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外研版高中英语必修三Module 1 Europe导学案

Module 1


across, ancient, architect, continental, face(v), govern, influence, locate, opposite, range, situated, symbol, sculpture,sign on the coast 指

在离海面附近的陆地上 work on “致力于;从事” 重 点 词 汇 of all time 有史以来;自古以来;从未有过 off the coast 指离陆地不远的海面上 in the south of 在??的南部 be famous for 因??而著名 last for 延续;持续 be known as 以??闻名

ever since 自此,自从??一直 refer to 指??,查阅 in terms of 谈到??

have control over 对??加以控制 little by little 逐渐地 compare with/to 与??比较

because of


on the other hand 另一方面,反过来一说 表示方位的句型 Italy is in the south of Europe on the coast of the Mediterranean. 重 点 句 型 Portugal is to the west of Spain. Barcelona is on the northeast coast of Spain sp.(someplace)is situated/located in/on/to+sp. Whereabouts is that'? How big is the European Union compared with China? The expanded European Union has a population of more than half a billion people.… 1.功能意念 表达位置(location) 交 际 项 目 2.日常交际用语 Where do you live? That’s the capital of Scotland, isn’t it? Whereabouts is it? That’s in the west, isn’t it? What’s it like? It’s very quiet.

语 法 项 目

1. 被 动 语 态 的 一 般 式 和 过 去 式 (Passive Voice: : present and past forms) 2.主谓一致(Subject and Verb agreement) )

( 一) 知识要点

1. The United Kingdom is off the northwest coast of continental Europe. 英国位于欧洲西北部大陆海岸线附近。 【辨析】off the coast 与 on the coast on the coast 指在离海面附近的陆地上 off the coast 指离陆地不远的海面上 I once stayed in a town on the south coast of England. 我曾在英格兰南海岸的一座城市里住过。 He died in a shipwreck off the south coast. 他丧生于南部一带的一次海难。 1. off (1) prep. The hall rolled off the table.球从桌上滚落 Keep off the grass.勿践踏草地


He entered a big house off the high street. 他进入了一所离大 街不远的大房子。 The ship sank off Cape Horn. 这艘轮船在合恩角外沉没了 (2) adv. The town is still five miles off. 那小镇尚在五英里之外。 We are still some way off. 我们仍有一段距离(如距目的地)要走 Please tell them that the meeting is off. 请告诉他们会议已经取消了。 〔常用短语〕 take sth. off sth. fall off 扣除,减去 跌落

knock sth. off sth.把某物从另一物上.放掉 wipe sth. off sth. 把某物从另一物上擦掉 along the coast 沿着海岸

The British Isles are a group of islands that lies off the west coast of Europe.不列颠群岛是一组位于欧洲西海岸不远处的岛屿 Wuhan lies on the Chanjiang River.武汉位于长江边 2. France is Europe’s third largest country and faces the United

Kingdom across the English Channel. 法国是欧洲第三大国家,隔英 吉利海峡和联合王国相望。 【点拨】 face n.脸 vt.转向,面向

Judging from his worried face,we knew that he must have had some trouble. 从他焦急的脸色判断,我们知道他肯定有麻烦了. (2) vt. face 用作及物动词,还有“面临;必须对付;承认;正视” 之意。 〔常用结构〕face sth be faced with sth. 面临 The company is facing a financial crisis. 公司正面临财政危机。 It’s not always easy to face the truth. 承认事实并不总是一件很 容易的事。 She is faced with a difficult decision. 她眼前有一项难作的决 定。 I was faced with new problem.我面临着新的 M 题 〔常用短语〕 in( the) face of 不顾(问题、困难等) lose one's face 失面子,丢脸 fight in the face of 公然反抗

face the music 由于自己的决定或行为而接受批评或承担 后果 【拓展】 【点击高考】_________ with a difficult situation, Arnold decided to ask his boss for advice. A. To face B. Having faced (05 年春季高考北京卷) C. Faced D. Facing

答案为 C 本题考查非谓语动词和动词 face 的用法。 face 作动词时, 意为 “面对; 面临” , 可用于两种结构: face sth 或 be faced with sth,。 此处用的是第二种结构。 由题意 “由 于 Arnold 面临一个艰难的处境,他决定去征求老板的意 见”以及句子的结构可知,句子的前半部分是原因状语, 因此要用过去分词作状语。 【拓展】face 还可用作不及物动词,后接副词或介词,意为“面 对,面向” 。 My bedroom faces south./ to the south. 我的卧室朝南。 -How does the house face?这房屋面朝哪边? -It faces ( to the ) east.朝东。 【点拨】across 此处用作介词,意为“从??一边到另一边,横 过;在??对面” 。

I drew a line across the page. 我在这一页上画了一条横线。 Where’s the nearest bridge across the river? 过河最近的桥 在哪儿? There’s a bank right across the river. 银行正好在河的对 面。 【拓展】across 还可用作副词,意为“从一边到另一边;横过; 在对面” 。 The river is too wide;we can’t swim across. 这条河太宽了,我们游不过去。 When my name was called, he looked across at me. 当叫到我的名字的时候,他从那边朝我看过来。 There’s a school just across from our house. 有一所学校就在我们房子对面。 The river is 500 meters across. 这条河有 500 米宽。 [辫析] across,past,through,over across 表示“横过,横穿,越过” ,它的含义与 on, over 有关,侧重于动作在某一物体或某一地方的表面进行。across 作介 词还可表示“在??经过” ;作副词表示“对过”或“横过” 。 past 表示从某物旁边经过 [注意] past 是介词,不可

与动词 pass 相混淆。 We walked past the hospital.= We passed by the hospital. 我们从医院旁边经过 through 表示“通过,穿过” ,它的含义与 in 有关,侧 重动作在某一物体空间里进行,含有从中间通过之意。through 还 可表示“凭借” “ (做)完”等意。 over “越过,飞过” ,着重指从事物的一边到另一边, 含义与 above 有关。 The ship sailed across the Atlantic. 这只船横渡过了大西洋 她正隔

She is talking to the neighbour across the garden fence. 着篱笆与邻居说话: He was absent-minded and walked past the station. 不在焉而走过了车站。 The policeman forced his way through the crowd. 过人群 He walked through the street and found nothing alive. 道,没有发现有生命的东西。 They went across the river. 他们穿过了那条河流。




We walked through many villages. 他们走过了好几个村庄。

Somehow the sheep had jumped over the fence. 不知怎么回事, 羊儿越过了栅栏。 【点击高考】He suddenly saw Sue _________ the room. He pushed his way ________ the crowd of people to get to her. (2005 湖南) A. across; across B. over; through C. over; into 答案为 D D. across; through

across 指“从表面走过” ;through 指“从内

部穿过” 。 由 the room 可知用 across, “穿过” the crowd 则 用 through。 3. Between Italy and France, there is a mountain range called the Alps. 意大利和法国之间是阿尔卑斯山脉。 range n. &vt.

(1) n.山脉,视觉(听觉)范围(区域) ,射程;还有“ (一)批, 组;范围”等意,常与介词 of 连用。 The firm will provide us with an interesting range of books and videos. 这家公司将提供给我们一批有趣的书籍和录像带。 We have students from a wide range of backgrounds. 我们的学生来自 各种不同的背景。 There is a magnificent range of mountains in the borderland. 在边境

地带有连绵不断的雄伟山脉。 The tree is within range of' vision.这棵树在视野之内 (2) vt.(在一定范围内)变化,排列 The prices of the dolls range from$5 to$100. 这些布娃娃的 价格从 5 美元到 100 美元不等 The discussion ranged over various problems. 了种种问题 【点击高考】— Can you shoot that bird at the top of the tree ? — No, it’s out of _________ . (2000 上海) A. range B. control C. reach D. distance 这次讨论涉及

答案为 A 本句的意思为“你能射中树顶上的鸟吗?” , “不能,它不在射程之内。 ” 。 out of range 在(射程)范围外;out of reach (手)够不 着,力量不及;out of control 失控的;out of distance 太 远。 4. Portugal is to the west of Spain. 葡萄牙在西班牙的西面。 【点拨】to the west of 意思为“在??的西面” ,其中 to 表示方向, 强调两地方不接壤。 【辨析】三个表方位的介词 to, in, on

to 在某范围之外, 不强调是否接壤; in 在某范围之内; on 强 调毗连或邻近,有时还可以表示“在??湖(河)畔” 。 Japan lies/is to the east of china. 日本位于中国的东部。 Beijing lies in the north of China. 北京在中国的东部。 Guangdong lies on the south of Hunan. 广东省跟湖南省接 壤。 London lies on the Thames. 伦敦位于泰晤士湖畔。 〔注意〕我们只有笼统地指明方向时,可以不出现介词。 Shandong is north of Fujian. 山东位于福建北部 South of the mountain,there is a big river. 山的南部,有一条大 河。 5. Paris is the capital and largest of city of France, situated on the River Seine. 巴黎是法国的首都和最大的城市,位于塞纳河畔。 【点拨】句中 situated on the River Seine 是过去分词短语作定语, 修饰 Paris, 相当于定语从句:which is situated on the River seine。其中 situated 为形容词化的过去分词,意思为“坐 落(某处)的,位于(某处)的” ,一般不与名词连用。 此外,situated 还可以表示“ (人、组织等)处于??状 况” 。

My bedroom was situated on the top floor of the house. 我的卧室在房子的顶层。 The hotel is beautifully situated in a quiet spot near the river. 旅馆环境优美,坐落在河边的一个僻静的地方。 Microsoft is well situated to exploit this new market. 微软具备良好的条件开拓这个新市场。 【拓展】 (1)situation 为名词形式,意思为“情况;状况;形势; (建筑物或城镇的)地理位置;环境特点” 。 You could get into a situation where you have to decide immediately. 你可能遇上一种情况,使你不得不立刻作出决定。 The present economic and political situation in Iraq is becoming worse and worse. 目前伊拉克的经济和政治形势变得越来 越糟。 The town is in a delightful situation in a wide green valley. 小城坐落在一个宽阔而草木苍翠的河谷中,环境宜人。 6. It is one of the most beautiful cities in the world and is visited by more than eight million tourists every year. 它(巴黎)是世界上最美 丽的城市之一,每年有 800 多万游客。 【点拨】这是一个由连词 and 构成的并列句,第二个 is 前省略了

主语 it, 构成一般现在时的被动结构。由于 and 前的句 子为主动语态, and 之后的句子为被动语态, 为避免歧义, 保留第二个 is,否则省略 be 动词。 He is an excellent student and is liked by his classmates. 他是个优秀的学生深受同学喜爱。 Our teacher is respected and invited to attend the international conference. 我们的老师被人尊敬并且经常被邀请参加国际会议。 7. The most popular place for tourists is the Eiffel Tower, the famous symbol of Paris. 最受游客欢迎的旅游景点是埃菲尔铁塔, 它是巴黎 著名的象征。 (1)the famous symbol of Paris 在句子作 the Eiffel Tower 的同位 语,起解释说明的作用。 He was a good captain one that often looked after his seamen. 他是一个好船长,一个经常照顾船员的船长。 Gao Xiumin, a well-known comedy actress, died on 18, August, 2005. 高秀敏一个著名的喜剧演员, 于 2005 年 8 月 18 日不幸逝

世。 【点拨】 (2)symbol 用作可数名词,意思为“象征(of sth );符号, 记号(for sth)” 。 White has always been a symbol of purity in western cultures. 在西方文化中,白色一向象征纯洁。 What is the chemical symbol for copper ? 铜的化学符号是 什么? 【拓展】symbolic 为形容词形式,意为“使用象征的;象征性的” 。 symbolize 为动词形式,意为“象征;是??的象征;代 表” 。 The dove is symbolic of peace. 鸽子是和平的象征。 The channel Tunnel has great symbolic significance for a united Europe. 英吉利海峡隧道对于建立一个统一的欧洲具有重大 的象征意义。 The use of light and dark symbolizes good and evil. 用光明 与黑暗来象征善与恶。 8. One of the world’s largest art galleries, the Louvre, is also located in Paris. 世界上最大的艺术馆之一——卢浮宫也在巴黎。 【点拨】located 用作形容词,意思为“位于;坐落在” 。 (用法同

situated) My hometown is located/ situated at the foot of the hill. 我 的家住在山角下。 The offices are conveniently located just a few minutes from the main station. 办事处所处的位置很方便,离总站仅有几分钟的 路。 【拓展】locate 为动词形式,意思为“把??安置在;创办于(某 地) ” 。 location 为名词形式,意思为“地方;地点;位置” 。 They located their office in Beijing. 他们把办事处设在北 京。 There are tax breaks for businesses that locate in rural areas. 在农村地区创办企业享有税收减免。 What is the exact location of the ship ? 那条船的确切位置 在哪里? 9. One of Barcelona’s most famous Landmarks is the Church of the Sagrada Familia, which was designed by an architect called Antonio Gaudi. 巴塞罗那的最著名的标志性建筑是圣家大教堂, 它是由建 筑师安东尼奥·高迪设计的。

【点拨】 (1) 这是一个由关系代词 which 引导的非限定规定语从句, 对先行词为 the Church of the Sagrada Familia 进行补充说 明。有时 which 可指前面整个句子的内容。 He has passed the college entrance examination, which makes his parents quite happy. 他通过了大学入学考试,这令他的父 母很高兴。 【点击高考】Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, _________ of course, made the others envy him. (2004 年天津) A. who B. that C. what D. which

答案为 D 本题考查非限制性定语从句,先行词是前面整 个一句话,which 所引导的非限制性定语从句是对前面主 句起补充说明作用。 【点拨】 (2)句子中的 called Antonio Gandi 是过去分词短语作后 置定语。 修饰物 architect , 相当于定语从句 who was called. 【点击高考】The price of the game show is $30,000 and an all expenses____ vacation to China. A. paying B. paid C. to be paid (2005 北京) D. being paid

答案为 B 句意为“这次比赛表演的奖品是 3 美万元和到

中国的免费假期。expense 与 pay 之间的关系是被动关系, 故排除 A;C 表示将来的动作,D 正在被进行的动作。 10. Gaudi worked on the project from 1882 until his death in 1926. 高 迪从 1882 年起从事这次工程直至 1926 年逝世。 【点拨】 work on “致力于; 从事” , 相当于 spend time in doing sth. I worked all night on that article. 我通宵在写那篇文章。 She’s outside working on the car. 她在外面修理汽车。

【拓展】 (1) work on 还有 “奏效; 产生预期的结果; 努力说服 (某 人做某事) ” His charm doesn’t work on me. 我不为他的魅力所动。 My parents spent the weekend working on me to go on holiday with them. 爸妈用了一个周末来说服我和他们一起度假去。 【拓展】 (2)由 work 构成的常见短语: work at 做;从事;学习 work against sb. 对某人不利 work out 算出;解决;制订出;按某种方式发生 work for sth. 争取,努力取得 Juan’s English isn’t very good, but he works at it. 胡安的英 语不太好,可他很用功学习。

Tax laws tend to work against small organizations. 税法往 往不利于小机构。 You can work out the answer by adding all the numbers. 你 把所有的数加在一起就能算出答案。 It is time for us to work out a plan. 我们该制订计划了。

Things have worked out quite well for us. 事情的结果对我 们很不错。 She devoted her life to working for peace. 她为争取和平奉 献了自己的一生。 【 点 击 高 考 】 We didn’t plan our art exhibition like that but it _________ very well. A. worked out B. tried out C. went on (2001 全国) D. carried on

【点拨】答案为 A 此处 work out 用作不及物动词,意思为“结 果是” ,相当于 turn out; try out 参加;选拔; go on 继续;发生;carry on 继续移动; 吵闹。本句意思为:我们没有那样计划,我们是艺术展览, 但结果却很好。 11. Florence is an Italian city which became famous because of the Renaissance, a great artistic movement which began in the 1300s

and lasted for three hundred years. 佛罗伦萨是意大利的一个城 市,因文艺复兴而著名,文艺复兴是一个起源于 14 世纪,持结 了 300 年之久的伟大的艺术运动。 【点拨】 (1)这个句子中含有两个由 which 所引导的定语从句。a great artistic movement which began in the 1300s and lasted for three hundred years 是作 the Renaissane 的同位语。 【点拨】 (2)because of 介词短语,因为;由于 “由于,因为”的几种表达方式 because+从句 because of+n . thanks to 十 n. owing to 十 n. due to+n. as a (the)result of 十 n. on account of 十 n. (1) because 为从属连词, 后跟一个完整的句子构成原因状语从 句而 because of 则是一个介词短语,后接名词或动名词 He didn't go to school because of his illness. = He didn’ t go to school because he was ill. 他没去上学是

因为生病了。 He was punished by his teacher because of his cheating on exams. =He was punished by his teacher because he cheated on exams. 他因考试作弊受到老师的惩罚。 (2)thanks to 这一短语介词,含有、 ‘幸亏、多亏、亏得、依赖、 依靠、 由于、 因为” 等意思几它引导的短语, 可以表达正面意思 (近 似于原意“感谢” ) ,也可用于讽刺口吻中(近似于讽刺口吻的“感 谢” )它引导的短语在句中用作状语时,大多放在句首,也可以置 于句末. My mother is getting better and better,thanks to the doctor. 多亏 了医生,我母亲才一天天康复起来(感谢的口吻) Thanks to your help, I passed the test. 幸亏有你的帮助, 我通过 了刚验〕 (正面意思) (3) owing to 意为“由于,因为” ,在句中通常用作状语,可 置于句首或句末。 Owing to my absence,they had to put off the class meeting till next week. 由于我不在,他们只好将班会推迟到下个星期. Xiao Wang could not come to the ball(, )owing to a bad cold. 因为得了重感冒,小王没能去打(踢)球.

(4) due to 意为“由于” ,它引导的短语在句中一般用作表语 或定语,但在很多场合也可与 owing to 通用,作状语. 这一 用法在现今英语中也很流行,但不如 owing to 那么严谨. The accident is due to your careless driving. 那件意外事故归因 于你驾驶不小心. (5) as a ( the) result of 意为 “ 由于......的结果” ,一般用作状 语。 He was late as a result of the traffic jam. 由于交通阻塞,他迟到 了。 (6) on account of 意为“因......缘故,由于”它引导的短语在 句中通常作状语,可置于句首或句末。 The train was delayed on account of a heavy snow. 由于一场大雪 火车来迟了。 【点拨】 (3)last 用作不及物动词,意思为“继续;延续;持久; 足够维持” 。 The meeting only lasted (for) a few minutes. 会议只开了几 分钟。 The weather won’t last. 这种天气持续不了多久。 Doctors say that she probably won’t last our night. 医生说

她很可能活不过今晚。 We’ve got enough food to last (us) (for) three days. 我们的 食物足够维持三天。 【点击高考】The evening news comes on at seven o’clock and _____ only thirty minutes. A. keeps B. continues C. finishes (2004 吉林) D. lasts

答案为 D 本句句意为: 晚间新闻 (节目) 每天 7:00 开始, 持续 30 分钟。finish 完成,为瞬间动词;keep 保存,保留, 持续某种状态;continue 继续做??;仍旧。只有 last 后 跟持续的时间。 12. During the Renaissance, some of the greatest painters of all time lived and worked in Florence. 在文艺复兴期间,历史上一些最伟大 的画家在佛罗伦萨生活和工作。 【点拨】of all time 有史以来;自古以来;从未有过 Many rated him the best singer of all time. 许多人认为他是 有史以来最优秀的歌手。 【拓展】与 time 构成的常见介词短语: against time 争分夺秒;抢时间 ahead of time 提前

at all times 总是;随时;永远 at times 有时;间或 at the time 当时 at a time 每次;逐一;依次 at one time 曾经;一个时期;一度 at no time 决不;在任何时候都不 in no time 立刻;马上 in time 及时;迟早 on time 按时;准时 behind the times 落伍;过时;陈旧 behind time 拖后 from time to time 不时;有时;偶尔 for the time being 暂时;眼下 13. Athens, the capital of Greece, is known as the birthplace of western civilization. 雅典是希腊的首都,作为西方文明的发祥地而闻名于 世。 【点拨】be known as 作为??而著名,同 be famous as,常与表 示身份、地位和职业的名词连用。 Yang Liwei is known as the first pilot sent to space in China.

杨利伟作为中国第一个被送上大亨空的飞行员而著名。 【辨析】be known for 因??而出名 be known to sb. 被某人所了解或知道 It’s well known that… 众所周知?? He’s best known for her work on the human brain. 他在人脑 的研究方面最为知名。 The man is known to the police. 这男人是在警方挂了号 的。 It is (well) known that theory comes from practice. 众所周 知,理论源于实践。 【点击高考】 Linda worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company, ______ as 3M. A. knowing B. known C. being known (04 年浙江) D. to be known

答案为 B be known as… 著称, 用过去分词 known 作 the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company 的定语,相 当于定语从句:which was known as 3M. 14. Their works has influenced other writers ever since. 他们的作品 影响了后进的作家。 【点拨】 (1)influence 此处用作及物动词,意思为“影响;对??

起作用;左右” 。 influence 还可用作名词,意思为“影响;作用;影响力” 。 常用短语有: have an influence on sb. / sth. 对??产生影响 have influence over sb. / sth. 对??有影响力 under the influence of 受??影响 His writings have influenced the lives of millions. 他的作品 影响了千百万人的一生。 A number of social factors influence life expectancy. 诸多社 会因素左右着人的预期寿命。 What a teacher says and does have a great influence on his students. 教师的言行对学生影响很大。 Her Parents no longer have any real influence over her. 她的 父母对她不再有真正的约束力了。 He committed the crime under the influence of drugs. 他是 在吸毒后犯罪的。 【辨析】result, effect 与 influence result 结果,影响,指某一行动、计划或事件带来的直接 后果。

effect 结果,效果,指某一行动、计划事件带来的间接后 果或某一事物产生的效应。 influence 影响,指对周围一切或今后历史等产生的影响, 常指深远的影响。有时指具有影响力,左右局势的 人或事件。 She died as a result of her injuries. 她由于受伤而死亡。 Doing it like that will have a bad effect on you. 那样做对你 影响不好。 Clawde’s work had a major influence on generations of musicians. 克劳德的作品对几代音乐家都产生过重要影响。 【点拨】 (2)ever since 自??一直,常与完成时连用。 He left home two weeks ago and we haven’t heard from ever since. 他两周前离家外出,我们至今还没有他的音信。 We were divorced two years ago and she has remained ever since. 我们是两年前离的婚,之后她又再婚了。 【点击高考】The first use of atomic weapons was in 1945, and their power _______ increased enormously even since. (2004 上海) A. is B. was C. has been D. had been

答案为 C 根据 ever since (从那时,一直到现在) 应用现在完成时。 15.“方位”表达法小结 (1)be, lie, stand + 介词(in / to / on)+ the + 方位名词 + of (2)face / look (to the) + 方位词 (3)be / stand / lie + 距离 + 方位词 + of (4)方位词 + of + be / lies / stands +主语 (5)to / in / on + the + 方位名词 + is / lies + 地方 (6)be far away from / near/close to (7)(be) next to sb. / sth. 在??旁边 (8)be apposite sth. 在??对面 (9)be situated / located + 介词 + the + 方位名词 + of Taiwan is to the east of Fujian and in the southeast of China. 台湾邻近福建东部,位于中国东南部。 China faces the Pacific on the east. 中国东部面向太平洋。 His hometown lies so miles east of our school. 他的家乡在 我们学校东 50 英里外。 North of the town lies a railway. 城镇北部有一条铁路。 On the north of the United States lies Canada. 美国北部与


加拿大接壤。 The university isn’t so far from here. 那所大学距离这里不 远。 Our house is nearer to the bus stop than it is to the subway station. 我家到公共汽车站比到地铁站近。 Who stood next to you? 谁站你旁边? It’s easy to find — there’s a church just opposite my house. 我家很容易找,正对面有座教堂。 The new building will be located in the center of town. 这座 大楼将建在市中心。 16. France and Germany aren’t going to sign the agreement. 法德两国 还没打算签订协议。 【点拨】sign 此处用作及物动词,意思为“签名;签署” 。 You forgot to sign the cheek! 你忘了在支票上签字! The artist signed his name in the corner of the painting. 画家 在画的角上署了名。 【拓展】 (1)sign 还可用作不及物动词,意思为“签名;做手势 (示意) ” 。 Sign here, please. 请在这里签字。

He was signing to me crazily to not mention anything about Jack. 他拼命地向我打手势,叫我不要提起杰克的任何事。 She signed for us to go inside. 她打手势让我们进去。 【拓展】 (2)与 sign 构成的常用短语有: sign in 签到 sing out 签名;登记离开 sign up (for sth.) 报名参加 sign off 结束写信 Remember to sign in at the reception table and sign out at the office. 记住要在接待处签到,在办公室登记离开。 I’m thinking of signing up for the French course this term. 我在考虑报名参加这个学期的法国课。 It’s getting late so I’ll sign off now, love John. 时间不早了, 我就此搁笔。爱你的约翰。 17. In terms of size and population, how big is the European Union compared with China? 从面积和人口两方面来说,与中国相比,欧 洲联盟有多大? 【点拨】in terms of 在??方面;从??方面来说;根据??来解 释

US foreign policy tended to see everything in terms of the Vietnam War. 美国的外交政策往往从越南战争的角度来看待一切。 In terms of customer satisfaction the policy cannot be criticized. 说到顾客的满意情况,这个政策无可挑剔。 18. The countries are independent and are governed in different ways. 这些国家是独立的,以不同的方法统治国家。 【点拨】govern 用作及物动词,意思为“统治;控制;管理;支 配” 。 The country is governed by elected representatives of the people. 这个国家由民选代表统治。 Prices are very much governed by market demand. 价格在 很大程度上取决于市场的需求。 19. In France, on the other hand, the head of state is a president. 另一 方面,在法国,国家元首称总统。 【点拨】on the other hand 另一方面;反过来说,常与 on the one hand 构成 on (the) one hand…, on the other hand 一方 面??;另一方面??,用于引出不同的对立的观点、思 想等。 On the one hand they’d love to have kids, but on the other hand,

they don’t want to give up freedom. 一方面,他们想要孩子, 但另一方面,他们又不想放弃自由自在的生活。 25% of the students, on the other hand, are against the idea of going abroad. 另一方面,25%的学生反对出国。 20. But each of them sends representatives to the European parliament, which has some control over what happens in each of the member countries. 但是每一个国家派的代表到欧洲国会,它掌握着发生 在每个成员国的一切。 【点拨】 (1)这是一个由 which 所引导的非限制性定语从句,先行 词是 the European parliament. 【点拨】 (2)have / lose control over / of sb / sth 对??拥有/失去 管理权或支配权 The Democrats will probably lose control of / over congress. 民主党很可能失去对国会的控制。 The teacher had no control over the children. 那位老师管不 住学生。 21. Little by little, the number in creased during the second half of the twentieth century. 在 20 世纪后 50 年期间, 成员国的数量逐渐增加。 little by little 逐渐地;一点点地

Little by little the snow disappeared. 雪渐渐融化了。 His English is improving little by little. 他的英语正逐步提高。 22. The expanded European Union has a population of more than half a billion people, twice as big as the population of the United States. 扩大了的欧盟有 5 亿多人口,是美国人口数量的两倍。 【点拨】 (1) expanded 此处是一个过去分词, 作定语, 修饰 European Union。句中表倍数关系的句式结构 twice as big as the population of the united states 作同位语。 【拓展】 三种常见倍数句式: ① 倍数 + as + adj / adv.(原形)+ as ② 倍数 + adj / adv.(比较级)+ than ③ 倍数 + the size / length / depth…of We got four times as many people as we had expected. 来的 人数是我们所预料的四倍。 This problem is ten times easier than that one. 这个问题比 那个问题容易十倍。 The river is five times the length of that one. 这条河是那条 河的 5 倍长。 【点击高考】 (1)What a table ! I’ve never seen such a thing before. It is

______it is long. A. half not as wide as C. not half as wide as

(2005 湖北) B. wide not as half as D. as wide as not half

答案为 C 此题目考查的是形容词同级比较结构。倍数及 否定词都在放在“as …as”之前,而否定词应放在倍数的 前面,只有 C 项符合这个语序。 【点击高考】(2)At a rough estimate, Nigeria is ______ Great Britain. (2005 上海) A. three times the size as C. three times as the size of B. the size three times of D. three times the size of

答案为 D 由四个选项可知,该题考查的是倍数关系,the size 为度量名词,正确的语序应为 three times the size. 23. design n.. &v.

(1) n. 图样,设计,图案;目的,意向 This is a design for the garden. 这是那座花园的设计图 We don't know if it was done by accident or by design. 我们不知 道那是偶然的,还是故意的。 His evil designs were frustrated. 他的罪恶意图未能得逞 (2) v.设计,控制

She is designing dresses for the singer. 她在为这位歌手设计服 装 He designed a plot for tits new novel. 他为他的新小说拟定情 节 This weekend party iNas designed to bring the two musicians together. 这次周末聚会的用意是使两位音乐家见面 〔常用短语〕 by design 故意地,蓄意地; have designs on/against 对?? 抱不良企图,图谋加害于; design stfi. for sb. /sth.设计,制图,构思 24. refer vi. ( referred, referred, referring)涉及,提到( to);查资 料;参与;针对;提交,交付 He referred to pollution in his report last week. 上周在报告中他 提到了污染问题、 The shop referred the complaint to the manufacturers. 商店把投 诉转交给制造商 refer to refer to sb. /sth. as 不可省略

意思是“提到,谈到,涉及,衣考,查阅” 意为“称某人/某物为??” ,to 是介词,

be referred to( as) 是 refer to 的被动式, 意思是 “把......称作” When I was saying that I wasn't referring to you. 我那样说的时 候,指的并不是你 The huge clock in London is referred to as“Big Ben”. 伦敦的大 钟被称为“大本钟” They referred to their friendly teacher as“Mother".他们把和善 的老师称为“妈妈” 25. compare vt. &vi.比较,对照;比作 He cannot compare with Shakespeare as a writer of tragedies. 作 为一个悲剧作家,他无法和莎士比亚相比 compare... with 意为“把......与??进行比较/相比” compare... to... 意为“把??比作......” ,含“比喻”之意 compare with sb. /sth. 意为 ‘和某人或某事物相比或值得相比” It's necessary to compare English with Chinese in English study.学英语时有必要把英语和汉语进行比较 Compare this with that,and you'll which is better. 把这个同那个 比较,你就知道哪个更好了 He began comparing himself pith the students. 他开始把自己和 学生比较起来

Young people are often compared to the rising still. 年轻人常被 比作初升的大阳 The writer of the poem compares his loser to a rose. 诗的作者把 他的爱人比作玫瑰。 [注意] compare 的过去分词作状语时,compared to 和 compare with 在应用上无区别,常被用于句首或句末。 This hardship is nothing,compared to/with those the Red Army faced on the Long March. 和红军长征比起来,这点苦算不上什么 Compared to/with many girls,she was indeed very lucky.与许 多女孩相比,她的确算很幸运了 26. percent n.百分之??

percent 表示“百分之?” ,相当于%,其前往往是一个具体的 数字 percentage 表示“百分比,百分率” ,其前不能是一个具体的数 字,只能被 high , low 等形容词修饰。 -What percentage of babies died of' this disease last year? 去年婴 儿死于这种疾病的百分比是多少? -One percent.百分之一

27. would like to do 原音做草事 would like sb. to do 宁愿要某人做某事 would like to have done 本打算做但没做 I'd like to pay you a visit next week. 下周我打算拜访你。 He'd like me to look after his pet dog. 他愿意让我照看他的宠物 狗。 I'd like to have gone with you,but I was busy then. 我本打算同 你一起去的,但当时我很忙 28. check n. &vt.

(1) n. 检查,核对;发票,支票 We should have a check on the quality of all goods leaving the factory. 我们应当对全部货物在出厂前进行质量检查 We have kept the SARS in check for a year now. 到目前为止 我们已控制 SARS 这种疾病一年了 I've lost the check for my coat. 我把大衣的发票弄丢了 I always pay bills by check.我总是用支票付账 (2) vt. 阻止,制止,控制;核查;调查;托运或寄存 Will you please check these figures? 请检查这些数字有无错 误好吗?

Check your coat at the door. 把你的外套寄存在入口处、 〔辫析〕check,examine,test check 指核对,核实,特别是对数量或质量加以验证; examine 着重指检查、研讨及审查; test 指测验、检验、测试一个人的某种能力 Please check in at the airport an hour before your plane leaves .你 要在飞机起飞前一个小时到机场办理登机手续。 I examined students in English. 我测验学生英文。 I'd better have my eyes tested. 我该去检查视力了。 29. cover v.盖,掩盖;行过(路程) ;报道;读 n.盖子,封面,封底,包皮 〔常用短语〕 cover sth. cover... with cover 30 pages be covered with... cover an area of? cover 2,000 li cover a conference 盖住?? 用??盖住?? 读三十页 用??覆盖 占地面积为, · ·? 走了两千里 报道会议

under cover under the cover of

隐藏着 在??的掩护下,趁着

The book with a hard cover is more expensive. 精装书比较贵 Flood water covered the fields by the river. 洪水淹没了河边的田 地。 Rubble covered the pavement.人行道上铺了碎石块。 The chief editor sent a reporter to cover the event. 主编派记者去 报道这一事件 Her lectures covered the subject thoroughly. 她的演讲对这个问 题阐述得很透彻 The Red Army men covered 25,000 1i during the Long March. 长征中,红军走过了两万五千里 〔辫析〕 discover,uncover, find out discover 指“发现”某种本来存在、而以前未被发现的事物或 不为人所知的东西。 find out 常用来指“弄明白、搞清楚、查出(某一真相) ” ,作 “发现”讲时,是指发现一种无形而隐藏的东西。 uncover 还可表示“发现、揭露、暴露”等意思,一般用于贬 义,其宾语常常是:relic 遗物、古迹,plot 阴谋、圈套、 (秘密)

计划,conspiracy 共谋、阴谋 Do you know who discovered America? 的吗? Think it over and you'll find out the answer to the question. 仔细想想,你就会找到问题的答案 He uncovered the famous picture. 他揭开了那幅名画的覆盖物 30. work n.作品;成果;制品 v.运转;开动;工作 Almost everyone's success is achieved by hard work. 几乎每个 人的成功都是靠艰苦的劳动获得的。 This vase is a wonderful piece of work. 这个花瓶是一件了不起 的作品 He likes O. Henry's works. 他喜欢欧·亨利的作品 [辫析]work on,work at,work out work on 和 work at 都可以作“致力于;从事于”解释,相当 于 be engaged in,常常可以互相代替。但当表示“克服(困难) ; 解决(难题) ”时,较倾向于用 work at;在表示“致力于创作或制 造时” ,较倾向于用 work on work out"解出,找出答案” ,可以看作是 work on 的结果,相


当于 find 或 have got, Here he worked on a short film,which won him a job as the youngest film director in the world. 他制作了一部短片,这使他获得 了一份工作,并成为世界上最年轻的电影导演。 It's said that he's working at/on a new novel. 据说他正在写一部 小说 He liked to work at difficult problems in maths. 他喜欢解数学难 题。 We have made up our minds to research on till we work out the facts of what has caused the pollution. 我们决心研究下去,直到弄 清导致污染的根源 31. more than:表示“多于,超过,不仅仅,不止” more... than;表示“与其说,倒不如说” no more than 表示“不过,仅仅;同· · · ·一样不” not more than 表示“至多,不超过” More than one member was against the plan. 不止一个人反对该 计划 There are more than sixty students in our class. 我们班有 60 多个 学生

He is more than our teacher and he is our friends. 他不仅仅是我 们的老师,也是我们的朋友 His father is more disappointed than angry. 他父亲与其说是生 气,倒不如说是失望 The little boy is not more than 5 years old. 这个小男孩不超过五 岁。 (最大只有五岁) The little boy is no more than five years old. 这个小孩只有五岁。 (言年龄小) [注意]more than one 和 many a 后均跟可数名词单数,谓语动词 用单数,但是 more 十可数名词复数+ than one 作主语时,谓语 动词用复数 Many a student likes playing football. 不止一个学生喜欢踢足 球。 More workers than one were for his opinions. 不止一个工人支 持/赞成他的观点。 33. such pron.这样的物(事、人) adj.(无比较级和最高级)这样的,如此的 One such dictionary is enough. 这样的词典一本就够了 We are not such fools as to believe him. 我们不是那样的愚

人,竟会相信他。 〔注意〕 (1 )such 放在名词前时, 这个名词带或不带形容词都可 以。such 可在句中修饰不可数名词,而 so 不可以这样用。 (2)such 一般用来加强语气,强调名词或形容词的意思。若 有比较的意思时常用 like this/that 的形式来表达。 [辨析]such as,, such...that such as(用于列举事物)用于定语从句) such...that(引导结果状语从句) There are many books in the library such as novels ,storybooks and picture books. 这家图书馆有很多书,诸如小说、故事书、图画 书之类. I went to the shop and bought such things as bread ,wine and vegetables. 我去商店买了这些东西,如面包、葡萄酒和蔬菜。 He is such a lovely student as every teacher likes. 他是如此可爱 的学生,以致于每个老师都喜欢他 Such things as you have bought are not good value for money. 你买的这些东西根本不值所花的钱。 She is such a beautiful girl as many young men love.

=She is such a beautiful girl that many young men love her. 她是如此的漂亮,以致于很多年轻男子喜欢她。 18. Between France and Spain is another mountain range-the Pyrenees. 法国与西班牙之间横亘着另外一条山脉------庇里牛斯山。 当地点状语放在句首时,所引导的句子应用完全倒装,即地点 状语十谓语十主语+其他 On her left sat her husband.她左边坐着她丈夫。 Beyond the river lives an old fisherman. 有个老渔夫住在河的对 岸: 所谓完全倒装,就是将谓语动词置于主语前。完全倒装一般具 有以下两个条件: ①谓语动词是单个(即不带情态动词、助动词或 be 动词)的不 及物动词,且只限于一般现在时或一般过去时; ②主语只能是名词。完全倒装一般有以下四种情况: (1)以 here 等副词开头引出的完全倒装 在描述情景时, 为了使景象更生动, 有时把 here, there, now, then, out, in, up, down, off , away 等方向性副词位于句子开头时, 句子用 完全倒装。此时,①句子主语必须是名词;②谓语动词通常是 be,come , go, run, rush, fly, follow, fall 等表示位移的不及物动词,

且为一般现在时态; ③其中的 here ,there 不是表示地点, 而是用以 引起对方注意。 Here comes the bus.汽车来了。 There goes the bell.铃响了。 Here are some advertisements about cars. 的广告。 (2)以表语或状语开头引出的完全倒装 有时为了强调,或者为了使句子平衡,或者为了使上下文连接 得更加紧密,就将表语和地点状语(多为介词短语)置于句首,谓 语动词也常置于主语前,构成完全倒装。 Among the people was a man named Brown. 在这些人中有一个 叫布朗的人。 On the top of the hill stands an old temple. 这个山顶上有一座 庙。 (3 )there be 结构及其变体的完全倒装。 There is a tall tree in front of the house. 这所房子前面有一裸大 树。 〔注意〕 在 there be 结构中, 可以代替 be 的还有以下动词: live, lie,stand,appear,rise,remain,happen,come,go 等。


Once there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea. 从前, 在海边的一个村子里住着一位老渔夫。 (4)直接引语放在句首引起的完全倒装。 若直接引语的部分或全部放在句首,并且说话人是名询时,将 say 或 ask 置于说话人前,构成完全倒装。 “Are you ready? "asked the teacher. “准备好了没有?”老师问 道。 "It is unbelievable! ”said Alfred Butts. 阿尔弗雷德·布滋说, “这 真叫人难以置信! ” 34. None of them speaks Spanish.没有一个人说西班牙语。 none pron. 没有一个,无一

None of the money on the table is mine. 桌上的钱没有一分是我 的。 None of us enjoy getting up early.我们中间没人喜欢早起 But none of them has been turned to stone yet! 但是他们谁也没 有变成石头! no one, none, nothing 的用法 (1 ) no one 单独使用,只用于指人,可以回答 who 提出的问题 -Who will get to station?谁要到车站去?

-No one.没有人。 (2) none 一般与 of 短语连用,指人或物。none of the boys/the money/them 中, none 强调数的概念。 none 可以回答 how mane ,how much 提出的问题 He has many friends. But none of them can really help him when he is in trouble.他有许多朋友,但当他遇到困难时却没有一个能真正 帮他。 -How many Chinese stamps do you collect? 你收集了多少中国 邮票? -None 一张没有。 (3) nothing 表示“什么也没有,没有东西” ,是全部否定,作主 语、宾语或表语。 Nothing can stop us marching forward. 没有什么东西能阻止我 们前进 35. The expanded European Union has a population of more than half a billion people,twice as big as the population of the United States. 扩大后的欧盟拥有五亿多人口,这个数目是美国人口的两倍。 (1)population n.

population 的用法要注意以下四点:

①当问及国家、城市、地区等有多少人口时,可以用。 What is the population of China? 中国有多少人口?

②表达拥有多少人口时,我们常用 have a population of.... 或 some place with a population of. . . 。 China has a population of more than 1.3 billion people. 或 China is a country with a population of more than 1.3 billion people. 中国有十三亿多人口 ③当 population 置于句首充当句子的主语时,且其前有分数、 百分数修饰时,谓语动词用复数。 About 80% of the Chinese population are Han people. 中国 人口的 80%是汉族 Two thirds of the population of this area are farmers. 这一地 区三分之。的人口是农民 ④修饰 population 这个词, 常用 big, large, small, 而不用 much, many 等。 China has a large population.中国人口众多 (2) twice 是名词,在这里表示倍数,倍数的表示法常有以下四 种: ① A is... times + adj. /adv.的比较级+than B

This bridge is three times longer than that one. 这座桥比那 座桥长三倍。 At least,the train runs five times faster than the boat. 火车 的速度至少比小船快五倍 ② A is... times as + adj. /adv.的原级+as B This bridge is four times as long as that one. 这座桥是那座桥 的四倍长 At least,the train runs six times as fast as the boat 火车的速 度至少是小船的速度的六倍 ③ A is... times the size/ length/ width/ height/ depth+of +B This bridge is four times the length of that one. 这座桥是那 座桥的四倍长 After the experiment,the plant is six times the height of what it was before.试验之后,植物的高度是原来的六倍 ④ The size/length/height/depth/width+of A+is+? times of +B The length of this bridge is four times of that bridge. 这座桥 是那座桥的四倍长 Your room is three times as big as mine.

Your room is twice bigger than mine. =The size of your room is three times that of mine. =your room is three times the size of mine. 你房间的面积是 我房间的面积的三倍 (二) 语法要点 I.一般现在时与一般过去时的被动语态 英语中的语态分主动语态和被动语态两种。如果主语是动作 的执行者,谓语动词用主动语态;如果主语是动作的对象,谓语 动词用被动语态。英语中只有及物动词、动词短语和某些成语才 能构成被动语态。 1.被动语态的构成 被动语态的构成形式为 “be+动词的过去分词” , 随时态的不同, “be”发生相应的变化,下表是 be 在英语八种被动时态中的变化 形式,以动词 ask 为例,见下表: 一般 现在 am, is, are + asked 完成 进行

have (has) been am, is, are + + asked had asked been being asked + was, were +


was, were + asked

being asked

将来 过去 将来 情 态 动 词

will (shall) be + asked would (should) be + asked

情态动词+be + asked

下面着重举例说明一下本模块语法项目: 一般现在时与一般过去时 的被动语态。 一般现在时的被动语态是由 am, is, are + 动词的过去分词构成;一 般过去时的被动语态是由 (1)一般现在时 Football is played all over the world. 全世界到处都踢足球。 Miss Gao, you are wanted on the phone. 高老师,有人给你打电 话。 (2)一般过去时 He was invited to dinner yesterday evening. 昨天晚上他被邀请 去吃饭了。

was/were+ 动词的过去分词构成。

The buildings were built last year. 这些房子是去年造的。 2.被动语态的用法 被动语态主要用于以下场合: (1)不知道谁是动作的执行者,或者没有必要指明谁是动作的执 行者时,如: Printing was introduced into Europe from China. 印刷术是从中 国传入欧洲的。 He was hurt in the car accident. 他在车祸中受伤了。 (2)需要强调或突出动作的承受者或事件本身而不必指明谁是动 作的执行者时,如: The injured were allowed home after treatment. 受伤者在医院的 治疗后被获准回家。 At last an agreement was arrived at. 终于达成了一项协议。 (3)当我们强调或侧重动作的承受者时,这时我们可用 by 引出 动作的执行者,如: The window will be examined by a group of experts soon. 你的工作 即将受到一组专家的检查。 (4)当动作的执行者不是人时,如: We were shocked by the news of his death. 我们听到他的死讯极

为震惊。 Such things are only eaten by animals. 这样的东西只有动物才 吃。 ( 5) “get + 过去分词”的被动语态为习惯用法,这种结构往往更 强调动作的结果而非动作本身,如: Supposing you drink five bottles of beer, do you think you would get drunk? 假如你喝五瓶啤酒,你会醉吗? They got married last year. 他们去年结的婚。 4.在使役动词 make 及感官动词 see ,hear….等动词的被动语态 形式后面出现的作主语补足语的不定式须加不定式符号 “to” The teacher made Tom answer it again.(主动语态,不加 “to”) Tom was made to answer it again.(被动语态,加 “to”) 5. 短语动词的被动语态要注意不可丢失其附加的介词、副词或短 语。 look at,laugh at,send for,call on,carry out, listen to,take care of ,make use of, depend on, pay attention to, hand in, put on, look up,give up〕等. 6.原来主动语态中的宾语如果是从句,变为被动语态时,要用形

式主语 it. It has been known to him that many friends will come to see him. It is said that this book has been translated into several languages. 7.有一些动词不能用被动语态。 break out,take place,happen,belong to,cost,suit,fit, have,let, wear, weigh. suffer, pass, kill the time, enter, last, meet(遇见) ,join(参加) ,fail 等 3.主动词态变被动语态 主动语态变为被动语态的结构主要有如下几种: (1). “主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语”的结构 将主动句中的宾语首先作被动句的主语; 将主动句的谓语动词 变成被动形式,如: He ate the big apple. → The big apple was eaten (by him). 注意:变后的被动句子时态要和主动句的时态一致;如果要强 调动作的发出者,再在句末加上 by + 主语。 (2). “主语+谓语(及物动词) +宾语(人)+宾语(物) ”的结 构 一般将主动句中的宾语(人)作被动句的主语;再将主动句的 谓语动词变成被动形式后,将宾语(物)照搬于后,如:

He gave me a good pen. → I was given a good pen. = A good pen was given to me. (3). “主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语+宾补”的结构 将主动句中的宾语作被动句的主语;再将主动句的谓语动词变 成被动形式,将宾语照搬于后即可, 如: They made us work from morning till night. → We were made to work from morning till night. (4).一些特殊结构的主动变被动,如: He is said to have gone abroad. = It is said that he went abroad. 在该句中不定式的动作发生在主语动作 is said 之前, 故不定式要 用完成时态;当变成后面的句型时则要注意主、从句的时态。而 这种句型的使用最常见,如: It is said that… 据说?? It is hoped that… 希望?? It is supposed that… 据推测说?? It is believed that… 有人相信?? It is well known that… 从所周知?? It is generally considered that… 大家认为?? 4.被动语态需要注意的几种情况

(1). 短语动词的被动语态。 有些短语动词在意义上相当于及物动词,也可构成被动语态。短 语动词被自成一个整体, 是固定词组, 构成被动语态时不可分开。 He is often laughed at by his classmates. 他经常被同学嘲笑。 The lights are turned off at 11 P. M. every day.每天晚上 11 点钟关 灯。 Women were looked down upon in the past. 妇女过去受到歧视。 The children are taken good care of. 这些孩子被照料的很好。 (2). 被动语态与“系动词 be +过去分词”的结构的区别, “be + 过 去分词”并不一定都是被动语态,有时是系表结构。当“be +过 去分词”表动作时为被动语态,be 是助动词,be 后面的过去分 词为主要动词,动作的对象是主语,当“be +过去分词”表示主 语所处的状态时为系表结构,be 是系动词。be 后面的过去分词 是形容词,相当于表语。其区别如下: ① 如果强调动作或句中有介词 by 引导出动作的执行者, 该句一 般为被动语态,否则为系表结构,如: The glass is broken. (系表结构)玻璃杯碎了。 The glass was broken by the boy. (被动语态)玻璃杯被那男孩打 碎了。

② 如果句中有地点,频率或时间状语,一般为被动语态,如: The magazine is published in the Shanghai. (被动语态)这家杂志 出版于上海。 The door is locked. (系表结构)门锁着。 (3). 主动语态表示被动意思的情况 ① be worth doing 值得干?? The book is well worth reading. 这本书很值得看。 ② want (need / require) doing 需要干?? (相当于 want /need / require) to be done) The baby wants looking after. 这个小孩需要照看。 ③ 主 语 + 形 容 词 (easy / hard / difficult / heavy / light / comfortable / dangerous) +不定式时,不定式用主动表被动。 The chair is comfortable to sit on. 这椅子坐起来很舒服。 ④在“too…to…”和“enough to do ”结构中,不定式用主动 形式表被动意义。 The box is too heavy to carry. 这盒子太重,搬不动。 The room is not enough to have a meeting in. 这个房间不是大到 足够能在里面开会。 (5).宾语为反身代词时,不用被动语态,只用主动语态形式。

The man introduced himself as Mr. Wang. (6).有些动词或情态动词常用所接的不定式来表示被动意义。 如:happen,pretend,seem,used to,ought to,appear 等。 The house used to be painted white. The job has to be done before dark. On the way we happened to be caught in the rain. (7).有些动词用主动形式来表示被动意义。如:clean, sell, look, lock,open,write,read,wash, feel 等。 This kind of cloth washes easily. These books sell well.(好卖) The door doesn't lock. The door can't open. This pen writes very well. II.主谓一致 主谓一致是指一个句子的主语和谓语动词保持数的一致关系。 英语主谓一致一般要遵循三条原则,即:语法一致原则;意义一致 原则和就近原则。 1.语法一致原则 语法一致原则是指谓语动词和它的主语在语法形式上必须取

得一致,即主语是单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式,主语为复数形 式,谓语动词也用复数形式,如: Tom doesn’t like swimming. 汤姆不喜欢游泳。 Jane and Mary look alike. 简和玛丽看起来很像。 2.意义一致原则 意义一致原则是指谓语动词和主语的一致, 同由主语所表达的 单数概念来决定,而不是根据主语的实际语法形式。有时主语的语 法形式是单数,但所表达的概念是复数意义,这时动词应采用复数 形式,如: The football team are having breakfast now. 足球队员们在吃早 饭。 The news was exciting. 这条消息令人振奋。 3.就近原则 就近原则指谓语动词的人称和数要在形式上与最靠近它的那 个名词或代词取得一致。当一个句子有两个主语而它们又是 either...or…, neither…nor…, not only…but also…, or 等连接时, 谓语 动词与靠近它的主语保持一致,如: Either your students or Mr. Wang knows this. 你的学生们或王老 师知道这件事。

Neither Jim nor his friends were interested in this film. 汤姆和他 的朋友们都对这部电影不感兴趣。 主谓一致这三个原则中有很多需要注意的问题, 本模块中主要 涉到主语为集体名词和代词的语法项目, 下面就这两个语法项目详 细论述。 1.主语为集体名词 (1). 某些集体名词既可表示单数也可表示复数。 如果集体名词作为 一个整体看待, 谓语动词用单数形式, 如果就其中一个成员而言, 谓语动词用复数形式,如: Our group were discussing heatedly on the subject. 我们小组成 员正对这个问题进行热烈的讨论。 (group 指小组成员) Our group is made up of four girls and five boys. 我们小组有 4 个女孩和 5 个男孩组成。 (group 指小组整体) The population in China is very large, and one third of the population are farmers. 中国的人口很多, 其中三分之一是农民。 (前 一个 population 指整体,后一个 population 指成员) (2). 某些集体名词如 people, police, cattle, youth 等常作复数看待, 谓语动词与复数形式的谓语搭配,如: The police are searching for him. 警察正在搜寻他。

The cattle were driven away from the hill. 那些牲畜从山上被赶 走了。 3.某些名词如 equipment(设备) ,furniture(家具) ,jewelry(珠 宝) ,clothing(衣服) ,machinery(机械) ,表示单数概念,谓 语动词要相应地采用单数形式,如: A lot of equipment has been replaced by the new equipment. 许多 旧设备已经被新设备代替了。 All the machinery in the factory was controlled by robots. 这个厂所 有的机械都由机器人来控制的。 2.主语为代词 (1).有些代词尽管意义上是多数,但谓语动词要用单数形式,这 类代词有: either, neither, each, another, somebody, someone, something, anything, anyone, everyone, everything, everybody, no one, nothing, nobody 等,如: Neither likes the friends of the other. 两人都不喜欢对方的朋友。 Everything around us is matter. 我们周围所有的东西都是物质。 注意: ① 在 neither of 与 either of 的结构中,谓语动词可用单数形式也 可用复数形式,如:

Neither of them was / were in good health, but both worked hard. 他 们俩身体都不好,但工作却都很努力。 ② each 用于单数名词前, 谓语动词用单数形式, each 用于复数主 语后,谓语动词用复数形式。each of, each one of 后接复数名词 或代词,但谓语动词常用单数形式。 Each (one) of the houses was different. 每座房子都不同。 Each student has been given their own e-mail address. 每个学生都 得到了一个自己的电子邮件地址。 They each have their own car. 他们每个人都有自己的车。 (2). none 作主语时,谓语动词既可用单数也可用复数,这要取决 于说话人的看法,如: None of us seem to have thought of it. 似乎我们全都没有想到这 一点。 None of us has got a camera. (None = Not a single one) 我们都没 有照相机。 (3). both, (a) few, many, several 作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形 式,如: Both (of) the instruments are not precise ones. 这两种仪器并不都 是精密仪器。

(4). all 作主语表示人时,谓语动词用复数;表示物时,谓语动词 用单数,如: All is well that ends well. 结果好一切都好。 All are eager to reach an agreement. 大家都急于达成一项协议。 (5). either…or…; neither…or; not only; but also; or 连接时谓语 通常和最邻近的主语保持一致,如: Not only Mary but also her parents have agreed to go there. 不但玛 丽而且她的父母都同意去那儿。 He or they are to blame? 他还是他们要受惩罚? 上面主要讨论了主谓一致中的集体名词与代词作主语的情况, 主谓一致中还有其它一些问题也是高考常考的热点, 下面补充一下 这些语法项目。 1.“a number of +复数名词或代词”作主语,表示“许多”之意, 谓语动词一般用复数; “the number of +复数名词或代词”作主 语,表示“??的数目” , “??的数量” ,谓语动词一般用单数, 如: The number of people invited was fifty, but a number of them were absent for different reasons. 被邀请的人数是 50 人, 但很多人因各自 不同的原因没有到席。

2.“分数或百分数+of +名词”作主语,谓语动词要与 of 后面的名 词保持一致,如: More than 70 percent of the earth’s surface is covered by water. 地 球表面 70%的地方被水覆盖。 3. 主语后面跟有 with, together with, but, along with, like, except, besides, including, in addition to, rather than, as much as, as well as, no less than 等短语时, 谓语动词通常和这些短语前面的名词 或代词保持一致,如: E-mail, as well as telephones, is playing an important part in daily communication. 电子邮件及电话在日常交往中起着重要的作用。 4. 表示数量、距离、金钱、时间、书名等的复数名词作主语时, 通常当作整体看待,谓语动词用单数,如: There thousand dollars has been spent on books. 这本书花了 3000 美元。 Ten kilometers is a long way. 一万里是一段很长的行程。 5. 由 and 连接并列名词短语作主语时,如果是指两个或更多个人 或物,谓语动词要用复数;如果是指同一人或物,谓语动词要用 单数。这时,and 后面的名词前没有冠词,如: The singer and dancer is to attend our English party. 这位既是歌唱

家又是演员的人将参加我们的英语晚会。 6. 不定式短语,-ing 短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数, 如: When and where to build the new factory is not decided yet. 什么时 间,什么地方建这个新工厂还没有决定。 7.“the +形容词”表示一类人,如 the old, the young, the rich, the poor, the black, the white, the dead, the living 等,当它们用作主 语时谓语动词要用复数,如: The old are well looked after by the government. 老年人受到政府 极好的照顾。 8. 在“one of the +复数名词+定语从句”结构中,复数名词是先行 词,定语从句的谓语动词要用复数,但当 one 前有 the only, the very 等修饰时,one 是先行词,定语从句的谓语动词要用单数, 如: He is the only one of the students who has been a winner of scholarship for three years. 他是唯一一个连续三年获得奖学金的 人。 She is one of the few girls who are well paid in the kindergarten. 她 是在幼儿园薪水很高少数几个女孩中的一个。

9. Quantity + of +名词用作主语,谓语动词和 quantity 保持一致, 如: As a result of destroying the forests, quantities of desert have covered the land. 由于森林受到了破坏,大量的沙漠覆盖了土地。



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