它们的位置不同,位于行为动词之前;位于 be 动词 之后。 They all (或 both) agreed with me. /They are all (或 both) very healthy. I know them all (或 both). ②one / it(人称代词) one 代替可数名词,表示上面所提到的那一类人或物中的一个,其复数形式带定语时用 ones,不带定语时用 some。而 it 则用于指代上文提到的那个表示物的名词本身,既可指单 数可数名词也可指不可数名词。 I don't have a watch but I'm going to buy one(或 some). I have a bicycle. My aunt gave it to me. ③no one / none no one 只用于指人,而 none 既可指人也可指物。如果说"若干人(物)之中一个也不", 用"none of",后接复数名词时,谓语可以用复数,也可用单数;后接不可数名词时,谓语用 单数。如: No one told me that he had gone to Shanghai. None of them have(或 has)arrived yet.(不用 no one) None of the money is mine. ④some / any /no /every +(thing, one, body 等。) some 类用于肯定句,any 类用于否定和疑问句。 I know nothing of what had happened to him. I have little rice, so I can't lend you any. She is going to buy some new dresses. 注:everyone 和 every one 前者意思是"每个人",与 everybody 同义,后面不可跟 of 短语,后者意思是每个人或 物,后面跟 of 短语。试比较: everyone in the classroom(教室里的所有的人) every one of the children(这些孩子中的每一个) every one of the books(这些书中的每一本) ⑤部分否定与全部否定: 当 all, both, each 和 every(body, thing)等表示整体意义的代词与否定词连用时,一般 只表示部分否定,如果表示全部否定,应该用 none, no one, neither, nobody, nothing 等. All of the students were not late for the class. 不是所有学生上课都迟到的。 (现代英语中常写成:Not all the students were late for the class.) None of the students were late for the class.没有一个学生上课迟到的。 具体地说明几个在使用代词时应注意的问题

(一) 指代必须准确无误 我们知道代词是用来指代人或事物的词, 那么如果在使用代词时指代不清楚, 就会引起他人 的误解、费解、甚至不理解.例如: While carrying the paint can from the garage to the house, Marry was afraid that some of it might spill on her new skirt. 当玛莉从车库把油漆罐搬到屋里时,她担心 油漆会溅到她的新裙子上。 (二)关于人称代词、反身代词、物主代词在使用这三类代词时,我们要注意它们在句中的 人称、单复数、及性和格的一致性。 (四)物主代词 形容词性物主代词只能作定语,例: My brother often does his homework in his room. 我的弟弟常在他房间里做作业。 The newly-built house is our laboratory. 那幢新建的房子是我们的实验室。 Anything has its character individually. 任何事物都有其各自的特征。名词性物主代 词则可以在句中充当主语、宾语、表语。它的意义= 形容词性物 主代词+名词;或者说它相当于名词。例: His dictionary is English-Chinese, but mine is English-English. 他的词典是英汉的, 我的是全英的。 We each bought a new book. Yours is about management and mine is about the American history. 我们一人买了一本书。你的是关于管理的,我的是关于美国历史的。 (五)不定代词 英文中主要有这样一些不定代词:every, each, both, all, either, neither, one, none, little, few, many, much, other, another, some, any, no, 另外还有由 some, any, no 和 every 构成的合成代词,如:somebody, anything, nothing 等。 1) both , either 和 neither 这三个词都可以用来指两个人或两件事物, 但各自的意义都不相同: both 表示"两个都"、 either 表示"两个中的任何一个"、 neither 表示"两者都不??" 。它们在句中都分别 可以作主语、宾语和定语,both 还可以作同位语。 2) all 在谈到两个以上的人或事物时,或是不可数的事物时,我们都可以用 all ;它在句中可 以充当主语、宾语、定语和同位语。另外,all 指不可数的事物时还可以作表语;有时 还可作副词用,例如: This is all he knew about it. (作表语) 这就是他了解有关这件事的一切。 They were all covered with dust. (作副词) 他们身上尽是尘土。 Her clothes were all wet.(作副词) 她的衣服全湿了。 all 还可以用在一些词组中,如: all day (整天) all night (整夜) all this(所有这些) all the year round (整年) all day long (一天到晚) all the time (一直) 3) each 和 every each 和 every 这两个词在中文里都有"每一个"的意思,但它们在句子里各自强调的侧 重点却不同:every 从每一个个体着眼而强调"整体";而 each 却是把一些东西一个一 个地加以考虑,强调"各个" 。every 只能作定语;each 则可以作主语、宾语、定语和 同位语。另外,every 可用于[ every other (或 every +数词 ) + 名词 ]的结构中, 表示"每隔??"之意思:

every other day 每隔一天 every three years 每隔三年 every third year 每隔三年 every other line 每隔一行 every ten miles 每隔十哩 4) one 5) 作不定代词时有复数形式 ones ,代替前面刚提到的人或事物以避免重复,还可以有自 己的定语或冠词;另外还可以用来泛指人,例如: This problem is a difficult one. 这个问题是个不好解决的问题。 I don't like colored envelopes. I like white ones. 我不喜欢花信封,我喜欢白 的。 This film is not as good as the one we saw last week .这片子没有我们上周看的 好。 Modesty helps one go forward, whereas conceit makes one lag behind.(泛指) 谦虚使人进步, 骄傲使人落后。 5)some 与 any some 与 any 都相当于"一些"之意, 但意思并不强, 因此汉译时常可省去"一些"这样的字眼。 它们作定语时多,这时候 some 多用于肯定句,any 多用于否定句、疑问句或条件句。在表 示请求、 建议、 反问或是希望得到肯定回答的疑问句中, 常用 some 而不用 any 。 另外, some 可与数词连用,表示"大约"的意思。如: Could you mind buying me some envelopes on your way to school? 你能在去上学的路 上,帮我买几个信封吗? Will you give me some paper? 请给我一点纸。 Some hundred teachers have moved into new houses. 约有百位教师搬进了新居。 The bridge was built some two hundred years ago. 这座桥大约建于两百年前。 6)few, a few ; little, a little 的用法 few 和 a few 以及 little 和 a little 是两组差异相同词,但前一组用于可数名词,而后 一组却用于不可数名词;另外 few 与 little 都有"几乎没有"的否定意思,few 用于可数名 词,little 用于不可数名词;a few 与 a little 表示"几个或一点"的肯定意思,a few 用 于可数名词 a little 用于不可数名词。 六) 其它 1) one?the other 与 some?others ; 这是两组常一起连用的代词短语,指两者之间;前 者用于单数,后者用于复数。如: She has two children. One is a boy; the other is a girl. 她有两个孩子:一个男孩, 一个女孩。 They have different ideas about how to spend their weekend. Some think that it is good to have a party. Others prefer to have an outing. 他们对怎么过周末想法不同, 有些认为以聚会为好,其他人却要去郊游。 另外, another 一词泛指"另一个;又一个",不限制于两者之间。例如: I think that it is impossible for me to visit another city this time. 我看,我这 次是不可能再去观光别的地方了。 He is another friend of mine who I got to know in New Zealand. 他是我在新西兰结 识另一个朋友。 2)no 与 none , 这两个词都表示否定意义:no = not any 意在强调"连一个、一点都不",它只能作形容词, 一般与名词连用;而 none 则相当于名词,可独立在句中充当成分,也可与介词短语连用--

表示在某一范围内"任何一个也不"。 3) 关于合成不定代词 常用的合成不定代词有以下几组: something 某物,某事, somebody 某人, someone 某人; anything 任何事物, anybody 任何人, anyone 任何人 ; everything 一切事/物,everybody 每个人,everyone 每个人 ; nothing 无事、无物,no one 没有人,nobody 无人 使用合成不定代词时应注意下面几点: A) 当它们用作主语时应看作单数。 B) 它们只能作名词,不能看作形容词而充当定语。 C) 如果它们带有修饰语,修饰语只能放在它们的后面。 6.不定代词:some ,any ,all ,both ,none ,one, each ,either ,neither ,other ,another, something ,anything ,nothing ,anyone ,anybody , someone ,somebody ,nobody 7.关系代词(用于定语从句):who ,whom ,whose,that ,which ,as 考点十九:情景交际: 命题规律及趋势 话题---社会交往,态度,情感及其他,社会交往是交际用语考查的重中之重。交际用语是 每年高考英语试卷单项选择部分的必考内容,通常都会有 1—2 个题目。题干的呈现形式通 常是对话,挖空设项多出现在交际应答里。 突破方法: 1. 熟悉句型结构,增强理解能力。 2. 进行广泛阅读,积累各种情境中交际应酬的用语从而提高交际能力。 3. 熟悉英中两种文化差异, 掌握两个不同民族的交际习惯方式。 高考中, 经常出现“貌似” 正确的“中国式”应答的选项, 4. 多看英文电视,电影,多跟外国人交谈,从而提高英语交际运用能力。 做好交际应答,要注意以下几点: 从高考的意义来说,交际应答尽管只是一两分的问题,可在日常的英语应用中,它却十分重 要,千万不可掉以轻心。做好交际应答,要注意以下几点: 一、交际应答要防止“中国式”答语的陷阱 例如:——It’s getting late. I'm afraid I must be going now. ——OK. ______. A. Take it easy B. Go slowly C. Stay longer D. See you 答案 D。本题考查的交际功能是道别用语。彼此分手可以说“See you (again, after, etc.).”“Take care.”“Good-bye.”“Bye.”等。选项 B,“慢点走”是典型的中国式 应答。 二、交际应答要把握不同选项的适用语境 例如:——I'm taking my driving test tomorrow. ——____! A. Cheers B. Good luck C. Come on D. Congratulations 答案 B,用来表示在别人做事情之前表达祝愿。A 选项是“干杯”,与情景不适宜;C 项的意 思是“过来”、“加油”的意思;D 项表示“祝贺”。因为是明天参加考试,还不知结果, 因此表达“祝贺”不合适。 知识清单 高中阶段出现的交际功能用语,如问候、祝愿、介绍、告别、感谢道歉、邀请、约会、希望、

请求、发表观点、购物、就餐、使用交通工具等,都要有准确的把握。 1.约会表达用语小结 清清楚楚地表达所要约会的时间和地点,明明白白地进行预定的活动。 [典型表达] Are you / will you be free this afternoon? 你今天下午有空吗? How about tomorrow morning? 明天上午怎么样? Shall we meet at the school gate?我们在校门口见面好吗? Yes, I’ll be free then. 好,那时我有空。 No, I won’t be free then. But I’ll be free tomorrow. 不行,那时我没空儿。但是我明天有空。 All right. See you then. 好,那时见。 How about going for a drink together? 一起去喝一杯怎么样? What time shall we go? 我们什么时间去? 2.赴宴就餐用语小结 英语中关于赴宴就餐及殷勤款待的常用交际用语有多种。 [典型表达] Would you like to have supper with me? 你愿意和我一起吃晚饭吗? That would be nice. Let’s fix a date. 那太好了,咱们定个日子吧。 I’d love to, but my brother is coming. 愿意,但是我哥哥要来。 I’d like to invite you to dinner at my flat. 我想邀请你到我公寓吃饭。 What would you like to eat / drink? 你想吃(喝)点什么? What / How about another piece of bread? 再来一块面包怎么样? Would you like some more beef? 你想再吃点牛肉吗? Do you want to have some chicken? 你想吃一些鸡肉吗? I’m full. / I’ve had enough. 我饱了。 I’d like two eggs and a glass of milk. 我想要两个鸡蛋和一杯牛奶。 Yes, please, just a little. 好的,只要一点点。 Help yourself. 请自便。/ 请随便吃。 Make yourself at home. 不要客气,请自便。 3.安慰表达方法小结 当别人失意、失败、担心、忧虑时,我们应该给以适当的安慰,使之振作、振奋。你可以说: Don’t be afraid. Cheer up. / Come on. You can do it.等。 4.同意与反对表达方法小结 英语中,当对方提出某种观点、意见或请求时,你要表示恰当而具体的态度。究竟是同意还 是不同意,要有个明确的答复。 5.表扬与鼓励表达方法小结

在西方,人们总会适时地给对方以表扬和鼓励。人们对于别人的赞扬一般会表示高兴,并且 “Thank you!”不离口。 6.问路表达方法小结 谁都有迷路的时候, 谁都有找不到目的地而犯愁的时候。 只要你会使用恰当的问路表达方式, 前途肯定会是光明的。 [典型表达] Excuse me. Where is the Pacific Hotel? 对不起,请问太平洋宾馆在哪儿? Go down this street until you see the tall building. 沿着这条路走,直到你看到那个高楼。 Does this road lead to the Agriculture Bank of China? 这条马路到/通向中国农业银行吗? No. Turn right at the first crossing. 不,在第一个十字路口向右拐。 Excuse me. Which is the way to the No. 1 Middle School? 打扰一下,请问哪条路到一中? You can take No. 503 bus. 你可以乘 503 路公交车。 Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to the airport? 打扰了。你能告诉我去飞机场的路吗? It’s over there. It’s in that direction. 在那儿,就在那个方向。 Can you tell me how to get to the People’s Park? 你能告诉我怎么去人民公园吗? Sorry, I don’t know. I’m a stranger here. 对不起,我不知道。我也是刚来这儿。 7.介绍表达方法小结 学会用得体的英语去巧妙地介绍自己和别人,能够使气氛融洽,使大家交流轻松愉快。 [典型表达] May I introduce you to my friend Hang Kai? 我可以把你介绍给我的朋友杭凯吗? Please allow me to introduce you to my classmates. 请允许我把你介绍给我的同学。 I’ d like you to meet my friend, Maria. 我想请你见一见我的朋友玛利娅。 May I introduce myself? I’m Jim Green. 我做一下自我介绍好吗?我是杰姆?格林。 How do you do? My name is Cui Hengbiao. 你好,我是崔恒标。 I’m Kate. Happy to know you. 我是凯特,很高兴认识你。 I’d like you to meet Jim. He’s a friend of mine. 我想请你见一下吉姆,他是我的一个朋友。 8.告别表达方法小结 相见时难别亦难,友情再深终有一别。不要忧伤,不要难过。我们既然要离开,就得学会用 地道的英语来委婉地表达我们的离别之意。 [典型表达]

I’m afraid I must be leaving now. 我恐怕得告辞了。 I must be off now. 我必须得走了。 It’s time I met my brother. I have to go now. 是我去见我哥哥的时候了,我现在 得走了。 I’m sorry I have to go now. 对不起我得走了。 I think it’s time for us to leave now. 我想现在是我们告辞的时候了。 It was nice meeting you. =Nice to have met you. 遇见你真是太好了。 9.提供帮助用语小结 提供帮助一般分两种情况:职业用语和其他情况。当拒绝别人的帮助时,记得说一句 Thank you all the same.或者 That’s very kind of you, but I can manage it myself. 10.打电话用语小结 许多人害怕用英语打电话或接电话, 一是因为自己的听力和口语水平不够, 还有一个重要的 原因就是电话英语中有许多固定表达方式。 11.责备和抱怨用语小结 在对方做错了事或者没有能够做好某事的时候, 我们可能会去责备或者抱怨。 值得注意的是, 语气要委婉。当我们受到别人的责备或者抱怨时,我们也要表示歉意。 [典型表达] He is to blame. 他应负责任。 She blamed him for the traffic accident. 她为交通事故责备他。 He shouldn’t have done it. 他本不该干那件事的。 Why can’t you do something about it? 你为何不能为那件事出点力? —He couldn’t find the place. 他找不到那个地方。 —You told him how to get there, but perhaps you should have drawn a map. 你告诉了他如何去,但是也许你本应画张地图。 12.建议表达方法小结 如果你所建议的内容是对方容易接受的,且双方关系比较密切,则回答可以很直接、随意; 如果双方关系一般,则回答需要委婉。在拒绝对方的建议时,一般要给出理由。 13.邀请表达方法小结 对于别人的邀请如 Would you like ...? / Can you come to ...?等要作出明确的答复, 同意还是拒绝要说清楚,同时不要忘了感谢。如果拒绝的话,要表示歉意最好再说明缘由。 14.祝贺表达方法小结 日常生活中,我们经常接受别人的祝愿、祝贺,同时我们也应学习去祝愿、祝贺别人。有时 还有共同的祝愿(The same to you.)。祝愿的表达方式很多,但是一定要用得恰到好处。15. 希望与愿望表达方法小结 当希望别人做某事或者不愿意让别人做某事, 或者表达自己的一种希望、 愿望时需要恰当用 词,这样才能准确地传达自己的意图。 16.感谢与应答表达方法小结 英美人几乎在一切场合都对别人的帮助、赞扬,哪怕是微不足道的事表示感谢。表达感谢很

简单,但是要恰到好处却不是容易的。 17.询问信息表达方法小结 在真实的交际当中,对于怎样询问信息以及怎样回答对方的询问,是要做出思考的。询问用 语要得体,回答信息要贴近事实。 现就特定语境中的问与答及中、 英语言习惯和文化背景差异两方面的考查热点及备考过程中 常遇到的几个问题说明如下: 1.With pleasure 和 My pleasure 有什么区别? With pleasure. 意思是 “非常乐意 (效劳) ”, 常用于对别人请求的回复; pleasure 和 My It’s my pleasure 同义,是“不用谢、甭客气”的意思,是回答对方表示感谢的客套话。 2.如何表达 “别着急”? 口语中表达“别着急”通常用“take it easy”和“take your time”。但实际应用起来, 两者在意义上还是有区别,要注意正确使用。Take it easy!含有“别紧张,放松些”的意 思;Take your time!含有“别慌忙,慢慢来”的意思。 3. “come on” 在口语中可以表达那些意义? “come on” 有“加把劲、加油”的意思,相当于“try harder;make an effort”。这一 意义考生都很熟悉。“come on”还有“hurry up”(快点!赶快!)的意义;有时候也作 “cheer up”(振作起来)解;“come on”还可以用来指责对方刚说的话不对,常翻译成 “得啦!算了吧!”。 易错常考的日常交际用语 1. 问候和应答 A: How are you doing? B: Fine, thank you. / Just so-so. A: Please remember me to your parents. B: Sure, I will. 2. 介绍和应答 A: This is Mr./ Mrs./ Miss/ Ms Brown. B: Hello!/ How do you do ?/ Nice to meet you! 3. 告别 See you (later)! / Good night!( cf. Good evening!)/ Nice seeing you. 4. 感谢和应答 A: Many thanks!/ Thanks for your help!/ I appreciate your help! B: That’s all right (OK). / You are welcome./ Don’t mention it./ It’s a pleasure./ My pleasure. (cf. With pleasure. 用于回答对方的求助、邀请) 5. 道歉和应答 A: I’ m sorry. B: That’s all right (OK.). / It doesn’t matter./ Never mind./ That’s nothing./ Forget it. 6. 邀请和应答 A: Would you like to...? B: Yes, I'd love to. / Yes, with pleasure./ Yes, it's very kind ( nice )of you. / I'd love to, but I have other plans. 7. 请求允许和应答 A: Could I smoke here? / I wonder if I could smoke here. B: Yes (Certainly). / Yes, do please. / Of course you may. / That's OK (all right). / I'm sorry, but it is not allowed / You'd better not.

A: Do you mind if I open the window? B: Not at all./ Of course not./ Certainly not./ I’m sorry, but you’d better not. 8. 祝愿、祝贺和应答 A: Good luck! / Best wishes to you. / Have a nice / good time. / Congratulations! / Have a good journey.! B: Thank you. A: Happy New Year! / Merry Christmas! / Happy birthday to you. B: The same to you. 9. 提供帮助和应答 A: Can I help you? / Would you like some help? B: Thanks. That would be nice / Yes, please. / No, thank you all (just) the same. / No, thank you anyway./ That's very kind of you, but I can manage it myself. A: What can I do for you? B: I’d like to go to the No. 3 Middle School. 10. 约会 A: Shall we meet at 4:30 ? / Let’s make it 4:00. B: All right. See you then. 11. 打电话 A: Hello! May I speak to Tom? B: Hold on, please. A: Is that Mary speaking? B: She isn't here right now. Can I take a message for you? 12.就餐 A: Would you like some more meat? / Help yourself to some more meat. B: Thank you. I've had enough. / Just a little, please. 13. 看病 A: What’s the matter? / What seems to be the trouble? B: I don’t feel like eating./ I've got a cough. / I feel terrible (bad). / I don't feel well. / I've got a pain here. / It hurts here. 14. 购物 A: What can I do for you? / May (Can I )help you? B: I'd like to buy a dictionary. A: How about this one? B: That's fine. I'll take it. 15. 问路和应答 A: Excuse me. Where's the washroom? / Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the post office? B: Go down this street. Turn right / left at the second crossing. Sorry, I don’t know. I am a stranger here. 16. 谈论天气 A: What's the weather like today? / How's the weather in Beijing? B: It's fine / cloudy / windy / rainy, etc. / It's rather warm (cold / hot). today, isn't it? 17. 处理交际中的障碍 Pardon.! / I beg your pardon. / Please say that again( more slowly.) What do you mean by?. ? / I'm sorry I can't follow you. 18. 提醒注意

You can’t ( mustn’t) smoke here. / No smoking!/ Wet paint!/ Mind your head (step) / Take care!/ Be careful!/ Look out! 19. 同意和不同意 Certainly / Sure / Of course. / Yes, please. / That's a good idea. / I agree No, I don't think so. / I'm afraid not. / I really can't agree with you. / No way (决不,没门) 20 时间或日期和应答 A: What time is it now? / What's the time? B: It's about three. A: What day is it today? B: It's Wednesday. A: Excuse me. Have you got the time? B: Yes, it's six twenty. 考点二十:非谓语动词 在英语中,不作句子谓语,而具有除谓语外其他语法功能的动词,叫做非谓语动词。非 谓语动词有 doing;done;to do. (一)动词不定式:(to)+do,具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。 1.不定式的形式: 否定式:not + (to) do (1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动 作之后, He wants to be an artist. The patient asked to be operated on at once. The teacher ordered the work to be done. (2)进行式:不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,例如: The boy pretended to be working hard. He seems to be reading in his room. (3)完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,例如: He is pleased to have met his friend. 2.不定式的句法功能: (1)作主语: To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard. To lose your heart means failure. 动词不定式短语作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,例如上面两句可用如下形式: It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes. It means failure to lose your heart. (2)作表语: Her job is to clean the hall. He appears to have caught a cold. (3)作宾语: 常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语, 则用 it 作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如: Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如: I have no choice but to stay here.

He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike. 动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如: He gave us some advice on how to learn English. (4)作宾语补足语: 在复合宾语中, 动词不定式可充当宾语补足语, 如下动词常跟这种复合宾语: want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite. 此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如: With a lot of work to do, he didn't go to the cinema. 有些动词如 make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have 等与不带有 to 的不定式连用,但 改为被动语态时,不定式要加 to, 如: I saw him cross the road. He was seen to cross the road. (5)作定语: 动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系: ①动宾关系: I have a meeting to attend. 注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如: He found a good house to live in. The child has nothing to worry about. What did you open it with? 如果不定式修饰 time, place, way,可以省略介词: He has no place to live. This is the best way to work out this problem. 如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式: Have you got anything to send? Have you got anything to be sent? ②说明所修饰名词的内容: We have made a plan to finish the work. ③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语: He is the first to get here. (6)作状语: ①表目的: He worked day and night to get the money. She sold her hair to buy the watch chain. 注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致: wrong:To save money, every means has been tried. right:To save money, he has tried every means. ②表结果: He arrived late to find the train gone. 常用 only 放在不定式前表示强调: I visited him only to find him out. ③表原因: They were very sad to hear the news.

④表程度: It's too dark for us to see anything. The question is simple for him to answer. (7)作独立成分: To tell you the truth, I don't like the way he talked. (8)不定式的省略:保留 to 省略 do 动词。 If you don't want to do it, you don't need to. (9)不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略 to。 He wished to study medicine and become a doctor. (二)V-ing 形式 1.形式: (1)一般式:doing Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。 (2)被动式: being done He came to the party without being invited.他未被邀请就来到了晚会。 (3)完成式: having done We remembered having seen the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。 (4)完成被动式: having been done He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old. 他忘记五岁时曾被带到广州去过。 (5)否定式:not +doing I regret not following his advice. 我后悔没听他的劝告。 (6)复合结构:形容词性物主代词(或名词所有格)+doing He suggested our trying it once again. 他建议我们再试一次。 His not knowing English troubled him a lot. 他不懂英语给他带来许多麻烦。 2.句法功能: (1)作主语: Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗读是很有好处的。 Collecting stamps is interesting. 集邮很有趣。 当动名词短语作主语时常用 it 作形式主语。 It's no use quarrelling.争吵是没用的。 (2)作表语: In the ant city, the queen's job is laying eggs. 在蚂蚁王国,蚁后的工作是产卵。 (3)作宾语: They haven't finished building the dam. 他们还没有建好大坝。 We have to prevent the air from being polluted. 我们必须阻止空气被污染。 此外,doing 作宾语时,若跟有宾语补足语,则常用形式宾语 it,例如: We found it no good making fun of others. 我们发现取笑他人不好。 要记住如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语: enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid(避免), excuse ,delay, imagine, keep, miss, consider, admit (承认) deny , (否认) mind, permit, forbid, practise, risk , (冒险) appreciate , (感激), be busy, be worth, feel like, can't stand, can't help(情不自禁地), think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent?(from),keep ?from, stop?(from),protect?

from, set about, be engaged in, spend?(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on, feel like (4)作定语:单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前;如果是短语做定语放在名词后。 In the following years he worked even harder. 在后来的几年中,他学习更努力了。 The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor's father. 正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。 doing 作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能,如:in the following years 也可用 in the years that followed; the man speaking to the teacher 可改为 the man who is speaking to the teacher. (5)作同位语: The cave, his hiding-place is secret. 那个山洞,他藏身的地方很秘密。 His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged. 他收听收音机新闻节目的习惯仍未改变。 (6)作宾语补足语: 如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语: see, watch, hear, feel, find, get, keep, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave, catch 等。例如: Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗? He kept the car waiting at the gate. 他让小汽车在门口等着。 (7)作状语: ①作时间状语: (While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. 在工厂工作时,他是一名先进工人。 ②作原因状语: Being a League member, he is always helping others. 由于是共青团员,他经常帮助他人。 ③作方式状语,表示伴随: He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. 他呆在家里,又擦又洗。 ④作条件状语: (If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. 要是整天玩,你就会浪费宝贵的时间。 ⑤作结果状语: He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. 他把杯子掉了,结果摔得粉碎。 ⑥作目的状语: He went swimming the other day. 几天前他去游泳了。 ⑦作让步状语: Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. 虽然雨下得很大,但不久天就晴了。 ⑧与逻辑主语构成独立主格: I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my heard. 我等汽车时,一只鸟落到我头上。 All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly. 所有的票已经卖光了,他们失望地离开了。 Time permitting, we'll do another two exercises.

如果时间允许,我们将做另两个练习。 有时也可用 with (without) +名词(代词宾格)+分词形式 With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。 ⑨作独立成分: Judging from(by) his appearance, he must be an actor. 从外表看,他一定是个演员。 Generally speaking, girls are more careful. 一般说来,女孩子更细心。 (三)过去分词: 过去分词形式:规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed 构成。不规则动词的过去分词没有统一的规 则要求,要一一记住。 过去分词的句法功能: 1.过去分词作定语: Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. 上周一我们班开展了一次有组织的旅行。 Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting. 当选为委员的人将出席这次会。 注意当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放在名词的后面。过 去分词做定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。 2.过去分词作表语: The window is broken. 窗户破了。 They were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。 注意:be + 过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。区别: The window is broken.(系表) The window was broken by the boy.(被动) 有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。如: boiled water(开水) fallen leaves(落叶) newly arrived goods(新到的货) the risen sun(升起的太阳) the changed world(变了的世界) 这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed 等。 3.过去分词作宾语补足语: I heard the song sung several times last week. 上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。 有时过去分词做 with 短语中的宾语补足语: With the work done, they went out to play. 工作做完了,他们出去玩去了。 4.过去分词作状语: Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of his parents. 受到邻居们的表扬,他成为父母的骄傲。(表示原因) Once seen, it can never be forgotten. 一旦它被看见,人们就忘不了。(表示时间) Given more time, I'll be able to do it better. 如果给予更多的时间,我能做得更好。(表示条件) Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy. 虽然被告之有危险,他仍然冒生命危险去救那个孩子。(表示让步)

Filled with hopes and fears, he entered the cave. 心中充满了希望与恐惧,他走进山洞。 考点二十一:简单句 根据语法形式,即句子的结构,英语的句子可分为简单句、并列句和复合句。 简单句的基本形式是由一个主语加一个谓语构成。其它各种句子形式都是由此句型发展而 来,如五大基本句型: 1.主语+谓语,这种句型简称为主谓结构,其谓语一般都是不及物动词,例: Things change.事物是变化的。 --Did you go by sea?你们走的是海路吗? --NO,we flew.不,我们是飞去。 2.主语+连系动词+表语, 这种句型称为主系表结构, 其实连系动词在形式上也是一种谓语动 词,但实质上表语成了谓语,例: Mr. Turner is an artist.特纳先生是位画家。 3.主语+谓语+宾语,这种句型可称为主谓宾结构,它的谓语一般多是及物动词,例: We never beat children.我们从来不打孩子。 4.主语+谓语+宾语+宾语,这种句型可称为主谓宾宾结构,其谓语应是可有双宾语的及物动 词,两个宾语一个是间接宾语,一个是直接宾语,例: He gave the book to his sister.他把这本书给了他的妹妹。 I'll write you a long letter.我将写给你一封长信。 5.主语+谓语+宾语+宾补,这种句型可简称为主谓宾补结构,其补语是宾语补语,与宾语一 起即构成复合宾语,例: I found the book easy.我发现这本书不难。(形容词 easy 作补语) I'll let him go.我将让他去。(不定式 go 用作补语) 考点二十二:主从复合句 定语从句 一.概念 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句,称为定语从句,也叫形容词性从句 二.相关知识点精讲 1.关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成 分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。 1)who, whom, that 代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中作主语和宾语。例如: Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that 在从 句中作主语) He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that 在从句中作宾语) 2) whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同 of which 互换)。例如: They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大 家都跑过去帮忙。 Please pass me the book of which the cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。 3)which, that 所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。

2.关系副词引导的定语从句 关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。 1) 关系副词 when, where, why 的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构, 因此常常和"介词+ which" 结构交替使用。例如: Beijing is the place where(in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。 Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们 帮助他的理由吗? 3.判断关系代词与关系副词 方法一:看从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及 物动词则要求用关系副词。例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 这是我去年呆过的山村。 I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.我永远不会忘记与 你共事的日子。 方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选 择出关系代词/关系副词。 关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系 代词(who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。 4.限制性和非限制性定语从句 1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它 主句意思往往不明确; 非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明, 去掉了也不会影响主句的意 思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。例如: This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。 (限制性) The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们 上个月买的。(非限制性) 2) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要 用第三人称单数。例如: He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎 没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。 说明:关系代词 that 不能引导非限制性定语从句。 5.介词+关系词 1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。 2)that 前不能有介词。 3)某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词 when 和 where 互换。例如: This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住过的房子。 This is the house where I lived two years ago. Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 还记得你加入我们俱乐部 的那一天吗? Do you remember the day when you joined our club? 6.as, which 非限定性定语从句 由 as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as 和 which 可代整个主句,相当于 and this

或 and that。As 一般放在句首也可在句中,which 在句中。例如: As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。 The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 太阳使地球暖起来,这 对我们人类很重要。 as 注意事项 (1)非限定性定语从句 as 正如, 就像。 (2)限定性定语从句前面有 the same, such, so 9.关系代词 that 的用法 1)不用 that 的情况 a) 引导非限定性定语从句时。例如: (错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here. b) 介词后不能用。例如: We depend on the land from which we get our food. 我们依赖土地获得食物。 We depend on the land that/which we get our food from. 2) 只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 a) 在 there be 句型中,只用 that,不用 which。 b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little 等作先行词时,只用 that,不用 which。 c) 先行词有 the only, the very 修饰时,只用 that。 d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用 that。. e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。例如: All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需的只是供油问题。 Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那 贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。 名词性从句 一.概念 名词性从句共有四种:主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句和同位语从句 二.相关知识点精讲 1. 主语从句:主语从句在整个句子中作主语。 (1)不同于其它的连词,它不充当句子的成分,只是单纯的连接词,通常不可以省略。分句 置于句首时,that 绝对不可以省略。 That the driver could not control his war was obvious. It was obvious that the driver could not control his car. (2)if 不能用在主语从句中,而是用 whether Whether he left (or not) is unknown (3)当主语从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用第三人称单数,下面这个句型例外。 What we need is more time and money. What we need are many more books. 2.表语从句:表语从句出现在系动词后,充当表语。 The trouble is that we are short of money. Go and get your coat. It’s where you left it. (1) 引导表语从句除了上述三类词外还有 because, as if/ as though 等等

The reason (why/for which?..) is that ?? It/This/That is because?? (2) 连系动词“appear, look, seem”的两个常用句型 It seems/appears that?. It looks/seems as if/as though??(与事实相符用陈述语气,与事实相反用虚拟语气) (3) as 也可以引导表语从句 Things are not always as they seem to be 3. 宾语从句:及物动词,形容词和介词后加宾语从句作其宾语。 (1) 宾语从句时态与主句相呼应,但宾语从句表示的是客观真理或普遍现象除外 The teacher told us that the earth moves around the sun (2) 连词 whether 和 if 可以互换,但注意下列情况 连词后紧跟 or not 时用 whether I want to know whether or not they will come. 作介词宾语是用 whether 引导宾语从句 He was interested in whether he saw her there. 连接词后直接加不定式,不能用 if 只能用 whether He doesn’t know whether to stay or not. 如果宾语从句是否定时,一般用 if 引导 I care if he will not attend the meeting. (3) 当宾语从句后带宾补时,要用“主语+谓语+it +宾补+that-clause,that 不可省略 I think it certain that she will do well in her exam. (4) 当主语是 I, we ,主句用 think, believe, suppose, expect, imagine 五个动词时, 用否定转移 I don’t think he will win the game, will he? (5) that 在宾语从句常可以省略,但由 and 或 but 连接两个或多个宾语从句时,仅可以省 略第一个连词 that He said (that) he had eaten nothing but that he wasn’t hungry. (6) 注意区别 if 引导的宾语从句和条件状语从句 I don’t know if he will come. If he comes, I’ll let you know. 4.同位语从句,在句中作某些名词的同位语,对前面的名词进一步说明。用在下列名词 fact,news,idea,hope,believe,hope,thought,doubt.truth,order,suggestion, word etc. (1) There is no doubt that he will come. There is doubt whether he will come. Word came that Napoleon would come to inspect them. There is no possibility that?. (2) that 引导的同位语从句与定语从句的区别: 在同位语从句中:that 不可以省略,不作成分;定语从句的关系代词 that 在定语从句作成 分,作宾语时可以省略 We are interested in the news that some foreigners would visit our school. We are interested in the news that he told us. when, where 引导的同位语从句与定语从句的区别: 在定语从句中,when, where 前有分别表示时间、地点的先行词;而在同位语从句中无此对

应关系 They have no idea at all where he has gone.(同位语从句) Go and get your coat. It’s in the place where you left it.(定语从句) 5. 疑问词-ever 既可以引导名词性从句,也可以引导让步状语从句,而 no matter+疑问词 只能引导让步状语从句 No matter where I go, my heart is towards China. I believer whatever he says. Whatever he says, I will never believe him. who 与 whoever 的区别 who 是“谁”的意思,表示具有疑问,who 相当于 anyone who“无论谁” Whoever leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights. Can you tell me who that gentleman is? 6.当名词性从句缺少主语、宾语或表语时,引导词通常用 what,它相当于。另外,有时具 有感叹意义 all that, anything that 或 the thing(s) that What we can’t get seems better than what we have. Tom thought what a beautiful girl Mary was. 7.注意区分 it 作形式主语的主语从句与强调句 强调句句型 It is/was+被强调部分+that, 去掉 It is/was, that,句子仍然成立。 It is natural that they should have different views. 主语从句 It is only lately that he had had a family himself. 强调句 What was it that he wanted? I don’t know what it was that he wanted. It was in the hotel where he stayed that we discussed the serious problem 8.注意 it 作形式主语的主语从句和 as 引导非限制性定语从句引导的不同 It is known to all that the earth is round. As is known to all, the earth is round 状语从句 一.概念 状语从句修饰主句中的动词,形容词,副词等,在复合句中作状语.引导状语从句的关联词 是从属连词.状语从句用陈述句语序,一般位于复合句的句首或句末.当从句在句首时,从句 后常用逗号和主句相隔.状语从句根据其在句中的不同作用分别表示时间,地点,原因,目的, 结果,条件,比较,让步,行为方式等. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.地点状语从句 地点状语从句通常由 where, wherever 引导。例如: Where I live there are plenty of trees. 我住的地方树很多。 Wherever I am I will be thinking of you. 不管我在哪里我都会想到你。 2.方式状语从句 方式状语从句通常由 as, as if, as though 引导。

1)as 从句带有比喻的含义,意思是"正如?","就像",多用于正式文体。例如: Always do to the others as you would be done by. 你希望人家怎样待你,你就要 怎样待人。 2)as if, as though 引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反,有时也用陈述 语气,表示所说情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。汉译常作"仿佛??似的","好像??似 的"。例如: They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed. 他 们完全忽略了这些事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。) He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting. 他那样子就像被雷击 了似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。) It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon. 看来天气很快就会好起来。(实 现的可能性较大,谓语用陈述语气。) 说明:as if / as though 也可以引导一个分词短语、不定式短语或无动词短语。例如: He stared at me as if seeing me for first time. 他目不转睛地看着我,就像第一 次看见我似的。 He cleared his throat as if to say something. 他清了清嗓子,像要说什么似的。 The waves dashed on the rocks as if in anger. 波涛冲击着岩石,好像很愤怒 3.原因状语从句 比较 because, since, as 和 for: 1)because 语势最强,用来说明人所不知的原因,回答 why 提出的问题。当原因是显而易 见的或已为人们所知,就用 as 或 since。例如: I didn't go, because I was afraid. 我不去是因为我怕。 Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey. 天气那么糟, 旅行推迟了。 2)由 because 引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用 for 来代替。但如果不 是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用 for。例如: He is absent today, because / for he is ill. 他今天缺席,因为他病了。 He must be ill, for he is absent today. 他一定病了,所以今天缺席。 4.目的状语从句 表示目的状语的从句可以由 that, so that, in order that, for fear that, in case 等词引导。例如: You must speak louder so that /in order that you can be heard by all. 你必须 大点声,别人就能听见了。 He wrote the name down for fear that(lest) he should forget it. 他写下了这 个名字以免以后忘记。 Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold. 最好多穿点衣服,以防天 发冷。 5.结果状语从句 结果状语从句常由 so?that 或 such?that 引导。so?that 与 such?that 之间可以转 换。例如: The boy is so young that he can't go to school. 这男孩年龄太小,不能上学。 He is such a young boy that he can't go to school

6. 条件状语从句 连接词主要有 if, unless, as/so long as, on condition that 等。if 引导的条件 句有真实条件句和非真实条件句两种。非真实条件句已在虚拟语气中阐述。 unless = if not. 例如: Let's go out for a walk unless you are too tired. 如果不太累,我们去散散步。 If you are not too tied, let's go out for a walk. 典型例题 You will be late ___ you leave immediately. A. unless B. until C. if D. or 答案 A。句意:除非你立即走,否则你就回迟到的。可转化为 If you dong leave immediately, you will be late。 D 句意不对, 表转折, B、 or 句子如为 You leave immediately or you will be late. 7. 让步状语从句 1)though, although 引导的让步状语从句,后面的从句不能有 but,但是 though 和 yet 可连用。例如: Although it's raining, they are still working in the field. 虽然在下雨,但他们 仍在地里干活。 He is very old, but he still works very hard. 虽然他很老了,但仍然努力地工 作。 2) as, though 引导的让步从句表语或状语提前 (形容词、 副词、 分词、 实义动词提前) 。 例如: Child as /though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do. 虽然是个 小孩,该做什么不做什么,他全知道。 3) ever if, even though 即使。例如: We'll make a trip even though the weather is bad. 即使天气不好,我们也要去 远足。 4) whether?or? 不管??都。例如: Whether you believe it or not, it is true. 信不信由你,这确实是真的。 5) "no matter +疑问词" 或"疑问词+后缀 ever" 。例如: No matter what happened, he would not mind. =Whatever happened, he would not mind. 不管发生什么,他不在意。 替换:no matter what = whatever no matter who = whoever no matter when = whenever no matter where = wherever no matter which = whichever no matter how = however 注意:no matter 不能引导主语从句和宾语从句。 8. 比较 while, when, as 1)as, when 引导短暂性动作的动词。例如: Just as / Just when / When I stopped my car, a man came up to me. 我一刹 车,有一个人向我走来。 2)当从句的动作发生于主句动作之前,只能用 when 引导这个从句,不可用 as 或 while。

例如: When you have finished your work, you may have a rest. 赶完活后,你可以休 息一下。 3)从句表示"随时间推移"连词能用 as,不用 when 或 while。例如: As the day went on, the weather got worse. 日子一天天过去,天气越变越坏。 9.比较 until 和 till 此两个连词意义相同。 肯定形式表示的意思是"做某事直至某时", 动词必须是延续性的。 否定形式表达的意思是"直至某时才做某事"。 动词为延续性或非延续性都可以。 正确使用这 两个连词的关键之一就在于判断句中的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。 肯定句: slept until I midnight. 我一直睡到半夜时醒了。 Wait till I call you. 等着我叫你。(在肯定句中可用 before 代替。例如 Let's get in the wheat before the sun sets.) 否定句:She didn't arrive until 6 o'clock. 她直到 6 点才到。 Don't get off the bus until it has stopped. 公共汽车停稳后再下车。 I didn't manage to do it until you had explained how. 直到你教我后,我才会做。 区别: until 可用于句首,而 till 通常不用于句首。例如: Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened. 直到你告 诉我以前,出了什么事我一点也不知道。 注意:否定句可用另外两种句式表示。 1)Not until?在句首,主句用倒装。例如: Not until the early years of the 19th century did man know what heat is. 直到 19 世纪初,人类才知道热为何物。 2)It is not until? that? 。例如: It was not until I began to work that I realized how much time I had wasted. 10.表示"一?就?"的结构 hardly/scarcely?when/before, no sooner?than 和 as soon as 都可以表示"一? 就?"的意思。例如: I had hardly / scarcely got home when it began to rain. 刚回家,就下起雨来了。 I had no sooner got home than it began to rain. As soon as I got home, it began to rain. 注意:如果 hardly, scarcely 或 no sooner 置于句首,句子必须用倒装结构。例如: Hardly / Scarcely had I got home when it began to rain. No sooner had I got home than it began to rain. 第三部分:完型填空(30 分) 所谓完形填空,就是在表达意义连贯的文章中,有目的地挖去一些词语,形成文章的空 格,要求考生在给出的对应备选答案中,从整个语段的内容、组织结构和语言特点出发,全 面考虑问题,综合运用所学词汇、语法知识、文化风俗背景知识和一般常识性知识,选出一 个正确或最佳答案填充空格。完形填空后的文章,不仅语法正确、用词恰当,而且意思、结 构完整、合理,前后一致。 “完形填空”是英语高考考试题中难度较大得分率较低但区分度相当好的一种题型, 需引起同学们足够重视。 一、考查要求 完形填空题主要是测试学生综合运用语言的能力, 它不仅考查学生的语法基础知识, 还

要从词的习惯用法、上下文内容和生活常识等多个角度综合起来考虑才能选出正确的答案。 它要求考生: 1.要有牢固的语言基础知识,能够熟练运用所掌握的常见词汇及惯用知识,即在特定的 语境中运用词汇(主要是实词)的能力。 2.具备较强的快速阅读和语篇的整体理解能力,能够根据上、下文线索通篇考虑。 3.结合个人所具备的各方面常识(包括话题及功能等方面的背景知识)以及逻辑推理等 与语言运用相关的经验作出正确的判断和最佳选择。 二、试题设置特点 1.完形填空题一般选择单词数在 175─215 个之间,内容完整,主题鲜明的短文。 2.短文难度与中学英语教材大致相当。 3.NMET 中完形填空题留出 20 个空白处,且其间隔是不固定的。 4.短文的第一句往往是完整的,目的主要是给学生提供一个背景或告诉你故事发生的时 间、地点、背景,或告诉你全篇短文的中心内容。 5.在备选答案中,都有 A、B、C、D 四个单词或短语可供选择,要求选出一个合适的;往 往会出现文章从局部看 A、B、C、D 四个答案都是正确的情况,但是要根据上下文多角度去 考虑,选出一个“最佳”答案。 三、解题技巧或方法 1.粗读。即:不看答案,跳读全文,通篇考虑,弄清作者思路,掌握大意。 答题前,跳过空格,通读一遍全文,力求对文章的整体内容有个基本了解。阅读时遵循 两个重要原则:整体性原则和连贯性原则。也就是说在阅读时,要把握整体,注意语境和局 部的流畅。一方面,要放松思想,克服心理紧张,不要因为有个别生词就着急,往往这些生 词能够根据上下文推断出其词义; 另一方面, 要善于抓住最能表现文章中心内容的启示性的 关键句子、词语,即情节发展的线索(如人物、时间、地点、事件、原因、经过、结果等), 理解作者要表达的观点、态度。一般情况下,该试题的首句是完整的,是交待背景的,突破 首句有助于把握大意,理顺思路,而结尾的几句则是对文章的总结或作者的观点的表明。 2、试填。结合备选答案,细读全文,并分析推断正确选项。 在跳读全文了解大意的基础上,细读全文。按文章前后顺序结合备选答案,边读、边分 析、边推断正确选项。对试题的测试部分(即文中空格)进行分析。看缺的是什么词,起什 么作用,同时观察对应备选答案的情况;从句子的意思上去验证究竟用什么词类、什么形式 填空才正确。比如,若选项是动词,首先要搞清是谓语动词还是非谓语动词。如果是谓语动 词,应选根据上下文或句子本身来确定它的时态、语态、语气形式以及它在主语和人称及数 方面的一致;如果是非谓语动词,则要从它在句中的功能以及与它的逻辑主语的关系(是执 行者还是承受者)去考虑它的时态与语态。若选的是介词或副词,则要先确定它是属于固定 搭配或惯用法,否则就要根据上下文的意思去选择。这时既要掌握全文的核心内容,又要了 解本句在全文中的位置。捕捉与小题有关的信息点,分析备选答案的词汇意义,挑选出本句 意思所需要的、又能体现文章主题的词语,从而选出最佳答案。遇到一时难以确准答案的小 题可暂时不选,先做后面的,再用其它已选出的答案信息去促成这个难题的解决。 3.复读全文,瞻前顾后,全面验证。 各题填好后,为使短文得以恢复本来面貌,再将全文复读一遍,复读要着于全篇,仔细 推敲、 全面验证。 看填入答案后全文是否意思通顺, 结构完整; 看是不是有相互矛盾的地方。 在前两遍的基础上,已对短文有了较充分的理解,所以阅读第三遍视野较前将更开阔,思路 更清晰,也就更容易发现错误,从而及时作出调整或修正。因此,第三步的复读尤为重要。 可以说,不复查、不读第三遍就等于放弃了纠正错误的机会。 上述三步解题之法可概括为:

一步粗读寻思路, 二步细读选答案, 三步复读纠错误, 若能沉着照此办, 胸有成竹少失误。 当然,答题技巧与方法固然重要,毕竟没有“万能钥匙”,要熟练地驾驭此题,关键 还在于巩固基础知识,提高阅读能力,并不懈地在实践中提高综合运用英语知识的能力。 四、注意事项 1.切忌题目一到手就逐字逐句地往下填,而不首先去了解全文的意思。 2.在做完形填空的词汇或语法题目时, 要注意它不同于单项选择题, 必须遵循这样一个 原则,即不能孤立地就词论词、就句论句地去推测、判断,而必须根据上下文,从整体的观 点入手, 尤其当所给的选项是同义词时, 更要善于从字里行间、 前后词语搭配寻找有关线索。 五、题型解析 做“完形填空”题一般应从以下四个方面考虑,现结合实例加以说明。 1.从惯用法、搭配角度考虑。Then he suddenly felt nervous. After all, it was his first time to (47) a part in a play(NMET91)47.A.made B. join C. have D. give 此 题所提供的四个选项都是及物动词, 后边都可以直接跟名词作宾语。 如果只是从语法角度考 虑,很难确定答案。可是,如果知道英语中 have a part 是一种习惯搭配,表示“担任一 个角色”,就不难作出选择了。 2.从逻辑推理、常识等角度考虑。Taking off his clothes, he jumped into the river. The (52)water made him tremble all over.(NMET91) 52.A.deep B. cool C. dirty D. cold 此题的四个选项都可以修饰名词 “water ” 但在上下文中, 最佳选项是 D。 正因为水冷, “他” 才会全身发抖。这点是可以根据常识来判断的。 3.从词汇的意义及用法去考虑。She noticed how nervous he was and suggested. he should stand near the stage where he could watch and follow the play. It was a good(58)of getting rid of his nervousness. She said ,she was right ,it seemed to(59). (NMET91) 58.A.idea B. way C. path D. plan 59.A.do B. win C. work D. act 句中的“她” 注意到“他”很紧张,建议“他”观看表演以消除紧张。显然,“她”所建议的是一种消除 紧张的方法。58 题的选项中,只有 way 有方法的意思,无疑是最佳答案。紧接着的一句话 是“她说得对,这个方法似乎有效。”59 题的四个选项中,只有 work 有“奏效”的意思, 自然应选 C。这两个题的解答都要从词汇入手。当然,词汇意义的决定也与通篇意义有关。 4.从上下文的角度考虑 Washoe(56)like a human, too . The scientists keep her in a fully furnished (家具齐全的) house. (NMET95) 56.A.live B. acts C. thinks D. plays 下文谈到的是 Washoe 的生活环境和生活习惯,所以该句的意思应该是“Washoe 生活得也象 人类”,因此 A 为正确答案。 第四部分:阅读理解(40 分) 该部分要求考生读懂公告,说明,广告以及书,报,杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文章.考 生应能: (1) 理解主旨和要义 这类试题主要考察考生略读文章, 领会大意的能力, 它对考生的归纳概括能力有一定的要求。 (2) 理解文中具体信息 这类试题有时比较直接,理解字面意思即可答题;有时则较为间接,需要归纳概括和推理才 能答题。 (3)根据上下文推断生词的词义

能根据上下文正确理解灵活变化的词义, 才算是真正初步具备了一定的阅读理解能力。 此外, 阅读文章时, 常常会遇到一些过去未见过的词, 但许多这类生词的词义可以通过上下文推断 出来。 这种不使用词典而通过上下文来推断生词含义的能力, 是一个合格的读者所必须具备 的能力,因此也是阅读测试中经常检测的一种能力。 (4)作出简单判断和推理 阅读文章的主要目的是获取信息,即理解作者所要传达的信息。在实际的阅读过程中,有时 需要根据文章提供的事实和线索进行逻辑推理, 推测作者未提到的事实或某事发生的可能性 等。 (5)理解文章的基本结构 如果希望准确深刻地理解一篇文章,必须对文章的结构有所了解,把握住全篇的文脉,即句 与句之间的逻辑关系。 对这种能力的考察, 一般反映在理解文中某一段落的作用或某些词语 的指代关系的题目中。 (6)理解作者的意图观点和态度 每篇文章都有一个特定的写作目的, 而这些信息通常并不是明确地表达出来, 而是隐含在文 章之中。因此,这类问题要求考生在理解文章总体内容的基础上,去领会作者的言外之意。 第五部分:补全对话(5 分) 新《考纲》要求考生:"能正确使用语言、语法、和日常交际用语知识;能够恰当理解 使用中的语言现象","能够在特定的语境中比较得体地表达自己的连贯思想。"为此大纲专 门列出 36 条日常交际用语。 补全对话试题的设计采用应答形式, 考生根据试题说明中交待的情景把一段不完整的对 话补充完整。 考生除了应具备必要的词汇、 语法知识以外还需要熟悉日常生活中交际英语的 表达方式,如:感谢、邀请等。 考生应该注意对交际情景的整体理解,注意对话结构的合理,前后连贯性,注意对话中 的情感交流,熟悉会话中的交际技能。 补全对话的解题应当充分理解题目的说明与汉语提示。把握对话的整体内容,时间、地 点、人物等;弄清事实细节、依据上下文正确判断讲话人的意图、情感等以及语法结构、习 惯交际形式等。 第六部分:单词拼写(10 分) 高考英语单词拼写题作为一种集理解、语法、结构、词性、词形于一体的综合性题型,对中 学英语教学起到了良好的导向作用, 有利于培养学生扎实的语言基本功和提高学生语言综合 应用能力。本文结合近年高考单词拼写真题,简要分析了高考单词拼写题的命题特点、常见 考点以及解题策略,并针对 2008 年高考提出了该题型的复习备考建议。 [关键字] 高考 英语 单词拼写题 1991 年高考题中增加了专项测试单词拼写的题型,实现了单词拼写测试的第一次飞跃— —从无到有,其形式为从选项 A、B、C、D 中找出适当的字母或字母组合使所给单词完整与 准确。1996 年开始实现单词拼写测试的第二次飞跃——从知识型到能力型,其形式为根据 句子所给汉语注释或首字母提示写出空缺处单词的正确形式, 属于 “基于对句子含义理解的 词汇应用题”,使单词拼写语境化,具有综合考查功能,实现了单词拼写正确、形式正确、 句子结构完整和句子意思明确四个方面的考查目标。 这样就把枯燥机械的单词记忆测试活化 为集理解、语法、结构、词性、拼写于一体的综合性题型。它不仅已经达到了既定的检测效 果,而且起到了良好的导向作用,扭转了中学英语教学中长期形成的只注重 ABCD 而忽视语 言基本功和语言综合运用能力的倾向。 一、高考单词拼写题的命题特点 1. 单词拼写主要考查考生“识词、记词和用词”的能力。这类试题体现了“词不离句”

的特点,要求考生注意单词在句子中的确切含义与正确形式,而不是孤立地死记硬背单词。 2. 所有单词都是给出汉语提示填词,没有给首字母填单词的。了解了这一点,考生在平 时练习时应多做一些给汉语提示填词的练习以增强训练的针对性。 3. 所考单词全都是《考纲》(即《考试说明》)上要求的词,无一生僻词,其中涵盖 初中单词。这就要求考生要熟练掌握考纲要求的 2000 个词汇。 4. 近三年所考的单词中,所含字母数最少的是四个(2006 年第 66 题所考的 miss),含 字母数最多的是 11 个(2005 年第 69 题、第 70 题所考的 deion 和 immediately),多数所考 单词为 6-9 个字母。所以,复习时对这种长度的单词要多加注意。 5. 关于各种词性的考查分布也有一定的特点(详见下表): 年份/词性 名词 动词 形容词 副词 年份/词性 2005 年 2006 年 2007 年 名词 4 4 3 动词 4 4 4 形容词 1 1 2 副词 1 1 1

由此可见,实词,尤其是名词、动词、形容词和副词,应该是单词记诵的重点。 二、 高考单词拼写题的常见考点(详见下表) 1. 名词常考可数和不可数名词的用法, 如果是可数名词, 常会涉及到单复数的变化。 2. 动词常考时态、语态、非谓语动词及动词过去式和过去分词的不规则变化。 3. 形容词、副词常考两者的区别以及比较级和最高级的变化。 动词 名词 年份 原形 可数 2005 2006 2007 3 4 3 不可数 1 1 1 2 规则 1 1 1 不规则 规则 不规则 1 2 1 1 词 1 2 2 2 1 过去式 过去分词 动名 原级 最高级 比较/ 形容/副词

高考必备单词: 一、一个星期七天 1. Monday 2. Tuesday

3. Wednesday

4. Thursday

5.

Friday

6. Saturday 7. Sunday 二、一年十二个月 1. January 2. February 3. March 6. June 7. July 8. August October 11. November 12. December 三、一年四季

4. April 9. September

5. May 10.

1. spring 2. summer 3. autumn 4. winter 十三、其它必背单词 1. abroad 国外 2. absence n. 缺席 (absent adj.) 3. accepted (NMET1997) 4. accident 事故 (accidental adj. 偶然的,accidentally adv. 偶然地) 5. achievement 成就 (achieve v. 获得) 6. address 地址 7. admire 钦佩 8. admitting (2000北京春季卷) 9. agreement 协议 10. agriculture 农业 (agricultural adj. 农业的) 11. altogether 总共 12. ancient 古代的 13. announced(NMET1999) 14. anxiety 忧虑 (anxious adj. 焦急的,anxiously adv. 焦急地) 15. apologize v. 道歉 (apology n. 道歉 apologetic adj. 道歉的,apologetically adv. 道歉地) 16. apologize/apologise (2000全国卷) 17. appreciate 感激/欣赏 (感激人用 thank sb;谢谢某人做的事用 appreciate sth.) 18. Asian(NMET1996) 19. assistant 助手 20. astonish 吃惊 (astonishment n. 吃惊,astonishing,astonished) 21. astronaut 宇航员 22. atmosphere 气氛 23. attempt 尝试 (可作名词也可作动词) 24. attentively 专心地 25. attentively(NMET1996) 26. attitude 态度 27. attract 吸引 (attraction 吸引力) 28. average 平均 29. average(NMET1999) 30. balance 平衡 31. beauty 美 (beautiful) 32. believe 相信 (belief n. 信念,其复数是 beliefs) 33. beyond 超过 34. biology 生物 35. birthday 生日 36. bravery 勇敢 37. broadcast(NMET1996) 38. broadcast 广播 (过去式、过去分词同原形) 39. carefully 小心 (carefully) 40. ceiling 天花板 41. celebrated (2000北京春季卷)

42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85.

celebration 庆祝 (celebrate n. 庆祝) century 世纪 challenge 挑战 character 性格 charge 收费 cinema 电影院 comfort v. & n. 安慰 (comfortable adj. comfortably adv.舒适地) comfortably(NMET1997) comment 评论 communication 交流 competition 竞赛 (compete v. 竞赛 competitor 竞赛者) composition 作文 concert 音乐会 conclude v. conclusion n. 结论 condition 情况 (conditions 条件) confessing (2000北京春季卷) congratulations 祝贺 (congratulate v.) constantly 不断地 construction(NMET1996) continue 继续 contribution 贡献 (contribute v.) conveniently 方便 (convenient adj.) conversation 谈话 coughing(NMET1997) cousin 表兄弟 cruelty 残酷 (cruel adj. cruelly adv.) curious 好奇 (curiosity n. 好奇) curious(NMET1996) customer 顾客 customers (2000北京春季卷) custom 习俗 damage 损坏 declared(NMET1999) delicious 美味 destroy 毁灭 (其过去式是 destroyed) determined 有决心的 develop 发展 (development n. developing 发展中的,developed 发达的) dialogue 对话 diary 日记 (dairy 奶制品) difference 不同点 (有复数形式) disappointed 失望 (disappointing 让人失望的) disappointment 失望 discovery 发现 (其复数是 discoveries,其动词是 discover,discoverer 发现者) disturb 打扰

86. dollar 美元 (其复数是 dollars) 87. downstairs 楼下 88. dream 梦想 (其过去式是 dreamed 或 dreamt) 89. electricity 电 (electrical 电的,electric 电的) 90. employ 雇用 (employment n. employer 雇主,employee 雇员) 91. empty 倒空 (可用动词,其过去式是 emptied) 92. encourage 鼓励 (encouraging, encouraged, encouragement n.) 93. energy 能量 94. envelope 信封 95. envy n. 妒忌 (envious adj.) 96. equal(NMET1998) 97. equipment 设备 98. especially 尤其是 99. essential(NMET1999) 100.European 欧洲人 101.event 事件 102.excellent 极好 (excellence n. excellently adv.) 103.exhibition(NMET1997) 104.exhibition 展览 105.expense 耗费 106.experience 经验 (experienced 有经验的) 107.expert 专家 108.expression 表达 109.failure 失败 (fail v.) 110.familiar(NMET1999) 111.familiar 熟悉的 112.favorite 最喜爱的 (即作形容词也作名词,作名词时有复数) 113.figure 人物/数字 114.finger 手指 115.flight 飞行 116.forehead 前额 117.foreign(NMET1998) 118.fortunately 幸运地 119.forward 向前 120.freezing 极冷的 (frozen 冷冻的) 121.frequently 经常地 122.furniture 家具 123.further 进一步的 124.generally (2000全国卷) 125.geography 地理 126.Germany 德国 127.government(NMET1996) 128.gradually 逐渐地 129.graduation 毕业 (graduate)

130.grammar 语法 131.habits (NMET1997) 132.handkerchiefs (2000北京春季卷) 133.honesty 诚实 (honest) 134.honor/honour 荣誉 135.imagination 想象力 (imagine v.) 136.immediate (2000北京春季卷) 137.immediately 马上 138.impress 印象 (impression n.) 139.incident 小事件 140.including 包括 (include v.) 141.indispensable (NMET1999) 142.industry 工业 (industrial adj. 工业的) 143.information 信息 144.inspire 激励 (inspiration n. inspiring, inspired) 145.institute 学院 146.instrument 仪器 147.interest 兴趣 148.interrupt 打断 149.interrupt 打断 150.introduce 介绍 (introduction n.) 151.irregular 不规则的 152.journey 旅程 153.judge 判断 (judgment) 154.kindergarten 幼儿园 155.knowledge 知识 156.labor/labour 劳动 157.late1y(NMET1999) 158.laughter 笑声 159.lawyer 律师 160.librarian 图书馆理员 161.loss 损失 (lose, lost 是其动词形式) 162.luckily 幸运地 163.magazine 杂志 164.majority (2000北京春季卷) 165.majority 大多数 166.manage 设法 (manager, management) 167.market(2000全国卷) 168.marriage 结婚 (marry v. 结婚,married 已婚的) 169.material(s)/cloth(NMET1996) 170.material 物质/材料 171.mayor 市长 172.mean (NMET1999) 173.measure 测量

174.medal 奖章 (比较:model 模型) 175.memory 记忆力 (memorize v. 记住,remember 记得) 176.messages (2000全国卷) 177.metal 金属 178.modern 现代的 179.modest 谦虚的 180.monitor 班长/监控 181.moustache 胡子 182.murder 谋杀 (murderer 凶手) 183.musician 音乐家 184.mysterious 神秘的 (mystery 神秘) 185.nationality 国籍 (nation 国家,national 国家的) 186.naturally(NMET1998) 187.naughty 淘气的 188.necessary(NMET1999) 189.ninth(NMET1998) 190.normal 正常的 191.obey (NMET1997) 192.obviously 明显的 193.offering (2000全国卷) 194.operation 手术 195.opportunity 机会 196.ordinary 普通的 197.organized/organised(NMET1996) 198.particularly 特别是 199.passenger 旅客 200.passengers(NMET1999) 201.patience 耐心 (patiently) 202.patient 病人/耐心 203.perfect 完美 (perfectly) 204.performed(2000北京春季卷) 205.perhaps 或许 206.period 时期 207.permission 许可 208.persuaded(NMET1996) 209.phenomena 现象 210.physicist 物理学家 211.pilots (2000全国卷) 212.poisonous 有毒的 (poison) 213.political 政治的 (politics) 214.popular 受欢迎的 215.population 人口 216.position 职位 217.possibility(-ies)可能性 (possible 可能的)

218.poverty 贫穷 (poor) 219.poverty 贫穷 220.practical (NMET1997) 221.preparing(NMET1998) 222.pressure(NMET1997) 223.pretend 假装 224.professor 教授 225.profit 利润 226.progress 进步 227.pronunciation (2000北京春季卷) 228.provide 提供 (比较:offer, supply) 229.public 公众 230.purpose 目的 231.quality(NMET1996) 232.quantity 数量 233.realistic(NMET1997) 234.receive 收到 235.recently(NMET1999) 236.recognised/recognized(NMET1999) 237.recognize 认出 (recognition 承认) 238.regards 问候 239.remind 提醒 240.repeat (repetition)重复 241.respect 尊敬 242.restaurant 餐馆 243.restaurants(NMET1999) 244.satisfaction 满意 (satisfy, satisfied, satisfying) 245.satisfactory 满意的 246.Saturday(NMET1998) 247.scientific 科学的 248.scientific 科学的 249.secretary 秘书 250.secretly (2000北京春季卷) 251.separately 单独地 252.separates (NMET1998) 253.serious 严重的 (seriously) 254.service 服务 255.shortcoming 缺点 256.silence 安静 (silent) 257.similar (2000北京春季卷) 258.similar 类似的 (similarity –ies 相似之处) 259.situation 形势/情况 260.slightly(2000全国卷) 261.society 社会 (social adj. 社会的)

262.southern(2000全国卷) 263.special 特别的 264.species 物种 (单复数同形) 265.spring(NMET1997) 266.square 平方 267.stolen(2000全国卷) 268.straight(NMET1997) 269.suitable 合适的 270.support 支持 271.surprise 吃惊 272.surround 包围 273.swimming(NMET1998) 274.technique 技术 (technical adj.) 275.technology 技术 276.temperature 温度 277.theory 理论 278.thirsty 口渴 279.thorough (NMET1997) 280.total 合计 281.traffic 交通 282.translated(NMET1998) 283.translation 翻译 (translator 翻译家,interpret 解说, interpreter 口语翻译) 284.umbrella(NMET1999) 285.umbrella 伞 286.unusually 不寻常 (unusual 不寻常的) 287.unwilling 不愿意 (willing adj. 愿意 will n. 意志) 288.upstairs(2000全国卷) 289.upstairs 楼上 290.vacation 假期 291.various 各种各样的 (variety n. 种类) 292.victim 受害者 293.victory 胜利 294.vocabulary 词汇 295.voyage 航行 296.waste (NMET1999) 297.wealth 财富 298.weather(NMET1998) 299.whisper 低语 300.worship 崇拜 301.youth 年轻人 (复数加-s) 302.zero 零 认读较难词汇 100 audience available award accurate agent scare survive system transport variety reward relate rescue respond quantity paragraph precious

original oxygen nuclear merchant merely majority interview intelligence influence illegal independent immigrate envy guilty gesture confuse combine convenient commercial comment 第七部分:短文改错(15 分) 考点一:动词 1. 谓语动词的时态 1)各种时态的用法 2)时态的协调一致 a. 在简单句中, 时态要与时间状语一致。b. 当两个或两个以上的谓 语共用一个主语时, 其时态要求一致。c. 由并列连词连接的两个句子, 时态上要求一致。 d. 从句与主句的时态呼应 2.谓语动词的语态 1)主动语态与被动语态的误用 2)被动语态的正确形式 3)被动语态的时态与句中其他时态的呼应 3.主谓一致 4.谓语动词的语气 1)虚拟语气在条件句中的应用。 2)虚拟语气在宾语从句中的应用。 3)虚拟语气在主语从句中的应用。 5.情态动词 1)must 表示“必须, 不得不”时, 其否定式是 needn’t 或 do not have to; must not 则表示“不许, 禁止”。 2)need 与 dare 既可作情态动词, 也可作实义动词; 而作实义动词时, 若要构成问句和 否定句, 就需要助动词 do/does/did。 3)“can+have+过去分词”结构用在疑问句和否定句中, 表示对过去的事情所作的推测 4)“could+have+过去分词”结构除用来表示对过去的事情所作的推测外, 还可用来表示 某事有可能在过去发生, 但实际上并没有发生。 5) “may/might+have+过去分词”结构用来表示对过去的事情所作的推测。 (“可能已经?? 了”) 6)“must+have+过去分词”结构用来表示对过去的事情所作的肯定判断。(“??一定已 经??了吧”) 7)“should/ought to+have+过去分词”结构用来表示过去应做而未做的事, 含有自责或 责备的语气。(“本来应该??的”) 8)“need not+have+过去分词”结构用来表示过去做了没有必要做的事。(“本来不必?? 的”) 6.谓语结构(缺少谓语) 例:(NMET05II)I now think English fun to learn.【fun 前加 is;English 是宾语从句 的主语,后面应是谓语,且为一般现在时单数,故需加 is】 7.固定结构 例:(NMET04I)Can you tell me about what I should do?【去掉 about】 8.非谓语动词 1)不定式的主被动形式的误用 2)不定式与 V-ing 的误用 3)形式主语、形式宾语 it 的误用

4)had better, would rather than 等词的后面只跟不带 to 的不定式。 5)动词不定式的一般式与完成式的误用 6)动词 plan, expect, wish, intend, mean, want, would(should) like 等后面的不定式 的完成式表示原打算要做而最终未做成的事情。 7) V-ing 形式与过去分词的误用, surprising(令人吃惊的), surprised(感到惊讶的); 如: 考点二:名词 1. 句中名词的单复数形式 2. 句中可数名词和不可数名词的误用 3. 句中所有格的误用 4. 句中名词前限定词的误用 考点三:形容词与副词 1. 句中形容词与副词的位置 2. 系动词后形容词、副词的误用 3. 句中易混淆的形容词的误用和易混淆的副词的误用 4. 句中形容词与副词的比较级和最高级的构成错误。 5. 句中形容词与副词的比较级和最高级的使用错误。 6. 并列结构前后形容词与副词的级别的对等。 考点四:代 词 1. 人称代词单复数的使用 2. 人称代词主格和宾格的误用 3. 形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词的误用 4. 物主代词指代的使用 5. 反身代词的单复数和人称与所指代的名词是否一致。 6. 不定代词有 some, any, no, none, many, much, few, little, each, every, one, all, both, either, other, another, others 及由 some, any, no, every 构成的 复合词的误用 7. 指示代词的误用 考点五:数 词 1. 基数词与序数词之间的误用 2. 几百、 几千、 几百万等数字的正确表述 3. 分数的正确表达 4. 表示“历史上的几十年代和某人几十岁时”的正确表达方式 5. 数词与其他词构成的复合形容词的正确性 考点六:介词 1.介词的正确使用 2.介词的遗漏, 特别要注意作定语用的不定式后是否缺少必要的介词 3.多余介词的使用 4.句中介词与动词、 名词、 形容词、 副词等的搭配的正确使用。 考点七:连 词 1.并列句中,并列连词的正确使用,有无遗漏并列连词的情况。 2. 复合句中, 从属连词的正确使用 3.主语从句和同位语从句前的连词是否遗漏。 4.连词之间的误用, 尤其是 if 和 whether 之间的误用。 考点八:从句与一致关系

1.语序 2.连接词的误用 3.连接词的漏用,尤其是主语从句和同位语从句中的 that。 4.宾语从句与主句的时态呼应 5.主语从句与谓语的数是否一致 6.主语从句后置时,形式主语 it 的正确使用 7.if 与 whether 的误用。 8.关系代词及关系副词的正确使用 9.先行词与定语从句的谓语动词的数是否一致。 10.关系代词的格的正确使用,尤其是在关系代词作主语和介词前置时。 11.关系副词与介词重复使用的情况。 12.

推荐相关:

2011高中英语高考常考知识点总结大全

2011 高中英语高考常考知识点总结大全第一部分:语音辨音(5 分) 考点一:a,e,i,o,u 五个元音字母的发音:注意元音字母在重读开音节 、闭音节中的读音 ,非...


2011高考英语常考知识点总结

2011高考英语常考知识点总结_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档 2011高考英语常考知识点总结_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。2011高考...


英语高考常考知识点总结大全[1]

2011高中英语高考常考知识... 暂无评价 91页 免费 【高考】英语常考知识点总...英语高考常考知识点总结大全 英语高考常考知识点总结大全第一部分:语音辨音(5 ...


好题 2011辽宁高考英语考点易错点归纳

2011高考英语易错题归类... 42页 免费 高考英语易错点归纳 5页 1财富值如要投诉违规内容,请到百度文库投诉中心;如要提出功能问题或意见建议,请点击此处进行反馈...


2011年高考英语必考40个重点句型大汇总

2011高考英语必考40个重点句型大汇总2011高考英语取得好的成绩而努力吧!为2011高考英语取得好的成绩而努力吧!隐藏>> 句型1 would rather that somebody ...


英语常考知识点总结大全

2011高中英语高考常考知识... 暂无评价 91页 免费 初中全部英语知识点总结及....英语常考知识点总结大全 英语常考知识点总结大全 常考第一部分:语音辨音(5 分...


2011年高考英语重点词汇语法用法总结大全

2011高考英语重点词汇语法用法总结大全_高三英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。语法...(常用作贬义) ?I guess the fellow is up to no good. 我猜这个家伙要...


2011高考英语知识点总结(3)

2011高考英语知识点总结(1... 10页 5财富值 2011高考英语常考知识点总... ...免费-高考英语-高中英语知... 5页 免费如要投诉违规内容,请到百度文库投诉中心...


英语高考常考知识点总结:阅读理解、短文改错、书面表达

英语高考常考知识点总结大... 91页 10财富值 2011英语高考常考知识点总... 3页 免费 英语高考常考知识点总结大... 91页 20财富值 (高考必备)英语高考常考...

网站首页 | 网站地图
All rights reserved Powered by 简单学习网 www.tceic.com
copyright ©right 2010-2021。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit325@126.com