上海外语教育出版社——新世纪英语高一课文 高一第一学期 1. People from all walks of life When a person grows up, he will take up different occupations in various work places. A society is thus made up of all walks of li
fe. What kind of person do you want to be in the future? The following introductions may give you some idea. TEACHER Teachers are professionals. They work in schools, colleges, universities and other educational institutions. They try their best to help students gain new knowledge and become useful people in society. Teachers are involved in many tasks, such as explaining lessons, giving homework and correcting papers. At the end of every term, they mark test papers and give grades to their students. Actually teachers do more. Often their impact on students stays all through their lives. SURGEON Surgeons, like teachers, are also professionals. As a special group of doctors, surgeons operate on sick people and repair the organs that no longer work properly. Hospitals are their work places. After an operation, a surgeon takes care of the patient’s medical treatment until he gets well. The skills of a surgeon sometimes mean the differences between life and death. SECRETARY A secretary works in an office. The job of a secretary often involves writing letters, answering telephone calls, and receiving people. A secretary stores information on a computer and puts papers in good order in file cabinets. As a link between the boss and the visitors, a secretary also helps the boss work out plans and timetables. Traditionally, more girls than boys work as secretaries.
FASHION MODEL Fashion models wear the latest styles of clothes and show them to us through television, newspapers and magazines. Fashion show programmes usually have a large audience. The clothes and hairstyles of fashion models may seem strange to the elderly, but a large number of young people enjoy following trends and want to be dressed like the models. They collect fashion pictures and admire those superstars of the catwalk. Would you like to be one of the people introduced here? What do you want to do in the future? 2. What to choose? Today more and more high school graduates go on to college. Most young people decide their courses of study for themselves. They do not wait for their parents to tell them what career to choose. For example, Jack’s father practices medicine. Even though he wants his son also to become a doctor, he doesn’t insist that Jack study medicine when he finishes high school. He believes that Jack must make up his own mind about his courses of study. His wife, on the other hand, disagrees with him. She thinks that Jack should become a doctor, and so he can become a partner with his father. Jack isn’t sure what he wants to study in college. One day he feels that he’d like to become an engineer. However, the next day he thinks that perhaps he should study business management. Right now he is studying chemistry, biology, and physics. All of them will be useful if he finally chooses to study medicine in college. Jack likes his father’s attitude, and is grateful that his father isn’t forcing him to become a doctor.
In some countries parents often decide what careers their children will follow --especially their sons. Tchaikovsky, the composer of Swan Lake, was asked to study law. He, however, didn’t take an interest in it. Tchaikovsky made a great decision on his own. He gave up his government service later and started to study music. Some people think the young are probably going to be successful because they are doing the things they most want to do in life. Many people, however, disagree with them. 3. Michelangelo Michelangelo was an Italian artist about 500 years ago. Today he is still remembered as a great sculptor, painter, and architect. Michelangelo came from a poor family. He was trained at an early age like any other craftsman in Italy. At thirteen, he started to work and learn in a workshop. The workshop belonged to one of the leading masters at that time. In the workshop Michelangelo was able to learn all the skills of sculpture. However, he wasn’t satisfied, and went on to study the work of the great masters of the past. Michelangelo worked hard and he mastered one problem after another. By the time he was 30, he was generally regarded as one of the outstanding sculptors of the age. In 1508, Michelangelo was given a task --- to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. At first, he tried to turn down this job, saying that he was not really a painter, but a sculptor. Finally, he agreed to do it. He then shut himself up in the chapel, let no one come near him, and got ready to work alone. It took him four years to complete the paintings on the ceiling. Any ordinary person would find it hard to imagine what Michelangelo had gone through in those four years of hard and
lonely work. Michelangelo, while working, had to lie on his back and paint. As a result, he became so used to looking upward that when he received a letter during that period, he had to hold it over his head to read it. Finally, the paintings were completed. The great and huge paintings on the ceiling and walls of the chapel have ever since become a fascination to people in Italy and all over the world. Michelangelo left us with a great number of sculptures and paintings. Today his works are still examples for art students to study and follow. Home and overseas visitors can’t help but admire these masterpieces. 4. Jim Corrigan Jim Corrigan, a well-built man in his late 20’s, works in a large hospital. Jim is an X-ray technician. It is his job to develop the many X-ray films that are taken of people’s lungs, stomachs and other body parts. Jim works in a darkroom, a room that is specially equipped for developing film. First he removes the film from the lead plates that are used to hold it. Then he feeds the film into a developing machine. It takes about 90 seconds for it to develop. The film is then ready to be examined by a doctor. Jim’s work is important, and both doctors and patients eagerly, often worriedly, wait for the results of his work. Jim doesn’t keep them waiting too long. He is quick and orderly at his job. This would not be unusual except for the fact that Jim Corrigan is blind. “In the beginning it was tricky,” Jim explains, “The film comes in five different sizes. And sometimes I would get them mixed up. But I have never let a mistake get out of the darkroom.” After some time, Jim learned to measure the film by running his fingers over the
edges. “I have a system,” explains Jim, “so that I can find things easily in the darkroom. It’s a simple system. I just keep my materials in order and put them back in the same place after I use them. I don’t have to search for anything.” “Jim is quite capable and can be trusted,” says his boss, “I wouldn’t have him working here if he weren’t. And that brings me to the question of handicapped people. You can’t let yourself get upset about them. They want to be treated just like anybody else --- and they should be. They don’t want you to fell sorry for them.” No one has to feel sorry for Jim Corrigan. 5. Starting a conversation with a foreigner in English As you rode on the bus one day, a foreigner sat down beside you. Finally, here was a perfect opportunity for you to practice speaking English with a foreigner, you thought to yourself. But no words came into your head. You were tongue-tied! After 15 minutes, the foreigner got off the bus and you didn’t utter a word! “What a shame!” you said to yourself. If you have had such an experience, don’t feel bad. You’re not alone. What you need is a lesson in small talk. Here are some tips that will show you how to get started. “HELLO” --- A STARTER First, exchange a “Hello” or “Hi” with the foreigner, but at the same time, pay close attention and see if he feels like chatting. Watch his facial expression and body language for cues. Having said his “Hello” or “Hi” in return, does he just stare out of the window or keep reading the book in his hand? That’s the cue for you to stop moving on. Don’t force a conversation on someone who wants to be left alone. But what if the person stops whatever he is doing and looks back or smiles at you?
These are positive cues, indicating you can keep talking and start a conversation! SMALL TALK --- THE MAIN COURSE To start a conversation, you should choose a suitable topic. Then, what are the rules for choosing a suitable topic? Perhaps the most universal topic of any conversation is the weather. Everyone has an opinion to share about the weather! Don’t immediately launch into serious topics like politics or religion. And don’t talk about personal matters, either. Stick to familiar subjects of a casual nature such as movies, music, sports, favourite things, or one’s likes and dislikes. Small talk flows naturally. Raise open-ended questions rather than yes-no questions to keep the conversation going. Try to find points of connection between you and the person you are chatting with. Offer short comments on what the other person says, and listen attentively when what you say is being commented on. If you get such comments as “That’s interesting.”, “I agree.”, or “Me too.” then you know you’re on the right track. You can have a lot of fun chatting in English with foreigners. They will, too. Try it! Making small talk can be one of life’s pleasures. 6. Never too busy for social manners So you forgot to answer that party invitation you received. Now, the day has come and gone, and you’re feeling guilty because you never told the host you couldn’t attend. “Don’t allow this oversight to ruin your relationship,” says R. Thomas Boone, a US social psychologist. “I would show up with a bottle of wine and say, ‘I owe you one. I’m really sorry’,” Boone says. Send an e-mail, make a phone call or reach out to the host another way. Whatever the method, do it as soon as possible.
If guests don’t answer the invitations on time, the host cannot possibly plan for the correct amount of food and drink. This may lead to hundreds or even thousands of dollars of waste. “Everybody has a busy schedule now,” Boone says. If you know you are forgetful when it comes to making phone calls, try emailing your RSVPs as soon as the invitation arrives. RSVP is the short form of the French phrase “répondez s’il vous pla?t”, meaning “Reply, if you please”. The following are some commonly used terms in invitation letters and their meanings. Be sure to know these and answer invitations properly. RSVP, REGRETS ONLY Only guests who can’t attend need reply. You need to give a proper reason why you can’t attend. RSVP BY… Guests should respond with yes or no by the date indicated on the invitation. Setting a date gives guests a deadline. It is also a deadline for the host to connect guests who haven’t reply. RSVP BY E-MAIL Guests can respond by e-mail. Unlike phone calls, e-mails can be sent without regard to time of day or location. 7. Holidays and festivals in the United Kingdom There are many national holidays in the United Kingdom. Among them, Easter, and Christmas are two of the most famous. EASTER The date of Easter varies each year. It usually falls in March or April. During the Easter holiday, people give each other chocolate Easter eggs. The eggs are opened and eaten on Easter Sunday. On Good Friday (the day before Easter, when Christians observe
the day on which Christ died), hot cross buns are sold. They are toasted and eaten with butter. Easter Monday (the day after Easter) is a Bank Holiday. On that day, banks and other major businesses are closed; people may enjoy a trip to the seaside or watch an exciting sports game, such as football, or horse-racing. CHRISTMAS For most British families, Christmas is certainly the most important holiday of the year. Families decorate their houses in bright colours. Usually a Christmas tree is placed in the front room, shining with coloured lights and interesting decorations. On the morning of Christmas Day , many people go to church to celebrate the birth of Christ(. In the afternoon, they stay at home and open the gifts that were gathered around the tree. Later, they may watch the Queen appear on television to deliver her traditional Christmas message to the whole country. In the evening, the families sit down to a big goose (sometimes turkey) dinner. They round off the meal with pudding, a Christmas specialty. Many traditions are connected with Christmas. For children, the most important one is that of receiving gifts. On Christmas Eve (December 24), they usually leave a long stocking hanging by the bed or by the fireplace. They hope that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and bring them small presents. They are usually not disappointed! December 26, Boxing Day, is also a public holiday. This is the time to visit friends or watch football. Students have several weeks off school for Christmas. 8. How do different cultures around the world celebrate the New Year? Get ready to say good-bye to the old, hello to the new! What’s the occasion? The coming of the New Year. Many Western cultures measure their days with the solar calendar. Therefore, they
observe the coming of New Year on January 1. Cultures in Asia and Middle East use other calendars, such as the more ancient lunar calendar. They celebrate the New Year at other times. Events and ceremonies vary from country to country. But in each places, New Year celebrations are a big meal. Most world cultures have been celebrating the New Year for centuries. The earliest New Year celebrations took place during spring or harvest time. With better weather ahead, or plenty of food to eat in winter, people naturally felt like having a party! As the days became longer and as nature renewed itself, people also felt like they could have a new start. Past disappointments could be forgotten. The New Year could bring better fortune, more opportunities and new challenges. Such universal themes remain the same today. Some cultures have unusual New Year traditions. Italians throw old things out of their windows at midnight, symbolizing the departure of the old. Mexicans fire guns into the air to keep away misfortunes. New Year celebrations also involve having fun. Some cultures view the New Year as an opportunity to let off fireworks. In New York City’s Times Square, thousands gather on December 31 to count down the last seconds of the year. A giant silver ball is lowered at the stroke of midnight. London, England, hosts an annual New Year’s Day parade that draws nearly a million spectators. The largest parade in Europe, it features bands and enormous balloons. These balloons are so huge that they tower over nearby buildings!
How will you celebrate the New Year? Think about the themes you find meaningful during this season. Do you hope for a new start or a chance to turn over a new leaf? whatever the case, we wish you well. Happy New Year! 9. Man’s four-legged friend The sun was shining and it was warm. Robin, a shepherd, was lying on the grass, enjoying the beautiful sunshine. His guard, a sheepdog, was standing next to him, looking at the flock of sheep. This is only a scene in a movie, but it does give us a real picture showing man’s relationship with dogs. For a long time in history, dogs were not only being raised to work as man’s guards, but they were also being trained to do many other jobs. Some were made to pull carts; others were bred to smell out enemies or track the scent of big animals. In addition to these hunting and working dogs, other breeds came to be used in sports, police work and as pets as well. In a way dogs have become man’s friends and working partners. If you have a dog you love as a pet, you share some of your life with it. The dog lives in your home, keeps you company and goes on trips with you. Dogs rely on their excellent sense of smell to tell things apart. This sharp sense helps man and dogs themselves get over a lot of difficulties. A detective once trained a dog---Sauer. In 1925 while he was thinking hard about how to catch a thief. Sauer worked alone and tracked the thief after covering a distance of 160 kilometres. Sauer did this by scent alone. In 1923 a couple lost their dog Bobbie while they were travelling. Six months later Bobbie turned up at the family house. He had covered a distance of some 3,200 kilometres. The dog had travelled back through the Rocky Mountains
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in the depths of winter. Dogs are indeed man’s best friends. Yet sometimes even the friendliest dog can bring death with its bite! This is not because it has changed in character, but because it has been infected with a terrible disease---rabies. The disease is passed on by a bite from an infected dog at any stage. When an infected person shows symptoms, death is certain to follow shortly after. So, in order to prevent the disease, a person should go to a doctor at once if he has been bitten by a dog. Dogs remain man’s best friends, but we should also try our best to guard against the horrible disease that can be carried by these friends. 10. Well done, Spotty! We were walking alone when we saw the Wilkins’ children playing in their yard. The three girls were taking turns pushing a cart. Their one-year-old twin brothers and a big doll were in it. Just as we walked by them, a wheel came off. Freckles, my friend, fixed it for them. Then they all went upstairs to play some games. After a while Mrs Wilkins went out, and left the twins with the girls. Well, it wasn’t much fun for me, and soon I went to sleep. I must have slept pretty hard and pretty long. All of a sudden I woke up and could hardly breathe. Everybody was gone. The room was full of smoke! The house was on fire! I started down the stairs and stumbled over a gray bunch. “That belongs to Freckles,” I thought. “It’s the gray sweater that he likes so much. I might as well take it down to him.” I took the sweater in my mouth and started down again. It weighed so much. So I dropped it on one of the stairs. Then I went back up to look out of a window. I wanted to see why there was so much noise.
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The whole town was in the front yard and in the street! In the middle of the crowd was Mrs Wilkins, who was carrying on like a mad woman. Mr. Wilkins was jumping up and down and shouting loudly, “I’ve got the babies! I’ve got the babies!” He had a real baby in one arm and the big doll in the other. He was so excited that ha thought he had both babies. Later I heard what had happened. The kids had thought they were escaping with both twins. But one of them had saved the doll and left a twin behind. “Well,” I decided, “I’d better get out of here fast. This place is really beginning to burn!” As I ran down the stairs, I knocked into the gray bunch again. So I picked it up. I got out the back way with that package swinging from my mouth. I walked round to the front yard and set it down very quickly. It let out a cry! “My baby!” shouted Mrs Wilkins. And she started to kiss me and the babies. “Three cheers for Spotty!” everyone shouted at the top of their voices. The butcher made his way through the crowd and gave me a large piece of hamburger and said, “It’s got chicken livers mixed in it.” I liked the way things were, so I wagged my tail. 11. Cartoons and comic strips People often find it hard to put their feelings into words. So they keep hunting for new means of expressing their feelings other than words. Cartoons, as such a means, were thus born. Old cartoons, however, did not attract many people until cartoonists had expanded their topics by the end of the 19th century. At around the same time, comic strips came into being. A cartoon is an amusing drawing that deals with something of interest in the news. Comic strips are a set of humorous drawings that tell a funny story. They make a story appear as a
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picture in the reader’s mind by showing one or two aspects of an event. There is a cartoon that shows a father and his son. The boy is showing his father his school report, which, unfortunately, gives a very poor grade---2 out of 5. So he does it in a quite unusual way: the report is fastened to one end of a pole while the boy is holding the other and. With the long pole between them, any punishment from the father is out of the question. For the moment, at least, the son is safe. Readers can’t help laughing at the cartoon. But they may also find some food for thought in addition to being amused. Reading cartoons and comic strips had long been a favourite pastime for adults until the beginning of the 20th century. Then some business-minded people found that there might be a good market for children, too. With the improvement of printing and drawing techniques, modern cartoons and comic strips had become children’s favourites by the early 20th (around the 1920s). Since then they have become popular reading materials for people of all ages. Today the characters in cartoons and comic strips range from children to adults, pets to fancy animals, and ordinary people to superheroes. Micky Mouse and Garfield the Cat make children think and imagine actively. Superman and Batman bring villains of all sorts to justice. Father and Son expresses human love and sympathy in lively comic strips. Their names have become household words. They are only a few outstanding products in the field. Today the digital revolution has brought new life to the making of cartoons and comic strips. Therefore many people think that computer-made comics will in the end replace handdrawn ones. However, just as the human mind will never give way completely to the computer, hand-drawn comics will never die, but will remain a special means of expressing human
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feelings. 12. Rockwell and his works Norman Rockwell was a famous American illustrator and cover artist. Many of his works had become well-known by the middle of the 20th century. Critics spoke highly of his works. For example, according to one critic, “Most artists affect us by surprising us. Rockwell affects us by giving us exactly what we expect.” The following are just a few examples of his magazine covers. Cover one One of the best-known of all Rockwell’s covers! This painting is made up of two parts: the upper and the lower. Each detail in the lower picture is carefully matched with something in the upper part, so the result is kind of humorous. In this way, the painting presents the children’s moods in a sharp contrast: very happy when setting out and very tired and bored when coming back. Cover two This painting shows Rockwell’s skills as a story teller. It tells an ordinary story about a school boy. The boy is busy with his studies. Outside the window a fishing pole is ready, and the boy’s dog is waiting impatiently. To the boy, these last days of schoolwork before the summer vacation seem the longest. They appear more so as the final examination is drawing near. This is an old story of school children, but Rockwell tells it vividly in a simple way. Cover three In this painting, a young mother is trying hard to make up her mind: to spank or to spare her naughty child. The broken clock on the floor suggests that the child has behaved in an entirely natural manner. When a hammer is within his reach, he breaks something with the hammer! At the time the painting was completed, the Rockwells were already parents. So the
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cover story perhaps describes the artist’s own life experience. With this experience, Rockwell could make every detail come alive in this painting. 13. A brief look at two metropolises NEW YORK In the 19th century, a businessman predicated that New York was going to become the centre of the world. His prediction has partly come true. Today, New York is often regarded as one of the financial and cultural capitals of the Western World. The United Nations has its headquarters in the city as well. New York, where the world-famous twin towers of the World Trade Center were once located, is known as a city of skyscrapers. There are parks, great museums, art galleries, grand theatres and cinemas for visitors as well. However, like many other cities in the world, New York also has its own problems---noise, air pollution, crimes, traffic jams, and slums. Still, the fast, exciting pace of life in New York City is fascinating and this may be a reason why the city continues to fascinate more and more people. LONDON London was once known as a city of fog. At that time, many Londoners did not expect that their city would change for the better. However, heavy fog is now rarely seen in London. As a city with a long history, London has also gone through many changes. The days are gone when horse-drawn carriages were a common sight in the street. Now London is famous for its excellent underground service and the red double-deckers have become a symbol of the city. The second half of the 20th century saw great changes in the city. Skyscrapers have sprung up; business centres for the 21st century are also growing fast. However, London has kept its heart. People can still enjoy themselves with a cup of tea
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in Convent Garden. Some of the narrow roads that lead to churches are still there, taking people back to London’s old days. Although there are such concerns as heavy traffic, crowded shops and dirty streets in some areas, to many people, London remains the most interesting and wonderful city in the world. 14. The time capsule of Colorado Springs In 1901, the citizens of Colorado Springs in the USA decided to collect everyday items and to seal them in a steel box. The box was marked “To be opened after midnight, December 31st, AD 2000”, and was stored in the Colorado College Library. One hundred years later, on the appointed day, 300 people gathered to watch the opening of the box. Many in the crowd were in very good condition. There were newspapers, photographs, diaries, name cards, family trees, books and dozens of letters, including one written by Theodore Roosevelt, who became the President of the USA later that year. One of Roosevelt’s friends lived in Colorado Springs at that time. Many of the letters were addressed to their descendants. They describe the hopes that the people of 1901 had for the people of the next century. At that time, Colorado Springs had just a few thousand residents. Now nearly half a million people live there. Colorado College Library has scanned the materials and put them on a website. Cecil Muller, whose grandfather had placed a collection of postcards in the box, said that the time capsule was a great treasure. “This is a wonderful educational resource. We can learn so much about our history,” he said. “I never knew my grandfather, but now I feel close to him.” In April 2001, a committee filled the time capsule with items from modern Colorado Springs and resealed it for another hundred years.
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15. The growth of the Internet The Internet began as a tool to connect universities and government research centres through a nationwide network. It would allow a large number of computers to exchange information and share resources. Its development was pushed forward by ARPA---the Advanced Research Projects Agency, which was established in the United States in 1958. In 1969 ARPA began to focus on communications technology. Then in the early 1970s, the ARPA net came into being. This network laid the foundation for the Internet. In 1972, electronic mail was introduced. At the same time in Europe, researchers were struggling with their own computer networking problems. In 1989, a scientist proposed the World Wide Web project. Over the next year or two, the proposal was discussed and revised, which resulted in the programme called the World Wide Web. In 1992, its browser software was introduced to the public. The early browsers functioned well but were not “user-friendly”. In 1993, a group of graduated students in the USA created Mosaic---a “ browser ” programme. Mosaic was pleasing to the eye and easy to use---just point and click. Netscape and then Microsoft followed with browsers that greatly simplified the process of surfing the Internet in search of information. Today, the Internet is changing our life style, cultural patterns, business practices, and ways of learning and doing research. It helps people keep up to date on world events, find a cheap flight, play games, and discuss everything from apples to space technology. An increasing number of people shop and bank on the Internet; many do business online. It enables people to browse online hundreds of thousands of magazines and books in libraries
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worldwide. The Internet is not owned or controlled by any company or nation. People can use the Net at home, in offices, at schools and universities, in public libraries or “cyber cafes”. It connects people in different countries instantly through computers, satellites, and phone lines. It is making our life easier and more efficient. “The Global Village” was coined to describe how radio and television had changed the world in the 20th century. In the 21st century, it seems the Internet is sure to have an even greater influence. 16. Hacking By the end of 1946, technology had advanced so greatly as to make the electronic computer a part of life. The year 1976 saw the appearance of a more advanced type of computer, which was performing 100 million calculations a second. This record, however, was quickly rewritten. The fast development of computer speed brings endless benefits to human life. There are always two sides to a thing, though. There are problems with using computers and storing useful data in them. In 1988, a US official said that a German student had been regularly reading their top secret papers. That student had been able to carry out his break-ins without leaving home. That was a typical example of “hacking”. A “hacker” is a highly skilled computer user who spends his free time reading the secret files of others. A hacker needs only to discover the password that gives entry to a network. With clever guesswork, this can be done simply by trying again and again. A lot of hackers are only in it for fun---like Robert Schifreen and Steve Gold, who had
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read all the data in Prince Philip’s electronic mailbox before the police discovered the hacking. The possibility for hackers to commit crimes is great. In the 1980s some experts pointed out that American banks were losing up to $5,000 million a year to computer crimes. Once a hacker gained entry to a bank’s system, he could order it to move large sums of money to another bank in a foreign country---just what a traditional robber would do. Today computers are making life easier and far more comfortable. The evils, however, are also growing with the development of computer knowledge and techniques. It seems that the struggle against computer crimes will continue into the future. 高一第二学期 17. Travelling around China Travelling around China can be tiring but fun as well. However, how you travel often determines whether your travel will be a success or a failure. Here is some information about how it can be done.
Most parts of China can now be reached by rail. Generally speaking, the train service is efficient. However, the trains are sometimes overcrowded, especially on national holidays. The kind of ticket you need depends on the distance of your journey. A hard or soft seat is fine for a short journey. For long journeys, a sleeper ticket is a better choice.
number of sea routes exist that can take you from one seaport to another along the coast of China. There are also a few inland waterways. The most attractive one is that from Chongqing to Shanghai. Along this route ships pass through the famous Three Gorges and
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stop at many beautiful towns and historic sites. BY AIR This is often the first choice for those who have limited time to spend on a journey. But, of course, this time-saving advantage has to be paid for---tickets are more expensive. While CAAC used to be the only airline service in the country, there are now a number of regional airlines. The safety record has also improved much over the past decades. Air tickets are available through CITS, at hotel travel desks or in air ticket offices. Most large cities and many popular tourist destinations have their own airports. BY BUS Highway networks in China are developing very fast. There are both inner- and intercity bus services, they are well managed and cheap. State-owned long-distance bus services operate on schedule and are inexpensive. There are also private buses. They run mainly on local routes, and often will not depart until they are completely filled up. BY BICYCLE Besides what is mentioned above, cycling is also one of the best ways for traveling around town, unless you are in Chongqing---the only city with very few bicycles because of its steep streets. If you plan to stay in China for sometime, buy one as the natives do. Hope you will find this information helpful during your stay in China. 18. The Ocean Park---A page from a travel brochure of Hong Kong, China Duration: Approx. (approximately 的缩写形式) 4 hours or 7 hours (daily morning departure) Not only is it the largest in Asia, but it is also rated as one of the most spectacular oceanariums in the world. It offers the best family outing place to observe marine life as well as to experience a fun ride on a roller coaster. PANDA HABITAT Loved by many for their unusually cute look, the two darling pandas, An An
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and Jia Jia, can now be sighted at their permanent habitat in Ocean Park. SHARK AQUARIUM Through the underwater viewing tunnel, you seem to enter the mysterious deep ocean, surrounded by countless sharks and rays of over 30 species, all swimming within arm’s reach. OCEAN THEATRE With a panoramic background and hosted by a marvelous master of ceremonies, the Ocean Theatre stages entertaining performances by its great and small marine stars. When time permits, visit a jewelry factory workshop to observe the art of handicraft. NOTE This is a half day guided tour. However, passengers may stay behind to explore more features in the Ocean Park. Return trips on our afternoon coach can be arranged with your tour guide. 19. The Sydney Harbour Bridge There’s no feeling quite like seeing Sydney from the top of the Harbour Bridge. There I stood, looking up at Sydney’s Harbour Bridge---one of the most famous bridges in the world. Located near the magnificent Sydney Opera House, the 40-storey bridge towers over Australia’s largest city. The bridge was certainly beautiful to look at. But who in their right mind would want to climb it? Me, of course! Climbing the bridge is not such a crazy thing to do, in fact. Tourists started climbing the bridge in 1998. Now it’s one of Sydney’s most popular attractions. To prepare for the climb, our group of 12 climbers had to take a special class. First, we stored all our personal belongings and changed into special bridge climbing clothes. Then, the climb organizers showed us how to use the safety belts and climb the steep ladders.
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We were even given little personal radios to receive instructions from our guide during the climb! Our expectations began to build and our group became excited. One hour later, we were ready to go! We first crossed some catwalks below the road part of the bridge. I was glad I wasn’t afraid of heights. Looking down through the catwalk I could see the ground 50 meters (164 feet) below! Next we climbed the ladders leading up, up, up to the bridge’s arch. Cars sped by on the road below. The wind blew more fiercely the higher we climbed. More and more of the city slowly came into view. Soon we were approaching the very top of the bridge! What a scene it was at the top! Clear, bird’s eye views of the city extended in all directions. Looking south we saw the city skyline, the famous Opera House and the ocean. It was just like looking at a postcard, except that we were really part of the picture! Everyone felt proud of having reached this spot in the city. No one was ready to leave when it was time to go down. The two hours we had spent on the bridge seemed to pass in an instant. But the memory of having seen such a unique scene will stay with us for a lifetime. 20. Travelling in the land of smiles Thailand uses the phrase “Land of Smiles” to describe itself in tourist brochures and advertising campaigns---and rightly so. Visitors to Thailand can expect to be greeted with a smile when they leave the airport, get into a taxi or rental car and again when they enter a hotel. What makes it so easy for the Thai people to smile at their visitors? The head of
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Thailand’s tourist bureau says that it is “in the nature of the people.” The Thais are naturally happy, he says with a smile, and they are glad to share that happiness with others. This attitude seems to be very much appreciated by the more than five million tourists who visit Thailand each year. The country ranks high on the list of places to which visitors want to return. The reason most often stated is that the people are friendly and polite. Some other Asian destinations are not as well received. Bali in Indonesia ranks high on the list, with Japan somewhere in the middle. These reports raise the question of whether certain nationalities are naturally more courteous than others. People may experience more friendliness in Thailand than in other countries. This may have more to do with the place than the people. Travel writers point out
that cities are always stressful, hurried places, with little to offer in the way of smiles and welcome. Bangkok is not as friendly as other places in the surrounding Thai countryside. Remote towns and villages in China, for example, offer visitors a warm welcome, with smiles(and giggles) from children. Perhaps it should also be pointed out that polite, patient, smiling visitors will most often be greeted similarly, no matter which country they are in. 21. Using English properly If you don’t want to offend someone, you’d better know which English words to use---and which to avoid. Imagine that you’re in a restaurant in America. You want some water, so you called out “Waitress!” A waitress comes to your table, but she’s clearly unhappy. What did you do wrong? You may have offended her by calling her a “waitress.” Today, many people prefer the word “server” to “waitress.”
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Why? As society changes, so does our language. Today the word “server” is more appropriate. It gives the person a sense of being respected. Using English properly is an attempt to make language more respectful to all people. Words that put too much emphasis on gender are carefully avoided. These include words that end in “-ess” or “-man.” For example, people who serve passengers on airlines are now called “ flight attendants, ” not “ stewardesses. ” In the past, only women could be flight attendants; today, many men have entered the profession. “Flight attendant” is a better expression because it includes both men and women. Many women are entering jobs that were once only occupied by men, so words like “policeman” and “chairman” are being replaced. Now “police officer” and “chairperson” are the preferred terms. Unfortunately, English has no singular pronoun that can be used to replace either “he” or “she.” This creates some problems. How do we treat both genders fairly without such a pronoun? One way is to use the plural structure. So instead of saying “If a person wants to learn English, he should study every day,” many people would prefer “If people want to learn English, they should study every day.” Using English properly extends further than gender. It also includes issues of race and disability. For example, some people prefer the term “ people with a disability ” to
“handicapped.” The word “handicapped” can be considered disrespectful because it implies that a person is helpless. However, there are people who don’t like being told what words they have to use. And they insist on not changing their way of talking---they don’t think they are obliged to make others feel better. But most people agree that making language respectful to all is fair. So
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people do change with the times. 22. Tips for English learning Language letter-boxes in quite a few English newspapers are often filled with letters complaining about such problems as “ I don ’ t know to improve my pronunciation and intonation. The English vocabulary is too large to handle.” Or “I find my spoken English most worrying. Please tell me how to improve my communication skills!” At the same time, in some newspapers, there are ads for “Shortcuts in Mastering English,” “A 24-hour Programme of Success in Spoken English” or “Recipe for English Fluency,” and so on. A lot of teachers of English try to help fight learners’ worries by saying that the road to successful communication is clearly signposted---practise, practice and practice. If there are few such opportunities in your day-to-day life, make them up: form clubs or learning groups, and practise talking to each other. Expose yourselves to an English radio broadcast, a tape recording, a film or a video: let it be a topic or a context for discussion. Even when you are alone, try to have some practice. You can never lay too much emphasis on the importance of “input” for language learning, so reading newspapers and listening to the radio are good habits to cultivate. One thing, however, is very important: the “input” must be appropriate for your level. Something too difficult is useless, while spending time on something too easy will be pointless. And remember this: there isn’t a cure-all for all of you. One shortcut may work for some of you, and another probably has a positive effect on others. Only one method works for everybody---and that is, to use English!
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23. Eye contact Lunch was now over, and I offered to drive James back to his hotel. He said he had walked over to my place but politely accepted the lift. We drove the few blocks back to his hotel and pulled into the driveway. I got out, went quickly to his side of the car, opened the door, and started to lean forward with one hand reaching out. Then my eyes met his. Not a word was spoken, but the message I got was clear, “Don’t you dare try to help me out of this car!” I backed off. James got out and then gave me a big smile---his way of saying, “No harm done. All is well.” If we pay enough attention, we’ll see our audience is often communicating with us without words. It is important to read these silent signals in one’s eyes. If you introduce a subject that causes much movement in the audience, you know that you have aroused their attention. They are shifting in their seats or exchanging looks with their neighbours. The reaction from your audience should be your guide. When you continue your talk, you know that to drop, what to revise and what to add, all based on your reading of the eyes of the audience. If you’ve told a joke or story that hasn’t gone down well, the audience may be telling you that they want to hear or what they don’t want to hear. Such information can and should lead to some change in the content, humour and style of what you still have to say. The most obvious display of an audience’s silent communication is their lack of attention. Yawning, programme studying, chatting in very low voices or dozing, to mention the worst, are warnings. Through eye contact you will be the first to know if you have lost them. An immediate change of attitude is called for. No speaker is ever honoured for going down with
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the ship. Silent clues, however, may also communicate good news. Smiling, leaning forward, watching attentively---all tell you that the track is clear of obstacles; the signals are green---so go ahead. 24. Understanding body language Have you ever met someone and found that you instantly liked them? You just couldn’t put your finger on it as to why. Deep down inside yourself they gave you a strange feeling. I’m not going to call myself a body language expert, but I think I can hive you my advice on how to read the most complicated language of all: body language. YOUR MOVES SELL YOU OUT. So for starters, think about yourself. Have you ever stopped for a moment to watch the way that you move your body? Well, believe it or not, the people you are talking to are watching your every move. They watch your eyes, your facial expressions, the way you hold your posture. In fact, the way you move can tell a lot about what kind of person you are … or what kind of person you appear to be. WHAT CAN BODY LANGUAGE TELL? In most Western countries, making eye contact with anyone you talk to is very important. If you don’t make eye contact, you might be judged as dishonest or even rude. Then there’s posture. If your actions are very confident, you will appear to be confident to others. And, the rate that you speak can also tell others something. If you talk too fast, you’re nervous, while too slow probably indicates that you are unsure of yourself, and that maybe you are shy. I’M CONFUSED WITH “SPACE” IN CHINA. As a traveler, I have been confused time and time again with every place I visit. This is mainly because I misunderstood the body language
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of the people. In China, I have had many issues with the concept of “space.” As an American I need “personal space.” So, the first time I came to Shanghai I was constantly apologizing to strangers who I bumped into on the streets or even on the bus, but they just looked at me as if I were strange. Understanding body language is difficult, but it’s important to become aware of it, and I make an effort to understand it. So my advice, watch your own actions, for they can send a message to someone that you may not even know! And when in doubt, smile! 25. Arturo Toscanini Arturo Toscanini, who conducted the first public performance of many world-famous operas (such as Othello and La Boheme), is regarded as the greatest conductor of the first part of the twentieth century. Toscanini was born in Italy on March 25, 1867. He entered a music school when he was nine and graduated in 1885 with the highest honours in cello and composition. At the age of nineteen, he joined an Italian orchestra on a tour in Brazil. During that tour, the conductor of the orchestra suddenly quit his job. Toscanini was thus called in to fill in as conductor at very short notice. It was not surprising that the audience laughed at him as he leapt onto the stage. His passionate interpretation of Aida was, however, greeted with loud cheers. What was most special about Toscanini was that he did his job without the help of a score. Having read through a score, he could recall every note many years later. However, the fact that he had a marvelous memory alone did not make him a great conductor. It was his energy, strict attitude towards performance, and loyalty to the composer’s intention that made him outstanding.
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During rehearsals, to get what he wanted from his orchestra, he would sometimes stamp his feet, snap his baton and tear his store to pieces. He tried to make use of every means to interpret music. Once he found himself at a loss when trying to describe to an American orchestra a very light effect in a passage (his English was poor). After thinking hard for a while, he drew a white silk handkerchief from his pocket and threw it into the air, watching with the orchestra as it floated to the floor. “There!” he said. “Play like that!” Toscanini drove himself as hard as he did his orchestra. If the orchestra met his demands, he would weep for joy. Otherwise, he would not spare them from punishment. If he himself made a rare mistake, he would slap his own face in front of the orchestra. He would not spare even himself from punishment. Toscanini would shout at anyone who dared talk during the performance or, even worse, arrived late. All through his life, Toscanini was anti-fascist. In1931, he was physically attacked for refusing to play the fascist anthem and for protesting against Hitler’s ban on Jewish musicians. He dropped his baton in 1954, and died in 1957 at the age of 90. 26. An interview with a pop pianist Robin Gordon (RG), a journalist, interviews a very rich and famous pianist, James Newman (JN), who has a way of playing classical music in a wildly romantic manner. He is well known for his strange clothes as well. RG: Actually, you don’t let the chance slip through your fingers when you chose music as your career. JN: No, the entertainment world is full of opportunities. When any of them turns up and comes
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to you, you must be prepared. RG: You started playing the piano as a child, didn’t you? JN: Yes. I’m very competitive---that’s the way I was brought up. I was raised in a strict traditional family. I was the oldest of us kids. In a family that size, you had to be hardworking to get noticed. My father wanted us to be aggressive, competitive and career-oriented. So, it became very important for me to be number one all the time and I did get straight A’s at school. RG: Well, when you began as a pianist, you wore traditional clothes, didn’t you? JN: I did wear a black suit and a bow tie that made me look like a headwaiter, and I looked serious and miserable when I played! But not for long, I soon developed my own style. RG: Just where…and how did you begin your own style? JN: Well…I learned the piano at an early age, and after I left music school, I started giving piano performances. Well, anyway, one evening when I was in Wisconsin, something happened. My audience that evening consisted mostly of rich farmers. They were all sitting like sleeping dummies…it was really a very hot evening…I was all sweaty. They just weren’t enjoying Bach or Chopin. They were ready to fall off their chairs with boredom. So I stopped playing and stood up. RG: You mean, you stopped in the middle of a performance? JN: Exactly. And I shouted, “Come on, folks. What would you really like to hear?” At first they looked at me as if I had gone mad, then they became all wide awake. They agreed that they wanted a change. So I played something in a kind of wild Bach style. RG: And soon after that you started your new style.
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JN: Yes. I decided to play Bach and Chopin in a very unusual style. Meanwhile I started wearing fancy clothes. RG: I guess your father didn’t approve of all this. JN: Right. Dad’s a bit old. He wanted to make a classical musician of me! He didn ’t understand me. RG: Even though you are so successful? JN: No. Many people don’t. RG: Perhaps it takes time. Thank you, Mr. Newman. 27. Stunts in movies On the screen, the US actor Tom Cruise is throwing himself through a glass window as a large car explodes behind him; the actress Helen Hunt is running from hurricanes as homes and cows are swept up. And, of course, there is Stallone doing…everything. It seems to be popular these days for actors and actresses to do their own stunts in action movies, and the fact is that the big names are indeed doing more stunts. According to a director, some actors do as much as ninety per cent of their own stunts, while the last ten per sent are generally left to stunt professionals. These are the men and women who make a living risking their lives on behalf of the big names in action movies. However, there is an exception. The only actor who does any allow anyone else to do his stunts is Jackie Chan, the Hong Kong phenomenon. He takes pride in doing all the stunts in his action movies. Jackie Chan has been doing his individual brand of dramatic martial arts for fifteen years. He is no doubt a walking miracle of physical endurance. Of course, along
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with that heroism are numerous broken bones and a hole the size of a coin in his head. US action filmmakers do not want their movie stars to be injured, so stunt experts are always called in to do dangerous parts that require talent. At the same time, they also try hard to make the audience believe that the famous faces are performing every stunt. Actors and actresses would also like the fans to believe that there are no professionals doing the stunts for them. Many of them insist on doing their own stunts in the movies. Then accidents are inevitable. For instance, Helen Hunt was knocked unconscious when filming one scene---she opened the door of a vehicle and jumped off while it was speeding through a cornfield. Helen later admitted, “I have all the courage of a stunt person, but I don’t have all the talent.” As for the audience, there is absolutely no need for you to worry about your favourite stars, who are bragging about performing the stunts on TV talk shows. It’s entirely possible that someone else took the fall. As Helen said, there is still a lot of work out there for stunt professionals. 28. Digital actors Is it real, or is it digital? In many Hollywood movies these days it’s sometimes impossible to tell what’s real and what’s not. Moviemakers create landscapes, cities and even creatures from nothing but pixels. These computer images look just as real as the world we live in. Now moviemakers are developing the final computer creation---digital humans. Developing computer images that look and act just like real humans has long been the dream of many moviemakers. Pixel by pixel that dream is gradually becoming a reality. The first attempts to create prefect digital humans began several years ago. Final fantasy,
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released in 2004, showed the potential and limitations of digital actors. The movie’s digital characters looked and acted surprisingly lifelike. But somehow they still reminded audiences of cartoons, and their “acting” was less than inspiring. Final Fantasy’s digital magic also cost moviemakers a fortune. Just creating humanlooking hair cost about $20 million. And despite people’s initial excited reaction, it performed poorly at the box office. The film, which cost $137 million to make, lost about $80 million. Moviemakers have been much more successful at creating non-human characters. The Lord of the Rings trilogy features a digital creature named Gollum. Though not human, Gollum gives a very moving performance. Surprisingly, this collection of pixels manages to effectively show a wide range of human emotions. The Matrix: Reloaded features the most perfect digital humans so far. These lifelike digital creations appear widely throughout the movie. In fact, audiences can never be sure which actors are real and which are digital. So should Tom Cruise, Nicole Kidman and all their Hollywood friends start looking for another line of work? Not necessarily. Many popular movie directors say digital actors will never “act” as well as humans. Digital actors must also rely on gifted human actors for their voices. 29. Front page news Millions of newspapers are sold every day throughout the world. What section of the newspapers on a newsstand catches your eye? Without doubt, it is the front page. Its contents are usually about the most important happenings of the day. Besides that, it is common practice that the front page carries an index to help the reader quickly locate certain sections of the paper. A front page carries a
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brief weather forecast for the day as well. Much thought goes into the actual headlines themselves. A headline is like a title. People think it important that headlines should aim at being both informative and eye-catching. They should attract the reader’s attention. The main front-page headline is, of course, the most important one. After all, it can even determine whether or not a person will be tempted to buy a particular newspaper. While the importance of the front page is obvious, there are two schools of thought over the emphasis placed on its contents. There is the school that describes the front page as a paper’s “shop window” and therefore emphasizes the need for “window-dressing”. The trouble with this approach is that too much concentration on the “shop window” tends to reduce the value of the goods displayed inside. Others take the view that a newspaper is like a store with many windows, each of which should be dressed to the same high standard. It should have a sense of unity. Once the paper has decided the type---the style it will use for headlines---composing the front page is a fairly simple matter. The main story, called the lead, takes the prime position, usually the top left-hand corner of the page. A strong picture occupies the top center of the page; then follows the second-lead, third-lead and other stories in size-graded headings. When there is a big event, the paper uses a headline which runs the full width of the page and which is usually set in a bold type. However, a newspaper has to draw a line between being eye-catching and being sensational. A newspaper which overuses shock methods may lose its reputation. 30. Two pieces of news
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GREAT VICTORY ENDS YEARS OF WAITING Moscow: It was Beijing’s night yesterday in Moscow. As Juan Antonio Samaranch, president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), announced that Beijing would be the host for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, cheering, applauding and waving of flags broke out to celebrate the victory. “Now the results of the voting---the Games of the 29th Olympiad in 2008 is awarded to the city of…Beijing,” declared Samaranch, the most famous sports figure in the world. Beijing won in the second round ballot with 56 votes from the 105 voting IOC members, while Toronto got a distant 22, Paris 18 and Istanbul 9. Osaka, which received 6 votes, was eliminated in the first round. A contract to host the Games followed after the vote. BEIJING WAS SLEEPLESS LAST NIGHT Thousands upon thousands of people gathered in squares, shopping malls, streets and millions of homes to applaud the city’s success in its bid to host the 2008 Olympic Games. Buildings and streets were brightly lit, and heartfelt cheers and laughter filled the air. Fireworks lit up the night sky, and flags formed a sea of flowing colour. As International Olympic Committee (IOC) President Juan Antonio Samaranch announced that Beijing had won the IOC vote at 10:15 last night, the ancient capital burst into cheers and tears. The China Millennium Monument in western Beijing, the centre of the celebration, was alive with cheerful crowds. Senior Chinese leaders joined university students and local citizens in celebrating the success in the bid with the whole nation.
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Tian’anmen Square was also filled with people who poured into the city centre on learning about the news. Chanting “Beijing! Olympics!” at the top of one’s voice seemed the commonest means of expressing one’s feelings. Thousands of cars waited in endless queues along Chang’an Boulevard and other major avenues. Wild with joy, the drivers kept blowing their horns. Messages were sent by cell phones, telephones, e-mails, etc., and popular websites were crammed with visitors. 31. An added bonus Anne and Joe King sat back in their easy chairs, watching television in their cozy livingroom. Anne used the remote control to find a programme of interest. “Why don’t we watch The Family Friction?” said Anne. “I hate watching soap dramas,” said Joe. “Especially this one where couples argue over money.” “Okay,” said Anne, as she switched to Channel 12. “And now,” said a good-looking announcer on the TV screen, “Round-the-World, the magazine of the world, is proud to announce its limited offer. For the bargain price of $10, half the newsstand price, you can subscribe to one year, twelve issues, of Round-the-World. Imagine reading unusual stories with colour photos that will surprise you. And as an added bonus, if you subscribe before midnight, June 1st, we will offer, without extra cost, our World Atlas. Remember, this is a limited offer. This atlas cannot be bought in stores. There are maps of every chief tourist attraction in the world, in addition to the metropolises and capitals of the countries. Won’t it be great to have the world at your fingertips! To get this amazing offer, write to Round-the-World Bonus, Box 666, Reno, Nevada 87870. Be sure to enclose
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your cheque or money order for $10. if not completely satisfied, you may keep the atlas and cancel your subscription. In that case, you can get your money back.” “That sounds amusing,” said Anne. “In fact, it would be really handy to have an atlas, particularly when I need to locate places I plan to visit or read about in the news.” They sent a letter of subscription and two weeks later a small package arrived in the mail. They got the atlas. “Is this our atlas?” said Joe in disbelief. “It looks like a big postage stamp.” “It looked tremendous on television,” said Anne. “It’ll be impossible to find anything in such an atlas,” said Joe. “To find anything, we’ll need a microscope.” 32. The history of magazines It was during the mid-nineteenth century that the magazine developed into the main source of popular entertainment for the general public. Instead of speaking mainly to the welleducated upper classes as in the past, the illustrated magazine addressed the general public. The first magazine that was born in 1665 in France was a dry and dull publication. Most publishers did not realize the significance of visuals as tools to educate, shape opinions and entertain. Nor did they know the importance of selling as many copies of their magazines as possible. It was not until the early decades of the 20 th century that the magazine industry started to flourish. The main centres of the magazine industry were in America, France, Germany, and Great Britain. Many fancy and unique publications were produced there. Some publishers, such as William R. Hearst, built empires: he employed no fewer than 31,000 people by 1935.
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Hearst published more than nine magazines and two dozen newspapers in the first half of the century. The atmosphere of the 20th century was good for the growth of fashion and women’s magazines. Among them, Ladies’ Home Journal and Vogue in America were the most popular. In America, the biggest impact on the magazine industry in the 1930s was the publication of Life magazine. Its concept of instant news through pictures meant that magazines could compete with the popular electronic media. After World War Ⅱ, the magazine industry changed dramatically. Magazines were forced to become more profit-oriented and generally less attractive. The 1950s witnessed the appearance of magazine for sports, sailing, fishing, cooking, dog breeding, and stamp collecting, to name just a few. Magazines have experienced social pressures, financial and technical hardships. However, they have worked hard to meet the needs of people with a variety of interests. Magazines have indeed become a truly effective and expressive medium for the general public.
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