上海外语教育出版社——新世纪英语高一课文 高一第一学期 1. People from all walks of life When a person grows up, he will take up different occupations in various work places. A society is thus made up of all walks of li
fe. What kind of person do you want to be in the future? The following introductions may give you some idea. TEACHER Teachers are professionals. They work in schools, colleges, universities and other educational institutions. They try their best to help students gain new knowledge and become useful people in society. Teachers are involved in many tasks, such as explaining lessons, giving homework and correcting papers. At the end of every term, they mark test papers and give grades to their students. Actually teachers do more. Often their impact on students stays all through their lives. SURGEON Surgeons, like teachers, are also professionals. As a special group of doctors, surgeons operate on sick people and repair the organs that no longer work properly. Hospitals are their work places. After an operation, a surgeon takes care of the patient’s medical treatment until he gets well. The skills of a surgeon sometimes mean the differences between life and death. SECRETARY A secretary works in an office. The job of a secretary often involves writing letters, answering telephone calls, and receiving people. A secretary stores information on a computer and puts papers in good order in file cabinets. As a link between the boss and the visitors, a secretary also helps the boss work out plans and timetables. Traditionally, more girls than boys work as secretaries.
FASHION MODEL Fashion models wear the latest styles of clothes and show them to us through television, newspapers and magazines. Fashion show programmes usually have a large audience. The clothes and hairstyles of fashion models may seem strange to the elderly, but a large number of young people enjoy following trends and want to be dressed like the models. They collect fashion pictures and admire those superstars of the catwalk. Would you like to be one of the people introduced here? What do you want to do in the future? 2. What to choose? Today more and more high school graduates go on to college. Most young people decide their courses of study for themselves. They do not wait for their parents to tell them what career to choose. For example, Jack’s father practices medicine. Even though he wants his son also to become a doctor, he doesn’t insist that Jack study medicine when he finishes high school. He believes that Jack must make up his own mind about his courses of study. His wife, on the other hand, disagrees with him. She thinks that Jack should become a doctor, and so he can become a partner with his father. Jack isn’t sure what he wants to study in college. One day he feels that he’d like to become an engineer. However, the next day he thinks that perhaps he should study business management. Right now he is studying chemistry, biology, and physics. All of them will be useful if he finally chooses to study medicine in college. Jack likes his father’s attitude, and is grateful that his father isn’t forcing him to become a doctor.
In some countries parents often decide what careers their children will follow --especially their sons. Tchaikovsky, the composer of Swan Lake, was asked to study law. He, however, didn’t take an interest in it. Tchaikovsky made a great decision on his own. He gave up his government service later and started to study music. Some people think the young are probably going to be successful because they are doing the things they most want to do in life. Many people, however, disagree with them. 3. Michelangelo Michelangelo was an Italian artist about 500 years ago. Today he is still remembered as a great sculptor, painter, and architect. Michelangelo came from a poor family. He was trained at an early age like any other craftsman in Italy. At thirteen, he started to work and learn in a workshop. The workshop belonged to one of the leading masters at that time. In the workshop Michelangelo was able to learn all the skills of sculpture. However, he wasn’t satisfied, and went on to study the work of the great masters of the past. Michelangelo worked hard and he mastered one problem after another. By the time he was 30, he was generally regarded as one of the outstanding sculptors of the age. In 1508, Michelangelo was given a task --- to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. At first, he tried to turn down this job, saying that he was not really a painter, but a sculptor. Finally, he agreed to do it. He then shut himself up in the chapel, let no one come near him, and got ready to work alone. It took him four years to complete the paintings on the ceiling. Any ordinary person would find it hard to imagine what Michelangelo had gone through in those four years of hard and
lonely work. Michelangelo, while working, had to lie on his back and paint. As a result, he became so used to looking upward that when he received a letter during that period, he had to hold it over his head to read it. Finally, the paintings were completed. The great and huge paintings on the ceiling and walls of the chapel have ever since become a fascination to people in Italy and all over the world. Michelangelo left us with a great number of sculptures and paintings. Today his works are still examples for art students to study and follow. Home and overseas visitors can’t help but admire these masterpieces. 4. Jim Corrigan Jim Corrigan, a well-built man in his late 20’s, works in a large hospital. Jim is an X-ray technician. It is his job to develop the many X-ray films that are taken of people’s lungs, stomachs and other body parts. Jim works in a darkroom, a room that is specially equipped for developing film. First he removes the film from the lead plates that are used to hold it. Then he feeds the film into a developing machine. It takes about 90 seconds for it to develop. The film is then ready to be examined by a doctor. Jim’s work is important, and both doctors and patients eagerly, often worriedly, wait for the results of his work. Jim doesn’t keep them waiting too long. He is quick and orderly at his job. This would not be unusual except for the fact that Jim Corrigan is blind. “In the beginning it was tricky,” Jim explains, “The film comes in five different sizes. And sometimes I would get them mixed up. But I have never let a mistake get out of the darkroom.” After some time, Jim learned to measure the film by running his fingers over the
edges. “I have a system,” explains Jim, “so that I can find things easily in the darkroom. It’s a simple system. I just keep my materials in order and put them back in the same place after I use them. I don’t have to search for anything.” “Jim is quite capable and can be trusted,” says his boss, “I wouldn’t have him working here if he weren’t. And that brings me to the question of handicapped people. You can’t let yourself get upset about them. They want to be treated just like anybody else --- and they should be. They don’t want you to fell sorry for them.” No one has to feel sorry for Jim Corrigan. 5. Starting a conversation with a foreigner in English As you rode on the bus one day, a foreigner sat down beside you. Finally, here was a perfect opportunity for you to practice speaking English with a foreigner, you thought to yourself. But no words came into your head. You were tongue-tied! After 15 minutes, the foreigner got off the bus and you didn’t utter a word! “What a shame!” you said to yourself. If you have had such an experience, don’t feel bad. You’re not alone. What you need is a lesson in small talk. Here are some tips that will show you how to get started. “HELLO” --- A STARTER First, exchange a “Hello” or “Hi” with the foreigner, but at the same time, pay close attention and see if he feels like chatting. Watch his facial expression and body language for cues. Having said his “Hello” or “Hi” in return, does he just stare out of the window or keep reading the book in his hand? That’s the cue for you to stop moving on. Don’t force a conversation on someone who wants to be left alone. But what if the person stops whatever he is doing and looks back or smiles at you?
These are positive cues, indicating you can keep talking and start a conversation! SMALL TALK --- THE MAIN COURSE To start a conversation, you should choose a suitable topic. Then, what are the rules for choosing a suitable topic? Perhaps the most universal topic of any conversation is the weather. Everyone has an opinion to share about the weather! Don’t immediately launch into serious topics like politics or religion. And don’t talk about personal matters, either. Stick to familiar subjects of a casual nature such as movies, music, sports, favourite things, or one’s likes and dislikes. Small talk flows naturally. Raise open-ended questions rather than yes-no questions to keep the conversation going. Try to find points of connection between you and the person you are chatting with. Offer short comments on what the other person says, and listen attentively when what you say is being commented on. If you get such comments as “That’s interesting.”, “I agree.”, or “Me too.” then you know you’re on the right track. You can have a lot of fun chatting in English with foreigners. They will, too. Try it! Making small talk can be one of life’s pleasures. 6. Never too busy for social manners So you forgot to answer that party invitation you received. Now, the day has come and gone, and you’re feeling guilty because you never told the host you couldn’t attend. “Don’t allow this oversight to ruin your relationship,” says R. Thomas Boone, a US social psychologist. “I would show up with a bottle of wine and say, ‘I owe you one. I’m really sorry’,” Boone says. Send an e-mail, make a phone call or reach out to the host another way. Whatever the method, do it as soon as possible.
If guests don’t answer the invitations on time, the host cannot possibly plan for the correct amount of food and drink. This may lead to hundreds or even thousands of dollars of waste. “Everybody has a busy schedule now,” Boone says. If you know you are forgetful when it comes to making phone calls, try emailing your RSVPs as soon as the invitation arrives. RSVP is the short form of the French phrase “répondez s’il vous pla?t”, meaning “Reply, if you please”. The following are some commonly used terms in invitation letters and their meanings. Be sure to know these and answer invitations properly. RSVP, REGRETS ONLY Only guests who can’t attend need reply. You need to give a proper reason why you can’t attend. RSVP BY… Guests should respond with yes or no by the date indicated on the invitation. Setting a date gives guests a deadline. It is also a deadline for the host to connect guests who haven’t reply. RSVP BY E-MAIL Guests can respond by e-mail. Unlike phone calls, e-mails can be sent without regard to time of day or location. 7. Holidays and festivals in the United Kingdom There are many national holidays in the United Kingdom. Among them, Easter, and Christmas are two of the most famous. EASTER The date of Easter varies each year. It usually falls in March or April. During the Easter holiday, people give each other chocolate Easter eggs. The eggs are opened and eaten on Easter Sunday. On Good Friday (the day before Easter, when Christians observe
the day on which Christ died), hot cross buns are sold. They are toasted and eaten with butter. Easter Monday (the day after Easter) is a Bank Holiday. On that day, banks and other major businesses are closed; people may enjoy a trip to the seaside or watch an exciting sports game, such as football, or horse-racing. CHRISTMAS For most British families, Christmas is certainly the most important holiday of the year. Families decorate their houses in bright colours. Usually a Christmas tree is placed in the front room, shining with coloured lights and interesting decorations. On the morning of Christmas Day , many people go to church to celebrate the birth of Christ(. In the afternoon, they stay at home and open the gifts that were gathered around the tree. Later, they may watch the Queen appear on television to deliver her traditional Christmas message to the whole country. In the evening, the families sit down to a big goose (sometimes turkey) dinner. They round off the meal with pudding, a Christmas specialty. Many traditions are connected with Christmas. For children, the most important one is that of receiving gifts. On Christmas Eve (December 24), they usually leave a long stocking hanging by the bed or by the fireplace. They hope that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and bring them small presents. They are usually not disappointed! December 26, Boxing Day, is also a public holiday. This is the time to visit friends or watch football. Students have several weeks off school for Christmas. 8. How do different cultures around the world celebrate the New Year? Get ready to say good-bye to the old, hello to the new! What’s the occasion? The coming of the New Year. Many Western cultures measure their days with the solar calendar. Therefore, they
observe the coming of New Year on January 1. Cultures in Asia and Middle East use other calendars, such as the more ancient lunar calendar. They celebrate the New Year at other times. Events and ceremonies vary from country to country. But in each places, New Year celebrations are a big meal. Most world cultures have been celebrating the New Year for centuries. The earliest New Year celebrations took place during spring or harvest time. With better weather ahead, or plenty of food to eat in winter, people naturally felt like having a party! As the days became longer and as nature renewed itself, people also felt like they could have a new start. Past disappointments could be forgotten. The New Year could bring better fortune, more opportunities and new challenges. Such universal themes remain the same today. Some cultures have unusual New Year traditions. Italians throw old things out of their windows at midnight, symbolizing the departure of the old. Mexicans fire guns into the air to keep away misfortunes. New Year celebrations also involve having fun. Some cultures view the New Year as an opportunity to let off fireworks. In New York City’s Times Square, thousands gather on December 31 to count down the last seconds of the year. A giant silver ball is lowered at the stroke of midnight. London, England, hosts an annual New Year’s Day parade that draws nearly a million spectators. The largest parade in Europe, it features bands and enormous balloons. These balloons are so huge that they tower over nearby buildings!
How will you celebrate the New Year? Think about the themes you find meaningful during this season. Do you hope for a new start or a chance to turn over a new leaf? whatever the case, we wish you well. Happy New Year! 9. Man’s four-legged friend The sun was shining and it was warm. Robin, a shepherd, was lying on the grass, enjoying the beautiful sunshine. His guard, a sheepdog, was standing next to him, looking at the flock of sheep. This is only a scene in a movie, but it does give us a real picture showing man’s relationship with dogs. For a long time in history, dogs were not only being raised to work as man’s guards, but they were also being trained to do many other jobs. Some were made to pull carts; others were bred to smell out enemies or track the scent of big animals. In addition to these hunting and working dogs, other breeds came to be used in sports, police work and as pets as well. In a way dogs have become man’s friends and working partners. If you have a dog you love as a pet, you share some of your life with it. The dog lives in your home, keeps you company and goes on trips with you. Dogs rely on their excellent sense of smell to tell things apart. This sharp sense helps man and dogs themselves get over a lot of difficulties. A detective once trained a dog---Sauer. In 1925 while he was thinking hard about how to catch a thief. Sauer worked alone and tracked the thief after covering a distance of 160 kilometres. Sauer did this by scent alone. In 1923 a couple lost their dog Bobbie while they were travelling. Six months later Bobbie turned up at the family house. He had covered a distance of some 3,200 kilometres. The dog had travelled back through the Rocky Mountains
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in the depths of winter. Dogs are indeed man’s best friends. Yet sometimes even the friendliest dog can bring death with its bite! This is not because it has changed in character, but because it has been infected with a terrible disease---rabies. The disease is passed on by a bite from an infected dog at any stage. When an infected person shows symptoms, death is certain to follow shortly after. So, in order to prevent the disease, a person should go to a doctor at once if he has been bitten by a dog. Dogs remain man’s best friends, but we should also try our best to guard against the horrible disease that can be carried by these friends. 10. Well done, Spotty! We were walking alone when we saw the Wilkins’ children playing in their yard. The three girls were taking turns pushing a cart. Their one-year-old twin brothers and a big doll were in it. Just as we walked by them, a wheel came off. Freckles, my friend, fixed it for them. Then they all went upstairs to play some games. After a while Mrs Wilkins went out, and left the twins with the girls. Well, it wasn’t much fun for me, and soon I went to sleep. I must have slept pretty hard and pretty long. All of a sudden I woke up and could hardly breathe. Everybody was gone. The room was full of smoke! The house was on fire! I started down the stairs and stumbled over a gray bunch. “That belongs to Freckles,” I thought. “It’s the gray sweater that he likes so much. I might as well take it down to him.” I took the sweater in my mouth and started down again. It weighed so much. So I dropped it on one of the stairs. Then I went back up to look out of a window. I wanted to see why there was so much noise.
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The whole town was in the front yard and in the street! In the middle of the crowd was Mrs Wilkins, who was carrying on like a mad woman. Mr. Wilkins was jumping up and down and shouting loudly, “I’ve got the babies! I’ve got the babies!” He had a real baby in one arm and the big doll in the other. He was so excited that ha thought he had both babies. Later I heard what had happened. The kids had thought they were escaping with both twins. But one of them had saved the doll and left a twin behind. “Well,” I decided, “I’d better get out of here fast. This place is really beginning to burn!” As I ran down the stairs, I knocked into the gray bunch again. So I picked it up. I got out the back way with that package swinging from my mouth. I walked round to the front yard and set it down very quickly. It let out a cry! “My baby!” shouted Mrs Wilkins. And she started to kiss me and the babies. “Three cheers for Spotty!” everyone shouted at the top of their voices. The butcher made his way through the crowd and gave me a large piece of hamburger and said, “It’s got chicken livers mixed in it.” I liked the way things were, so I wagged my tail. 11. Cartoons and comic strips People often find it hard to put their feelings into words. So they keep hunting for new means of expressing their feelings other than words. Cartoons, as such a means, were thus born. Old cartoons, however, did not attract many people until cartoonists had expanded their topics by the end of the 19th century. At around the same time, comic strips came into being. A cartoon is an amusing drawing that deals with something of interest in the news. Comic strips are a set of humorous drawings that tell a funny story. They make a story appear as a
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picture in the reader’s mind by showing one or two aspects of an event. There is a cartoon that shows a father and his son. The boy is showing his father his school report, which, unfortunately, gives a very poor grade---2 out of 5. So he does it in a quite unusual way: the report is fastened to one end of a pole while the boy is holding the other and. With the long pole between them, any punishment from the father is out of the question. For the moment, at least, the son is safe. Readers can’t help laughing at the cartoon. But they may also find some food for thought in addition to being amused. Reading cartoons and comic strips had long been a favourite pastime for adults until the beginning of the 20th century. Then some business-minded people found that there might be a good market for children, too. With the improvement of printing and drawing techniques, modern cartoons and comic strips had become children’s favourites by the early 20th (around the 1920s). Since then they have become popular reading materials for people of all ages. Today the characters in cartoons and comic strips range from children to adults, pets to fancy animals, and ordinary people to superheroes. Micky Mouse and Garfield the Cat make children think and imagine actively. Superman and Batman bring villains of all sorts to justice. Father and Son expresses human love and sympathy in lively comic strips. Their names have become household words. They are only a few outstanding products in the field. Today the digital revolution has brought new life to the making of cartoons and comic strips. Therefore many people think that computer-made comics will in the end replace handdrawn ones. However, just as the human mind will never give way completely to the computer, hand-drawn comics will never die, but will remain a